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1.  Polymorphism +17 C/G in Matrix Metalloprotease MMP8 decreases lung cancer risk 
BMC Cancer  2008;8:378.
Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) constitute a family of enzymes capable of degrading different components of the extracellular matrix and are implicated in the invasion of tumor cells through the basement membrane. Polymorphisms in MMP genes may result in changes in the expression of MMPs being associated with the development and progression of cancer. We have investigated the association between three polymorphisms (-1607 1G/2G, +17 C/G and -77 A/G) in the human collagenases MMP1, MMP8 and MMP13 and the risk of development or progression of lung cancer.
A hospital-based case-control study was designed including 501 lung cancer patients and 510 controls matched. Genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP. Results were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression, Cox's proportional hazard regression, and the Kaplan-Meier method.
The MMP1 and MMP13 promoter polymorphisms were not associated with lung cancer risk, while the C/G polymorphism in MMP8 was associated with a statistically significant decreased risk of developing lung cancer (ORadj = 0.65; 95%CI = 0.45–0.93). The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the polymorphisms in MMP1, MMP8 and MMP13 not seem to modify the overall survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that MMP1, MMP8 and MMP13 polymorphisms are not independent prognostic factors for overall survival.
This study suggests that the polymorphism in MMP8 is associated with a decreased lung cancer risk, which can be used as a prognostic marker in lung cancer.
PMCID: PMC2628929  PMID: 19094243
2.  Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) Promoter Polymorphisms are Well Linked with Lower Stomach Tumor Formation in Eastern Indian Population 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e88040.
Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), an interstitial collagenase, plays a major role in cellular invasion during development of gastric cancer, a leading cause of death worldwide. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) −1607 1G/2G site of the MMP-1 gene promoter has been reported to alter transcription level. While the importance’s of other SNPs in the MMP-1 promoter have not yet been studied in gastric cancer, our aim was to investigate MMP-1 gene promoter polymorphisms and gastric cancer susceptibility in eastern Indian population. A total of 145 gastric cancer patients and 145 healthy controls were genotyped for MMP-1 −1607 1G/2G (rs1799750) by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), while MMP-1 −519 A/G (rs1144393), MMP-1 −422 T/A (rs475007), MMP-1 −340 T/C (rs514921) and MMP-1 −320 T/C (rs494379) were genotyped by DNA sequencing. A positive association was found with MMP-1 −422 T/A SNP that showed significant risk for regional lymph node metastasis (P = 0.021, Odd’s ratio (OR) = 3.044, Confidence intervals (CI) = 1.187–7.807). In addition, we found a significant association with lower stomach tumor formation among gastric cancer patients for three adjacent polymorphisms near the transcriptional start sites of [MMP-1 −422 T/A (P = 0.043, OR = 2.182, CI = 1.03–4.643), MMP-1 −340 T/C (P = 0.075, OR = 1.97, CI = 0.94–4.158) and MMP-1 −320 T/C (P = 0.034, OR = 2.224, CI = 1.064–40731)]. MMP-1 level in patients’ serum was correlated with MMP-1 promoter haplotypes conferring these three SNPs to evaluate the functional importance of these polymorphisms in lower stomach tumor formation and significant correlation was observed. Furthermore, MMP-1 −519 A/G polymorphism displayed poor cellular differentiation (P = 0.024, OR = 3.8, CI = 1.69–8.56) attributing a higher risk of cancer progression. In conclusion, MMP-1 proximal promoter SNPs are associated with the risk of lower stomach tumor formation and node metastasis in eastern Indian population.
PMCID: PMC3914871  PMID: 24505369
3.  Bladder Cancer Risk Associated with Genotypic Polymorphism of the Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 and 7 in North Indian Population 
Disease markers  2010;29(1):37-46.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contribute to tumor invasion and microenvironment, hence are associated with bladder cancer risk. We therefore, tested whether polymorphisms in MMP genes modify the risk of bladder cancer (BC) and whether smoke exposure modifies this risk.
Genotyping was performed in 200 BC patients and 200 controls by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). MMP1-1607 2G/2G and MMP7-181 GG genotype were associated with increased risk of BC (p <0.001; OR, 3.04; 95% CI1.71–5.39 and p, 0.005; OR, 2.38; 95% CI1.30–4.34) respectively. Smokers in BC patients showed significant increased risk for the same SNPs (p, 0.006; OR, 3.20; 95% CI1.40–7.31 and p, 0.009; OR, 2.85; 95% CI1.30–6.23 respectively). Haplotype analysis too revealed significant association with G/2G of MMP1-519-1607 (p < 0.001; OR, 2.62; 95% CI1.68–4.09). The 2G allele carrier (1G/2G + 2G/2G) of MMP1-1607 showed a protective effect and high recurrence free survival in Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) treated non muscle invasive BC (NMIBC) patients (log rank p, 0.030). Our datasuggested that MMP11607 2G and MMP7181 G allele were associated with high risk of BC, which was quite evident amongst smokers too. BCG treated NMIBC patients reflected protective effect for 2G allele carrier (1G/2G+2G/2G) of MMP1-1607. This study provided new support for the association of MMP1-1607 and MMP7-181 in bladder cancer development, the tumorigenic effect of which was observed to be more enhanced in case of tobacco exposure.
PMCID: PMC3835524  PMID: 20826916
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin; bladder cancer; haplotypes; matrix metalloproteinase; polymorphism; recurrence free survival
4.  Association of MMP1-1607 1G/2G and TIMP1 372 T/C gene polymorphisms with risk of primary open angle glaucoma in a Polish population 
Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is considered to be a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs) have been extensively studied as POAG risk factors. Recently, several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for MMPs and TIMPs encoding genes have been reported in POAG patients. The aim of this study was to investigate association of the −1607 1G/2G MMP1 and 372 T/C TIMP1 gene polymorphisms with risk of POAG in a Polish population.
In the present case-control study we examined a group of 449 unrelated Caucasian subjects consisting of 196 POAG patients (66 males and 130 females; mean age 70±14) and 253 controls (72 males and 181 females; mean age 67±16). The MMP1-1607 1G/2G and TIMP1 372 T/C gene polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each genotype and allele were calculated.
We found a statistically significant increase of the 2G/2G genotype (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.05–2.86; p=0.019) as well as the 2G allele frequency (OR 1.34; 95% CI 1.03–1.75; p=0.017) of MMP1 in POAG patients in comparison to healthy controls. There were no differences in the genotype and allele distributions and odds ratios of the TIMP1 polymorphism between patients and controls group. We also did not find any association of TIMP1 with MMP1 gene-gene interaction and risk of POAG occurrence.
In conclusion, we suggest that the −1607 1G/2G polymorphism of MMP1 gene may be considered as an important risk factor associated with primary open angle glaucoma in a Polish population. However, further in vivo study is needed to evaluate biological importance of MMPs polymorphisms as a risk factor of POAG.
PMCID: PMC3539563  PMID: 21709637
open angle glaucoma; MMPs; TIMPs; gene polymorphisms
5.  Genetic polymorphisms of MMP1, MMP3 and MMP7 gene promoter and risk of colorectal adenoma 
BMC Cancer  2006;6:270.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) have been shown to play a role in colorectal cancer (CRC). More recently, MMP1, MMP3 and MMP7 functional gene promoter polymorphisms have been found to be associated with CRC occurrence and prognosis. To document the role of MMP polymorphisms in the early step of colorectal carcinogenesis, we investigated their association with colorectal adenoma risk in a case-control study comprising 295 patients with large adenomas (LA), 302 patients with small adenomas (SA) and 568 polyp-free (PF) controls.
Patients were genotyped using automated fragment analysis for MMP1 -1607 ins/del G and MMP3 -1612 ins/delA (MMP3.1) polymorphisms and allelic discrimination assay for MMP3 -709 A/G (MMP3.2) and MMP7 -181 A/G polymorphisms. Association between MMP genotypes and colorectal adenomas was first tested for each polymorphism separately and then for combined genotypes using the combination test. Adjustment on relevant variables and estimation of odds ratios were performed using unconditional logistic regression.
No association was observed between the polymorphisms and LA when compared to PF or SA. When comparing SA to PF controls, analysis revealed a significant association between MMP3 -1612 ins/delA polymorphism and SA with an increased risk associated with the 6A/6A genotype (OR = 1.67, 95%CI: 1.20–2.34). Using the combination test, the best association was found for MMP3.1-MMP1 (p = 0.001) with an OR of 1.88 (95%CI: 1.08–3.28) for the combined genotype 2G/2G-6A/6A estimated by logistic regression.
These data show a relation between MMP1 -1607 ins/del G and MMP3 -1612 ins/delA combined polymorphisms and risk of SA, suggesting their potential role in the early steps of colorectal carcinogenesis.
PMCID: PMC1687194  PMID: 17125518
6.  Role of functional single nucleotide polymorphisms of MMP1, MMP2, and MMP9 in open angle glaucomas 
Molecular Vision  2010;16:1764-1770.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an essential role in the turnover of the extracellular matrix and cellular behavior. MMP1, MMP2, and MMP9 have previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and open angle glaucoma secondary to exfoliation syndrome (XFG), respectively. Functional gene polymorphisms of these MMPs such as MMP1 −1607 1G/2G (rs1799750), MMP2 −1306 C/T (rs243865), MMP2 −1575 G/A (rs243866), and MMP9 Q279R (rs17576) are thus plausible candidates as risk factors for open angle glaucomas. The purpose of the present study was to investigate hypothesized associations between these polymorphisms and the presence of POAG and XFG in a Caucasian population.
The present case-control study included 322 patients with POAG, 202 patients with XFG, and 248 control subjects. Genotyping of polymorphisms was done using polymerase chain reaction.
No significant differences in either genotype distributions or allelic frequencies of MMP1 −1607 1G/2G, MMP2 −1306 C/T, MMP2 −1575 G/A, and MMP9 Q279R were found between patients with POAG and control subjects and patients with XFG and control subjects, respectively (p>0.05). The presence of POAG or XFG was not predicted by any of the investigated polymorphisms.
Our data suggest that the MMP1 −1607 1G/2G, MMP2 −1306 C/T, MMP2 −1575 G/A, and MMP9 Q279R polymorphisms themselves are unlikely major risk factors among Caucasian patients with either POAG or XFG.
PMCID: PMC2929940  PMID: 20808730
7.  Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Polymorphism (-1607G) and Disease Severity in Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis in Taiwan 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e66265.
Bronchiectasis is characterized by an irreversible dilatation of bronchi and is associated with lung fibrosis. MMP-1 polymorphism may alter its transcriptional activity, and differentially modulate bronchial destruction and lung fibrosis.
To investigate the association of MMP-1 polymorphisms with disease severity in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis patients, 51 normal subjects and 113 patients with bronchiectasis were studied. The associations between MMP-1 polymorphisms, lung function, and disease severity evaluated by high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) were analyzed.
The frequency of MMP-1(-1607G) allele was significantly higher in patients with bronchiectasis than normal subjects (70.8% vs 45.1%, p<0.01). Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was decreased in bronchiectasis patients with 1G/1G (1.2±0.1 L, n = 14) and 1G/2G (1.3±0.1 L, n = 66) genotypes compared to the 2G/2G genotype (1.7±0.1 L, n = 33, p<0.01). Six minute walking distance was decreased in bronchiectasis patients with 1G/1G and 1G/2G compared to that of 2G/2G genotype. Disease severity evaluated by HRCT score significantly increased in bronchiectasis patients with 1G/1G and 1G/2G genotypes compared to that of 2G/2G genotype. Bronchiectasis patients with at least one MMP-1 (-1607G) allele showed increased tendency for hospitalization. Serum levels of pro-MMP-1, active MMP-1 and TGF-β1 were significantly increased in patients with bronchiectasis with 1G/1G and 1G/2G genotype compared with 2G/2G genotype or normal subjects. Under IL-1β stimulation, peripheral blood monocytes from subjects with 1G/2G or 1G/1G genotype secreted higher levels of TGF-β1compared to subjects with 2G/2G genotype.
This is the first report to address the influence of MMP-1 polymorphisms on lung function and airway destruction in non-CF bronchiectasis patients. Bronchiectasis patients with MMP-1(-1607G) polymorphism may be more vulnerable to permanent lung fibrosis or airway destruction due to the enhanced MMP-1 and TGF-β1 activity. Upregulated MMP-1 activity results in proteolytic destruction of matrix, and leads to subsequent fibrosis.
PMCID: PMC3679085  PMID: 23776649
8.  Association between promoter -1607 polymorphism of MMP1 and Lumbar Disc Disease in Southern Chinese 
BMC Medical Genetics  2008;9:38.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in the degradation of the extracellular matrix of the intervertebral disc. A SNP for guanine insertion/deletion (G/D), the -1607 promoter polymorphism, of the MMP1 gene was found significantly affecting promoter activity and corresponding transcription level. Hence it is a good candidate for genetic studies in DDD.
Southern Chinese volunteers between 18 and 55 years were recruited from the population. DDD in the lumbar spine was defined by MRI using Schneiderman's classification. Genomic DNA was isolated from the leukocytes and genotyping was performed using the Sequenom® platform. Association and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium checking were assessed by Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U test.
Our results showed substantial evidence of association between -1607 promoter polymorphism of MMP1 and DDD in the Southern Chinese subjects. D allelic was significantly associated with DDD (p value = 0.027, odds ratio = 1.41 with 95% CI = 1.04–1.90) while Genotypic association on the presence of D allele was also significantly associated with DDD (p value = 0.046, odds ratio = 1.50 with 95% CI = 1.01–2.24). Further age stratification showed significant genotypic as well as allelic association in the group of over 40 years (genotypic: p value = 0.035, odds ratio = 1.617 with 95% CI = 1.033–2.529; allelic: p value = 0.033, odds ratio = 1.445 with 95% CI = 1.029–2.029). Disc bulge, annular tears and the Schmorl's nodes were not associated with the D allele.
We demonstrated that individuals with the presence of D allele for the -1607 promoter polymorphism of MMP1 are about 1.5 times more susceptible to develop DDD when compared with those having G allele only. Further association was identified in individuals over 40 years of age. Disc bulge, annular tear as well as Schmorl's nodes were not associated with this polymorphism.
PMCID: PMC2386444  PMID: 18439317
9.  The collagenase-1 (MMP-1) gene promoter polymorphism - 1607/2G is associated with favourable prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer 
British Journal of Cancer  2007;96(5):783-792.
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) overexpression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Accumulating evidence suggests that MMP promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) effecting gene transcription are associated with enhanced susceptibility for the development of malignant disease, increased tumour invasiveness and poor patient survival. The aim of the current investigation was to determine whether such associations exist in a large CRC patient/control study population. Using an allelic discrimination real-time polymerase chain reaction, polymorphisms in the MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-3 gene promoters (−1607, −1306, and −1612 bp, respectively) were assessed in normal blood mononuclear cells from patients with CRC (n=503) and control subjects (n=471). Genotypes corresponding to each MMP SNP were correlated with tumour characteristics and clinical outcome. The frequency of each genotype was not statistically different between patients and control subjects and no significant differences were noted between the genotypes and tumour characteristics for the three MMP SNPs. CRC patients with the 2G/2G genotype for the MMP-1 SNP had significantly better 5-year survival compared to patients with a 1G allele (P<0.05). Our results demonstrate that CRC patients with a 2G/2G genotype in the MMP-1 gene promoter SNP have a favourable prognosis. Although our results were unexpected, given that this genotype is associated with enhanced MMP-1 transcriptional activity, they are consistent with recent data highlighting the anti-tumorigenic properties of MMPs.
PMCID: PMC2360084  PMID: 17311017
metalloproteinase; real-time polymerase chain reaction; single nucleotide polymorphism
10.  The MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to bladder cancer: a meta-analysis 
Tumour Biology  2014;35(4):3047-3052.
The relationship between matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk has become a hot topic and was studied extensively in recent years, but the results are still controversial. In order to estimate the relationship of MMP polymorphisms and the risk of bladder cancer, we performed this meta-analysis. We conducted a comprehensive search of databases; PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM, Chinese) and Wanfang Database (Chinese) were searched for all case–control studies which mainly study the relationship between MMP-1-1607 1G/2G, MMP-2-1306 C/T, and MMP-9-1562 C/T polymorphisms and the susceptibility of bladder cancer. The association between the MMP polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk was conducted by odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs). At last, totally five literatures with 1,141 cases and 1,069 controls were contained in the meta-analysis. Among these articles, four articles with 1,103 cases and 1,053 controls were about MMP-1-1607 1G/2G polymorphism and three studies with 839 cases and 775 controls for MMP-2-1306 C/T polymorphism and MMP-9-1562 C/T polymorphism. With regard to MMP-1-1607 1G/2G polymorphism, significant association was found with bladder cancer susceptibility only under recessive model (2G2G vs. 1G2G/1G1G: OR = 1.44, 95 % CI = 1.05–1.97, P = 0.022), and as to the MMP-2-1306 C/T polymorphism, significant association was found with bladder cancer susceptibility only under homozygote model (TT vs. CC: OR = 2.10, 95 % CI = 1.38–3.10, P = 0), but no associations was found between MMP-9-1562 C/T polymorphism and bladder cancer susceptibility. The results suggest that the MMP-2-1306 C/T and MMP-9-1562 C/T polymorphisms are significantly associated with bladder cancer susceptibility, and no associations were found between MMP-9-1562 C/T polymorphism and bladder cancer susceptibility.
PMCID: PMC3980037  PMID: 24390660
Bladder cancer; MMP; Polymorphism; Meta-analysis
11.  Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 -1562C/T Promoter Polymorphism Confers Risk for COPD: A Meta-Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(3):e60523.
The role of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) gene polymorphisms in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been reported with inconsistent results. This meta-analysis was performed to assess the association of MMP-1 -1607G/GG and MMP-9 -1562C/T promoter polymorphisms with COPD susceptibility.
Published case-control studies from Pubmed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases were retrieved. Data were extracted and pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated.
A total of fourteen case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis. Pooled effect size showed an association of MMP-9 -1562 C/T with the risk of COPD (dominant model: TT+CT vs CC; OR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.02–2.08; p = 0.04). However, no correlation with COPD was revealed in MMP-1 -1607G/GG polymorphism. When stratified by ethnicity, results indicated MMP-1 -1607G/GG (recessive model: G/G vs G/GG+GG/GG; OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.01–1.44; p = 0.04) and MMP-9 -1562 C/T (dominant model; OR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.01–2.71; p = 0.04) were correlated with COPD susceptibility among Caucasians and Asians respectively. According to source of controls, signifiant association of MMP-9 -1562 C/T (additive model: T vs C; OR:1.71, 95% CI: 1.42–2.07; p<0.00001, and dominant model; OR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.34–2.76; p = 0.0004) with COPD susceptibility was revealed in the subgroup with smoker-based controls. However, in the aforementioned risk estimates, only the association of MMP-9 -1562 C/T (additive and dominant models) with the risk of COPD in the subgroup with smoker-based controls persisted significantly after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Moreover, after excluding the studies without Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium and/or with small sample size, the pooled results were robust and no publication bias was found in this study.
This meta-analysis suggests, when using healthy smokers as controls, MMP-9 -1562 C/T, but not MMP-1 -1607 G/GG polymorphism is associated with the risk of COPD.
PMCID: PMC3610819  PMID: 23555986
12.  Role of plasma matrix-metalloproteases (MMPs) and their polymorphisms (SNPs) in sepsis development and outcome in ICU patients 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:5002.
Matrix-metalloproteases (MMPs) and their tissue-inhibitors (TIMPs), modulated by different single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), are critical in sepsis development. Ninety ICU severely septic and 91 ICU uninfected patients were prospectively studied. MMP-1 (−1607 1G/2G), MMP-3 (−1612 5A/6A), MMP-8 (−799 C/T), MMP-9 (−1562 C/T), and MMP-13 (−77A/G) SNPs were genotyped. Plasma MMPs (-1, -2, -3, -8, -9, -10, -13) and TIMPs (-1,-2,-4) were measured. AA homozygotes and A allele carriers of MMP-13 (−77 A/G) and 1G2G carriers of the MMP-1 (−1607 1G/2G) SNPs frequencies were different between septic and uninfected patients (p < 0.05), as well as plasma MMP-3, -8, -9 -10 and TIMP-2 levels (p < 0.04). No differences in MMPs levels among MMP-13 or MMP-1 SNPs genotypes carriers were observed. The area under the ROC curve for MMP-8 in the diagnosis of sepsis was 0.87 (95% CI 0.82–0.92), and that of CRP was 0.98 (0.94–0.998), whereas the area of MMP-9 in the detection of non-septic state was 0.73 (0.65–0.80), p < 0.0001 for all curves. Sepsis associated with increased MMP-8 and decreased MMP-9 levels in multivariate analysis (p < 0.0002). We report for the first time an association between MMP-13 and MMP-1 SNPs and sepsis. An independent association of MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels with sepsis was also observed.
PMCID: PMC4023133  PMID: 24833564
13.  Functional Polymorphisms of Matrix Metalloproteinases 1 and 9 Genes in Women with Spontaneous Preterm Birth 
Disease Markers  2014;2014:171036.
Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of functional MMP-1-1607 1G/2G and MMP-9-1562 C/T gene polymorphisms with spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB; preterm birth with intact membranes) in European Caucasian women, as well as the contribution of these polymorphisms to different clinical features of women with SPTB. Methods and Patients. A case-control study was conducted in 113 women with SPTB and 119 women with term delivery (control group). Genotyping of MMP-1-1607 1G/2G and MMP-9-1562 C/T gene polymorphisms was performed using the combination of polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. Results. There were no statistically significant differences in the distribution of neither individual nor combinations of genotype and allele frequencies of MMP-1-1607 1G/2G and MMP-9-1562 C/T polymorphisms between women with SPTB and control women. Additionally, these polymorphisms do not contribute to any of the clinical characteristics of women with SPTB, including positive and negative family history of SPTB, gestational age at delivery, and maternal age at delivery, nor fetal birth weight. Conclusion. We did not find the evidence to support the association of MMP-1-1607 1G/2G and MMP-9-1562 C/T gene polymorphisms with SPTB in European Caucasian women.
PMCID: PMC4228702  PMID: 25530657
14.  Functional Gene Polymorphism of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Is Associated with Benign Hyperplasia of Myo- and Endometrium in the Russian Population 
Aims: Estrogen-dependent hyperplasia of myo- and endometrium manifests as uterine leiomyoma or adenomyosis. We studied possible associations between common polymorphisms of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) genes and clinical features of uterine hyperplasia. Patients and Methods: One hundred seventy female patients with uterine leiomyoma (46.6±0.5 years) were observed. Clinical diagnosis was based on physical examination, ultrasonography, and histological data. MMP-1 (−1607 1G/2G, rs1799750) and MMP-3 (−1171 5A/6A, rs3025058) were genotyped with allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of leukocyte DNA. Clinical and genetic data were evaluated using nonparametric statistics. Results: Distributions of MMP-1 and MMP-3 promoter alleles among patients and population controls were similar and corresponded to the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). Detectable tumor growth and adenomyosis were observed, respectively, in 71% and 55% of cases. Steady-state leiomyoma correlated with a higher prevalence of the MMP-1 1G/1G genotype (p=0.02 by χ2 test). Accelerated tumor growth correlated with higher frequency of the MMP-1 2G allele [odds ratio (OR)=2.048, p=0.039, χ2=4.2611, confidence interval (CI)=(1.032–4.062)]. MMP-1 2G was also associated with multinodular growth [OR=3.561, p=0.01249, χ2=6.24, CI=(1.261–10.058)]. The MMP-1 2G allele tended to increase in patients with adenomyosis [OR=1.525, p=0.054, χ2=3.71, CI=(0.992–2.345)]. Conclusion: Our pilot study suggests that the 2G −1607MMP-1 genotype may be a potential risk marker of myo- and endometrial hyperplasia.
PMCID: PMC3438823  PMID: 22853432
15.  Association between matrix metalloproteinase 1 -1607 1G>2G polymorphism and cancer risk: a meta-analysis including 19706 subjects 
The association between MMP1 -1607 1G>2G polymorphism and cancer risk has been reported, but results remained controversial and ambiguous. To assess the association between MMP1 -1607 1G>2G polymorphism and cancer risk, a meta-analysis was performed. Based on comprehensive searches of the PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct, Excerpta Medica Database (Embase), and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), we identified outcome data from all articles estimating the association between MMP1 -1607 1G>2G polymorphism and cancer risk. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Thirty-eight studies involving 10178 cases and 9528 controls were included. Overall, significant association between MMP1 -1607 1G>2G polymorphism and cancer susceptibility was observed for additive model (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.09-1.35), for codominant model (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.10-1.63), for dominant model (OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.01-1.34), for recessive model (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.14-1.52). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, the significant association was found among Asians but not among Caucasians. In the subgroup analysis by site of cancer, significant associations were found among lung cancer, colorectal cancer, head and neck cancer and bladder cancer. This meta-analysis demonstrated that the MMP1 -1607 1G>2G polymorphism was significantly associated with cancer risk.
PMCID: PMC4211823  PMID: 25356173
Cancer; MMP1; meta-analysis; genetics
16.  MMP7 and MMP8 genetic polymorphisms in bladder cancer patients 
Breakdown of the extracellular matrix by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), as we know, is one of mechanisms involved and required in tumor invasion. MMP7 is a negative prognostic factor of various malignances, while MMP8 exhibits an inhibitory effect on tumorigenesis and metastasis. We evaluated the potential association of functional polymorphisms in the promoter of the MMP7 (rs11568818) and MMP8 (rs11225395) genes and bladder cancer (BCa) risk.
Materials and methods
The study included 241 BCa cases and 199 healthy population controls that were collected at the First Department of Urology, Medical University (Łódź, Poland) and at the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (Łódź, Poland). Genomic DNA samples were isolated from venous blood and genetic polymorphisms were analyzed by real–time polymerase chain reaction using TaqMan fluorescent probes. Associations between genotype and allele status were estimated by logistic regression models adjusted for classic risk factors (e.g. age, gender and cigarette smoking).
MMP7 and MMP8 genotypes were distributed similarly in BCa patients and in controls and at least one variant allele was not associated with BCa cancer risk (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.60–1.39; p = 0.662 for MMP7 and OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.63–1.46; p = 0.836 for MMP8). We observed higher prevalence of MMP7 GG genotypes among BCa patients than in controls (OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 0.93–2.55; p = 0.093). Additionally, genetic polymorphisms in the MMP7 and MMP8 were not associated with the tumor grade or stage.
Our results suggest that genetic variations in two genes encoding members of the MMP7 and MMP8 are not associated with a risk of BCa in the Caucasian population.
PMCID: PMC3992442  PMID: 24757528
MMP; genetic polymorphism; case–control study; bladder cancer
17.  Matrix Metalloproteinase 1, 3, and 9 Polymorphisms and Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Risk 
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are multifunctional zinc-dependent proteinases that play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of tumors. We have analyzed the association between 3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; MMP1 −1607 1G/2G, MMP3 −1612 5A/6A, and MMP9 −1562 C/T) and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
We investigated these 3 SNPs in 132 patients and 132 controls using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. The MMP1 and MMP3 genes are located on the same chromosome. Haplotype analysis was performed to study the combined effect of the linked MMP polymorphisms on ESCC risk.
The MMP1 and MMP9 promoter polymorphisms were not associated with ESCC risk, while the MMP3 −1612 5A/6A polymorphism was significantly associated with susceptibility to ESCC. Patients carrying the 5A allele had a significantly higher risk for developing ESCC compared with individuals carrying the 6A allele (OR=1.93; 95% CI 1.34–2.77; p<0.01). The 2G-5A and 1G-5A haplotypes were associated with a significantly increased risk of ESCC as compared with the 2G-6A haplotype (OR=2.04, 95% CI 1.37–3.04 and OR=3.65, 95% CI 1.26–10.55, respectively).
These findings implicate this MMP3 polymorphism as a contributor to ESCC susceptibility.
PMCID: PMC4242704  PMID: 25391977
Esophageal Neoplasms; Genetic Association Studies; Matrix Metalloproteinase 1
18.  Identification of a Cigarette Smoke–Responsive Region in the Distal MMP-1 Promoter 
Tobacco-related diseases are leading causes of death worldwide, and many are associated with expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). We have reported extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK)1/2-dependent induction of MMP-1 by cigarette smoke in lung epithelial cells. Our objectives were to define regions of the human MMP-1 promoter required for activation by smoke, to identify differences in responses of the 1G/2G −1607 polymorphic promoters to smoke, and to identify relevant transcription factors whose activity in airway epithelial cells is increased by smoke. The responses of deletion and mutant promoter constructs were measured in transfected cells during exposure to cigarette smoke extract (CSE). DNA oligonucleotide arrays were used to identify transcription factors activated after smoke exposure. CSE activated the MMP-1 promoter, and this induction was prevented by PD98059 blockade of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Deletion studies revealed the distal 1kb promoter region (−4438 to −3280 upstream of the transcription start site) is essential for CSE induction of MMP-1, and confers activation of a minimal promoter. Studies of 1G and 2G MMP-1 polymorphic promoter variants revealed higher 2G allele basal and CSE-responsive activities than the 1G allele. Cotransfection, mithramycin, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay studies identified activating and repressive roles for Sp1 and PEA3 transcription factors, respectively. Oligonucleotide DNA arrays confirmed activation of Sp1 and PEA3 by CSE. These data demonstrate that the MMP-1 promoter is a direct target of cigarette smoke in lung epithelial cells. This characterization of a smoke response region in the distal MMP-1 promoter has implications for smoking-related diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and emphysema.
PMCID: PMC2606945  PMID: 18617682
metalloproteinase; emphysema; tobacco; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; polymorphism
19.  Genetic analysis of polymorphisms in biologically relevant candidate genes in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms 
Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are characterized by histologic signs of chronic inflammation, destructive remodeling of extracellular matrix, and depletion of vascular smooth muscle cells. We investigated the process of extracellular matrix remodeling by performing a genetic association study with polymorphisms in the genes for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), and structural extracellular matrix molecules in AAA. Our hypothesis was that genetic variations in one or more of these genes contribute to greater or lesser activity of these gene products, and thereby contribute to susceptibility for developing AAAs.
DNA samples from 812 unrelated white subject (AAA, n = 387; controls, n = 425) were genotyped for 14 polymorphisms in 13 different candidate genes: MMP1(nt−1607), MMP2(nt−955), MMP3(nt−1612), MMP9(nt−1562), MMP10(nt+180), MMP12(nt−82), MMP13(nt−77), TIMP1(nt+434), TIMP1(rs2070584), TIMP2(rs2009196), TIMP3(nt−1296), TGFB1(nt−509), ELN(nt+422), and COL3A1(nt+581). Odds ratios and P values adjusted for gender and country of origin using logistic regression and stratified by family history of AAA were calculated to test for association between genotype and disease status. Haplotype analysis was carried out for the two TIMP1 polymorphisms in male subjects.
Analyses with one polymorphism per test without interactions showed an association with the two TIMP1 gene polymorphisms (nt+434, P = .0047; rs2070584, P = .015) in male subjects without a family history of AAA. The association remained significant when analyzing TIMP1 haplotypes (χ2 P = .014 and empirical P = .009). In addition, we found a significant interaction between the polymorphism and gender for MMP10 (P = .037) in cases without a family history of AAA, as well as between the polymorphism and country of origin for ELN (P = .0169) and TIMP3 (P = .0023) in cases with a family history of AAA.
These findings suggest that genetic variations in TIMP1, TIMP3, MMP10, and ELN genes may contribute to the pathogenesis of AAAs. Further work is needed to confirm the findings in an independent set of samples and to study the functional role of these variants in AAA. It is noteworthy that contrary to a previous study, we did not find an association between the MMP9 (nt−1562) polymorphism and AAA, suggesting genetic heterogeneity of the disease.
Clinical Relevance
Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are an important cardiovascular disease, but the genetic and environmental risk factors, which contribute to individual’s risk to develop an aneurysm, are poorly understood. Histologically, AAAs are characterized by signs of chronic inflammation, destructive remodeling of the extracellular matrix, and depletion of vascular smooth muscle cells. We hypothesized that genes involved in these events could harbor changes that make individuals more susceptible to developing aneurysms. This study identified significant genetic associations between DNA sequence changes in tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1), TIMP3, matrix metalloproteinase 10 (MMP10) and elastin (ELN) genes, and AAA. The results will require confirmation using an independent set of samples. After replication it is possible that these sequence changes in combination with other risk factors could be used in the future to identify individuals who are at increased risk for developing an AAA.
PMCID: PMC1249499  PMID: 15944607
20.  Genetic Polymorphism of Matrix Metalloproteinase Family and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Susceptibility: a Meta-analysis 
Scientific Reports  2013;3:2818.
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family is considered to be associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) pathogenesis, however, no consistent results have been provided by previous studies. In this report, we performed Meta analysis to investigate the association between four kinds of MMP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, MMP1 -1607 1G/2G, MMP3 -1171 5A/6A, MMP9 -1562 C/T, MMP12 -82 A/G) and COPD risk from 21 studies including 4184 cases and 5716 controls. Both overall and subgroup association between SNP and COPD susceptibility were tested. There was no evident association between MMP polymorphisms and COPD susceptibility in general population. On the other hand, subgroup analysis suggested that MMP9 -1562 C/T polymorphism was related to COPD, as we found that C allele carriers were at lower risk in some subgroups stratified by lung function, age and genotype identification method, compared with TT homozygotes. Our results indicated the genotype TT might be one genetic risk factor of severe COPD.
PMCID: PMC3788362  PMID: 24085258
21.  Genetic polymorphisms in MMP 2, 9 and 3 genes modify lung cancer risk and survival 
BMC Cancer  2012;12:121.
Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes that contribute to all stages of tumour progression, including the later stages of invasion and metastasis. Genetic variants in the MMP genes may influence the biological function of these enzymes and change their role in carcinogenesis and progression. We have investigated the association between the -735 C/T, the -1171 5A/6A, and the -1562 C/T polymorphisms in the MMP2, MMP3 and MMP9 genes, respectively, and the risk and survival of lung cancer.
The case-control study includes 879 lung cancer patients and 803 controls from a Caucasian population in Spain (CAPUA study). Genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. The Kaplan-Meier method, long-rank test and Cox's were used for the survival analysis.
The MMP9 -1562 T/T genotype was associated with a statistically significant decreased risk of developing lung cancer (OR = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.06-0.85), whereas no association was found for the MMP2 -735 C/T and MMP3 -1171 5A/6A polymorphisms. The MMP2 -735 T/T genotype was statistically significantly associated with a decreased survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, identified as an independent prognosis factor of survival (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.00-3.20). In contrast, no association was found between the MMP3 -1171 5A/6A and the MMP9 -1562 C/T polymorphisms and survival.
These findings support the hypothesis that the MMP9 -1562 C/T polymorphism is associated with a protective effect against the development of lung cancer and suggest that the MMP2 -735 C/T polymorphism modify the length of survival in NSCLC patients.
PMCID: PMC3350430  PMID: 22455335
22.  Evaluation of MMP1 and MMP3 gene polymorphisms in exfoliation syndrome and exfoliation glaucoma 
Molecular Vision  2009;15:2890-2895.
To investigate possible genetic associations of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP1) and MMP3 gene polymorphisms with exfoliation syndrome (XFS) with (XFS/+G) and without (XFS/-G) glaucoma in a cohort of Greek patients.
A total of 182 unrelated Greek patients with XFS, including 92 patients with XFS/+G, and 214 unrelated age- and gender-matched controls were enrolled in the study. MMP1 -1607 1G/2G (rs1799750) and MMP3 -1171 5A/6A (rs3025058) polymorphisms were determined using standard PCR/restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. Differences in allele and genotype distributions were analyzed using logistic regression.
The distribution of genotypes and alleles in MMP1 and MMP3 polymorphisms was not significantly different between cases with exfoliation syndrome, with or without glaucoma, and controls. However, the allele contrast for the MMP1 variant showed a trend for a significant association with XFS/-G (Odds Ratio=1.47 [1.03–2.10]), since after correction for multiple comparisons, this association was no longer statistically significant.
Our study provided some evidence of a possible role of the MMP1 variant in the development of exfoliation syndrome in Greek patients.
PMCID: PMC2797043  PMID: 20038976
23.  Promoter Polymorphisms in Matrix Metallopeptidase 1 and Risk of Cutaneous Melanoma 
Matrix Metallopeptidase 1 (MMP1) is one of the interstitial collagens in the extracellular matrix metalloproteinase family and involved in tumor behaviors. However, there is no report on the role of genetic variation in MMP1 in risk of cutaneous melanoma (CM). We investigated the association between genotypes and haplotypes of seven reported MMP1 promoter polymorphisms (-1607 G ins/del, -839G>A, -755T>G, -519A>G, -422A>T, -340A>G, and -320T>C, genotyped by the TaqMan assay) and CM risk in 872 patients and 873 cancer-free controls. These seven polymorphisms were not in linkage disequilibrium among each other (r2 < 0.63). Compared to their common homozygous genotypes, the variant -519GG was associated with significantly decreased CM risk (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.52-0.99), whereas variant -422TT and -320CC were associated with significantly increased CM risk (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.11-2.03 and OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.05-2.81, respectively) after adjustment for age, sex, family history, and sun-exposure related risk factors. The number of risk alleles of these three polymorphisms was associated with CM risk in a dose- response manner (Ptrend = 0.0002). In the stratification analysis, we found that the associations of these polymorphisms with CM risk were modified by some of the risk factors. Furthermore, the haplotypes Gdel-A-G-A-T-G-T and G-G-G-A-T-A-T were associated with significantly increased CM risk (ORs = 1.56 and 2.13, 95% CIs = 1.02-2.38 and 1.22-3.70, respectively). These findings suggest that MMP1 promoter polymorphisms may individually or jointly play roles in the development of CM.
PMCID: PMC2987546  PMID: 20655738
genotypes; haplotypes; genetic susceptibility; molecular epidemiology; skin neoplasms
24.  The stromelysin-1 5A/5A genotype enhances colorectal cancer cell invasion in Iranian population 
Matrix metalloproteinases comprise a family of enzyme degrade components of extra cellular matrix. There are single nucleotide polymorphisms in the promoter regions of several genes with ability to influence cancer susceptibility. The aim of this study was to analyze association between MMP3 promoter polymorphisms and colorectal cancer occurrence and progression.
Materials and Methods:
In this case-control study 120 colorectal cancer patients and 100 controls were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) on the genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The patients group was divided into different subgroups: a subgroup without metastatic activity (M-) and a subgroup that had developed metastasis (M+).
There was a significant difference in frequency of the MMP-3 genotype between cases and controls (χ΂ = 16.17; P = 0.0003). The 5A homozygote in patients and controls was significantly different. The frequency of the 5A allele among affected patients (67.91%) was significantly higher than among the healthy controls (49%; χ2 = 16.17, P = 0.00005). At the time of diagnosis, individual who was carrying the 5A allele was more represented in the M+ subgroup than in M- subgroup (χ² = 7.49; P = 0.006, OR = 3.86; 95% CI, 1.43–10.33). The difference between M- and controls did not observe statistically significant (χ² = 0.009; P = 0.92).
Our results suggest that the presence of 5A polymorphism at the MMP-3 promoter region may favor the growth and the metastasis process in colorectal cancer patients and could be looked at as a risk factor for a worse prognosis.
PMCID: PMC3698657  PMID: 23825998
Invasion; MMP-3; polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP); single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)
25.  Correlations between MMP-2/MMP-9 promoter polymorphisms and ischemic stroke 
Objective: Ischemic stroke (IS) results from interrupted blood flow to the brain and can be caused by formation of atherosclerotic plaques in blood vessels. Previous studies have suggested a contribution of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) to plaque formation and stroke risk. Here, we explored associations between two MMPs, MMP-2 and MMP-9, and IS. Methods: There were 396 IS patients and 400 control individuals involved in this study. The MMP-2 -1306C/T and -735C/T polymorphisms and MMP-9 -1562C/T polymorphism were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) from patient blood samples, and the relationships to IS were analyzed by logistic regression. Results: Genotype and allele frequencies of MMP-2 -1306C/T did not differ statistically (P>0.05), but those of MMP-2 -735C/T and MMP-9 1562C/T did differ between IS and control samples (P<0.05). While MMP-2 -1306C/T polymorphism was not associated with increased risk of IS, MMP-2 -735C allele was associated with a 1.5-fold increase in IS incidence (OR=1.516, 95% CI=1.185-1.940, P=0.001), and MMP-9 -1562T allele was associated with a 1.5-fold increase in IS incidence (OR=1.543, 95% CI=1.144-2.080, P=0.004). Conclusion: MMP-2 -735C and MMP-9 -1562T may act as IS susceptibility alleles.
PMCID: PMC3931594  PMID: 24600495
MMP-2; MMP-9; gene polymorphism; ischemic stroke

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