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1.  Genetic polymorphisms of MMP1, MMP3 and MMP7 gene promoter and risk of colorectal adenoma 
BMC Cancer  2006;6:270.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) have been shown to play a role in colorectal cancer (CRC). More recently, MMP1, MMP3 and MMP7 functional gene promoter polymorphisms have been found to be associated with CRC occurrence and prognosis. To document the role of MMP polymorphisms in the early step of colorectal carcinogenesis, we investigated their association with colorectal adenoma risk in a case-control study comprising 295 patients with large adenomas (LA), 302 patients with small adenomas (SA) and 568 polyp-free (PF) controls.
Patients were genotyped using automated fragment analysis for MMP1 -1607 ins/del G and MMP3 -1612 ins/delA (MMP3.1) polymorphisms and allelic discrimination assay for MMP3 -709 A/G (MMP3.2) and MMP7 -181 A/G polymorphisms. Association between MMP genotypes and colorectal adenomas was first tested for each polymorphism separately and then for combined genotypes using the combination test. Adjustment on relevant variables and estimation of odds ratios were performed using unconditional logistic regression.
No association was observed between the polymorphisms and LA when compared to PF or SA. When comparing SA to PF controls, analysis revealed a significant association between MMP3 -1612 ins/delA polymorphism and SA with an increased risk associated with the 6A/6A genotype (OR = 1.67, 95%CI: 1.20–2.34). Using the combination test, the best association was found for MMP3.1-MMP1 (p = 0.001) with an OR of 1.88 (95%CI: 1.08–3.28) for the combined genotype 2G/2G-6A/6A estimated by logistic regression.
These data show a relation between MMP1 -1607 ins/del G and MMP3 -1612 ins/delA combined polymorphisms and risk of SA, suggesting their potential role in the early steps of colorectal carcinogenesis.
PMCID: PMC1687194  PMID: 17125518
2.  Polymorphism +17 C/G in Matrix Metalloprotease MMP8 decreases lung cancer risk 
BMC Cancer  2008;8:378.
Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) constitute a family of enzymes capable of degrading different components of the extracellular matrix and are implicated in the invasion of tumor cells through the basement membrane. Polymorphisms in MMP genes may result in changes in the expression of MMPs being associated with the development and progression of cancer. We have investigated the association between three polymorphisms (-1607 1G/2G, +17 C/G and -77 A/G) in the human collagenases MMP1, MMP8 and MMP13 and the risk of development or progression of lung cancer.
A hospital-based case-control study was designed including 501 lung cancer patients and 510 controls matched. Genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP. Results were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression, Cox's proportional hazard regression, and the Kaplan-Meier method.
The MMP1 and MMP13 promoter polymorphisms were not associated with lung cancer risk, while the C/G polymorphism in MMP8 was associated with a statistically significant decreased risk of developing lung cancer (ORadj = 0.65; 95%CI = 0.45–0.93). The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the polymorphisms in MMP1, MMP8 and MMP13 not seem to modify the overall survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that MMP1, MMP8 and MMP13 polymorphisms are not independent prognostic factors for overall survival.
This study suggests that the polymorphism in MMP8 is associated with a decreased lung cancer risk, which can be used as a prognostic marker in lung cancer.
PMCID: PMC2628929  PMID: 19094243
3.  Site controlled transgenic mice validating increased expression from human matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1) promoter due to a naturally occurring SNP 
Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) comprise a family of more than 20 members, each with the ability to degrade components of the extracellular matrix. The interstitial collagenases have the unique capacity to degrade the stromal collagens, types I, II and III, the body's most abundant proteins. These collagenases include MMP-1, MMP-8, MMP-13 and MMP-14. MMP-1, with a very broad expression pattern, has major roles in mediating matrix destruction in many diseases. We have described a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the MMP-1 promoter that augments transcription. This SNP is the presence or absence of an extra guanine (G) at -1607 bp, which creates the sequence 5'-GGAA-3'(2G allele), and which is an ETS binding site. Compared to the 1G allele (5'-GAA-3'), the 2G SNP is associated with enhanced transcription of MMP-1 and increased enzymatic activity.
Although murine systems are often used to model human diseases, mice have only distant homologues of human MMP-1. Therefore, we used a technique for the targeted insertion of a single copy of a gene at the HPRT locus to compare expression of the 1G and 2G alleles. We generated transgenic mice with -4372 bp of the human MMP-1 promoter containing either the 1G or 2G SNP in front of the Lac Z (E.coli ß-galactosidase) gene. We measured relative expression of the transgenes in vitro in embryonic stem (ES) cells and in fibroblasts derived from embryonic mice. Our data show modest constitutive expression of ß-galactosidase mRNA and protein from these alleles, with the 2G allele more transcriptionally active than the 1G allele. We conclude that these mice represent a model for integration of a single copy of the human MMP-1 promoter into the murine genome, and could be used to study MMP-1 gene expression in a murine system.
PMCID: PMC2783711  PMID: 19577645
mRNA; ß-galactosidase; gene expression; single nucleotide polymorphism; fibroblasts
4.  Genetic Polymorphism of Matrix Metalloproteinase Family and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Susceptibility: a Meta-analysis 
Scientific Reports  2013;3:2818.
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family is considered to be associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) pathogenesis, however, no consistent results have been provided by previous studies. In this report, we performed Meta analysis to investigate the association between four kinds of MMP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, MMP1 -1607 1G/2G, MMP3 -1171 5A/6A, MMP9 -1562 C/T, MMP12 -82 A/G) and COPD risk from 21 studies including 4184 cases and 5716 controls. Both overall and subgroup association between SNP and COPD susceptibility were tested. There was no evident association between MMP polymorphisms and COPD susceptibility in general population. On the other hand, subgroup analysis suggested that MMP9 -1562 C/T polymorphism was related to COPD, as we found that C allele carriers were at lower risk in some subgroups stratified by lung function, age and genotype identification method, compared with TT homozygotes. Our results indicated the genotype TT might be one genetic risk factor of severe COPD.
PMCID: PMC3788362  PMID: 24085258
5.  Association between promoter -1607 polymorphism of MMP1 and Lumbar Disc Disease in Southern Chinese 
BMC Medical Genetics  2008;9:38.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in the degradation of the extracellular matrix of the intervertebral disc. A SNP for guanine insertion/deletion (G/D), the -1607 promoter polymorphism, of the MMP1 gene was found significantly affecting promoter activity and corresponding transcription level. Hence it is a good candidate for genetic studies in DDD.
Southern Chinese volunteers between 18 and 55 years were recruited from the population. DDD in the lumbar spine was defined by MRI using Schneiderman's classification. Genomic DNA was isolated from the leukocytes and genotyping was performed using the Sequenom® platform. Association and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium checking were assessed by Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U test.
Our results showed substantial evidence of association between -1607 promoter polymorphism of MMP1 and DDD in the Southern Chinese subjects. D allelic was significantly associated with DDD (p value = 0.027, odds ratio = 1.41 with 95% CI = 1.04–1.90) while Genotypic association on the presence of D allele was also significantly associated with DDD (p value = 0.046, odds ratio = 1.50 with 95% CI = 1.01–2.24). Further age stratification showed significant genotypic as well as allelic association in the group of over 40 years (genotypic: p value = 0.035, odds ratio = 1.617 with 95% CI = 1.033–2.529; allelic: p value = 0.033, odds ratio = 1.445 with 95% CI = 1.029–2.029). Disc bulge, annular tears and the Schmorl's nodes were not associated with the D allele.
We demonstrated that individuals with the presence of D allele for the -1607 promoter polymorphism of MMP1 are about 1.5 times more susceptible to develop DDD when compared with those having G allele only. Further association was identified in individuals over 40 years of age. Disc bulge, annular tear as well as Schmorl's nodes were not associated with this polymorphism.
PMCID: PMC2386444  PMID: 18439317
6.  Role of functional single nucleotide polymorphisms of MMP1, MMP2, and MMP9 in open angle glaucomas 
Molecular Vision  2010;16:1764-1770.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an essential role in the turnover of the extracellular matrix and cellular behavior. MMP1, MMP2, and MMP9 have previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and open angle glaucoma secondary to exfoliation syndrome (XFG), respectively. Functional gene polymorphisms of these MMPs such as MMP1 −1607 1G/2G (rs1799750), MMP2 −1306 C/T (rs243865), MMP2 −1575 G/A (rs243866), and MMP9 Q279R (rs17576) are thus plausible candidates as risk factors for open angle glaucomas. The purpose of the present study was to investigate hypothesized associations between these polymorphisms and the presence of POAG and XFG in a Caucasian population.
The present case-control study included 322 patients with POAG, 202 patients with XFG, and 248 control subjects. Genotyping of polymorphisms was done using polymerase chain reaction.
No significant differences in either genotype distributions or allelic frequencies of MMP1 −1607 1G/2G, MMP2 −1306 C/T, MMP2 −1575 G/A, and MMP9 Q279R were found between patients with POAG and control subjects and patients with XFG and control subjects, respectively (p>0.05). The presence of POAG or XFG was not predicted by any of the investigated polymorphisms.
Our data suggest that the MMP1 −1607 1G/2G, MMP2 −1306 C/T, MMP2 −1575 G/A, and MMP9 Q279R polymorphisms themselves are unlikely major risk factors among Caucasian patients with either POAG or XFG.
PMCID: PMC2929940  PMID: 20808730
7.  Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 -1562C/T Promoter Polymorphism Confers Risk for COPD: A Meta-Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(3):e60523.
The role of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) gene polymorphisms in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been reported with inconsistent results. This meta-analysis was performed to assess the association of MMP-1 -1607G/GG and MMP-9 -1562C/T promoter polymorphisms with COPD susceptibility.
Published case-control studies from Pubmed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases were retrieved. Data were extracted and pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated.
A total of fourteen case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis. Pooled effect size showed an association of MMP-9 -1562 C/T with the risk of COPD (dominant model: TT+CT vs CC; OR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.02–2.08; p = 0.04). However, no correlation with COPD was revealed in MMP-1 -1607G/GG polymorphism. When stratified by ethnicity, results indicated MMP-1 -1607G/GG (recessive model: G/G vs G/GG+GG/GG; OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.01–1.44; p = 0.04) and MMP-9 -1562 C/T (dominant model; OR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.01–2.71; p = 0.04) were correlated with COPD susceptibility among Caucasians and Asians respectively. According to source of controls, signifiant association of MMP-9 -1562 C/T (additive model: T vs C; OR:1.71, 95% CI: 1.42–2.07; p<0.00001, and dominant model; OR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.34–2.76; p = 0.0004) with COPD susceptibility was revealed in the subgroup with smoker-based controls. However, in the aforementioned risk estimates, only the association of MMP-9 -1562 C/T (additive and dominant models) with the risk of COPD in the subgroup with smoker-based controls persisted significantly after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Moreover, after excluding the studies without Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium and/or with small sample size, the pooled results were robust and no publication bias was found in this study.
This meta-analysis suggests, when using healthy smokers as controls, MMP-9 -1562 C/T, but not MMP-1 -1607 G/GG polymorphism is associated with the risk of COPD.
PMCID: PMC3610819  PMID: 23555986
8.  Promoter Polymorphisms in Matrix Metallopeptidase 1 and Risk of Cutaneous Melanoma 
Matrix Metallopeptidase 1 (MMP1) is one of the interstitial collagens in the extracellular matrix metalloproteinase family and involved in tumor behaviors. However, there is no report on the role of genetic variation in MMP1 in risk of cutaneous melanoma (CM). We investigated the association between genotypes and haplotypes of seven reported MMP1 promoter polymorphisms (-1607 G ins/del, -839G>A, -755T>G, -519A>G, -422A>T, -340A>G, and -320T>C, genotyped by the TaqMan assay) and CM risk in 872 patients and 873 cancer-free controls. These seven polymorphisms were not in linkage disequilibrium among each other (r2 < 0.63). Compared to their common homozygous genotypes, the variant -519GG was associated with significantly decreased CM risk (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.52-0.99), whereas variant -422TT and -320CC were associated with significantly increased CM risk (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.11-2.03 and OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.05-2.81, respectively) after adjustment for age, sex, family history, and sun-exposure related risk factors. The number of risk alleles of these three polymorphisms was associated with CM risk in a dose- response manner (Ptrend = 0.0002). In the stratification analysis, we found that the associations of these polymorphisms with CM risk were modified by some of the risk factors. Furthermore, the haplotypes Gdel-A-G-A-T-G-T and G-G-G-A-T-A-T were associated with significantly increased CM risk (ORs = 1.56 and 2.13, 95% CIs = 1.02-2.38 and 1.22-3.70, respectively). These findings suggest that MMP1 promoter polymorphisms may individually or jointly play roles in the development of CM.
PMCID: PMC2987546  PMID: 20655738
genotypes; haplotypes; genetic susceptibility; molecular epidemiology; skin neoplasms
9.  Association of MMP1-1607 1G/2G and TIMP1 372 T/C gene polymorphisms with risk of primary open angle glaucoma in a Polish population 
Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is considered to be a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs) have been extensively studied as POAG risk factors. Recently, several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for MMPs and TIMPs encoding genes have been reported in POAG patients. The aim of this study was to investigate association of the −1607 1G/2G MMP1 and 372 T/C TIMP1 gene polymorphisms with risk of POAG in a Polish population.
In the present case-control study we examined a group of 449 unrelated Caucasian subjects consisting of 196 POAG patients (66 males and 130 females; mean age 70±14) and 253 controls (72 males and 181 females; mean age 67±16). The MMP1-1607 1G/2G and TIMP1 372 T/C gene polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each genotype and allele were calculated.
We found a statistically significant increase of the 2G/2G genotype (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.05–2.86; p=0.019) as well as the 2G allele frequency (OR 1.34; 95% CI 1.03–1.75; p=0.017) of MMP1 in POAG patients in comparison to healthy controls. There were no differences in the genotype and allele distributions and odds ratios of the TIMP1 polymorphism between patients and controls group. We also did not find any association of TIMP1 with MMP1 gene-gene interaction and risk of POAG occurrence.
In conclusion, we suggest that the −1607 1G/2G polymorphism of MMP1 gene may be considered as an important risk factor associated with primary open angle glaucoma in a Polish population. However, further in vivo study is needed to evaluate biological importance of MMPs polymorphisms as a risk factor of POAG.
PMCID: PMC3539563  PMID: 21709637
open angle glaucoma; MMPs; TIMPs; gene polymorphisms
10.  Evaluation of MMP1 and MMP3 gene polymorphisms in exfoliation syndrome and exfoliation glaucoma 
Molecular Vision  2009;15:2890-2895.
To investigate possible genetic associations of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP1) and MMP3 gene polymorphisms with exfoliation syndrome (XFS) with (XFS/+G) and without (XFS/-G) glaucoma in a cohort of Greek patients.
A total of 182 unrelated Greek patients with XFS, including 92 patients with XFS/+G, and 214 unrelated age- and gender-matched controls were enrolled in the study. MMP1 -1607 1G/2G (rs1799750) and MMP3 -1171 5A/6A (rs3025058) polymorphisms were determined using standard PCR/restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. Differences in allele and genotype distributions were analyzed using logistic regression.
The distribution of genotypes and alleles in MMP1 and MMP3 polymorphisms was not significantly different between cases with exfoliation syndrome, with or without glaucoma, and controls. However, the allele contrast for the MMP1 variant showed a trend for a significant association with XFS/-G (Odds Ratio=1.47 [1.03–2.10]), since after correction for multiple comparisons, this association was no longer statistically significant.
Our study provided some evidence of a possible role of the MMP1 variant in the development of exfoliation syndrome in Greek patients.
PMCID: PMC2797043  PMID: 20038976
11.  Genetic polymorphisms of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in potentially malignant and malignant lesions of the head and neck 
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent proteinases that are capable of cleaving all extra cellular matrix (ECM) substrates. Degradation of matrix is a key event in progression, invasion and metastasis of potentially malignant and malignant lesions of the head and neck. It might have an important polymorphic association at the promoter regions of several MMPs such as MMP-1 (-1607 1G/2G), MMP-2 (-1306 C/T), MMP-3 (-1171 5A/6A), MMP-9 (-1562 C/T) and TIMP-2 (-418 G/C or C/C). Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are naturally occurring inhibitors of MMPs, which inhibit the activity of MMPs and control the breakdown of ECM. Currently, many MMP inhibitors (MMPIs) are under development for treating different malignancies. Useful markers associated with molecular aggressiveness might have a role in prognostication of malignancies and to better recognize patient groups that need more antagonistic treatment options. Furthermore, the introduction of novel prognostic markers may also promote exclusively new treatment possibilities, and there is an obvious need to identify markers that could be used as selection criteria for novel therapies. The objective of this review is to discuss the molecular functions and polymorphic association of MMPs and TIMPs and the possible therapeutic aspects of these proteinases in potentially malignant and malignant head and neck lesions. So far, no promising drug target therapy has been developed for MMPs in the lesions of this region. In conclusion, further research is required for the development of their potential diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities.
PMCID: PMC2846899  PMID: 20152059
12.  Bladder Cancer Risk Associated with Genotypic Polymorphism of the Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 and 7 in North Indian Population 
Disease markers  2010;29(1):37-46.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contribute to tumor invasion and microenvironment, hence are associated with bladder cancer risk. We therefore, tested whether polymorphisms in MMP genes modify the risk of bladder cancer (BC) and whether smoke exposure modifies this risk.
Genotyping was performed in 200 BC patients and 200 controls by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). MMP1-1607 2G/2G and MMP7-181 GG genotype were associated with increased risk of BC (p <0.001; OR, 3.04; 95% CI1.71–5.39 and p, 0.005; OR, 2.38; 95% CI1.30–4.34) respectively. Smokers in BC patients showed significant increased risk for the same SNPs (p, 0.006; OR, 3.20; 95% CI1.40–7.31 and p, 0.009; OR, 2.85; 95% CI1.30–6.23 respectively). Haplotype analysis too revealed significant association with G/2G of MMP1-519-1607 (p < 0.001; OR, 2.62; 95% CI1.68–4.09). The 2G allele carrier (1G/2G + 2G/2G) of MMP1-1607 showed a protective effect and high recurrence free survival in Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) treated non muscle invasive BC (NMIBC) patients (log rank p, 0.030). Our datasuggested that MMP11607 2G and MMP7181 G allele were associated with high risk of BC, which was quite evident amongst smokers too. BCG treated NMIBC patients reflected protective effect for 2G allele carrier (1G/2G+2G/2G) of MMP1-1607. This study provided new support for the association of MMP1-1607 and MMP7-181 in bladder cancer development, the tumorigenic effect of which was observed to be more enhanced in case of tobacco exposure.
PMCID: PMC3835524  PMID: 20826916
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin; bladder cancer; haplotypes; matrix metalloproteinase; polymorphism; recurrence free survival
13.  Meta-Analysis of MMP2, MMP3, and MMP9 Promoter Polymorphisms and Head and Neck Cancer Risk 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(4):e62023.
The 1306 C>T, 1171 5A>6A, and 1562C>T polymorphisms of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2, MMP3, and MMP9 genes, respectively, have been found to be functional and may contribute to head and neck carcinogenesis. However, the results of case-control studies examining associations between MMP polymorphisms and head and neck cancer (HNC) risk remain inconclusive. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to further evaluate the role of these polymorphisms in HNC development.
We searched PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE, Embase, and Google Scholar to identify all published case-control studies of MMP2-1306 C>T, MMP3-1171 5A>6A, and MMP9-1562 C>T polymorphisms and HNC risk in the meta-analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the association between these polymorphisms and HNC risk.
Thirteen studies were included in this meta-analysis. For MMP2-1306 C>T polymorphism, significant associations were observed under three genetic models both in overall comparison and in a hospital-based subgroup, and in oral cavity cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer under dominant model as well. For MMP3-1171 5A>6A and MMP9-1562 C>T polymorphisms, no association was found in overall comparison; however, in subgroup analyses based on ethnicity and tumor site, significant associations were detected between the MMP3-1171 5A>6A polymorphism and HNC risk in a European population and pharyngeal/laryngeal cancer under two genetic contrasts.
This meta-analysis suggests that the MMP2-1306 C>T polymorphism is associated with HNC risk, as is the MMP3-1171 5A>6A polymorphism specifically in some subgroups. Further studies with larger sample sizes are warranted.
PMCID: PMC3634729  PMID: 23637955
14.  Missense Polymorphisms in Matrix Metalloproteinase Genes and Skin Cancer Risk 
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade various components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), and their overexpression has been implicated in tumor progression. Non-synonymous SNPs lead to amino acid substitutions that can alter the function of the encoded protein. We evaluated the associations of six non-synonymous SNPs in the MMP3, MMP8, and MMP9 genes with skin cancer risk in a nested case-control study of Caucasians within the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) among 218 melanoma cases, 285 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases, 300 basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cases, and 870 normal controls. We observed that the MMP9 Arg668Gln polymorphism was significantly associated with a decreased risk of SCC. Compared with the Arg/Arg group, the multivariate odds ratio (OR) was 0.67 (95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.47-0.97) for the Arg/Gln group and 0.21 (95% CI, 0.05-0.97) for the Gln/Gln group (P for trend, 0.004). We did not observe any association of this SNP with the risks of melanoma and BCC. No associations were found for other SNPs with skin cancer risk. This study provides evidence for the contribution of the MMP9 Arg668Gln to SCC development.
PMCID: PMC2664625  PMID: 19064570
MMP; SNPs; skin cancer
15.  Matrix metalloproteinase 1, 3 and 12 polymorphisms and esophageal adenocarcinoma risk and prognosis 
Carcinogenesis  2009;30(5):793-798.
The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family degrade extracellular matrix and mediate pathways including apoptosis, angiogenesis and immunity. We studied the association between four MMP polymorphisms within three MMP genes and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) risk and prognosis. A total of 313 EA cases and 455 age and gender frequency-matched controls were genotyped for MMP1 1G/2G, MMP3 6A/5A, MMP12 −82A/G and MMP12 1082A/G. The association between individual MMP polymorphisms and EA risk was evaluated using regression models and adjusted for age, gender, adult body mass index and smoking status. Haplotype analysis was performed to investigate the combined effect of all four linked MMP polymorphisms and EA risk. The MMP1 and MMP3 polymorphisms were associated with increased EA risk: MMP1 1G/2G and 2G/2G had adjusted odds ratios of 1.46 [95% confidence interval 1.0–2.1; P = 0.04] and adjusted odds ratio 1.83 (1.2–2.8; P = 0.005), respectively, whereas MMP3 6A/5A had adjusted odds ratio 1.40 (95% confidence interval 1.0–2.1; P = 0.09) and MMP3 5A/5A had 1.61 (95% confidence interval 1.0–2.5; P = 0.03). Two MMP haplotypes [MMP1–MMP3–MMP12 (−82) 2G-5A-A (adjusted odds ratio 1.36, 95% confidence interval 1.0–1.8; P = 0.03) and 2G-5A-G (adjusted odds ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.1–2.6; P = 0.01)] were also associated with increased EA risk. The relationship between BE cases with the same set of controls was similar. No association was identified between the MMP polymorphisms and overall survival or progression free survival of patients with EA. MMP1, MMP3 and possibly MMP12 −82A/G polymorphisms and their haplotypes are associated with increased EA risk.
PMCID: PMC2675656  PMID: 19321798
16.  Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) Promoter Polymorphisms are Well Linked with Lower Stomach Tumor Formation in Eastern Indian Population 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e88040.
Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), an interstitial collagenase, plays a major role in cellular invasion during development of gastric cancer, a leading cause of death worldwide. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) −1607 1G/2G site of the MMP-1 gene promoter has been reported to alter transcription level. While the importance’s of other SNPs in the MMP-1 promoter have not yet been studied in gastric cancer, our aim was to investigate MMP-1 gene promoter polymorphisms and gastric cancer susceptibility in eastern Indian population. A total of 145 gastric cancer patients and 145 healthy controls were genotyped for MMP-1 −1607 1G/2G (rs1799750) by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), while MMP-1 −519 A/G (rs1144393), MMP-1 −422 T/A (rs475007), MMP-1 −340 T/C (rs514921) and MMP-1 −320 T/C (rs494379) were genotyped by DNA sequencing. A positive association was found with MMP-1 −422 T/A SNP that showed significant risk for regional lymph node metastasis (P = 0.021, Odd’s ratio (OR) = 3.044, Confidence intervals (CI) = 1.187–7.807). In addition, we found a significant association with lower stomach tumor formation among gastric cancer patients for three adjacent polymorphisms near the transcriptional start sites of [MMP-1 −422 T/A (P = 0.043, OR = 2.182, CI = 1.03–4.643), MMP-1 −340 T/C (P = 0.075, OR = 1.97, CI = 0.94–4.158) and MMP-1 −320 T/C (P = 0.034, OR = 2.224, CI = 1.064–40731)]. MMP-1 level in patients’ serum was correlated with MMP-1 promoter haplotypes conferring these three SNPs to evaluate the functional importance of these polymorphisms in lower stomach tumor formation and significant correlation was observed. Furthermore, MMP-1 −519 A/G polymorphism displayed poor cellular differentiation (P = 0.024, OR = 3.8, CI = 1.69–8.56) attributing a higher risk of cancer progression. In conclusion, MMP-1 proximal promoter SNPs are associated with the risk of lower stomach tumor formation and node metastasis in eastern Indian population.
PMCID: PMC3914871  PMID: 24505369
17.  Association between MMP1 -1607 1G>2G Polymorphism and Head and Neck Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e56294.
MMP1 is an important member of the MMP endopeptidase family that plays a critical role in the development of head and neck cancer (HNC). Several studies have investigated the association between the MMP1 -1607 1G>2G polymorphism and risk of HNC, but their results have been inconsistent. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis to further explore the role of the MMP1 -1607 1G>2G polymorphism in HNC development.
We identified all eligible studies in the electronic databases of PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE, Embase, and Google Scholar (from January 2000 to June 2012). A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association between the MMP1 -1607 1G>2G polymorphism and risk of HNC by calculating odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CIs).
Twelve studies were included in this meta-analysis. In overall comparison, significant associations were found using the recessive and allelic contrast models (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.07–1.79 and OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.05–1.53, respectively), but no association was detected using the dominant model. In the stratified analyses by several variables, significant associations were observed using the recessive, dominant, and allelic contrast models in the Asian population (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.29–2.08; OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.06–1.82; and OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.21–1.65, respectively), European population (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40–0.84; OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44–0.92; and OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.54–0.85, respectively), and population-based subgroup (OR, 1.24; 95% CI,1.05–1.47; OR,1.48; 95% CI,1.04–2.12; and OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.07–1.38, respectively). Furthermore, significant associations were detected in oral cavity cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer under the recessive model.
Our results suggest that the MMP1 -1607 1G>2G polymorphism is associated with risk of HNC and that it plays different roles in Asian and European populations. Further studies with large sample size are needed to validate our findings.
PMCID: PMC3575339  PMID: 23441173
18.  The collagenase-1 (MMP-1) gene promoter polymorphism - 1607/2G is associated with favourable prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer 
British Journal of Cancer  2007;96(5):783-792.
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) overexpression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Accumulating evidence suggests that MMP promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) effecting gene transcription are associated with enhanced susceptibility for the development of malignant disease, increased tumour invasiveness and poor patient survival. The aim of the current investigation was to determine whether such associations exist in a large CRC patient/control study population. Using an allelic discrimination real-time polymerase chain reaction, polymorphisms in the MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-3 gene promoters (−1607, −1306, and −1612 bp, respectively) were assessed in normal blood mononuclear cells from patients with CRC (n=503) and control subjects (n=471). Genotypes corresponding to each MMP SNP were correlated with tumour characteristics and clinical outcome. The frequency of each genotype was not statistically different between patients and control subjects and no significant differences were noted between the genotypes and tumour characteristics for the three MMP SNPs. CRC patients with the 2G/2G genotype for the MMP-1 SNP had significantly better 5-year survival compared to patients with a 1G allele (P<0.05). Our results demonstrate that CRC patients with a 2G/2G genotype in the MMP-1 gene promoter SNP have a favourable prognosis. Although our results were unexpected, given that this genotype is associated with enhanced MMP-1 transcriptional activity, they are consistent with recent data highlighting the anti-tumorigenic properties of MMPs.
PMCID: PMC2360084  PMID: 17311017
metalloproteinase; real-time polymerase chain reaction; single nucleotide polymorphism
19.  Synergistic effect of stromelysin-1 (matrix metalloproteinase-3) promoter (-1171 5A->6A) polymorphism in oral submucous fibrosis and head and neck lesions 
BMC Cancer  2010;10:369.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes that degrade all the components of extra cellular matrix and collagen. Various types of MMPs are known to be expressed and activated in patients with oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) as well as head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The purpose of this study was to asses the association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) adenosine insertion/deletion polymorphism (-1171 5A->6A) in the MMP-3 promoter region in these lesions.
MMP-3 SNP was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in a case control study consisting of 362 participants; 101 cases of OSMF, 135 of HNSCC and 126 controls, compared for age, sex and habits. ROC distribution was plotted to assess the contributions of genetic variation in MMP-3 genotypes with relation to age.
Analysis of MMP 3 (-1171 5A->6A) polymorphism revealed the frequency of 5A allele in OSMF, HNSCC and controls to be 0.15, 0.13 and 0.07, respectively. A significant difference was found in 5A genotype frequency between OSMF (5A genotype frequency = 0.15, p = 0.01, OR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.22-4.20) and in controls (5A genotype frequency 0.07) as well as HNSCC (5A genotype frequency 0.13, p = 0.03,95%CI = 1.06-3.51) and controls (5A genotype frequency = 0.07) In this study, 5A genotype had greater than two fold risk for developing OSMF (OR = 2.26) and nearly the same in case of HNSCC (OR = 1.94) as compared to controls. In patients with OSMF as well as HNSCC, the ROC analysis between the MMP-3 genotype and age, 6A/6A allele was found to be significant in patients both over and under 45 years of age; while the 5A/5A carrier alleles showed an association only in patients less than 45 years of age.
This study concluded that the expression of MMP-3 genotype associated with the 5A alleles, it may have an important role in the susceptibility of the patients to develop OSMF and HNSCC.
PMCID: PMC2912870  PMID: 20630073
20.  Matrix Metalloproteinase Genes Are Associated with Breast Cancer Risk and Survival: The Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e63165.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contribute to cancer through their involvement in cancer invasion and metastasis. We evaluated genetic variation in MMP1 (9 SNPs), MMP2 (8 SNPs), MMP3 (4 SNPs), and MMP9 (3 SNPs) and breast cancer risk among Hispanic (2111 cases, 2597 controls) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) (1481 cases, 1586 controls) women in the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study. Ancestral informative markers (n = 104) were assessed to determine Native American (NA) ancestry. MMP1 [4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)] and MMP2 (2 SNPs) were associated with breast cancer overall. MMP1 rs996999 had strongest associations among women with the most NA ancestry (OR 1.61,95% CI 1.09,2.40) as did MMP3 rs650108 (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.05,1.75) and MMP9 rs3787268 (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.09,2.13). The adaptive rank truncated product (ARTP) showed a significant pathway partp value of 0.04, with a stronger association among women with the most NA ancestry (partp = 0.02). Significant pathway genes using the ARTP were MMP1 for all women (partp = 0.02) and MMP9 for women with the most NA ancestry (partp = 0.024); MMP2 was borderline significant overall (partp = 0.06) and MMP1 and MMP3 were borderline significant for women with the most NA ancestry (partp = 0.07 and 0.06 respectively). MMP1 and MMP2 were associated with ER+/PR+ and ER+/PR-tumors; MMP3 and MMP9 were associated with ER−/PR− tumors. The pathway was highly significant with survival (partp = 0.0041) with MMP2 having the strongest gene association (partp = 0.0007). Our findings suggest that genetic variation in MMP genes influence breast cancer development and survival in this genetically admixed population.
PMCID: PMC3655963  PMID: 23696797
21.  The 2G allele of promoter region of Matrix metalloproteinase-1 as an essential pre-condition for the early onset of oral squamous cell carcinoma 
BMC Cancer  2007;7:187.
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) is known to be involved in the initial and progressive stages of cancer development, and in the aggressive phenotypes of cancer. This study examines the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in promoter regions of MMP-1 and MMP-3 with susceptibility to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
We compared 170 Japanese OSCC cases and 164 healthy controls for genotypes of MMP-1 and MMP-3.
The frequency of the MMP-1 2G allele was higher and that of the 1G homozygote was lower in the OSCC cases (p = 0.034). A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that subjects who were 45 years old or older had a significantly increased (2.47-fold) risk of OSCC (95%CI 1.47–4.14, p = 0.0006), and those carrying the MMP-1 2G allele had a 2.30-fold risk (95%CI 1.15–4.58, p = 0.018), indicating independent involvement of these factors in OSCC. One of the key discoveries of this research is the apparent reduction of the MMP-1 1G/1G and 1G/2G genotype distributions among the early onset OSCC cases under the ages of 45 years. It should be noted that the tongue was the primary site in 86.2% of these early onset cases. This could suggest the specific carcinogenic mechanisms, i.e. specific carcinogenic stimulations and/or genetic factors in the tongue.
Since the 2G allele is a majority of the MMP-1 genotype in the general population, it seems to act as a genetic pre-condition in OSCC development. However this report suggests a crucial impact of the MMP-1 2G allele in the early onset OSCC.
PMCID: PMC2089080  PMID: 17919326
22.  Functional Gene Polymorphism of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Is Associated with Benign Hyperplasia of Myo- and Endometrium in the Russian Population 
Aims: Estrogen-dependent hyperplasia of myo- and endometrium manifests as uterine leiomyoma or adenomyosis. We studied possible associations between common polymorphisms of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) genes and clinical features of uterine hyperplasia. Patients and Methods: One hundred seventy female patients with uterine leiomyoma (46.6±0.5 years) were observed. Clinical diagnosis was based on physical examination, ultrasonography, and histological data. MMP-1 (−1607 1G/2G, rs1799750) and MMP-3 (−1171 5A/6A, rs3025058) were genotyped with allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of leukocyte DNA. Clinical and genetic data were evaluated using nonparametric statistics. Results: Distributions of MMP-1 and MMP-3 promoter alleles among patients and population controls were similar and corresponded to the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). Detectable tumor growth and adenomyosis were observed, respectively, in 71% and 55% of cases. Steady-state leiomyoma correlated with a higher prevalence of the MMP-1 1G/1G genotype (p=0.02 by χ2 test). Accelerated tumor growth correlated with higher frequency of the MMP-1 2G allele [odds ratio (OR)=2.048, p=0.039, χ2=4.2611, confidence interval (CI)=(1.032–4.062)]. MMP-1 2G was also associated with multinodular growth [OR=3.561, p=0.01249, χ2=6.24, CI=(1.261–10.058)]. The MMP-1 2G allele tended to increase in patients with adenomyosis [OR=1.525, p=0.054, χ2=3.71, CI=(0.992–2.345)]. Conclusion: Our pilot study suggests that the 2G −1607MMP-1 genotype may be a potential risk marker of myo- and endometrial hyperplasia.
PMCID: PMC3438823  PMID: 22853432
23.  Association of Matrix Metalloproteinase-7 (-181A>G) Polymorphism with Risk of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Kashmir Valley 
Degradation of the basement membrane and extracellular matrix by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is believed to be an essential step in the complicated process of hematogenous metastasis. Matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) is a small secreted proteolytic enzyme with a broad substrate specificity, and its expression has been shown to be associated with tumor invasion and metastasis for various cancers.
Patients and Methods:
To document the role of MMP-7 polymorphism in esophageal carcinogenesis, a case-control study was performed comprising 135 patients with esophageal cancer (EC) and 195 healthy controls. Genotyping was done by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Data were statistically analyzed using χ2 - test and logistic regression models.
Carriers for the MMP-7 (-181A>G) GG were associated with an increased risk for EC [odds ratio (OR = 2.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.21-3.92; P = 0.010; P-trend = 0.04]. Also, in a recessive model, our results showed that MMP-7 (-181A>G) GG allele conferred significantly higher risk for EC (OR =2.16; 95% CI = 1.31-3.54; P = 0.003). The high risk due to MMP-7 (-181GG) genotype was limited to squamous cell histology of EC (OR = 2.41; 95% CI = 1.27-4.56; P = 0.007). Although smoking (Hukka) and high consumption of salted tea are independent risk factors for EC, the interaction of MMP-7 (-181A>G) genotypes with these factors did not further modulate the risk of EC.
In conclusion, our results show that MMP-7 (-181A>G) GG carriers are at a higher risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Kashmir valley.
PMCID: PMC3178916  PMID: 21912055
Esophageal cancer; Kashmir valley; MMP-7 (–181A>G) polymorphism
24.  Genetic analysis of polymorphisms in biologically relevant candidate genes in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms 
Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are characterized by histologic signs of chronic inflammation, destructive remodeling of extracellular matrix, and depletion of vascular smooth muscle cells. We investigated the process of extracellular matrix remodeling by performing a genetic association study with polymorphisms in the genes for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), and structural extracellular matrix molecules in AAA. Our hypothesis was that genetic variations in one or more of these genes contribute to greater or lesser activity of these gene products, and thereby contribute to susceptibility for developing AAAs.
DNA samples from 812 unrelated white subject (AAA, n = 387; controls, n = 425) were genotyped for 14 polymorphisms in 13 different candidate genes: MMP1(nt−1607), MMP2(nt−955), MMP3(nt−1612), MMP9(nt−1562), MMP10(nt+180), MMP12(nt−82), MMP13(nt−77), TIMP1(nt+434), TIMP1(rs2070584), TIMP2(rs2009196), TIMP3(nt−1296), TGFB1(nt−509), ELN(nt+422), and COL3A1(nt+581). Odds ratios and P values adjusted for gender and country of origin using logistic regression and stratified by family history of AAA were calculated to test for association between genotype and disease status. Haplotype analysis was carried out for the two TIMP1 polymorphisms in male subjects.
Analyses with one polymorphism per test without interactions showed an association with the two TIMP1 gene polymorphisms (nt+434, P = .0047; rs2070584, P = .015) in male subjects without a family history of AAA. The association remained significant when analyzing TIMP1 haplotypes (χ2 P = .014 and empirical P = .009). In addition, we found a significant interaction between the polymorphism and gender for MMP10 (P = .037) in cases without a family history of AAA, as well as between the polymorphism and country of origin for ELN (P = .0169) and TIMP3 (P = .0023) in cases with a family history of AAA.
These findings suggest that genetic variations in TIMP1, TIMP3, MMP10, and ELN genes may contribute to the pathogenesis of AAAs. Further work is needed to confirm the findings in an independent set of samples and to study the functional role of these variants in AAA. It is noteworthy that contrary to a previous study, we did not find an association between the MMP9 (nt−1562) polymorphism and AAA, suggesting genetic heterogeneity of the disease.
Clinical Relevance
Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are an important cardiovascular disease, but the genetic and environmental risk factors, which contribute to individual’s risk to develop an aneurysm, are poorly understood. Histologically, AAAs are characterized by signs of chronic inflammation, destructive remodeling of the extracellular matrix, and depletion of vascular smooth muscle cells. We hypothesized that genes involved in these events could harbor changes that make individuals more susceptible to developing aneurysms. This study identified significant genetic associations between DNA sequence changes in tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1), TIMP3, matrix metalloproteinase 10 (MMP10) and elastin (ELN) genes, and AAA. The results will require confirmation using an independent set of samples. After replication it is possible that these sequence changes in combination with other risk factors could be used in the future to identify individuals who are at increased risk for developing an AAA.
PMCID: PMC1249499  PMID: 15944607
25.  Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1, -2 and -3 in squamous cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis 
British Journal of Cancer  1999;80(7):1087-1091.
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) plays an important role in extracellular matrix degradation associated with cancer invasion. An expression of MMP-1 (interstitial collagenase), MMP-2 (72-kDa type IV collagenase) and MMP-3 (stromelysin-1) was investigated in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and its precancerous condition, actinic keratosis (AK), using in situ hybridization techniques. MMP-1 mRNA was detected in tumour cells and/or in stromal cells in all cases of SCC, four of six AKs adjacent to SCC and four of 16 AKs. MMP-2 and MMP-3 mRNAs were detected in SCC but not in AK. The expression of MMP-3 correlated to that of MMP-1 (P = 0.03) localized at the tumour mass and stroma of the invasive area, while MMP-2 mRNA was detected widely throughout the stroma independent of MMP-1 expression. Our results indicated that the expression of MMP-1, -2 and -3 showed different localization patterns, suggesting a unique role of each MMP in tumour progression. Moreover, MMP-1 expression could be an early event in the development of SCC, and AK demonstrating MMP-1 mRNA, might be in a more advanced dysplastic state, progressing to SCC. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign
PMCID: PMC2363037  PMID: 10362121
squamous cell carcinoma; actinic keratosis; in situ hybridization; matrix metalloproteinases; extracellular matrix; skin cancer

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