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1.  Barriers to Scholarship in Dentistry, Medicine, Nursing, and Pharmacy Practice Faculty 
There has been an increased emphasis on scholarly activities by health sciences faculty members given the importance of the promotion of public health over the last 50 years. Consequently, faculty members are required to place greater emphasis on scholarly activities while maintaining their teaching and service responsibilities. This increasing requirement of scholarly activities has placed great demands on clinical practice faculty members and it has made their management of clinical practice, teaching responsibilities, and expectations for promotion and tenure a difficult task. This retrospective literature review identifies barriers to the scholarship activities of clinical faculty members in dentistry, medicine, nursing, and pharmacy and discusses strategies for enabling faculty members to pursue scholarly activities in the current health science academic environment. The review indicates commonalities of barriers across these 4 disciplines and suggests strategies that could be implemented by all of these disciplines to enable clinical practice faculty members to pursue scholarly activities.
PMCID: PMC2064889  PMID: 17998988
scholarship; promotion; practice faculty; medicine; dentistry; pharmacy; nursing
2.  A Collaborative and Reflective Academic Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience 
Objectives. To implement a co-precepted advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) focused on traditional pharmacy faculty and administrative responsibilities and reflection opportunities.
Design. A multi-faceted, reflection-infused academic APPE was designed that exposed students to activities related to teaching, curriculum revision, scholarly writing, committee service, faculty role-modeling, mentorship and development, and school-level administrative decision-making.
Assessment. Two students completed the APPE in the first 2 semesters it was offered (1 in spring 2010 and 1 in fall 2010). Formative and summative evaluations confirmed that the students achieved the APPE goals and viewed the experience as valuable, informative, and enjoyable as expressed both in reflective journal submissions and survey comments.
Conclusion. Co-precepting by pharmacy faculty members primarily engaged in traditional faculty- and administration-related responsibilities can provide students with a robust learning experience that surpasses that which could be achieved by a single mentor.
doi:10.5688/ajpe756120
PMCID: PMC3175684  PMID: 21931458
advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE); experiential learning; academic APPE
3.  Developing a Scholarship Community 
Purpose
To report the results of a multidisciplinary, interinstitutional writing support group established to facilitate faculty scholarly productivity.
Organizing Concept
The road to scholarship can be filled with many obstacles, among them time constraints, teaching and meeting demands, student needs, office interruptions, and lack of colleagueship. The problems associated with lack of colleagueship, in particular, can be compounded for faculty who work in isolated contexts with few, if any, senior faculty to serve as mentors.
Methods of Development
The Western Writers Coercion Group evolved over a 2-year period from a small group of nursing faculty at a single institution to include, by its second year, 21 faculty from five western university campuses and three academic disciplines. The group met biweekly via teleconference with the objectives of defining and accomplishing realistic individual scholarship goals and providing a forum for the critical exchange of ideas.
Results
The ongoing support and mentoring of the group led to significant writing outcomes in the form of manuscripts submitted for publication, abstracts submitted for conference presentation, grant proposals developed, and collegial relationships formed.
Discussion
Although the benefits of group participation varied somewhat for faculty at different points in the career trajectory, they seemed to accrue at all levels of development. Group members underscored the many less quantifiable advantages of group participation: exposure to broader professional perspectives, the formation of key professional relationships, the enrichment of multidisciplinary input, and individualized assistance with time management, goal setting, and actual drafts.
Conclusions
The structure and experience of this group, which continues to meet regularly, might be a model to guide other groups of scholars who face geographic isolation and who struggle with balancing time and work and finding motivation for the process of writing.
PMCID: PMC1484523  PMID: 16235872
scholarship; community building; writing support group
4.  Defining Scholarly Activity in Graduate Medical Education 
Background
Scholarly activity is a requirement for accreditation by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. There is currently no uniform definition used by all Residency Review Committees (RRCs). A total of 6 of the 27 RRCs currently have a rubric or draft of a rubric to evaluate scholarly activity.
Objective
To develop a definition of scholarly activity and a set of rubrics to be used in program accreditation to reduce subjectivity of the evaluation of scholarly activity at the level of individual residency programs and across RRCs.
Methods
We performed a review of the pertinent literature and selected faculty promotion criteria across the United States to develop a structure for a proposed rubric of scholarly activity, drawing on work on scholarship by experts to create a definition of scholarly activity and rubrics for its assessment.
Results
The literature review showed that academic institutions in the United States place emphasis on all 4 major components of Boyer's definition of scholarship: discovery, integration, application, and teaching. We feel that the assessment of scholarly activity should mirror these findings as set forth in our proposed rubric. Our proposed rubric is intended to ensure a more objective evaluation of these components of scholarship in accreditation reviews, and to address both expectations for scholarly pursuits for core teaching faculty and those for resident and fellow physicians.
Conclusion
The aim of our proposed rubric is to ensure a more objective evaluation of these components of scholarship in accreditation reviews, and to address expectations for scholarly pursuits for core teaching faculty as well as those for resident and fellow physicians.
doi:10.4300/JGME-D-12-00266.1
PMCID: PMC3546601  PMID: 24294446
5.  A Critical Appraisal of and Recommendations for Faculty Development 
The 2009-2010 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) Council of Faculties Faculty Affairs Committee reviewed published literature assessing the scope and outcomes of faculty development for tenure and promotion. Relevant articles were identified via a PubMed search, review of pharmacy education journals, and identification of position papers from major healthcare professions academic organizations. While programs intended to enhance faculty development were described by some healthcare professions, relatively little specific to pharmacy has been published and none of the healthcare professions have adequately evaluated the impact of various faculty-development programs on associated outcomes.
The paucity of published information strongly suggests a lack of outcomes-oriented faculty-development programs in colleges and schools of pharmacy. Substantial steps are required toward the development and scholarly evaluation of faculty-development programs. As these programs are developed and assessed, evaluations must encompass all faculty subgroups, including tenure- and nontenure track faculty members, volunteer faculty members, women, and underrepresented minorities. This paper proposes AACP, college and school, and department-level recommendations intended to ensure faculty success in achieving tenure and promotion.
doi:10.5688/ajpe756122
PMCID: PMC3175674  PMID: 21931460
faculty development; colleges and schools of pharmacy; tenure; promotion; outcomes
6.  Advancing Pharmacist Scholarship and Research Within Academic Pharmacy 
An appropriate balance between teaching, scholarship, and service is important for a faculty member to have a satisfying and successful career. The relative emphasis on each area normally changes during the course of a career. Although some level of scholarly output is an ongoing and fundamental expectation of all faculty members, this activity is too often given low priority, particularly among faculty members in practice areas who may have a minimal background in research and large demands on their time for teaching and clinical service. Addressing this issue requires establishing a shared commitment between administrators and faculty members, as well as identifying or developing education programs that will ensure research competence for practice faculty members. This paper provides insights into the role that scholarship and research should have for all pharmacy faculty members and provides suggestions for how to better advance this critical component within academic pharmacy.
doi:10.5688/ajpe7610187
PMCID: PMC3530049  PMID: 23275652
peer-review; scholarship; research; faculty
7.  A Comprehensive Approach to Faculty Development 
The purpose of this report was to describe the development, implementation, and outcomes from 3 complementary programs to facilitate the development of faculty members. The Faculty Development Committee (FDC) at the University of Tennessee developed 3 new complementary programs: the Individual Faculty Development Program to encourage faculty members to assess and identify their own specific developmental needs; the Seed Research Grant Program to fund scholarly activities by faculty; and the Technology Support Program to foster financial support of technology upgrades crucial for meeting the research, education, and service needs of faculty members. Eighteen faculty members participated in the Individual Faculty Development Program during the first 2 academic years and all provided positive feedback about their experiences. The Seed Research Grant Program funded 6 projects during its inaugural year. Limited outcome data from these 2 programs are extremely favorable relative to grant submissions and publications, and enhanced educational offerings and evaluations. The Technology Support Fund was initiated in the 2005-2006 academic year. The 3 faculty development programs initiated are offered as examples whereby faculty members are given a high degree of self-determination relative to identifying programs that will effectively contribute to their growth as academicians. Other colleges of pharmacy are encouraged to consider similar initiatives to foster individual faculty development at this critical period of growth within academic pharmacy.
PMCID: PMC1636916  PMID: 17149407
faculty development; research; technology
8.  A collaborative institutional model for integrating computer applications in the medical curriculum. 
The introduction and promotion of information technology in an established medical curriculum with existing academic and technical support structures poses a number of challenges. The UNC School of Medicine has developed the Taskforce on Educational Applications in Medicine (TEAM), to coordinate this effort. TEAM works as a confederation of existing research and support units with interests in computers and education, along with a core of interested faculty with curricular responsibilities. Constituent units of the TEAM confederation include the medical center library, medical television studios, basic science teaching laboratories, educational development office, microcomputer and network support groups, academic affairs administration, and a subset of course directors and teaching faculty. Among our efforts have been the establishment of (1) a mini-grant program to support faculty initiated development and implementation of computer applications in the curriculum, (2) a symposium series with visiting speakers to acquaint faculty with current developments in medical informatics and related curricular efforts at other institution, (3) 20 computer workstations located in the multipurpose teaching labs where first and second year students do much of their academic work, (4) a demonstration center for evaluation of courseware and technologically advanced delivery systems. The student workstations provide convenient access to electronic mail, University schedules and calendars, the CoSy computer conferencing system, and several software applications integral to their courses in pathology, histology, microbiology, biochemistry, and neurobiology. The progress achieved toward the primary goal has modestly exceeded our initial expectations, while the collegiality and interest expressed toward TEAM activities in the local environment stand as empirical measures of the success of the concept.
PMCID: PMC2247631  PMID: 1807705
9.  A Multi-Institutional Survey on Faculty Development Needs, Priorities and Preferences in Medical Education in an Asian Medical School 
Background:
Faculty development in medical education is crucial for maintaining academic vitality. The authors conducted a needs assessment survey in Singapore to determine the educational needs and priorities of clinical faculty.
Methods:
This study implemented a questionnaire-based, anonymous, multi-institutional survey with stratified random sampling. Each question was anchored with two statements on a 9-point scale. Respondents were asked to determine their current knowledge and the knowledge they would need in future.
Results:
The response rate was 81.9%. Overall, the participants’ current knowledge was rated either “modest” (scale 4-6) or “substantial” (scale 7-9), irrespective of teaching experience. Participants reported higher knowledge in areas related to teaching and modest knowledge in educational concepts and assessment. They reported a need for higher knowledge in most areas to function well as a teacher.
Conclusion:
The need for faculty development is universal and independent of teaching experience in this group. Teaching faculty from the institutes studied understood the need for improved knowledge in pedagogical knowledge.
doi:10.3885/meo.2009.Res00317
PMCID: PMC2779613  PMID: 20165530
faculty development needs assessment; Singapore
10.  Impact of a Faculty Orientation and Development Committee 
This paper describes the faculty enrichment activities and outcomes of a faculty orientation and development committee at a college of pharmacy. The committee used a continuous quality improvement (CQI) framework that included needs assessment, planning and implementation of programs and workshops, assessment of activities, and evaluation of feedback to improve future programming. Some of the programs established by the committee include a 3-month orientation process for new hires and development workshops on a broad range of topics including scholarship (eg, research methods), teaching (eg, test-item writing), and general development (mentorship). Evidence of the committee's success is reflected by high levels of faculty attendance at workshops, positive feedback on workshop evaluations, and overall high levels of satisfaction with activities. The committee has served as a role model for improving faculty orientation and retention.
doi:10.5688/ajpe7613
PMCID: PMC3298401  PMID: 22412202
faculty; faculty retention; faculty orientation; faculty development
11.  A Model Intensive Course in Geriatric Teaching for Non-geriatrician Educators 
Journal of General Internal Medicine  2008;23(7):1048-1052.
Summary
Introduction
Because of the aging demographics nearly all medical specialties require faculty who are competent to teach geriatric care principles to learners, yet many non-geriatrician physician faculty members report they are not prepared for this role.
Aims
To determine the impact of a new educational intervention designed to improve the self-efficacy and ability of non-geriatrician clinician-educators to teach geriatric medicine principles to medical students and residents.
Description
Forty-two non-geriatrician clinician-educator faculty from17 academic centers self-selected to participate in a 3-day on-site interactive intensive course designed to increase knowledge of specific geriatric medicine principles and to enhance teaching efficacy followed by up to a year of mentorship by geriatrics faculty after participants return to their home institutions. On average, 24% of their faculty time was spent teaching and 57% of their clinical practices involved patients aged over 65 years. Half of all participants were in General Internal Medicine, and the remaining were from diverse areas of medicine.
Evaluation
Tests of geriatrics medical knowledge and attitudes were high at baseline and did not significantly change after the intervention. Self-rated knowledge about specific geriatric syndromes, self-efficacy to teach geriatrics, and reported value for learning about geriatrics all improved significantly after the intervention. A quarter of the participants reported they had achieved at least one of their self-selected 6-month teaching goals.
Discussion
An intensive 3-day on-site course was effective in improving self-reported knowledge, value, and confidence for teaching geriatrics principles but not in changing standardized tests of geriatrics knowledge and attitudes in a diverse group of clinician-educator faculty. This intervention was somewhat associated with new teaching behaviors 6 months after the intervention. Longer-term investigations are underway to determine the sustainability of the effect and to determine which factors predict the faculty who most benefit from this innovative model.
doi:10.1007/s11606-008-0585-1
PMCID: PMC2517933  PMID: 18612742
geriatric care; clinician educators; curriculum development
12.  Separate and Distinct: A Comparison of Scholarly Productivity, Teaching Load, and Compensation of Chiropractic Teaching Faculty to Other Sectors of Higher Education 
Background:
Faculty scholarship, teaching load, and compensation can be indicators of institutional health and can impact curricular quality. Periodic data are published by the US Department of Education for all sectors of higher education, but do not list chiropractic colleges as a separate category.
Objective:
To report on the scholarly output, teaching load, and compensation of the full-time faculty at one chiropractic college, and to compare those data to national and local norms.
Methods:
Data on chiropractic faculty were collected from within the institution. External data were collected from the US Department of Education and US Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Results:
The chiropractic faculty assessed create about one-tenth the scholarly output, carried 2.7 times the course load of external doctoral faculty and 1.4 times the course load typical of 2-year (community) college faculty, received two-thirds the salary typical for all segments of education, and one-half the typical retirement benefits.
Conclusion:
Results are suggestive of significant deficiencies within chiropractic education that pose risk to the future of the profession.
PMCID: PMC2384182
chiropractic; education; professional
13.  Best Practices in Academic Mentoring: A Model for Excellence 
Nursing Research and Practice  2012;2012:937906.
Mentoring is important for the recruitment and retention of qualified nurse faculty, their ongoing career development, and leadership development. However, what are current best practices of mentoring? The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of a model for excellence in establishing a formal mentoring program for academic nurse educators. Six themes for establishing a formal mentoring program are presented, highlighting best practices in mentoring as culled from experience and the literature. Themes reflect aims to achieve appropriately matched dyads, establish clear mentorship purpose and goals, solidify the dyad relationship, advocate for and guide the protégé, integrate the protégé into the academic culture, and mobilize institutional resources for mentoring support. Attending to the six themes will help mentors achieve important protégé outcomes, such as orientation to the educator role, integration into the academic community, development of teaching, scholarship, and service skills, as well as leadership development. The model is intended to be generalizable for faculty teaching in a variety of academic nursing institution types and sizes. Mentoring that integrates the six themes assists faculty members to better navigate the academic environment and more easily transition to new roles and responsibilities.
doi:10.1155/2012/937906
PMCID: PMC3366249  PMID: 22685645
14.  Preparing Pharmacy Graduates for Traditional and Emerging Career Opportunities 
Educational programs in pharmacy must focus on educating pharmacists of the future who are prepared to serve as competent and confident health care “providers” whose “practice” can occur in any number of current and future settings; and whose expertise is essential to an interprofessional health care team. Graduates must be able to incorporate a scholarly approach to their practice in identifying patient care problems; practicing in an evidence-based manner; and ensuring safe, effective, and appropriate use of medications. It is time for colleges and schools of pharmacy to implement contemporary teaching and assessment strategies that facilitate effective and efficient student learning that is focused at the graduate professional level, to evolve the content around which the curriculum is organized, and clearly articulate the abilities graduates must have to function effectively in the myriad professional roles in which they may find themselves.
PMCID: PMC2828318  PMID: 20221350
15.  Implementing an evidence-informed faculty development program 
Canadian Family Physician  2012;58(6):e337-e343.
Abstract
Objective
To establish an evidence-informed faculty development program.
Design
Survey derived from a needs-assessment tool.
Setting
Department of Academic Family Medicine at the University of Saskatchewan, which is geographically dispersed across the province.
Participants
Full-time faculty members in the Department of Academic Family Medicine at the University of Saskatchewan.
Main outcome measures
Creation of an evidence-informed faculty development program.
Results
The response rate was 77.3% (17 of 22). The data were stratified by 2 groups: faculty members with less than 5 years of experience and those with 5 or more years of experience. Those with less than 5 years of experience rated the following as their top priorities: teaching, developing scholarly activities, and career development. Those with 5 or more years of experience rated the following as their top priorities: administration and leadership, teaching, and information technology. Although there were differences in overall priorities, the 2 groups identified 17 out of 54 skills as important to faculty development.
Conclusion
The results of the needs-assessment tool were used to shape a dynamic, evidence-informed faculty development program with full-time faculty in the Department of Academic Family Medicine at the University of Saskatchewan. Future programs will continue to be dynamic, faculty-centred, and evidence-informed.
PMCID: PMC3374706  PMID: 22859632
16.  Advancing a Program of Research within a Nursing Faculty Role 
Doctoral students and new faculty members often seek advice from more senior faculty on how to advance their program of research. Students may ask whether they should choose the manuscript option for their dissertation or whether they should seek a postdoctoral fellowship. New faculty members wonder whether they should pursue a career development (K) award and whether they need a mentor as they strive to advance their research while carrying out teaching, service, and practice responsibilities. In this paper, we describe literature on the impact of selected aspects of pre and postdoctoral training and faculty strategies on scholarly productivity in the faculty role. We also combine our experiences at a school of nursing within a research-intensive university to suggest strategies for success. Noting the scarcity of research that evaluates the effect of these strategies we are actively engaged in collecting data on their relationship to the scholarly productivity of students and faculty members within our own institution.
doi:10.1016/j.profnurs.2007.10.014
PMCID: PMC2660378  PMID: 19022210
nursing; doctoral; students; research; faculty
17.  Faculty Awards at US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
Objectives
To determine recognition given for outstanding teaching, service, and scholarship at US colleges and schools of pharmacy, the types of awards given, and the process used to select the recipients.
Methods
A self-administered questionnaire was made available online in 2006 to deans at 89 colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Results
Sixty-four usable responses (72%) were obtained. An award to acknowledge teaching excellence was most commonly reported (92%), followed by an award for adjunct/volunteer faculty/preceptors (79%). The majority of the institutions (31 out of 58) reported offering 1 teaching award annually. The 2 most common methods for selecting the recipient of the teaching award were by student vote and by college/school committee vote following nominations. Twenty-four of the 63 respondents indicated that their institution provided an award for research/scholarship and 18 offered an award for outstanding service.
Conclusions
Teaching excellence was recognized and rewarded at most US colleges and schools of pharmacy; however, research/scholarship and service were formally recognized less frequently.
PMCID: PMC2576424  PMID: 19009732
faculty awards; faculty retention; preceptor awards; awards
18.  Academic job satisfaction questionnaire: Construction and validation in Saudi Arabia 
Background:
Colleges and universities are becoming increasingly accountable for teaching outcomes in order to meet rigorous accreditation standards. Job satisfaction (JS) seems more difficult to measure in the academic field in view of the complexity of roles, duties and responsibilities.
Objectives:
To compile and determine the psychometric properties of a proposed Academic Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (AJSQ) suitable for university faculty, and amenable to future upgrading.
Materials and Methods:
A 46-item five-option Likert-type draft questionnaire on JS was distributed for anonymous self-reporting by all the academic staff of five colleges in University of Dammam (n=340). The outcome measures were (1) factor analysis of the questionnaire items, (2) intra-factor α-Coefficient of Internal Consistency Reliability, (3) inter-factor correlations, (4) comparison of psychometric properties in separately analyzed main faculty subgroups.
Results:
The response rate was 72.9 percent. Factor analysis extracted eight factors which conjointly explained 60.3 percent of the variance in JS. These factors, in descending order of eigenvalue, were labeled “Authority”, “Supervision”, “Policies and Facilities”, “My Work Itself”, “Interpersonal Relationships”, “Commitment”, “Salary” and “Workload”. Cronbach's-α ranged from 0.90 in Supervision to 0.63 in Salary and Workload. All inter-factor correlations were positive and significant, ranging from 0.65 to 0.23. The psychometric properties of the instrument in separately analyzed subgroups divided by sex, nationality, college and clinical duties produced fairly comparable findings.
Conclusion:
The AJSQ demonstrated good overall psychometric properties in terms of construct validity and internal consistency reliability in both the overall sample and its separately analyzed subgroups. Recommendation: To replicate these findings in larger multicenter samples of academic staff.
doi:10.4103/1319-1683.78630
PMCID: PMC3114607  PMID: 21694952
Academic faculty; accreditation; job satisfaction; job questionnaire; Saudi Arabia
19.  Addressing the Scholarly Activity Requirements for Residents: One Program's Solution 
Background
Scholarly activity as a component of residency education is becoming increasingly emphasized by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. “Limited or no evidence of resident or faculty scholarly activity” is a common citation given to family medicine residency programs by the Review Committee for Family Medicine.
Objective
The objective was to provide a model scholarly activity curriculum that has been successful in improving the quality of graduate medical education in a family medicine residency program, as evidenced by a record of resident academic presentations and publications.
Methods
We provide a description of the Clinical Scholars Program that has been implemented into the curriculum of the Trident/Medical University of South Carolina Family Medicine Residency Program.
Results
During the most recent 10-year academic period (2000–2010), a total of 111 residents completed training and participated in the Clinical Scholars Program. This program has produced more than 24 presentations during national and international meetings of medical societies and 15 publications in peer-reviewed medical journals. In addition, many of the projects have been presented during meetings of state and regional medical organizations.
Conclusions
This paper presents a model curriculum for teaching about scholarship to family medicine residents. The success of this program is evidenced by the numerous presentations and publications by participating residents.
doi:10.4300/JGME-D-10-00201.1
PMCID: PMC3179232  PMID: 22942967
20.  A national survey of medical education fellowships 
Medical Education Online  2011;16:10.3402/meo.v16i0.5642.
Purpose
The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence, focus, time commitment, graduation requirements and programme evaluation methods of medical education fellowships throughout the United States. Medical education fellowships are defined as a single cohort of medical teaching faculty who participate in an extended faculty development programme.
Methods
A 26-item online questionnaire was distributed to all US medical schools (n=127) in 2005 and 2006. The questionnaire asked each school if it had a medical education fellowship and the characteristics of the fellowship programme.
Results
Almost half (n=55) of the participating schools (n=120, response rate 94.5 %) reported having fellowships. Duration (10–584 hours) and length (<1 month–48 months) varied; most focused on teaching skills, scholarly dissemination and curriculum design, and required the completion of a scholarly project. A majority collected participant satisfaction; few used other programme evaluation strategies.
Conclusions
The number of medical education fellowships increased rapidly during the 1990s and 2000s. Across the US, programmes are similar in participant characteristics and curricular focus but unique in completion requirements. Fellowships collect limited programme evaluation data, indicating a need for better outcome data. These results provide benchmark data for those implementing or revising existing medical education fellowships.
doi:10.3402/meo.v16i0.5642
PMCID: PMC3071874  PMID: 21475643
faculty development; medical faculty; medical education
21.  Are computer-based educational materials recognized as publications? An analysis of promotion documents at American medical colleges. 
A generalized perception exists that faculty will not be properly rewarded for efforts in developing computer-based educational materials. Faculty governed by traditional promotion and tenure systems thus may be reluctant to devote energies towards development of these materials. Recent national panels on educational reform have called for a reexamination of academic reward structures to insure that faculty receive appropriate scholarly recognition for materials developed in these new formats. A study of policy documents from accredited medical colleges in the United States was conducted to determine the extent to which academic health science institutions have adopted policies to grant recognition of computer-based materials equivalent to that accorded traditional print publications. Results revealed that while some progress has been made by leading-edge institutions, in three-quarters of the institutions, development of computer-based educational materials is considered evidence in support of teaching, not the more highly rewarded research or scholarly activity.
PMCID: PMC2850674  PMID: 8130576
22.  The Changing Dynamics of Graduate Medical Education 
Western Journal of Medicine  1987;146(3):368-373.
Cost-containment pressures and changes in traditional patient-care patterns are altering the process of graduate medical education. A thorough understanding of this process is a prerequisite to implementing changes that preserve the function of graduate medical education. This report describes the structure of the graduate medical education system and analyzes possible responses to the changes that are affecting it. The decision-making process within academic health centers is described, including an assessment of the roles of hospital directors, deans and faculty, as well as external regulatory agencies such as residency review committees, medical specialty boards and state licensing agencies. The activities of these participants are analyzed within the framework of the teaching hospital's service and education functions, and potential conflicts are described and illustrated by recent examples. Understanding the complex structure and functions of graduate medical education is a first step toward responding effectively to a changing environment.
PMCID: PMC1307306  PMID: 3577132
23.  Pharmacy Students' Perceptions of a Teaching Evaluation Process 
Objective
To assess PharmD students' perceptions of the usefulness of Duquesne University's Teaching Effectiveness Questionnaire (TEQ), the instrument currently employed for student evaluation of teaching.
Methods
Opinions of PharmD students regarding the TEQ were measured using a survey instrument comprised of Likert-type scales eliciting perceptions, behaviors, and self-reported biases.
Results
PharmD students viewed student evaluation of teaching as appropriate and necessary, but conceded that the faculty members receiving the best evaluations were not always the most effective teachers. Most students indicated a willingness to complete the TEQ when given the opportunity but expressed frustration that their feedback did not appear to improve subsequent teaching efforts.
Conclusion
The current TEQ mechanism for student evaluation of teaching is clearly useful but nevertheless imperfect with respect to its ability to improve teaching. Future research may examine other aspects of pharmacy students' roles as evaluators of teaching.
PMCID: PMC1847549  PMID: 17429506
assessment; questionnaire; survey; evaluation; teaching
24.  Evolution of Self-Care Education 
During the past 15 years, the curriculum content for nonprescription medication and self-care therapeutics has expanded significantly. Self-care courses ranging from stand-alone, required courses to therapeutic content and skills laboratories, have evolved in colleges and schools of pharmacy to accommodate rapid changes related to nonprescription medications and to meet the needs of students. The design of and content delivery methods used in self-care courses vary among institutions. Teaching innovations such as team-based learning, role playing/vignettes, videos, and social media, as well as interdisciplinary learning have enhanced delivery of this content. Given that faculty members train future pharmacists, they should be familiar with the new paradigms of Nonprescription Safe Use Regulatory Expansion (NSURE) Initiative, nonprescription medications for chronic diseases, and the growing trends of health and wellness in advancing patient-care initiatives. This paper reviews the significant changes that may be impacting self-care curriculums in the United States.
doi:10.5688/ajpe78228
PMCID: PMC3965136  PMID: 24672061
self-care; nonprescription medications; pharmacy education
25.  Educating Young Educators: A Pedagogical Internship for Undergraduate Teaching Assistants 
CBE Life Sciences Education  2010;9(2):80-86.
Although undergraduates have long held a role as teaching assistants for introductory science courses at liberal arts colleges and universities, educational institutions often do not provide these students with opportunities to explore science teaching and pedagogy. At Brandeis University, we designed an internship course to help increase the motivation, understanding, and knowledge of teaching pedagogy for undergraduate teaching assistants that is offered concurrently with their teaching responsibilities. Weekly sessions with faculty mentors are guided by readings in current science education literature, and throughout the semester students are asked to develop new course material based on the pedagogical frameworks discussed. To evaluate the effectiveness of this course, we surveyed students at the close of the semester. We found an overall increase in student confidence levels with regard to teaching and better awareness of the difficulties faced in science education. All students who participated in the course expressed interest in participating in future educational internships. We believe that the Educating Young Educators internship has the potential to be a catalyst for personal and professional growth from a novice into an informed young educator.
doi:10.1187/cbe.09-09-0060
PMCID: PMC2879384  PMID: 20516353

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