Objective. To investigate users’ initial perceptions of and potential applications for the Educating Pharmacy Students and Pharmacists to Improve Quality (EPIQ) program, a 5-module education program designed to educate pharmacists and pharmacy students about quality improvement in pharmacy practice.
Methods. The 5-module EPIQ program was distributed to pharmacy faculty members, pharmacy practitioners, and other health professionals across the country upon request. A 6-item survey instrument was sent to the first 97 people who requested the program.
Results. Twenty-seven (56%) of the 55 respondents had reviewed the EPIQ program and 22 (82%) intended to use some or all of the content to teach about quality improvement or patient safety primarily in pharmacy management and medication safety courses.
Conclusion. Initial perceptions of the EPIQ program were positive; however, further evaluation is needed after more extensive implementation of the program in pharmacy colleges and schools and other settings.
medication safety; qualitative research; science of safety; education; pharmacy curriculum
To examine the validity and reliability of a web-based version of the Epidemiology of Prolapse and Incontinence Questionnaire (EPIQ).
Participants included 876 women ages 38 to 65 attending primary care clinics in the Salt Lake Valley. Women completed a single web or paper based version of the symptom bother questions from EPIQ, and a subset repeated the same or opposite method at 2 separate time points. To assess subscales for the web-based version factor analysis of the 22 EPIQ items related to pelvic floor disorder (PFD) symptoms was performed using principal components analysis and varimax rotation. Internal consistency was assessed using coefficient alpha. Test-retest and inter-method reliability were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for domain scores. Correlations above 0.70 were considered acceptable.
Overall, 384 and 492 women completed at least 1 web and 1 paper EPIQ and 93% were Caucasian with mean age of 50±7 years. Of these, 63 completed web-web, 57 web-paper, 47 paper-web and 109 paper-paper test-retest. Overall, factor analyses were consistent with the 7 domains of the original EPIQ. Cronbach’s alpha for the 4 symptomatic PFD domains and range of test-retest reliability for the various administration methods were similar to the original EPIQ instrument. Correlations for domain scores were above 0.70, except the anal incontinence scale (ICC=0.68.)
Web administration of the EPIQ has similar psychometric properties with comparable internal consistency and test-retest reliability when administered in the same modality. Reliability between both methods of administration is acceptable.
Epidemiology; internet survey; pelvic floor disorders; questionnaire; web
Objective. To determine if the incorporation of multiple interprofessional educational (IPE) activities delivered as a longitudinal curriculum within a required clinical assessment course changed pharmacy students’ perceptions regarding interprofessional collaboration.
Design. Seventy-one third-year pharmacy students participated in Clinical Assessment, a required applications-based course with a laboratory component. Nine separate IPE activities were embedded into the course longitudinally over the semester using various active-learning strategies and simulated patients. The IPE activities required student participation from medical, nursing, and physician assistant students.
Assessment. Pharmacy students completed an 18-item validated survey instrument, the Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS), on the first (pre-survey) and last (post-survey) day of the course. After completing the course, scores improved on 16 of 18 survey items that measured pharmacy students’ perceptions of interprofessional collaboration.
Conclusion. Incorporating multiple IPE activities longitudinally into a required clinical assessment course significantly changed pharmacy students’ perceptions of interprofessional collaboration.
interprofessional; clinical assessment; perceptions
Current hospital and health-system participation in and the future capacity for experiential education for pharmacy students was investigated.
An online survey of ASHP members identified as U.S. pharmacy directors was conducted to assess their current and future involvement in partnering with colleges and schools to meet the experiential education requirements for doctor of pharmacy students and the current status of the student learning experiences. Questionnaire items examined the factors on which expanded involvement in experiential education would depend, the nature of support provided by colleges and schools, the types of experiences available for students, respondents' perceptions of factors influencing the quality of experiential education, the value of experiential education to the sites, respondents' challenges and concerns about experiential education, and respondents' current capacity and projections for introductory and advanced experiences through 2012.
Data from 549 respondents were analyzed. Most respondents indicated that they had conducted advanced experiences for their 2007 graduates and anticipated that they would continue to do so. Among the top challenges identified regarding advanced experiences were concerns about time to serve and be trained as preceptors and a lack of standardization and coordination among colleges and schools. Hospitals forecasting their future capacity to accommodate students indicated that their projections were highly dependent on the number of pharmacists at their hospitals. Many respondents noted that their capacity projections were tied to their ability to expand clinical services at their hospitals.
A survey of pharmacy directors suggested an ability of U.S. hospitals to conduct advanced experiential education opportunities for pharmacy students through 2012 and to expand introductory experiences.
curriculum; data collection; education; pharmaceutical; pharmacy; institutional; hospital; pharmacy
Interactive pharmacy case studies are an essential component of the pharmacy curriculum. We recently developed an elective course at the Rangel College of Pharmacy in pharmacy case studies for second- and third-year Doctor of Pharmacy students using Second Life® (SL), an interactive three-dimensional virtual environment that simulates the real world. This course explored the use of SL for education and training in pharmacy, emphasizing a case-based approach. Virtual worlds such as SL promote inquiry-based learning and conceptual understanding, and can potentially develop problem-solving skills in pharmacy students. Students were presented ten case scenarios that primarily focused on drug safety and effective communication with patients. Avatars, representing instructors and students, reviewed case scenarios during sessions in a virtual classroom. Individually and in teams, students participated in active-learning activities modeling both the pharmacist’s and patient’s roles. Student performance and learning were assessed based on SL class participation, activities, assignments, and two formal, essay-type online exams in Blackboard 9. Student course-evaluation results indicated favorable perceptions of content and delivery. Student comments included an enhanced appreciation of practical issues in pharmacy practice, flexibility of attendance, and an increased ability to focus on course content. Excellent student participation and performance in weekly active-learning activities translated into positive performance on subsequent formal assessments. Students were actively engaged and exposed to topics pertinent to pharmacy practice that were not covered in the required pharmacy curriculum. The multiple active-learning assignments were successful in increasing students’ knowledge, and provided additional practice in building the communication skills beneficial for students preparing for experiential clinical rotations.
Second Life; virtual worlds; pharmacy case studies; computer simulation; health education; pharmacy education
Accreditation standards require that colleges and schools of pharmacy establish and conduct ongoing assessment of their programs. A case study of the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy's experience developing and implementing an assessment program is described. A historical perspective of the School, implementation of an office of education, and steps taken to establish a college culture of assessment are discussed. Successful aspects of the program, including student course/instructor evaluations and curriculum committee review of individual courses, are outlined. Finally, roadblocks encountered while establishing the assessment program and lessons learned that may benefit other schools currently in the process of developing an assessment program are discussed.
assessment; course assessment; student assessment; culture
To incorporate games in classroom teaching to encourage student interest and participation in a small group pharmacy therapeutics case studies class.
Using a television quiz show and classic board game format, students and the instructor developed games to discuss patient care plans. At the end of the course, a questionnaire was administered to assess students' attitudes and perception of using game format in the class and whether this teaching method was useful in reinforcing therapeutic knowledge.
The majority of the students felt that games were beneficial in their learning process. The game format also resulted in higher student participation scores.
The game-format approach to learning aroused student interest, enhanced participation, and improved their participation grades. Although the game format of leaning is an effective way of actively engaging students in higher leaning, determining how these games improve test scores will require further assessment.
pharmacotherapy; learning; game format; case study
Objective. To determine prospective student pharmacists’ interest in a rural pharmacy health curriculum.
Methods. All applicants who were selected to interview for fall 2011 enrollment at the UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy were invited to participate in a Web-based survey. Questions addressed participants’ willingness to participate in a rural health pharmacy curriculum, interest in practicing in a rural area, and beliefs regarding patient access to healthcare in rural areas.
Results. Of the 250 prospective student pharmacists invited to participate, 91% completed the survey instrument. Respondents agreed that populations living in rural areas may have different health needs, and students were generally interested in a rural pharmacy health curriculum.
Conclusions. An online survey of prospective student pharmacists was an effective way to assess their interest in a rural pharmacy program being considered by the study institution. Location of the rural program at a satellite campus and availability of housing were identified as factors that could limit enrollment.
Rural health; pharmacy curriculum; underserved; manpower; survey
To determine the content and extent, design, and relative importance of patient assessment courses in the professional pharmacy curriculum.
A 20-item questionnaire was developed to gather information pertaining to patient assessment. Pharmacy practice department chairs were mailed a letter with an Internet link to an online survey instrument.
Ninety-six percent of the programs indicated that patient assessment skills were taught. Forty-five percent of respondents indicated their course was a standalone course. The most common topics covered in assessment courses were pulmonary examination, vital signs, and cardiovascular assessment.
There is significant variability in the topics covered, depth of content, types of instruction, and evaluation methods used in patient assessment courses in US colleges of pharmacy. This survey was an initial assessment of what is being done regarding education of student pharmacists on patient assessment.
curriculum design; laboratory instruction; patient assessment; physical assessment
To evaluate the learning outcomes of an online, distance education course in statistics for doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students.
Lectures for the course were produced by the course faculty, converted into digital format (mp4), placed within the college's course management system, and video streamed to students. The course required students to interact with the course content using workbooks and simulations and with the instructor via VoIP examination reviews.
A quasi-experimental study involving 4 groups of students was conducted. Second-year (P2) students were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 groups and asked to complete a precourse survey that contained: demographic information only (group 1); demographic items plus 10 items assessing statistics knowledge (group 2); or demographic items plus 20 items assessing statistics knowledge (group 3). At the end of the course, all students were given the same 20 items on the final examination (postcourse survey instrument). A control group consisting of randomly selected first-year (P1) students completed the 20-item precourse survey instrument. P1 and P2 students' scores on the 20-item precourse survey were not significantly different. Students who had taken a statistics course before entering the PharmD program scored higher on the precourse survey. P2 students in all 3 study groups had similar scores on the final examination (postcourse survey) (p = 0.43).
Students can be taught the basic principles of statistics and how to use statistics to read the pharmacy and medical literature entirely online. This study has significant implications for how classes traditionally taught in the classroom might be taught at a distance using innovative instructional technologies.
distance education; statistics; online learning
Objective. To identify opinions about pharmacy graduates’ science of safety (SoS) educational needs.
Methods. Semi-structured interviews were performed with 25 educators and researchers at US pharmacy colleges and schools and 5 individuals from associations engaged in drug safety-related issues.
Results. Themes that emerged from the 30 interviews with key informants included: pharmacists should meet minimum SoS requirements; medication safety education is inconsistent; and barriers exist to improving SoS curricula. Student deficiencies noted included the lack of: student acceptance of a “culture of safety”: ability to effectively communicate verbally about medication safety; knowledge of the drug development process; and quality improvement skills. Key informants did not agree on how to address these gaps.
Conclusions. While educators, researchers, and other leaders in drug safety-related issues thought that US colleges and schools of pharmacy covered portions of SoS well, there were perceived deficiencies. Minimum standards should be set to assist with curricular adoption of SoS.
medication safety; patient safety pharmacy education; science of safety; education
Objective. To assess pharmacy students’ perceptions of and attitudes towards the use of peer assessment within a drug literature evaluation course.
Methods. A 15-item, electronic survey instrument was sent to 158 second-year pharmacy students enrolled in a 2-credit required literature evaluation course at the Purdue University College of Pharmacy.
Results. One hundred fifty-two (96.2%) responses were received. Approximately 95% of students agreed that they had the necessary skills to assess their peers and 91.8% agreed that their peers possessed these skills as well. More students agreed they were comfortable receiving feedback from peers (95.7%) than agreed they were comfortable providing feedback to peers (80%). The majority of students (91.9%) agreed that peer assessment was a skill they will use in their career as a pharmacist.
Conclusion. Students were more comfortable receiving feedback from peers than providing peer assessment. This skill is used by pharmacists throughout their career; therefore, students should become familiar and comfortable with the peer assessment process.
peer assessment; assessment; peer evaluation; pharmacy students; attitudes
Objective. To implement a service learning program in nutrition and assess its impact on pharmacy students' communication skills and professionalism and elementary school children's knowledge of nutrition concepts.
Design. First-year pharmacy students completed 4 nutrition education sessions led by a registered dietitian and then presented the material to pre-selected classes of at-risk elementary school children in kindergarten through third grade.
Assessment. Ninety-six pharmacy students completed the pre- and post-experience survey and more than 90% rated achievement of course objectives as strongly agree or agree. Four hundred sixty-eight elementary students completed a pre- and posttest on nutrition knowledge. Significant improvement was found in all grade levels on the knowledge test.
Conclusion. This service learning experience was beneficial for the elementary school children and pharmacy students, enhancing the knowledge of both groups and establishing a positive relationship between the pharmacy school and the community.
nutrition; service learning; community; pediatric
To document teaching evaluation practices in colleges and schools of pharmacy.
A 51-item questionnaire was developed based on the instrument used in a previous study with modifications made to address changes in pharmacy education. An online survey service was used to distribute the electronic questionnaire to the deans of 98 colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States.
Completed surveys were received from 89 colleges and schools of pharmacy. All colleges/schools administered student evaluations of classroom and experiential teaching. Faculty peer evaluation of classroom teaching was used by 66% of colleges/schools. Use of other evaluation methods had increased over the previous decade, including use of formalized self-appraisal of teaching, review of teaching portfolios, interviews with samples of students, and review by teaching experts. While the majority (55%) of colleges/schools administered classroom teaching evaluations at or near the conclusion of a course, 38% administered them at the midpoint and/or conclusion of a faculty member's teaching within a team-taught course. Completion of an online evaluation form was the most common method used for evaluation of classroom (54%) and experiential teaching (72%).
Teaching evaluation methods used in colleges and schools of pharmacy expanded from 1996 to 2007 to include more evaluation of experiential teaching, review by peers, formalized self-appraisal of teaching, review of teaching portfolios, interviews with samples of students, review by teaching experts, and evaluation by alumni. Procedures for conducting student evaluations of teaching have adapted to address changes in curriculum delivery and technology.
teaching; evaluation; assessment; survey
Objective. To assess the impact of an audience response system (ARS) on student engagement at a multi-campus college of pharmacy.
Methods. An online questionnaire was designed and administered to measure the impact of an ARS on student engagement, distance education, projected use, and satisfaction among pharmacy students for a course delivered across 3 sites via synchronous video transmission.
Results. Students reported that use of the ARS made it easier to participate (85.3%) and helped them to focus (75.7%) in classes when the lecturer was physically at a different site. They also valued that the ARS allowed them to respond anonymously (93.2%). A minority of students indicated that use of the ARS was distracting (11.8%).
Conclusions. Implementation of an ARS was associated with positive student perceptions of engagement and may improve feelings of connectedness among students at schools with multiple sites. Use of ARSs could also represent a cognitive intercession strategy to help reduce communication apprehension.
audience response system; clicker; distance education; student engagement
Objective. To evaluate the impact of the Salt Education Program for hypertensive adults on student pharmacists' knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes regarding sodium consumption.
Design. As part of the introductory pharmacy practice experience program in community pharmacies, student pharmacists assessed patients' sodium intake knowledge and behaviors, taught them how to read nutrition labels, and obtained information about their hypertensive conditions. Students completed pre-and post-intervention questionnaires in April and August 2012, respectively.
Assessment. One hundred thirty student pharmacists (70% female, 78% white) completed pre- and post-intervention questionnaires. Students demonstrated significant improvements in knowledge scores (p<0.001) and perceived benefit of a low-salt diet (p=0.004). Further, there were significant improvements in the self-reported frequency of looking at sodium content of foods when shopping (p<0.001) and purchasing low-salt foods (p=0.004).
Conclusion. Changes in students' knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes after participating in the Salt Education program suggested that the program was effective in improving student knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes.
salt; sodium; patient education; knowledge; dietary behaviors
Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of conducting medication management reviews (MMRs) and home medication reviews (HMRs) on improving undergraduate pharmacy students' pharmaceutical care skills and clinical knowledge.
Design. Fifth-year bachelor of science in pharmacy students were enrolled in a structured course in which MMR cases based on real patient scenarios were completed, findings were discussed in groups, and comprehensive feedback was provided by course instructors. Each student was then asked to recruit a real patient through a community pharmacy and conduct an HMR.
Assessment. Students’ pre- and post-course scores on the same MMR case improved significantly, with 84.6% of students passing the post-course assessment. Students also completed a new post-course MMR case and 74.8% received a passing score. Students' answers on a post-course self-assessment showed a significant improvement in their scores regarding knowledge and skills in conducting MMRs and HMRs.
Conclusion. Medication management reviews and home medication reviews are excellent tools for educating pharmacy students and providing them with needed actual clinical practice experience.
medication management reviews; home medication reviews; community pharmacy; clinical pharmacy
Objective. To assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of student pharmacists and explore factors related to HRQoL outcomes of student pharmacists in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program at a public university.
Methods. A survey instrument was administered to all student pharmacists in a PharmD program at a public university to evaluate differences and factors related to the HRQoL outcomes of first-year (P1), second-year (P2), third-year (P3), and fourth-year (P4) student pharmacists in the college. The survey instrument included attitudes and academic-related self-perception, a 12-item short form health survey, and personal information components.
Results. There were 304 students (68.6%) who completed the survey instrument. The average health state classification measure and mental health component scale (MCS-12) scores were significantly higher for P4 students when compared with the P1through P3 students. There was no difference observed in the physical component scale (PCS-12) scores among each of the 4 class years. Significant negative impact on HRQoL outcomes was observed in students with higher levels of confusion about how they should study (scale lack of regulation) and concern about not being negatively perceived by others (self-defeating ego orientation), while school satisfaction increased HRQoL outcomes (SF-6D, p<0.001; MCS-12, p=0.013). A greater desire to be judged capable (self-enhancing ego-orientation) and career satisfaction were positively associated with the PCS-12 scores (p<0.05).
Conclusion. Factors associated with the HRQoL of student pharmacists were confusion regarding how to study, ego orientation, satisfaction with the chosen college of pharmacy, and career satisfaction. First-year through third-year student pharmacists had lower HRQoL as compared with P4 students and the US general population. Support programs may be helpful for students to maintain or improve their mental and overall health.
health-related quality of life; student pharmacists; perceived self-efficacy; ego-orientation
Educational environment hugely impacts the learning process. An assessment of perceptions of students about the educational environment at Qassim University College of Medicine (QUCOM) would assist educators and college administration in gauging the quality of the learning in this venue. The aim of this study is to see the educational environment of an innovative undergraduate medical program through the eyes of students.
During the academic year 2011/2012, a survey was performed at QUCOM using the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) questionnaire. All undergraduate students participated in the survey. Comparisons between, students’ responses according to their study years in the college and gender were taken into consideration. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. The scores assigned by the students to questionnaire items were converted into and continuous variables and summarized as means.
Out of 467 students enrolled at QUCOM 454 students (61% males and 39% females)participated in the study (response rate of 97%). The mean age of the participants was 21.4 (standard deviation: 2.2). The mean total score was 112, out of a possible maximum of 200. The mean total score for Perception of Learning was 26/48; for Perceptions of Teaching 25/44; for Academic Self perceptions 20/32; for Perceptions of Atmosphere 26/48 and for Social Self Perceptions 15/28. The mean score of 1.13 for Item 3 “There is a good support system for students who get stressed” was the lowest and is indicative of the pressures felt by the students. While the mean score of 3.24 for Item 15 “I have good friends in this school” was the highest showing good relationship between students. There were no significant differences of perceptions between genders and between basic sciences and clinical phases.
Students perceive the educational environment at QUCOM as having more positives than negatives. Certain areas need further exploration and improvements, which should serve as a decision support mechanism for educationists at QUCOM in rationalizing their priorities for reforms.
Educational climate; Educational environment; Medical culture; Medical education
Objective. To develop and assess the impact of an elective course (HealthWISE) on student pharmacists’ skills in communication and health promotion and elementary school students’ knowledge of and attitudes toward science.
Design. Three colleges and schools of pharmacy collaborated to develop a 1-credit elective course that used online and classroom teaching and learning techniques to prepare student pharmacists to teach science in elementary school classrooms. Student pharmacists delivered 6 science lessons to elementary students over the course of 2 months.
Assessment. In weekly journal reflections and a final paper, student pharmacists reported improved communication and health promotion skills. Elementary teachers reported they were satisfied with student pharmacists’ performance in the classroom. On pretest and posttest evaluations, elementary students demonstrated increased science knowledge and enhanced enthusiasm for science following the lessons taught by student pharmacists.
Conclusions. The HealthWISE elective course provided positive benefit for student pharmacists, elementary school teachers, and elementary students.
service-learning; communication skills; health promotion; STEM education
To assess prepharmacy students' perceptions of the professional role of pharmacists prior to enrollment in pharmacy school, and the association between perceptions and student demographics.
A 58-question survey instrument regarding pharmacists' roles, work experiences, and demographics was developed and administered to students (N = 127) enrolled in an organic chemistry laboratory experience at Purdue University.
Theory of planned behavior subscales (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control) were influenced by students' grade point average, gender, and application to pharmacy school, while unpaid work experience affected professional commitment. Students evaluated work experience related to their pharmacy studies more positively than non-pharmacy-related areas in the theory of planned behavior subscales.
Evaluating students' perceptions may be beneficial in helping pharmacy educators design their curricula, as well as allowing admissions committees to select the most qualified students to promote the development of positive perceptions toward the professional role of pharmacists. Grade point average (GPA) and application to pharmacy school were associated with significant differences for the theory of planned behavior and professional commitment subscales.
Perceptions; professional role; theory of planned behavior; prepharmacy; pharmacist
Approximately 38% of US pharmacy schools provide immunization education and training to pharmacy students as part of their core curricula. These deficiencies in immunization education and training may contribute to low immunization rates for some groups of people, particularly hard-to-reach consumers and those with misconceptions about vaccinations. In this paper, we call upon all pharmacy schools to mandate immunization education and training as part of their core curricula, not just as an elective course. In doing so, we encourage pharmacy schools to adopt the Pharmacy-Based Immunization Delivery program developed by the American Pharmacists Association. We recognize that implementation of these recommendations will require sufficient resources and that it will take time to change the curricula in colleges and schools of pharmacy.
immunization; vaccine; health care barriers; disease prevention; curriculum
To evaluate the research-related coursework and research experiences in doctor of pharmacy programs and compare the findings to those of 2 previous studies.
A questionnaire was mailed to 88 colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States and Puerto Rico. The survey instrument sought information on formal research-related coursework; required and elective research experiences; and perceptions of student-conducted research.
Seventy-nine colleges and schools completed the questionnaire for a response rate of 88%. Most colleges (>90%) required students to study/complete courses in biostatistics and drug information/literature evaluation; approximately half required research methods coursework. Twenty-five percent required some form of project and requirements were not influenced by class size. Students could often work in teams to complete projects. Respondents generally thought participation in research had some value for motivated students.
This study demonstrates the variability in extent of research-related coursework and research experiences in PharmD programs across the country.
research education; education; pharmacy research
Objective. To describe the integration of science of safety (SoS) topics in doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curricula of US colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Methods. A questionnaire that contained items pertaining to what and how SoS topics are taught in PharmD curricula was e-mailed to representatives at 107 US colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Results. The majority of the colleges and schools responding indicated that they had integrated SoS topics into their curriculum, however, some gaps (eg, teaching students about communicating risk, Food and Drug Administration [FDA] Sentinel Initiative, utilizing patient databases) were identified that need to be addressed.
Conclusions. The FDA and the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) should continue to collaborate to develop resources needed to ensure that topics proposed by the FDA in their SoS framework are taught at all colleges and schools of pharmacy.
medication safety; pharmacy education; curriculum; science of safety
Objective. To determine and describe the nature and extent of medication adherence education in US colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Methods. A mixed-methods research study was conducted that included a national survey of pharmacy faculty members, a national survey of pharmacy students, and phone interviews of 3 faculty members and 6 preceptors.
Results. The majority of faculty members and students agreed that background concepts in medication adherence are well covered in pharmacy curricula. Approximately 40% to 65% of the students sampled were not familiar with several adherence interventions. The 6 preceptors who were interviewed felt they were not well-informed on adherence interventions, unclear on what students knew about adherence, and challenged to provide adherence-related activities for students during practice experiences because of practice time constraints.
Conclusions. Intermediate and advanced concepts in medication adherence, such as conducting interventions, are not adequately covered in pharmacy curriculums; therefore stakeholders in pharmacy education must develop national standards and tools to ensure consistent and adequate medication adherence education.
medication adherence; curriculum; medication