Considering the high prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in Isfahan and its different etiologies in comparison with other countries, the high rate of parental consanguinity, and the role of NIS gene in permanent CH due to dyshormonogenesis, the aim of this study was to investigate the G395R mutation of the NIS gene in patients with permanent CH due to dyshormonogenesis
In this case–control study, patients diagnosed with permanent CH due to dyshormonogenesis during CH screening program were selected. Venous blood sample was obtained to determine the G395R mutations of NIS gene using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing method.
In this study, 35 CH patients with permanent CH due to dyshormonogenesis and 35 neonates with normal screening results as a control group were studied. We did not find any changes of the mentioned mutation of NIS gene in the patients’ group.
Considering the findings of the current study, it seems that further studies with larger sample size and with consideration of other gene mutations such as pendrin and thyroglobulin are needed for more accurate conclusion.
Congenital hypothyroidism; dyshormonogenesis; G395R; mutation; sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) gene
Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is the key enzyme in the synthesis of thyroid hormones, and the TPO defects are believed to be the most prevalent causes of the inborn errors of thyroid metabolism. We investigated an adopted boy with iodide organification defect, who presented with florid hypothyroidism at the age of 4 mo, poorly complied with thyroxine treatment, and developed a compressive goiter necessitating partial resection at the age of 12 yr. Biochemical studies revealed the absence of TPO activity in the resected tissue. Genomic DNA studies identified a 4 base-pair insertion in the eighth exon of the TPO gene, and showed that the patient was homozygous for this frameshift mutation. The direct genetic diagnosis of this mutation can be made by digestion of polymerase chain reaction products with NaeI restriction enzyme. This will help assessing its prevalence among the heterogenous genetic group of TPO defects.
Purpose of Review
Overview of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) caused by thyroid hormone synthesis defects, the current understanding of their pathophysiology, and clinical implications of molecular diagnoses.
Genetic defects in all known thyroid-specific factors required for thyroid hormone synthesis have been described. These include defects in iodide trapping (NIS), in the facilitated iodide efflux across the apical membrane (PDS), the organification of iodide within the follicular lumen (TPO, DUOX2, DUOXA2), the substrate for thyroid hormone synthesis (TG) and the ability to recover and retain intrathyroidal iodine (IYD). Clinical and biochemical evaluation aids in selecting the most appropriate candidate gene(s).
A definite molecular diagnosis of thyroid dyshormonogenesis allows genetic counselling, and has prognostic value in differentiating transient from permanent CH and predicting the response of patients to iodine supplementation as adjunct or alternative treatment to L-T4 replacement.
CH due to thyroid dyshormonogenesis is a heterogenic disorder that may be caused by mutations in any of the known steps in the thyroid hormone biosynthesis pathway. An exact molecular diagnosis allows genetic counselling, the identification of asymptomatic mutation carriers at risk of recurrent hypothyroidism, and provides a rationale for adjunct iodide supplementation.
congenital hypothyroidism; genetics; thyroglobulin; thyroid peroxidase; dual oxidase
Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a rare disorder characterized by variable tissue hyporesponsiveness to thyroid hormone, usually caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRβ). It has been reported that the serum of patients with RTH is free of auto-antibodies against thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroid peroxidase (TPO), except in rare cases where coincidental autoimmune thyroiditis is also present. We describe a 13-year-old girl with chronic thyroiditis and RTH. This patient had increased plasma free T3, free T4 at the upper limits with unsuppressed TSH. She had peripheral manifestations of thyroid hormone excess, hypertension and growth acceleration. Anti-TPO antibodies were positive. Sequence analysis of the TRβ gene was performed and revealed a novel mutation I54V in exon 4. The same mutation was also found in the mother and two asymptomatic sisters. The clinical presentation of our patient is not habitual in RTH because growth retardation is frequently reported in this syndrome. The association between RTH and thyroiditis complicate the management of the hypothyroidism.
Congenital hypothyroidism is the most common neonatal metabolic disorder and results in severe neurodevelopmental impairment and infertility if untreated. Congenital hypothyroidism is usually sporadic but up to 2% of thyroid dysgenesis is familial, and congenital hypothyroidism caused by organification defects is often recessively inherited. The candidate genes associated with this genetically heterogeneous disorder form two main groups: those causing thyroid gland dysgenesis and those causing dyshormonogenesis. Genes associated with thyroid gland dysgenesis include the TSH receptor in non-syndromic congenital hypothyroidism, and Gsα and the thyroid transcription factors (TTF-1, TTF-2, and Pax-8), associated with different complex syndromes that include congenital hypothyroidism. Among those causing dyshormonogenesis, the thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin genes were initially described, and more recently PDS (Pendred syndrome), NIS (sodium iodide symporter), and THOX2 (thyroid oxidase 2) gene defects. There is also early evidence for a third group of congenital hypothyroid conditions associated with iodothyronine transporter defects associated with severe neurological sequelae. This review focuses on the genetic aspects of primary congenital hypothyroidism.
The aim of this study is to delineate laboratory diagnostic strategies for subclinical hypothyroidism in patients who are clinically symptomatic but may have a normal thyroid profile. Tri — iodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and anti thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO) were estimated on fasting blood samples from 99 patients using electrochemiluminescence methods on ELECSYS 1010 (Roche). 74% of study subjects had elevated anti-TPO levels.61% patients had subclinical hypothyroidism. 45 of the 61 subclinical hypothyroid patients had elevated anti-TPO levels (73%). This is an important finding suggesting an autoimmune etiology for subclinical thyroid dysfunction with a higher risk of developing overt hypothyroidism.
Hypothyroidism; Thyroid Profile; T3; T4; TSH; Anti TPO
A 420-bp fragment from the 5' end of the rat thyroperoxidase (TPO) gene was fused to a luciferase reporter and shown to direct cell-type-specific expression when transfected into rat thyroid FRTL-5 cells. Analysis of this DNA fragment revealed four regions of the promoter which interact with DNA-binding proteins present in FRTL-5 cells. Mutation of the DNA sequence within any of these regions reduced TPO promoter activity. The trans-acting factors binding to these sequences were compared with thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) and TTF-2, previously identified as transcriptional activators of another thyroid-specific gene, the thyroglobulin (Tg) gene. Purified TTF-1 binds to three regions of TPO which are protected by FRTL-5 proteins. Two of the binding sites overlap with recognition sites for other DNA-binding proteins. One TTF-1 site can also bind a protein (UFB) present in the nuclei of both expressing and nonexpressing cells. TTF-1 binding to the proximal region overlaps with that for a novel protein present in FRTL-5 cells which can also recognize the promoter-proximal region of Tg. Using a combination of techniques, the factor binding to the fourth TPO promoter site was shown to be TTF-2. We conclude, therefore, that the FRTL-5-specific expression of two thyroid restricted genes, encoding TPO and Tg, relies on a combination of the same trans-acting factors present in thyroid cells.
Dyshormonogenesis is an uncommon cause of congenital hypothyroidism. The most common abnormality is absent or insufficient thyroid peroxidase enzyme. Maternal intake of antithyroid drug can also lead to elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in a neonate, albeit the scenario is temporary. We report one such interesting case where a clinically euthyroid neonate borne to a mother on antithyroid drug presents on 12th day of life with reports of elevated TSH and increased tracer uptake in 99mTc thyroid scan. Disproportionately high TSH in comparison to low maternal antithyroid drug dosage and further elevation of TSH after stopping mother's antithyroid drugs ruled out maternal antithyroid drug-induced congenital hypothyroidism in the baby. Early institution of therapy in these patients can prevent mental retardation and other features of hypothyroidism.
Antithyroid drug; congenital hypothyroidism; dyshormonogenesis
The most common organ-specific autoimmune disease in humans involves the thyroid. Autoantibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPO) are present in the sera of virtually all patients with active disease. We report the molecular cloning of the genes for 30 high-affinity, IgG-class human autoantibodies to TPO from thyroid-infiltrating B cells. Analysis of the putative germline genes used for the TPO human autoantibodies suggests the use of only five different H and L chain combinations involving four H chains and three L chains. In addition, the same combination of H and L chains was found in multiple patients. The F(ab) proteins expressed by these genes define two major, closely associated domains (A and B) in an immunodominant region on TPO. These A and B domains contain the binding sites of approximately 80% of IgG-class TPO autoantibodies in the sera of patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. The present information permits analysis, not previously possible, of the relationship between autoantibody H and L chain genes and the antigenic domains on an autoantigen. Our data, obtained using target organ-derived autoantibodies, indicate that there is restriction in H and L chain usage in relation to the interaction with specific antigenic domains in human, organ-specific autoimmune disease.
Background: The causes of neonatal transient hypothyroidism (NTH) remain incompletely understood. Whether it is influenced by genetic background is rarely discussed and remains unproven. A defect in thyroid peroxidase is a common cause of dyshormonogenesis of the thyroid gland in Taiwanese, with a novel mutation (2268insT) present in nearly 90% of alleles studied.
Objective: To determine if the presence of this common mutation is associated with NTH in Taiwan.
Methods: A mismatched primer was designed and used for this specific 2268insT mutation to screen 1000 normal babies and 260 babies with confirmed NTH.
Results: The carrier rate for 2268insT in normal babies (1/200) was significantly lower than in babies with NTH (1/13; p<0.0001).
Conclusions: The results strongly suggest that the presence of this thyroid peroxidase mutation contributes to the development of NTH. Likely pathogenetic explanations include the effect of the stress of extrauterine adaptation during labour on an immature pituitary-thyroid axis in genetically predisposed individuals, combined with environmental triggers such as iodine deficiency, perinatal iodine exposure, and/or goitrogen contamination.
To develop a model for endogenous thyroid autoantigen presentation, we transfected EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell lines (EBV-LCL), established from patients with autoimmune thyroid disease and normal controls, with cDNA for the human thyroid autoantigen thyroid peroxidase (hTPO). hTPO-antigen presentation to patient peripheral blood T cells was demonstrated after stimulation in vitro for 7 d with irradiated hTPO-transfected or untransfected autologous EBV-LCL. Anti-hTPO-reactive T cells were subsequently cloned in the presence of irradiated, autologous hTPO-transfected EBV-LCL and IL-2.10 T cell-cloned lines exhibited specific hTPO-induced proliferation (stimulation indices of 2.1-7.9) towards autologous hTPO-transfected EBV-LCL, and were subjected to human T cell receptor (hTCR) V gene analysis, using the PCR for the detection of V alpha and V beta hTcR gene families. The results indicated a preferential use of hTCR V alpha 1 and/or V alpha 3 in 9 of the 10 lines. In contrast, hTCR V beta gene family use was more variable. These data demonstrate a model for the endogenous presentation of human thyroid peroxidase in the absence of other thyroid specific antigens. The high frequency of antigen-specific T cells obtained from PBMC using this technique will facilitate further studies at both the functional and hTCR V gene level.
Pendred syndrome (PDS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital deafness, goiter and iodide organification defect. Presence of inner ear malformations is essential for the clinical diagnosis. Most individuals with PDS are clinically and biochemically euthyroid. Mutations in the PDS gene encoding pendrin protein have been shown to be associated with PDS. It has been recently demonstrated that some families with features of PDS do not have the inner ear malformations and mutations in the PDS gene. This condition has been named as “pseudo−Pendred syndrome” (pseudo−PDS), and has been hypothesized to be of autoimmune origin. Here we report four siblings who have goiter, severe hypothyroidism, a positive perchlorate discharge test and sensorineural deafness, but not the inner ear abnormality which is diagnostic for PDS. We suggest that thyroid peroxidase (TPO) gene should be analyzed in pseudo−PDS patients with congenital goitrous hypothyroidism and deafness.
Conflict of interest:None declared.
Pendred syndrome; pseudo−Pendred syndrome; congenital hypothyroidism; thyroid peroxidase defect
Studies in different populations have shown great variation in the prevalence of thyroid diseases in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Our aim was to study the prevalence of thyroid disorders such as autoimmunity of thyroid (AIT), thyroid dysfunction, and goiter in children and adolescents with T1DM, compared with age- and sex-matched healthy controls in Isfahan.
One hundred patients with T1DM who were referred to Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center and 184 healthy schoolchildren matched for age and sex were included. They were examined for goiter by two endocrinologists. Thyroid function test and serum thyroid antibodies (anti-TPO Ab and anti-Tg Ab) were measured.
The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism was high in both groups (18%). T1DM patients had lower frequency of goiter (21% vs. 38%, P=0.001), and higher prevalence of positive AIT (22% vs. 8%, P=0.001), anti-TPO Ab positivity (19.3% vs. 5.3%, P=0.000), and anti-Tg Ab (11.1% vs. 6.4%, P=0.1) in comparison with the control group. Being positive for AIT in diabetic patients meant an odds ratio of 5 (CI 95%: 1.5-15.6) for thyroid dysfunction. There was no association between age, sex, duration of diabetes and HbA1C with serum anti-TPO Ab and anti-Tg Ab concentrations in this group.
Our results demonstrated the high prevalence of AIT and thyroid dysfunction in patients with T1DM. We suggest regular thyroid function and antibody testing in these patients.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus; Autoimmune thyroid disease; Thyroid dysfunction disease; Goiter; Thyroid antibody
There is disagreement concerning the expression of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in thyroid cancer, some studies finding qualitative as well as quantitative differences compared to normal tissue. To investigate TPO protein expression and its antigenic properties, TPO was captured from a solubilizate of thyroid microsomes by a panel of murine anti-TPO monoclonal antibodies and detected with a panel of anti-human TPO IgGκ Fab. TPO protein expression in 30 samples of malignant thyroid tissue was compared with TPO from adjacent normal tissues. Virtual absence of TPO expression was observed in 8 cases. In the remaining 22 malignant thyroid tumours the TPO protein level varied considerably from normal to nearly absent when compared to normal thyroid tissue or tissues from patients with Graves' disease (range less than 0.5 to more than 12.5 μg mg−1 of protein). When expressed TPO displayed similar epitopes, to that of TPO from Graves' disease tissue. The results obtained by the TPO capturing method were confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis with both microsomes and their solubilizates. The present results show that in about two-thirds of differentiated thyroid carcinomas, TPO protein is expressed, albeit to a more variable extent than normal; when present, TPO in malignant tissues is immunologically normal. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaignhttp://www.bjcancer.com
differentiated thyroid cancer; TPO; mAb; IgGκ; Fab; epitope
In 67 patients with congenital hypothyroidism radioiodide tests, including thyroid scintigraphy, were used to study the aetiology. Athyrosis was found in 5 boys and 16 girls (31%), maldevelopment of thyroid gland in 1 boy and 2 girls (5%), ectopic gland in 4 boys and 20 girls (36%), and dyshormonogenesis in 7 boys and 12 girls (28%). In the last-mentioned group, organic binding of iodide was defective in 13; in the 9 families studied there was evidence of autosomal recessive inheritance. Duration of pregnancy had exceeded 42 weeks in 20 (32%) out of 63 pregnancies. Birthweights in 22 out of 64 patients and birth lengths in 21 out of 61 were over the 90th centile for the duration of gestation.
At the time of diagnosis a goitre was observed in only 3, and some thyroid tissue in 2 of the 19 patients with dyshormonogenesis, but a goitre frequently appeared later, particularly at puberty.
Neurological defects were found in 33%, and mental retardation in 44% of the patients. The prognosis was best in the children with a persisting ectopic thyroid gland and poorest in those with defective organic binding of iodide. The importance of early diagnosis of hypothyroidism is again emphasized.
To characterize the nature of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) autoantibodies present in the sera of patients with autoimmune thyroid disease, we cloned three IgG1/kappa Fab fragments which bind 125I-TPO. This was accomplished by the molecular cloning and expression in bacteria of IgG gene fragments from B cells infiltrating the thyroid of a patient with Graves' disease. The three Fab fragments (SP2, SP4, and SP5) are coded for by a common heavy chain (VH1, D, JH3) and three related, but different, light chains (VK1, JK2). The SP Fab fragments bind specifically to TPO with high affinities (6 x 10(-11)-2 x 10(-10) M) comparable to those of serum TPO autoantibodies. TPO autoantibodies represented by the SP Fab fragments are present in all 11 patients studied, constitute a high proportion (36-72%) of serum TPO autoantibodies in individual patients and interact with a conformational epitope on TPO.
Cold thyroid nodules are common, in particular in iodine-deficient areas, but only a minority of them are malignant requiring surgery. Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) immunostaining of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) material has proven helpful in diagnosing cells from malignant lesions, but the procedure has its limitations in a routine setting.
To improve diagnosis and reduce surgery rate, the FNAC procedure was replaced by needle core biopsy (NCB), which was routinely stained for TPO by the monoclonal antibody mAb 47.
Materials and methods
During a 5-year period 427 consecutive patients with a cold thyroid nodule were evaluated by ultrasound-guided NCB, which had been routinely stained for TPO in an automated immunostainer. Sensitivity and specificity and predictive values of the TPO immunostaining were estimated, based on the final diagnosis obtained from surgical resection.
The majority of nodules with benign NCB diagnosis were not surgically removed, and thus a subgroup of 140 operated nodules formed the basis for the calculations. Sensitivity and specificity for benign and malignant lesions were 100% if the oxyphilic variant of adenomas and minimally invasive follicular carcinomas were excluded. By inclusion of these, the values fell to 89% and 97%, respectively. The predictive value of a positive test was 96% and the predictive value of a negative test was 97%.
TPO immunostaining was found to be a valuable adjunct to morphology in the diagnosis of cold thyroid nodules of the nonoxyphilic type.
Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia (CAMT) is a rare inherited autosomal recessive disorder that presents with thrombocytopenia and absence of megakaryocytes. It presents with bleeding recognized on day 1 of life or at least within the first month. The cause for this disorder appears to be a mutation in the gene for the thrombopoeitin (TPO) receptor, c-Mpl, despite high levels of serum TPO. Patients with severe Type I-CAMT carry nonsense Mpl mutations which causes a complete loss of the TPO receptor whereas those with Type II CAMT carry missense mutations in the Mpl gene affecting the extracellular domain of the TPO receptor. Differential diagnosis for severe CAMT includes thrombocytopenia with absent radii (TAR) and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS). The primary treatment for CAMT is bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow/Stem Cell Transplant (HSCT) is the only thing that ultimately cures this genetic disease. Newer modalities are on the way, such as TPO-mimetics for binding towards partially functioning c-Mpl receptors and gene therapy. Prognosis of CAMT patients is poor, because all develop in childhood a tri-linear marrow aplasia that is always fatal when untreated. Thirty percent of patients with CAMT die due to bleeding complications and 20% -due to HSCT if it has been done.
inherited; congenital; thrombocytopenia; amegakaryocytic
Thyroid-specific enhancer-binding protein (T/ebp)/Nkx2.1-null mouse thyroids degenerate by embryonic day (E) 12–13 through apoptosis whereas T/ebp/Nkx2.1-heterogyzgous mice exhibit hypothyroidism with elevated TSH levels. To understand the role of T/ebp/Nkx2.1 in the adult thyroid, a thyroid follicular cell-specific conditional knockout (KO) mouse line, T/ebp(fl/fl); TPO-Cre, was established that expresses Cre recombinase under the human thyroid peroxidase (TPO) gene promoter. These mice appeared to be healthy and exhibited loss of T/ebp/Nkx2.1 expression in many, but not all, thyroid follicular cells as determined by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR, thus presenting a T/ebp-thyroid-conditional hypomorphic mice. Detailed analysis of the thyroids from T/ebp(fl/fl), T/ebp(fl/fl); TPO-Cre, and T/ebp(fl/ko) mice, where the latter mouse line is derived from crosses with the original T/ebp/Nkx2.1-heterozygous mice, revealed that T/ebp(fl/fl); TPO-Cre mice can be classified into two groups with different phenotypes: one having atrophic/degenerative thyroid follicles with frequent presence of adenomas and extremely high serum TSH levels, and the other having an altered thyroid structure with reduced numbers of extraordinary dilated follicles consisting of excessive numbers of follicular cells as compared with those usually found in the normal thyroid. The latter phenotype was also observed in aged T/ebp(fl/ko) mouse thyroids. In vitro three-dimensional thyroid primary cultures using thyroids from T/ebp(fl/fl); TPO-Cre, T/ebp(fl/ko), and T/ebp(fl/fl) mice, and the latter treated with recombinant adenovirus with and without Cre expression, demonstrated that only cells from T/ebp(fl/fl) mice without adeno-Cre treatment formed follicular structures. Taken together, these results suggest that T/ebp/Nkx2.1 is required for maintenance of the normal architecture and function of differentiated thyroids.
Chronic spontaneous urticaria (csU), which is characterized by recurrent episodes
of mast cell-driven wheal and flare-type skin reactions, is often associated with
elevated total IgE levels and thyroid autoimmunity. We speculate that some csU
patients express IgE autoantibodies against thyroid antigens such as thyroid
peroxidase (TPO), which could bind to skin mast cells and induce their
We developed and used a site-directed human IgE capture ELISA to quantify
IgE-anti-TPO. We used this assay and investigated csU patients
(n = 478) and healthy control subjects
(n = 127) for IgE-anti-TPO and then assessed
IgE-anti-TPO-positive and -negative csU patients for clinical and serological
CsU patients were found to express more than 2fold higher IgE-anti-TPO serum
levels as compared to healthy control subjects (p<0.001). 54% of csU
patients had serum levels higher than the cut off ( = 5
IU/ml). By distribution analyses we identified two distinct subpopulations of csU
patients: 1) IgE-anti-TPOlow ( = 39%,
IgE-anti-TPO: median 2.17 interquartile range 0.86–5.44,
= comparable to healthy controls) and 2)
IgE-anti-TPOhigh ( = 61%, IgE-anti-TPO:
median 6.67, interquartile range 5.39–8.24). IgE-anti-TPO-positive and
-negative csU patients had very similar distributions of age and gender as well as
disease activity and duration. IgE-anti-TPO-positive csU patients exhibited
significantly higher IgG-anti-TPO levels and lymphocyte counts as well as
decreased C4 complement levels.
Our findings show that a sizeable subgroup of csU patients expresses IgE
antibodies against thyroid peroxidase. These autoantibodies could cause
“autoallergic” mast cell activation, a novel pathomechanism of chronic
The scant data on ethnic differences in the prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) have generally not taken etiology of CH into account. Our hypothesis is that the prevalence of CH due to thyroid dysgenesis (TD) varies by ethnicity.
This case–control study included all patients with CH due to TD (a condition of unknown origin) or to dyshormonogenesis (DH, of known autosomal recessive transmission) between 1987 and 2009. Etiology was established by 99mTc scintigraphy. The parents self-assessed their ethnicity, which we grouped in Caucasian, Hispanic, black, Asian, and Maghreb/Middle East. We compared ethnicity between the 190 patients with TD (147 ectopies, 40 athyreoses, and 3 orthotopic hypoplasias) and the 44 patients with DH. Ethnicity was also compared to the reference population of the city of Montreal. Prevalence odds ratios (POR) were calculated and compared by the bilateral Fisher's exact test.
The ethnic composition of the DH group was similar to that of the reference population. In blacks, TD prevalence of 1 in 190 (0.5%) was low compared to that of DH (4 in 44; 9.1%; POR 0.06; 95% confidence interval: 0.001–0.56; p = 0.005). In contrast, Caucasians showed an increased TD prevalence of 166 in 190 (87.3%) compared to that of DH (30 in 44; 68.2%; POR 3.21; 95% confidence interval: 1.37–7.34; p = 0.0052). No statistically significant differences were observed between other ethnic groups.
TD is less prevalent in blacks and more prevalent in Caucasians. Blacks being more genetically diverse, this is an argument for an oligogenic inheritance of susceptibility to TD.
Vitiligo is an acquired depigmenting disorder due to destruction of melanocytes. Although many theories have been suggested for its pathogenesis, the role of autoimmunity is the most popular one. The association of vitiligo with autoimmune thyroid diseases and the increased prevalence of autoantibodies including thyroid autoantibodies in vitiligo favor this role. Our objective was to compare the frequency of thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO) in vitiligo patients with healthy subjects in Iran.
Ninety-four cases of vitiligo (46 female and 48 male) and 96 control subjects (49 female and 47 male) were enrolled in this controlled study. Patients with known thyroid disease, history of thyroid surgery and those receiving thyroid medications were not included. The two groups were matched regarding gender and age. The demographic data, symptoms related to thyroid diseases and results of skin and thyroid examinations were recorded in a questionnaire for each subject. Thyroid function tests including free T3, free T4 and TSH-IRMA were performed. Anti-TPO levels were assessed as well. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version-11 in vitiligo patients and subgroups according to gender, age, extent, and duration of the disease compared with the control group.
Anti-TPO was detected in 17 (18.1%) of patients affected by vitiligo, while this figure was 7 (7.3%) in the control group; the difference was significant with p-value < 0.025 (Phi & Cramer's V = 0.162). When analyzing subgroups, the difference in the frequency of anti-TPO remained significant only in females (p-value < 0.044) (Phi & Cramer's V = 0.207) and in patients in the age ranges of 18–25 (p-value < 0.05) (Phi & Cramer's V = 0.28) and 26–35 year-old (p-value < 0.042) (Phi & Cramer's V = 0.304).
The difference of the frequency of anti-TPO was not significant regarding the duration and extent of vitiligo. In addition, there was no significant difference in the levels of free T3, free T4, and TSH in vitiligo patients compared with the control group.
According to our study, anti-TPO was shown to be significantly more common in vitiligo patients especially in young women, compared with control group. As this antibody is a relatively sensitive and specific marker of autoimmune thyroid disorders including Hashimoto thyroiditis and Graves' disease, and considering the fact that vitiligo usually precedes the onset of thyroid dysfunction, periodic follow-up of vitiligo patients for detecting thyroid diseases is further emphasized especially in young women with increased level of anti-TPO.
Medullary thyroid carcinoma occurs in both sporadic (75%) and hereditary (25%) forms. The missense mutations of RET proto-oncogene in MTC development have been well demonstrated. To investigate the spectrum of predominant RET germline mutations in exons 10, 11, and 16 in hereditary MTC in Iranian population, 217 participants were included. Genomic DNAs were extracted from the leukocytes using the standard Salting Out/Proteinase K method. Mutation detection was performed through PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing. In 217 participants, 43 missense mutations were identified in exons 10 (6%), 11 (13%), and 16 (0.9%). Moreover, a novel germline mutation was detected in exon 11 (S686N). Also four different polymorphisms were found in intron 16 in eight patients. The obtained data showed the frequency profile of RET mutations in Iranian individuals with MTC (19.8%). The most frequent mutation in our population was C634G whereas in most population it was C634R. Altogether, these results underline the importance of the genetic background of family members of any patient with MTC.
Background. Vitiligo is a common skin disorder characterized by macular depigmentation of the skin. The etiopathogenesis of the disease is still unclear,
but there is evidence that autoimmunity and endocrine disfunction may be involved. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine whether vitiligo is statistically associated with thyroid autoimmunity. Method. In a prospective case-control study, we compared the frequency of thyroid autoantibodies (thyroglobulin antibody, anti-Tg and thyroid peroxidase antibody, and anti-TPO) in 33 patients with vitiligo and in 33 healthy volunteers. Thyroid autoantibodies and thyroid hormones (thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured in all subjects. Results. Thyroid functional abnormalities were found in 6 (18.18%) patients. Anti-Tg and anti-TPO were positive in 9 (27.27%) and 8 (24.24%) patients, respectively. In control group, only one subject (3.03%) had abnormalities in thyroid hormonal status, and two subjects had positive thyroid autoantibodies. Compared with the control group, the frequency of both anti-Tg and anti-TPO was significantly higher in those with vitiligo (P < .05). Conclusion. This study shows a significant association between vitiligo and thyroid autoimmunity, and that tests to detect thyroid autoantibodies are relevant in patients with vitiligo.
The major cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), a common recessive genetic disease, is the deficiency of steroid 21-hydroxylase (21OH), a microsomal enzyme encoded by the CYP21 gene. Although several CAH causing mutations have been identified in the CYP21 gene of patients with 21OH deficiency, genotyping of the 21OH locus is quite complex because of the high frequency of gene conversion and the presence of multiple mutations on single CAH alleles. In order to perform the complete characterisation of the CYP21 gene coding region more simply, we developed a highly sensitive, non-radioactive method allowing DNA single strand conformation polymorphism (DNA-SSCP) analysis. This method was applied to the characterisation of all the exons and intron-exon junctions of the CYP21 gene in five patients affected by the simple virilising form and one affected by the salt wasting form. In all samples showing SSCP signals, direct sequence analysis showed the presence of more than one single sequence variant. In particular, four mutations which are already known to cause the disease, 16 polymorphisms, and one newly identified C to T transition at position 849 were detected. A random sequence analysis, performed on 31 out of 81 exons showing a normal SSCP pattern, shows the method to be highly sensitive: no sequence variant was detected, thus confirming the validity of this non-radioactive DNA-SSCP analysis in characterising the CYP21 gene in patients with steroid 21OH deficiency. Notwithstanding the complete characterisation of all exons and exon/intron junctions of the CYP21 gene, no complete genotype/phenotype correlation was found in the panel of patients analysed, thus suggesting that characterisation of CAH alleles must be extended to outside the coding region of the CYP21 gene, most probably into the promoter region.