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1.  A Novel Missense Mutation in the Thyroid Peroxidase Gene, R175Q, Resulting in Insufficient Cell Surface Enzyme in Two Siblings 
Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) abnormality is one of the causes of congenital hypothyroidism. Two missense mutations were found as a compound heterozygous mutation in two siblings with congenital goitrous hypothyroidism. One of these mutations, G614A (R175Q), was a novel mutation. Characterization of the novel mutation and a cotransfection experiment with two mutated TPO mRNAs were carried out. G614A-mRNA introduced into CHO-K1 cells expressed TPO protein with the same molecular weight as that of wild-type mRNA. The R175Q-TPO was thought to possess enzyme activity. In terms of localization, a very small amount of mutated TPO was expressed on the plasma membrane of CHO-K1 cells. This plasma membrane expression of R175Q-TPO was insufficient to perform thyroid hormone synthesis, but was markedly different from R665W-TPO. When G614A- and C2083T-mRNAs were cotransfected, cell surface TPO-positive cells were only 13.1% in contrast to 54.4% for wild-type mRNA. The low positivity and intensity of cell surface TPO suggested that in the patients’ thyroids thyroid hormone synthesis was hardly performed. The congenital hypothyroidism of the patients was thought to be a result of the mutations of the TPO gene (G614A/C2083T).
doi:10.1297/cpe.13.37
PMCID: PMC4004912  PMID: 24790296
congenital hypothyroidism; goiter; TPO gene; missense mutation
2.  The G395R Mutation of the Sodium/Iodide Symporter (NIS) Gene in Patients with Dyshormonogenetic Congenital Hypothyroidism 
Background:
Considering the high prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in Isfahan and its different etiologies in comparison with other countries, the high rate of parental consanguinity, and the role of NIS gene in permanent CH due to dyshormonogenesis, the aim of this study was to investigate the G395R mutation of the NIS gene in patients with permanent CH due to dyshormonogenesis
Methods:
In this case–control study, patients diagnosed with permanent CH due to dyshormonogenesis during CH screening program were selected. Venous blood sample was obtained to determine the G395R mutations of NIS gene using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing method.
Results:
In this study, 35 CH patients with permanent CH due to dyshormonogenesis and 35 neonates with normal screening results as a control group were studied. We did not find any changes of the mentioned mutation of NIS gene in the patients’ group.
Conclusion:
Considering the findings of the current study, it seems that further studies with larger sample size and with consideration of other gene mutations such as pendrin and thyroglobulin are needed for more accurate conclusion.
PMCID: PMC3570912  PMID: 23412840
Congenital hypothyroidism; dyshormonogenesis; G395R; mutation; sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) gene
3.  Genetic causes of congenital hypothyroidism due to dyshormonogenesis 
Current Opinion in Pediatrics  2011;23(4):421-428.
Purpose of Review
Overview of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) caused by thyroid hormone synthesis defects, the current understanding of their pathophysiology, and clinical implications of molecular diagnoses.
Recent Findings
Genetic defects in all known thyroid-specific factors required for thyroid hormone synthesis have been described. These include defects in iodide trapping (NIS), in the facilitated iodide efflux across the apical membrane (PDS), the organification of iodide within the follicular lumen (TPO, DUOX2, DUOXA2), the substrate for thyroid hormone synthesis (TG) and the ability to recover and retain intrathyroidal iodine (IYD). Clinical and biochemical evaluation aids in selecting the most appropriate candidate gene(s).
A definite molecular diagnosis of thyroid dyshormonogenesis allows genetic counselling, and has prognostic value in differentiating transient from permanent CH and predicting the response of patients to iodine supplementation as adjunct or alternative treatment to L-T4 replacement.
Summary
CH due to thyroid dyshormonogenesis is a heterogenic disorder that may be caused by mutations in any of the known steps in the thyroid hormone biosynthesis pathway. An exact molecular diagnosis allows genetic counselling, the identification of asymptomatic mutation carriers at risk of recurrent hypothyroidism, and provides a rationale for adjunct iodide supplementation.
doi:10.1097/MOP.0b013e32834726a4
PMCID: PMC3263319  PMID: 21543982
congenital hypothyroidism; genetics; thyroglobulin; thyroid peroxidase; dual oxidase
4.  A Novel, Homozygous c.1502T>G (p.Val501Gly) Mutation in the Thyroid peroxidase Gene in Malaysian Sisters with Congenital Hypothyroidism and Multinodular Goiter 
Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) with multinodular goiter (MNG) is uncommonly seen in children. However, CH associated with goiter is often caused by defective Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) gene. In this study, we screened for mutation(s) in the TPO gene in two siblings with CH and MNG and their healthy family members. The two sisters, born to consanguineous parents, were diagnosed with CH during infancy and received treatment since then. They developed MNG during childhood despite adequate L-thyroxine replacement and negative thyroid antibody screening. PCR-amplification of all exons using flanking primers followed by DNA sequencing revealed that the two sisters were homozygous for a novel c.1502T>G mutation. The mutation is predicted to substitute valine for glycine at a highly conserved amino acid residue 501 (p.Val501Gly). Other healthy family members were either heterozygotes or mutation-free. The mutation was not detected in 50 healthy unrelated individuals. In silico analyses using PolyPhen-2 and SIFT predicted that the p.Val501Gly mutation is functionally “damaging.” Tertiary modeling showed structural alterations in the active site of the mutant TPO. In conclusion, a novel mutation, p.Val501Gly, in the TPO gene was detected expanding the mutation spectrum of TPO associated with CH and MNG.
doi:10.1155/2013/987186
PMCID: PMC3657457  PMID: 23737781
5.  Functional Analysis of Thyroid Peroxidase Gene Mutations Detected in Patients with Thyroid Dyshormonogenesis 
Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones. We aimed to identify the spectrum of mutations in the TPO gene leading to hypothyroidism in the population of West Bengal to establish the genetic etiology of the disease. 200 hypothyroid patients (case) and their corresponding sex and age matched 200 normal individuals (control) were screened depending on their clinical manifestations. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples and TPO gene (Exon 7 to Exon 14) was amplified by PCR. The PCR products were subjected to sequencing to identify mutations. Single nucleotide changes such as Glu 641 Lys, Asp 668 Asn, Thr 725 Pro, Asp 620 Asn, Ser 398 Thr, and Ala 373 Ser were found. Changes in the TPO were assayed in vitro to compare mutant and wild-type activities. Five mutants were enzymatically inactive in the guaiacol and iodide assays. This is a strong indication that the mutations are present at crucial positions of the TPO gene, resulting in inactivated TPO. The results of this study may help to develop a genetic screening protocol for goiter and hypothyroidism in the population of West Bengal.
doi:10.1155/2014/390121
PMCID: PMC4009129  PMID: 24829575
6.  Functional Analyses of c.2268dup in Thyroid Peroxidase Gene Associated with Goitrous Congenital Hypothyroidism 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:370538.
The c.2268dup mutation in thyroid peroxidase (TPO) gene was reported to be a founder mutation in Taiwanese patients with dyshormonogenetic congenital hypothyroidism (CH). The functional impact of the mutation is not well documented. In this study, homozygous c.2268dup mutation was detected in two Malaysian-Chinese sisters with goitrous CH. Normal and alternatively spliced TPO mRNA transcripts were present in thyroid tissues of the two sisters. The abnormal transcript contained 34 nucleotides originating from intron 12. The c.2268dup is predicted to generate a premature termination codon (PTC) at position 757 (p.Glu757X). Instead of restoring the normal reading frame, the alternatively spliced transcript has led to another stop codon at position 740 (p.Asp739ValfsX740). The two PTCs are located at 116 and 201 nucleotides upstream of the exons 13/14 junction fulfilling the requirement for a nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Quantitative RT-PCR revealed an abundance of unidentified transcripts believed to be associated with the NMD. TPO enzyme activity was not detected in both patients, even though a faint TPO band of about 80 kD was present. In conclusion, the c.2268dup mutation leads to the formation of normal and alternatively spliced TPO mRNA transcripts with a consequential loss of TPO enzymatic activity in Malaysian-Chinese patients with goitrous CH.
doi:10.1155/2014/370538
PMCID: PMC3976875  PMID: 24745015
7.  Etiology of congenital hypothyroidism in Isfahan: Does it different? 
Background:
Considering the higher prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in Iran and the importance of determination of the etiology of CH for assessing appropriate treatment strategies, understanding the pathogenesis of CH and the implications of its inheritance and prognosis, the aim of this study was to determine the etiology of CH 7 years after initiation of the program in Isfahan province.
Materials and Methods:
In this cross-sectional study, children with a primary diagnosis of CH studied. They clinically examined and their medical files were reviewed by a Pediatric Endocrinologist. Considering screening and follow-up lab data and radiologic findings the etiology of CH was determined. Screening properties of different etiologies of CH was compared.
Results:
In this study, 437 patients with permanent CH (PCH) were studied. Etiology of PCH in 316 (72.3%) and 121 (27.7%) of cases was thyroid dyshormonogenesis and thyroid dysgenesis, respectively. Prevalence of agenesis, ectopia, hypoplasia and hemiagenesis in thyroid dysgenetic patients was 13.3%, 6.4%, 4.3% and 3.7% respectively. Mean of thyroid stimulating hormone in screening, recall and after discontinuing treatment at 3 years of age was significantly lower in dyshormonogenetic CH patients than dysgenetic ones(P < 0.01).
Conclusion:
Seven years of our experiences in CH screening program indicated that the etiology of CH in Isfahan, with a higher rate of CH, with a predominance of thyroid dyshormonogenesis is different from most of the studies world-wide and similar to other reports from Iran. The findings of the current study provide us baseline information for determination of CH pathogenesis in this region.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.124658
PMCID: PMC3929017  PMID: 24600601
Congenital hypothyroidism; dysgenesis; dyshormonogenesis; permanent
8.  Identification of a mutation in the coding sequence of the human thyroid peroxidase gene causing congenital goiter. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1992;90(4):1200-1204.
Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is the key enzyme in the synthesis of thyroid hormones, and the TPO defects are believed to be the most prevalent causes of the inborn errors of thyroid metabolism. We investigated an adopted boy with iodide organification defect, who presented with florid hypothyroidism at the age of 4 mo, poorly complied with thyroxine treatment, and developed a compressive goiter necessitating partial resection at the age of 12 yr. Biochemical studies revealed the absence of TPO activity in the resected tissue. Genomic DNA studies identified a 4 base-pair insertion in the eighth exon of the TPO gene, and showed that the patient was homozygous for this frameshift mutation. The direct genetic diagnosis of this mutation can be made by digestion of polymerase chain reaction products with NaeI restriction enzyme. This will help assessing its prevalence among the heterogenous genetic group of TPO defects.
Images
PMCID: PMC443160  PMID: 1401057
9.  Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody and vitiligo: a controlled study 
BMC Dermatology  2006;6:3.
Background
Vitiligo is an acquired depigmenting disorder due to destruction of melanocytes. Although many theories have been suggested for its pathogenesis, the role of autoimmunity is the most popular one. The association of vitiligo with autoimmune thyroid diseases and the increased prevalence of autoantibodies including thyroid autoantibodies in vitiligo favor this role. Our objective was to compare the frequency of thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO) in vitiligo patients with healthy subjects in Iran.
Methods
Ninety-four cases of vitiligo (46 female and 48 male) and 96 control subjects (49 female and 47 male) were enrolled in this controlled study. Patients with known thyroid disease, history of thyroid surgery and those receiving thyroid medications were not included. The two groups were matched regarding gender and age. The demographic data, symptoms related to thyroid diseases and results of skin and thyroid examinations were recorded in a questionnaire for each subject. Thyroid function tests including free T3, free T4 and TSH-IRMA were performed. Anti-TPO levels were assessed as well. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version-11 in vitiligo patients and subgroups according to gender, age, extent, and duration of the disease compared with the control group.
Results
Anti-TPO was detected in 17 (18.1%) of patients affected by vitiligo, while this figure was 7 (7.3%) in the control group; the difference was significant with p-value < 0.025 (Phi & Cramer's V = 0.162). When analyzing subgroups, the difference in the frequency of anti-TPO remained significant only in females (p-value < 0.044) (Phi & Cramer's V = 0.207) and in patients in the age ranges of 18–25 (p-value < 0.05) (Phi & Cramer's V = 0.28) and 26–35 year-old (p-value < 0.042) (Phi & Cramer's V = 0.304).
The difference of the frequency of anti-TPO was not significant regarding the duration and extent of vitiligo. In addition, there was no significant difference in the levels of free T3, free T4, and TSH in vitiligo patients compared with the control group.
Conclusion
According to our study, anti-TPO was shown to be significantly more common in vitiligo patients especially in young women, compared with control group. As this antibody is a relatively sensitive and specific marker of autoimmune thyroid disorders including Hashimoto thyroiditis and Graves' disease, and considering the fact that vitiligo usually precedes the onset of thyroid dysfunction, periodic follow-up of vitiligo patients for detecting thyroid diseases is further emphasized especially in young women with increased level of anti-TPO.
doi:10.1186/1471-5945-6-3
PMCID: PMC1431557  PMID: 16526964
10.  Hearing Impairment in Congenitally Hypothyroid Patients 
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics  2012;22(1):92-96.
Objective
Thyroid hormone is necessary for normal development of the auditory system. The aim of this study was to investigate the rate of hearing impairment in congenitally hypothyroid (CH) patients, and its relation with factors such as CH severity and age at starting treatment, during CH screening program in Isfahan.
Methods
Hearing acuity was assessed in two groups of children with (94 patients aged 4 months – 3 years) and without CH (450), between 2000-2006. Otoacostic emission (OAE) was performed by a two step method. After two tests without OAE signals bilaterally, they were referred for auditory brainstem response (ABR) test. Subjects with both OAE and ABR abnormal test results were considered to have hearing problem. Obtained data was compared in case and control group and also CH patients with and without hearing impairment.
Findings
Three (3.2%) of patients and 1 of control group (0.2%) were diagnosed with sensorineural hearing loss. The rate of hearing loss was not different significantly in two studied groups (P>0.05). There was no difference between age of starting treatment and first T4 and TSH level in CH patients with and without hearing loss (P>0.05). CH neonates with hearing impairment had thyroid dyshormonogenesis according to the follow up results.
Conclusion
The rate of hearing loss was low among our studied CH patients. It may be due to proper management of CH patients. In view of the fact that all CH neonates were dyshormonogentic and considering the relation between certain gene mutations and hearing impairment in CH patients, further studies with larger sample size, with regard to different etiologies of CH should be investigated to indicate the possible gene mutations related to hearing loss in CH.
PMCID: PMC3448222  PMID: 23056865
Hearing impairment; Auditory Brain Stem Response; ABR; Oto Acostic Emission; OAE
11.  A Case of Resistance to Thyroid Hormone with Chronic Thyroiditis: Discovery of a Novel Mutation (I54V) 
Case Reports in Endocrinology  2011;2011:584930.
Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a rare disorder characterized by variable tissue hyporesponsiveness to thyroid hormone, usually caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRβ). It has been reported that the serum of patients with RTH is free of auto-antibodies against thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroid peroxidase (TPO), except in rare cases where coincidental autoimmune thyroiditis is also present. We describe a 13-year-old girl with chronic thyroiditis and RTH. This patient had increased plasma free T3, free T4 at the upper limits with unsuppressed TSH. She had peripheral manifestations of thyroid hormone excess, hypertension and growth acceleration. Anti-TPO antibodies were positive. Sequence analysis of the TRβ gene was performed and revealed a novel mutation I54V in exon 4. The same mutation was also found in the mother and two asymptomatic sisters. The clinical presentation of our patient is not habitual in RTH because growth retardation is frequently reported in this syndrome. The association between RTH and thyroiditis complicate the management of the hypothyroidism.
doi:10.1155/2011/584930
PMCID: PMC3420539  PMID: 22937287
12.  Prevalence of Permanent Congenital Hypothyroidism in Isfahan-Iran 
Background:
Considering the importance to determine the reasons for the higher occurrence of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in Iran, in this study we report the prevalence of permanent CH (PCH) in Isfahan province 7 years after initiation of CH screening program in Isfahan.
Methods:
In this cross-sectional study, children with a primary diagnosis of CH studied. They clinically examined and their medical files were reviewed by a pediatric endocrinologist. Considering screening and follow-up lab data, radiologic findings and the decision of pediatric endocrinologists the final diagnosis of PCH was determined.
Results:
A total of 464,648 neonates screened in Isfahan province. The coverage percent of the CH screening and recall rate was 98.9% and 2.1%, respectively. A total of 1990 neonates were diagnosed with primary CH. PCH was diagnosed in 410 neonates. The prevalence of PCH and transient CH (TCH) was 1 in 1133 and 1 in 294 live births. The most common etiology of CH was thyroid dyshormonogenesis.
Conclusions:
Though the prevalence of PCH is high, but the higher prevalence of CH in Isfahan is commonly due to cases with TCH. Hence, the necessity of determining new strategies for earlier diagnosis of patients with TCH is recommended.
PMCID: PMC3898441  PMID: 24498491
Congenital hypothyroidism; permanent; transient
13.  Insulin resistance in hypothyroid patients under Levothyroxine therapy: a comparison between those with and without thyroid autoimmunity 
Background
A chronic inflammation resulting from an imbalance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) might be responsible for IR in hypothyroidism. This study was performed to investigate a probable association between autoimmune background of hypothyroidism and IR.
Methods
In this clinical study, 63 subjects with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and 49 subjects with post-ablation hypothyroidism were enrolled. All the participants were euthyroid for more than one year through Levothyroxine therapy. Serum concentrations of Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH), Free Thyroxin (FT4, FT3), Anti-Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies (Anti-TPO Abs), Total Cholesterol (TC), HDL-Cholesterol (HDL-C), Triglyceride (TG), Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG), and insulin levels were measured and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) was performed for all of the subjects. Participants with anti TPO levels more than 1000 IU /ml were classified as having highly positive antibodies.
Results
No significant differences regarding to plasma insulin, glucose and lipid concentration, were detected between subjects with and without Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. However, subjects with highly positive Anti TPO Abs had higher prevalence of elevated fasting insulin level than those with lower titers of Anti TPO Abs and subjects without autoimmune background (94.1% vs. 62.8% and 71.4% respectively, P = 0.05). Subjects with highly positive titers of Abs also had a lower serum HDL-c levels than the rest of the subjects (40.6 ± 2.1 vs. 47.2 ± 1.7 and 47.4 ± 1.4, P = 0.04).
Conclusions
There is no obvious association between thyroid autoimmunity and metabolic indexes of hypothyroid patients. Only patients with Ani TPO antibody levels more than 1000 IU/ml may experience higher insulin level and less HDL-c with the same BMI.
doi:10.1186/s40200-014-0103-4
PMCID: PMC4216656  PMID: 25364704
Hypothyroidism; Autoimmunity; Insulin resistance
14.  Clinical aspects of recurrent postpartum thyroiditis. 
BACKGROUND: Postpartum thyroiditis (PPT), characterized by transient hyperthyroidism and transient hypothyroidism, occurs in 5-9% of women. It is accompanied by the presence of circulating antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) which have been associated with an increase in depressive symptomatology compared with TPOAb-negative women. AIM: To assess the frequency and nature of the syndrome in patients studied in detail after more than one pregnancy, as there are only sparse data on recurrence of PPT. METHOD: Fifty-four patients were identified who had participated in at least two of three detailed postpartum studies of thyroid and psychiatric function during the past 12 years in the Caerphilly and Cardiff regions of South Wales. They included two women who had had three pregnancies. All patients had been followed monthly postpartum for at least six months, and 44 had been followed for 12 months. RESULTS: Of the 13 patients who developed PPT after their first pregnancy, nine had a recurrence of dysfunction after a further pregnancy and four remained TPOAb positive. Of the 24 women who were euthyroid anti-TPO positive after the first pregnancy, six developed thyroid dysfunction after a subsequent delivery, 14 remained antibody positive and euthyroid, while four underwent seroconversion and were antibody negative. The control group of 17 women were antibody negative after the first pregnancy; 16 remained negative after a further pregnancy and one became anti-TPO positive. The severity of PPT was slightly, but not significantly worse after the second recorded pregnancy (67% hypothyroid versus 44% hypothyroid). Neither the maximum anti-TPO titre following the first pregnancy, nor the rise in titre during this period were predictive of outcome after a subsequent pregnancy. Data from 26 women showed that recurrent depression was seen in 15.4%; a further six were depressed after the first pregnancy only, and two during a further postpartum period. CONCLUSION: There was a 70% chance of developing recurrent PPT after a first attack, and a 25% risk even in women who were only anti-TPO positive without thyroid dysfunction during the first postpartum period. The recurrence of postpartum depression was not related to thyroid function. Patients noted to have thyroid dysfunction or just to be euthyroid but anti-TPO positive after pregnancy should be assessed carefully after a subsequent pregnancy.
PMCID: PMC1313006  PMID: 9219408
15.  Thyroid Antigens, Not Central Tolerance, Control Responses to Immunization in BALB/c Versus C57BL/6 Mice 
Thyroid  2009;19(5):503-509.
Background
Vaccination with cDNA for the human thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) in a plasmid, without adjuvant, induces TSHR antibodies in C57BL/6 but rarely in BALB/c mice. This outcome could be due to a difference between “high” versus “low” antibody responder mouse strains. However, unlike their poor response to TSHR-DNA vaccination, BALB/c mice vaccinated with thyroid peroxidase (TPO)-cDNA readily develop antibodies to TPO. We hypothesized that insight into these conundrums would be provided by the following differences in central tolerance: (i) between two mouse strains (C57BL/6 versus BALB/c) for the TSHR; and (ii) between two thyroid autoantigens (TPO and the TSHR) in one mouse strain (BALB/c).
Methods
We studied autoantigen expression using real-time polymerase chain reaction to quantify mRNA transcripts for the TSHR, TPO, and thyroglobulin (Tg) in thymic tissue (as well as in thyroid) of young mice.
Results
Our hypothesis was not confirmed. Intrathymic TSHR transcript expression was similar in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, thymic mRNA transcripts for TSHR and TPO were comparable. Unlike the 10-fold differences for the autoantigens in thyroid tissue (Tg greater than TPO which, in turn was greater than the TSHR), intrathymic transcripts for TPO and the TSHR were similar, both being slightly lower than the level for Tg.
Conclusions
Central tolerance, assessed by measuring intrathymic transcripts of thyroid autoantigens, does not explain the different outcome of TSHR-DNA vaccination in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, or even susceptibility versus resistance to hyperthyroidism induced by TSHR-adenovirus. Instead, differences in MHC and TSHR T-cell epitopes likely contribute to TSHR antibody development (or not) following DNA plasmid immunization. The greater immunogenicity of TPO versus TSHR probably relates to the greater number of nonhomologous amino acids in the human and mouse TPO ectodomains (78 amino acids) than in the human and mouse TSHR ectodomains (58 amino acids). Overall, the autoantigens themselves, not central tolerance, control DNA plasmid–induced immunity to TPO and the TSHR.
doi:10.1089/thy.2008.0420
PMCID: PMC2857445  PMID: 19348579
16.  Identification of Novel Genetic Loci Associated with Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies and Clinical Thyroid Disease 
Medici, Marco | Porcu, Eleonora | Pistis, Giorgio | Teumer, Alexander | Brown, Suzanne J. | Jensen, Richard A. | Rawal, Rajesh | Roef, Greet L. | Plantinga, Theo S. | Vermeulen, Sita H. | Lahti, Jari | Simmonds, Matthew J. | Husemoen, Lise Lotte N. | Freathy, Rachel M. | Shields, Beverley M. | Pietzner, Diana | Nagy, Rebecca | Broer, Linda | Chaker, Layal | Korevaar, Tim I. M. | Plia, Maria Grazia | Sala, Cinzia | Völker, Uwe | Richards, J. Brent | Sweep, Fred C. | Gieger, Christian | Corre, Tanguy | Kajantie, Eero | Thuesen, Betina | Taes, Youri E. | Visser, W. Edward | Hattersley, Andrew T. | Kratzsch, Jürgen | Hamilton, Alexander | Li, Wei | Homuth, Georg | Lobina, Monia | Mariotti, Stefano | Soranzo, Nicole | Cocca, Massimiliano | Nauck, Matthias | Spielhagen, Christin | Ross, Alec | Arnold, Alice | van de Bunt, Martijn | Liyanarachchi, Sandya | Heier, Margit | Grabe, Hans Jörgen | Masciullo, Corrado | Galesloot, Tessel E. | Lim, Ee M. | Reischl, Eva | Leedman, Peter J. | Lai, Sandra | Delitala, Alessandro | Bremner, Alexandra P. | Philips, David I. W. | Beilby, John P. | Mulas, Antonella | Vocale, Matteo | Abecasis, Goncalo | Forsen, Tom | James, Alan | Widen, Elisabeth | Hui, Jennie | Prokisch, Holger | Rietzschel, Ernst E. | Palotie, Aarno | Feddema, Peter | Fletcher, Stephen J. | Schramm, Katharina | Rotter, Jerome I. | Kluttig, Alexander | Radke, Dörte | Traglia, Michela | Surdulescu, Gabriela L. | He, Huiling | Franklyn, Jayne A. | Tiller, Daniel | Vaidya, Bijay | de Meyer, Tim | Jørgensen, Torben | Eriksson, Johan G. | O'Leary, Peter C. | Wichmann, Eric | Hermus, Ad R. | Psaty, Bruce M. | Ittermann, Till | Hofman, Albert | Bosi, Emanuele | Schlessinger, David | Wallaschofski, Henri | Pirastu, Nicola | Aulchenko, Yurii S. | de la Chapelle, Albert | Netea-Maier, Romana T. | Gough, Stephen C. L. | Meyer zu Schwabedissen, Henriette | Frayling, Timothy M. | Kaufman, Jean-Marc | Linneberg, Allan | Räikkönen, Katri | Smit, Johannes W. A. | Kiemeney, Lambertus A. | Rivadeneira, Fernando | Uitterlinden, André G. | Walsh, John P. | Meisinger, Christa | den Heijer, Martin | Visser, Theo J. | Spector, Timothy D. | Wilson, Scott G. | Völzke, Henry | Cappola, Anne | Toniolo, Daniela | Sanna, Serena | Naitza, Silvia | Peeters, Robin P.
PLoS Genetics  2014;10(2):e1004123.
Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are common, affecting 2-5% of the general population. Individuals with positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs) have an increased risk of autoimmune hypothyroidism (Hashimoto's thyroiditis), as well as autoimmune hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease). As the possible causative genes of TPOAbs and AITD remain largely unknown, we performed GWAS meta-analyses in 18,297 individuals for TPOAb-positivity (1769 TPOAb-positives and 16,528 TPOAb-negatives) and in 12,353 individuals for TPOAb serum levels, with replication in 8,990 individuals. Significant associations (P<5×10−8) were detected at TPO-rs11675434, ATXN2-rs653178, and BACH2-rs10944479 for TPOAb-positivity, and at TPO-rs11675434, MAGI3-rs1230666, and KALRN-rs2010099 for TPOAb levels. Individual and combined effects (genetic risk scores) of these variants on (subclinical) hypo- and hyperthyroidism, goiter and thyroid cancer were studied. Individuals with a high genetic risk score had, besides an increased risk of TPOAb-positivity (OR: 2.18, 95% CI 1.68–2.81, P = 8.1×10−8), a higher risk of increased thyroid-stimulating hormone levels (OR: 1.51, 95% CI 1.26–1.82, P = 2.9×10−6), as well as a decreased risk of goiter (OR: 0.77, 95% CI 0.66–0.89, P = 6.5×10−4). The MAGI3 and BACH2 variants were associated with an increased risk of hyperthyroidism, which was replicated in an independent cohort of patients with Graves' disease (OR: 1.37, 95% CI 1.22–1.54, P = 1.2×10−7 and OR: 1.25, 95% CI 1.12–1.39, P = 6.2×10−5). The MAGI3 variant was also associated with an increased risk of hypothyroidism (OR: 1.57, 95% CI 1.18–2.10, P = 1.9×10−3). This first GWAS meta-analysis for TPOAbs identified five newly associated loci, three of which were also associated with clinical thyroid disease. With these markers we identified a large subgroup in the general population with a substantially increased risk of TPOAbs. The results provide insight into why individuals with thyroid autoimmunity do or do not eventually develop thyroid disease, and these markers may therefore predict which TPOAb-positives are particularly at risk of developing clinical thyroid dysfunction.
Author Summary
Individuals with thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs) have an increased risk of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD), which are common in the general population and associated with increased cardiovascular, metabolic and psychiatric morbidity and mortality. As the causative genes of TPOAbs and AITD remain largely unknown, we performed a genome-wide scan for TPOAbs in 18,297 individuals, with replication in 8,990 individuals. Significant associations were detected with variants at TPO, ATXN2, BACH2, MAGI3, and KALRN. Individuals carrying multiple risk variants also had a higher risk of increased thyroid-stimulating hormone levels (including subclinical and overt hypothyroidism), and a decreased risk of goiter. The MAGI3 and BACH2 variants were associated with an increased risk of hyperthyroidism, and the MAGI3 variant was also associated with an increased risk of hypothyroidism. This first genome-wide scan for TPOAbs identified five newly associated loci, three of which were also associated with clinical thyroid disease. With these markers we identified a large subgroup in the general population with a substantially increased risk of TPOAbs. These results provide insight into why individuals with thyroid autoimmunity do or do not eventually develop thyroid disease, and these markers may therefore predict which individuals are particularly at risk of developing clinical thyroid dysfunction.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004123
PMCID: PMC3937134  PMID: 24586183
17.  Is there loss or qualitative changes in the expression of thyroid peroxidase protein in thyroid epithelial cancer? 
British Journal of Cancer  2001;85(6):875-880.
There is disagreement concerning the expression of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in thyroid cancer, some studies finding qualitative as well as quantitative differences compared to normal tissue. To investigate TPO protein expression and its antigenic properties, TPO was captured from a solubilizate of thyroid microsomes by a panel of murine anti-TPO monoclonal antibodies and detected with a panel of anti-human TPO IgGκ Fab. TPO protein expression in 30 samples of malignant thyroid tissue was compared with TPO from adjacent normal tissues. Virtual absence of TPO expression was observed in 8 cases. In the remaining 22 malignant thyroid tumours the TPO protein level varied considerably from normal to nearly absent when compared to normal thyroid tissue or tissues from patients with Graves' disease (range less than 0.5 to more than 12.5 μg mg−1 of protein). When expressed TPO displayed similar epitopes, to that of TPO from Graves' disease tissue. The results obtained by the TPO capturing method were confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis with both microsomes and their solubilizates. The present results show that in about two-thirds of differentiated thyroid carcinomas, TPO protein is expressed, albeit to a more variable extent than normal; when present, TPO in malignant tissues is immunologically normal. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaignhttp://www.bjcancer.com
doi:10.1054/bjoc.2001.2015
PMCID: PMC2375069  PMID: 11556840
differentiated thyroid cancer; TPO; mAb; IgGκ; Fab; epitope
18.  Characterisation of CAH alleles with non-radioactive DNA single strand conformation polymorphism analysis of the CYP21 gene. 
Journal of Medical Genetics  1997;34(3):223-228.
The major cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), a common recessive genetic disease, is the deficiency of steroid 21-hydroxylase (21OH), a microsomal enzyme encoded by the CYP21 gene. Although several CAH causing mutations have been identified in the CYP21 gene of patients with 21OH deficiency, genotyping of the 21OH locus is quite complex because of the high frequency of gene conversion and the presence of multiple mutations on single CAH alleles. In order to perform the complete characterisation of the CYP21 gene coding region more simply, we developed a highly sensitive, non-radioactive method allowing DNA single strand conformation polymorphism (DNA-SSCP) analysis. This method was applied to the characterisation of all the exons and intron-exon junctions of the CYP21 gene in five patients affected by the simple virilising form and one affected by the salt wasting form. In all samples showing SSCP signals, direct sequence analysis showed the presence of more than one single sequence variant. In particular, four mutations which are already known to cause the disease, 16 polymorphisms, and one newly identified C to T transition at position 849 were detected. A random sequence analysis, performed on 31 out of 81 exons showing a normal SSCP pattern, shows the method to be highly sensitive: no sequence variant was detected, thus confirming the validity of this non-radioactive DNA-SSCP analysis in characterising the CYP21 gene in patients with steroid 21OH deficiency. Notwithstanding the complete characterisation of all exons and exon/intron junctions of the CYP21 gene, no complete genotype/phenotype correlation was found in the panel of patients analysed, thus suggesting that characterisation of CAH alleles must be extended to outside the coding region of the CYP21 gene, most probably into the promoter region.
Images
PMCID: PMC1050897  PMID: 9132494
19.  Does Congenital Hypothyroidism Have Different Etiologies in Iran? 
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics  2011;21(2):188-192.
Objective
To determine the prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism (CH), permanent and transient CH.
Methods
From November 2006 to September 2007, 63031 newborns were screened by measuring serum TSH obtained by heel prick. The neonates who had a TSH≥5mU/L were recalled for measurement of serum T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and TSH receptor blocking antibodies (TRBAb) in venous samples. In 43 primarily diagnosed as cases of CH, treatment was discontinued at age 2–3 years for 4 weeks and T4 and TSH were measured again. Permanent or transient CH was determined from the results of these tests and radiologic evaluation.
Findings
The incidence of congenital hypothyroidism was found to be 1:1465 with a female to male ratio of 1.19:1. The most common clinical findings were prolonged jaundice (73%), large anterior fontanel (56%) and wide posterior fontanel (55%). In 43 patients with CH, prevalence of permanent and transient form of the disorder was 53.6% and 46.4% respectively. Permanent CH was associated with higher initial TSH level than transient hypothyroidism (P<0.001). The most common etiology of permanent CH was dyshormonogenesis (57%). TRBAb was found in 6.8% of the total 43 cases.
Conclusion
Congenital hypothyroidism in Iran may have different etiologies. Due to higher rate of transient CH than other similar researches, it is reasonable to follow these patients for a longer period to rule out the possibility of permanent hypothyroidism.
PMCID: PMC3446167  PMID: 23056786
Congenital Hypothyroidism; TSH Receptor; Dyshormonogenesis; Thyroid Dysgenesis
20.  Thyroid peroxidase forms thionamide-sensitive homodimers: relevance for immunomodulation of thyroid autoimmunity 
Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is the key enzyme in thyroid hormone production and a universal autoantigen in Graves’ and other autoimmune thyroid diseases. We wished to explore the expression of TPO and whether it was affected by thionamide antithyroid drugs. We studied recombinant TPO, stably expressed by a Chinese hamster ovary cell line (CHO-TPO) and transiently expressed TPO-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and -FLAG fusion proteins. Immunoblotting of CHO-TPO cell extracts showed high-molecular weight (HMW) TPO isoforms that were resistant to reduction, as well as 110 kDa monomeric TPO. Co-immunoprecipitation and enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA) binding studies of FLAG- and eGFP-tagged TPO demonstrated TPO dimerisation. CHO-TPO cells cultured in methimazole (MMI) for 10 days showed a significant reduction in HMW-TPO isoforms at MMI concentrations of 1 µM and above (p < 0.01), whereas monomeric TPO expression was unchanged. We observed a similar reduction in HMW-TPO in CHO-TPO cells cultured in propylthiouracil (10 µM and above). Binding of Graves’ disease patient sera and TPO-Fabs to enzymatically active TPO that was captured onto solid phase was not abrogated by MMI. The cellular localisation of TPO in CHO-TPO cells was unchanged by MMI treatment. Our demonstration of homodimeric TPO and the reduction in HMW-TPO isoforms during thionamide treatment of CHO-TPO cells shows, for the first time, an effect of thionamides on TPO structure. This suggests a structural correlate to the effect of thionamides on TPO enzymatic activity and opens up a novel potential mechanism for thionamide immunomodulation of autoimmune thyroid disease.
doi:10.1007/s00109-009-0511-y
PMCID: PMC2757584  PMID: 19669106
Thyroid peroxidase; Homodimerisation; Methimazole; Propylthiouracil; Graves’ disease; Immunomodulation
21.  Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Proteins Are Regulators of the Rat Thyroid Peroxidase Gene in Thyroid Cells 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e91265.
Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs)-1c and -2, which were initially discovered as master transcriptional regulators of lipid biosynthesis and uptake, were recently identified as novel transcriptional regulators of the sodium-iodide symporter gene in the thyroid, which is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis. Based on this observation that SREBPs play a role for thyroid hormone synthesis, we hypothesized that another gene involved in thyroid hormone synthesis, the thyroid peroxidase (TPO) gene, is also a target of SREBP-1c and -2. Thyroid epithelial cells treated with 25-hydroxycholesterol, which is known to inhibit SREBP activation, had about 50% decreased mRNA levels of TPO. Similarly, the mRNA level of TPO was reduced by about 50% in response to siRNA mediated knockdown of both, SREBP-1 and SREBP-2. Reporter gene assays revealed that overexpression of active SREBP-1c and -2 causes a strong transcriptional activation of the rat TPO gene, which was localized to an approximately 80 bp region in the intron 1 of the rat TPO gene. In vitro- and in vivo-binding of both, SREBP-1c and SREBP-2, to this region in the rat TPO gene could be demonstrated using gel-shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Mutation analysis of the 80 bp region of rat TPO intron 1 revealed two isolated and two overlapping SREBP-binding elements from which one, the overlapping SRE+609/InvSRE+614, was shown to be functional in reporter gene assays. In connection with recent findings that the rat NIS gene is also a SREBP target gene in the thyroid, the present findings suggest that SREBPs may be possible novel targets for pharmacological modulation of thyroid hormone synthesis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091265
PMCID: PMC3953333  PMID: 24625548
22.  Cell-type-specific expression of the rat thyroperoxidase promoter indicates common mechanisms for thyroid-specific gene expression. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1992;12(2):576-588.
A 420-bp fragment from the 5' end of the rat thyroperoxidase (TPO) gene was fused to a luciferase reporter and shown to direct cell-type-specific expression when transfected into rat thyroid FRTL-5 cells. Analysis of this DNA fragment revealed four regions of the promoter which interact with DNA-binding proteins present in FRTL-5 cells. Mutation of the DNA sequence within any of these regions reduced TPO promoter activity. The trans-acting factors binding to these sequences were compared with thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) and TTF-2, previously identified as transcriptional activators of another thyroid-specific gene, the thyroglobulin (Tg) gene. Purified TTF-1 binds to three regions of TPO which are protected by FRTL-5 proteins. Two of the binding sites overlap with recognition sites for other DNA-binding proteins. One TTF-1 site can also bind a protein (UFB) present in the nuclei of both expressing and nonexpressing cells. TTF-1 binding to the proximal region overlaps with that for a novel protein present in FRTL-5 cells which can also recognize the promoter-proximal region of Tg. Using a combination of techniques, the factor binding to the fourth TPO promoter site was shown to be TTF-2. We conclude, therefore, that the FRTL-5-specific expression of two thyroid restricted genes, encoding TPO and Tg, relies on a combination of the same trans-acting factors present in thyroid cells.
Images
PMCID: PMC364231  PMID: 1732732
23.  Endogenous antigen presentation by autoantigen-transfected Epstein-Barr virus-lymphoblastoid cells. I. Generation of human thyroid peroxidase-reactive T cells and their T cell receptor repertoire. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1993;91(4):1567-1574.
To develop a model for endogenous thyroid autoantigen presentation, we transfected EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell lines (EBV-LCL), established from patients with autoimmune thyroid disease and normal controls, with cDNA for the human thyroid autoantigen thyroid peroxidase (hTPO). hTPO-antigen presentation to patient peripheral blood T cells was demonstrated after stimulation in vitro for 7 d with irradiated hTPO-transfected or untransfected autologous EBV-LCL. Anti-hTPO-reactive T cells were subsequently cloned in the presence of irradiated, autologous hTPO-transfected EBV-LCL and IL-2.10 T cell-cloned lines exhibited specific hTPO-induced proliferation (stimulation indices of 2.1-7.9) towards autologous hTPO-transfected EBV-LCL, and were subjected to human T cell receptor (hTCR) V gene analysis, using the PCR for the detection of V alpha and V beta hTcR gene families. The results indicated a preferential use of hTCR V alpha 1 and/or V alpha 3 in 9 of the 10 lines. In contrast, hTCR V beta gene family use was more variable. These data demonstrate a model for the endogenous presentation of human thyroid peroxidase in the absence of other thyroid specific antigens. The high frequency of antigen-specific T cells obtained from PBMC using this technique will facilitate further studies at both the functional and hTCR V gene level.
Images
PMCID: PMC288132  PMID: 7682574
24.  Genetics of congenital hypothyroidism 
Journal of Medical Genetics  2005;42(5):379-389.
Congenital hypothyroidism is the most common neonatal metabolic disorder and results in severe neurodevelopmental impairment and infertility if untreated. Congenital hypothyroidism is usually sporadic but up to 2% of thyroid dysgenesis is familial, and congenital hypothyroidism caused by organification defects is often recessively inherited. The candidate genes associated with this genetically heterogeneous disorder form two main groups: those causing thyroid gland dysgenesis and those causing dyshormonogenesis. Genes associated with thyroid gland dysgenesis include the TSH receptor in non-syndromic congenital hypothyroidism, and Gsα and the thyroid transcription factors (TTF-1, TTF-2, and Pax-8), associated with different complex syndromes that include congenital hypothyroidism. Among those causing dyshormonogenesis, the thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin genes were initially described, and more recently PDS (Pendred syndrome), NIS (sodium iodide symporter), and THOX2 (thyroid oxidase 2) gene defects. There is also early evidence for a third group of congenital hypothyroid conditions associated with iodothyronine transporter defects associated with severe neurological sequelae. This review focuses on the genetic aspects of primary congenital hypothyroidism.
doi:10.1136/jmg.2004.024158
PMCID: PMC1736062  PMID: 15863666
25.  Detection of heterozygous c.1708C>T and c.1978C>G thyroid peroxidase (TPO) mutations in Iraqi patients with toxic and nontoxic goiter 
Comparative Clinical Pathology  2012;23(1):69-75.
Sixty-three Arabic patients (16 males and 47 females) with thyroid toxic and nontoxic goiter who attended the endocrinologist in Nuclear Medicine Hospital and Al Yarmok Nuclear Medicine Department in Baghdad, Iraq were examined for thyroid peroxidase (TPO) gene mutations. A total of ten heterozygous mutations have been identified in the human TPO gene associated with thyroid toxic and nontoxic goiter. These mutations involved transition or transversion of cysteine either by thymine or guanine at the position 1708 of the exon 10 (c.1708C>T) and the position 1978 of the exon 11 (c.1978C>G). From a total of ten detected mutations, two c.1978C>G mutations were detected in nontoxic goiter patients and eight (two c.1708C>T and six c.1978C>G mutations) were detected in toxic goiter. In conclusion, this study identified ten TPO mutations associated with toxic and nontoxic goiter that have not been yet reported in Iraq, and most of them are detected among females (90 %) and adults age between 30 and 50 years old (80 %).
doi:10.1007/s00580-012-1572-9
PMCID: PMC3890059  PMID: 24482635
Thyroid disorders; TPO; c.1708C>T; c.1978C>G; Mutation

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