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1.  Active synovial matrix metalloproteinase-2 is associated with radiographic erosions in patients with early synovitis 
Arthritis Research  2000;2(2):145-153.
Serum and synovial tissue expression of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 and their molecular regulators, MMP-14 and TIMP-2 was examined in 28 patients with inflammatory early synovitis and 4 healthy volunteers and correlated with the presence of erosions in the patients. Immunohistological staining of MMP-2, MMP-14 and TIMP-2 localized to corresponding areas in the synovial lining layer and was almost absent in normal synovium. Patients with radiographic erosions had significantly higher levels of active MMP-2 than patients with no erosions, suggesting that activated MMP-2 levels in synovial tissue may be a marker for a more aggressive synovial lesion.
In cancer the gelatinases [matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9] have been shown to be associated with tissue invasion and metastatic disease. In patients with inflammatory arthritis the gelatinases are expressed in the synovial membrane, and have been implicated in synovial tissue invasion into adjacent cartilage and bone. It is hypothesized that an imbalance between the activators and inhibitors of the gelatinases results in higher levels of activity, enhanced local proteolysis, and bone erosion.
To determine whether the expression and activity levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9, and their regulators MMP-14 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP), are associated with early erosion formation in patients with synovitis of recent onset.
Patients and method:
A subset of 66 patients was selected from a larger early synovitis cohort on the basis of tissue availability for the study of synovial tissue and serum gelatinase expression. Patients with peripheral joint synovitis of less than 1 years' duration were evaluated clinically and serologically on four visits over a period of 12 months. At the initial visit, patients underwent a synovial tissue biopsy of one swollen joint, and patients had radiographic evaluation of hands and feet initially and at 1year. Serum MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-14, and TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels were determined, and synovial tissue was examined by immunohistology for the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9, and their molecular regulators. Gelatinolytic activity for MMP-2 and MMP-9 was quantified using a sensitive, tissue-based gel zymography technique. Four healthy individuals underwent closed synovial biopsy and their synovial tissues were similarly analyzed.
Of the 66 patients studied, 45 fulfilled American College of Rheumatology criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), with 32 (71%) being rheumatoid factor positive. Of the 21 non-RA patients, seven had a spondylarthropathy and 14 had undifferentiated arthritis. Radiographically, 12 of the RA patients had erosions at multiple sites by 1 year, whereas none of the non-RA patients had developed erosive disease of this extent. In the tissue, latent MMP-2 was widely expressed in the synovial lining layer and in areas of stromal proliferation in the sublining layer and stroma, whereas MMP-9 was expressed more sparsely and focally. MMP-14, TIMP-2, and MMP-2 were all detected in similar areas of the lining layer on consecutive histologic sections. Tissue expression of MMP-14, the activator for pro-MMP-2, was significantly higher in RA than in non-RA patients (8.4 ± 5 versus 3.7 ± 4 cells/high-power field; P = 0.009). In contrast, the expression of TIMP-2, an inhibitor of MMP-2, was lower in the RA than in the non-RA samples (25 ± 12 versus 39 ± 9 cells/high-power field; P = 0.01). Synovial tissue expressions of MMP-2, MMP-14, and TIMP-2 were virtually undetectable in normal synovial tissue samples. The synovial tissue samples of patients with erosive disease had significantly higher levels of active MMP-2 than did those of patients without erosions (Fig. 1). Tissue expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9, however, did not correlate with the serum levels of these enzymes.
With the exception of serum MMP-2, which was not elevated over normal, serum levels of all of the other MMPs and TIMPs were elevated to varying degrees, and were not predictive of erosive disease. Interestingly, MMP-1 and C-reactive protein, both of which were associated with the presence of erosions, were positively correlated with each other (r = 0.42; P < 0.001).
MMP-2 and MMP-9 are thought to play an important role in the evolution of joint erosions in patients with an inflammatory arthritis. Most studies have concentrated on the contribution of MMP-9 to the synovitis, because synovial fluid and serum MMP-9 levels are markedly increased in inflammatory arthropathies. Previously reported serum levels of MMP-9 have varied widely. In the present sample of patients with synovitis of recent onset, serum MMP-9 levels were elevated in only 21%. Moreover, these elevations were not specific for RA, the tissue expression of MMP-9 was focal, and the levels of MMP-9 activity were not well correlated with early erosions. Although serum MMP-2 levels were not of prognostic value, high synovial tissue levels of MMP-2 activity were significantly correlated with the presence of early erosions. This may reflect augmented activation of MMP-2 by the relatively high levels of MMP-14 and low levels of TIMP-2 seen in these tissues. We were able to localize the components of this trimolecular complex to the synovial lining layer in consecutive tissue sections, a finding that is consistent with their colocalization.
In conclusion, we have provided evidence that active MMP-2 complexes are detectable in the inflamed RA synovium and may be involved in the development of early bony erosions. These results suggest that strategies to inhibit the activation of MMP-2 may have the potential for retarding or preventing early erosions in patients with inflammatory arthritis.
PMCID: PMC17808  PMID: 11062605
early synovitis; erosion; metalloproteinase; matrix metalloproteinase-2; rheumatoid arthritis
2.  Profiling of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases proteins in bladder urothelial carcinoma 
Oncology Letters  2010;1(4):691-695.
We investigated the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMPs) proteins in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) cell lines and surgical specimens of the bladder neoplasm. The expression level was correlated to the degree of cellular differentiation and invasiveness of bladder cancer. Panels of six TCC cell lines with different degrees of differentiation were tested with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9a, MMP-9b, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 by immunocytochemistry. Gelatin zymography was also conducted on the cell lines for MMP-2 and -9. In addition, immunohistochemistry with the mAbs to MMP and TIM molecules was performed on 30 TCC specimens. We found that TCC cell lines were stained positively for MMP-1 (6/6), weakly for MMP-9a (2/6), MMP9b (5/6) and TIMP-1 (3/6), and negatively for MMP-2 (3/6) and MMP-3 (3/6). Zymographic analysis of the cell lines showed a high level of MMP2 in the MGH-U4 cell line. In bladder cancer surgical specimens, all specimens were positive for MMP1 (30/30), 19 were positive for MMP-2 (63.3%), 21 positive for MMP-9a (70%) and 15 positive for MMP-9b (50%). The expression of MMP-2 was found to be positively correlated with higher-grade tumors (p=0.036) and the expression of MMP-9a and -9b was found to be positively correlated with tumor stage (p=0.012 and 0.023, respectively). However, the expression of MMP-1, MMP-3, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 was not correlated with either tumor staging or grading. In conclusion, the expression of MMP-2 and -9 was correlated with high-grade or high-stage bladder tumors, respectively. However, this correlation was not observed with TCC cell lines in which high- and low-grade tumors are included. Immunohistochemical results on tumor lesions may have more clinical relevance, since in a given tumor microenvironment the interaction among tumor cells in situ and tumor-associated cells, such as neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes and endothelial cells, as well as environmental factors (hypoxia and pH), cytokines and growth factors released by these cells may be required for TCC to express selective MMPs and TIMPs. The selective expression of these molecules then regulates tumor progression.
PMCID: PMC3436408  PMID: 22966365
bladder neoplasm; metastasis; matrix metalloproteinases; cell line; tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases
3.  Correlation between MMPs and their inhibitors in breast cancer tumor tissue specimens and in cell lines with different metastatic potential 
BMC Cancer  2009;9:20.
The metastatic disease rather than the primary tumor itself is responsible for death in most solid tumors, including breast cancer. The role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) and Reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK) in the metastatic process has previously been established. However, in all published studies only a limited number of MMPs/MMP inhibitors was analyzed in a limited number of cell lines. Here, we propose a more comprehensive approach by analyzing the expression levels of several MMPs (MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-14) and MMP inhibitors (TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and RECK) in different models (five human breast cancer cell lines, 72 primary breast tumors and 30 adjacent normal tissues).
We analyzed the expression levels of MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-14 and their inhibitors (TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and RECK) by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) in five human breast cancer cell lines presenting increased invasiveness and metastatic potential, 72 primary breast tumors and 30 adjacent normal tissues. Moreover, the role of cell-extracellular matrix elements interactions in the regulation of expression and activity of MMPs and their inhibitors was analyzed by culturing these cell lines on plastic or on artificial ECM (Matrigel).
The results demonstrated that MMPs mRNA expression levels displayed a positive and statistically significant correlation with the transcriptional expression levels of their inhibitors both in the cell line models and in the tumor tissue samples. Furthermore, the expression of all MMP inhibitors was modulated by cell-Matrigel contact only in highly invasive and metastatic cell lines. The enzyme/inhibitor balance at the transcriptional level significantly favors the enzyme which is more evident in tumor than in adjacent non-tumor tissue samples.
Our results suggest that the expression of MMPs and their inhibitors, at least at the transcriptional level, might be regulated by common factors and signaling pathways. Therefore, the multi-factorial analysis of these molecules could provide new and independent prognostic information contributing to the determination of more adequate therapy strategies for each patient.
PMCID: PMC2631003  PMID: 19144199
4.  Expression of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in different immunohistochemical-based molecular subtypes of breast cancer 
BMC Cancer  2014;14(1):959.
Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are involved in several key pathways of tumor growth, invasion and metastasis, but little is known about their expression according to different molecular subtypes of breast cancer. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence and clinical significance of MMP and TIMP expression in invasive breast cancer and to determine its association with immunohistochemical-based molecular classification.
Tissue microarray sections were immunostained for estrogen receptor-α (ER-α), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), cytokeratin (CK) 5/6, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and with specific antibodies against MMP-1, 2, 7, 9, 11, 13, and 14 and TIMP-1, 2, and 3. Based on the immunostaining data from five of the markers used (ER-α, PR, HER2, EGFR and CK5/6), three major subtypes (123 luminal A, 31 basal-like, and 17 HER2-overexpressing) were selected.
Statistically significant differences in the expression of MMPs and TIMPs among the three subtypes were found in tumoral MMP7 (P = 0.005), tumoral MMP-9 (P = 0.000), tumoral MMP-13 (P = 0.016) and stromal MMP-13 (P = 0.016). The incidence of tumoral MMP-9 expression in the HER2-overexpressing subtype was significantly higher than in the luminal A subtype (P = 0.021). Tumoral MMP-9 and stromal MMP-13 expression were significantly higher in the HER2-overexpressing subtype than in the basal-like subtype (P = 0.000 and P = 0.016, respectively). Tumoral MMP-7 expression was significantly higher in the basal-like subtype compared to luminal A (P = 0.007) and HER2-overexpressing subtype (P = 0.004). Tumoral MMP-13 showed a higher expression in the basal-like subtype than in the HER2-overexpressing subtype (P = 0.010). In multivariate analysis, stage and stromal MMP-1 expression were significantly related to overall survival. Stage was of independent prognostic significance for disease-free survival.
We found some variations in MMP and TIMP expression among the immunohistochemical-based molecular subtypes of breast carcinomas, suggesting differences in their tumor pathophysiology. Additional studies are needed to determine the mechanisms underlying the differences of MMP and TIMP expression in the molecular subtypes for the development of specific therapeutic targets for breast cancer subtypes.
PMCID: PMC4301952  PMID: 25510449
Breast cancer; Molecular subtype; Immunohistochemistry; Matrix metalloproteinase; Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase
5.  TGF-β1 modulates the homeostasis between MMPs and MMP inhibitors through p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 in highly invasive breast cancer cells 
BMC Cancer  2012;12:26.
Metastasis is the main factor responsible for death in breast cancer patients. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors, known as tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs), and the membrane-associated MMP inhibitor (RECK), are essential for the metastatic process. We have previously shown a positive correlation between MMPs and their inhibitors expression during breast cancer progression; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this coordinate regulation remain unknown. In this report, we investigated whether TGF-β1 could be a common regulator for MMPs, TIMPs and RECK in human breast cancer cell models.
The mRNA expression levels of TGF-β isoforms and their receptors were analyzed by qRT-PCR in a panel of five human breast cancer cell lines displaying different degrees of invasiveness and metastatic potential. The highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cell line was treated with different concentrations of recombinant TGF-β1 and also with pharmacological inhibitors of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2. The migratory and invasive potential of these treated cells were examined in vitro by transwell assays.
In general, TGF-β2, TβRI and TβRII are over-expressed in more aggressive cells, except for TβRI, which was also highly expressed in ZR-75-1 cells. In addition, TGF-β1-treated MDA-MB-231 cells presented significantly increased mRNA expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-14, TIMP-2 and RECK. TGF-β1 also increased TIMP-2, MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein levels but downregulated RECK expression. Furthermore, we analyzed the involvement of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2, representing two well established Smad-independent pathways, in the proposed mechanism. Inhibition of p38MAPK blocked TGF-β1-increased mRNA expression of all MMPs and MMP inhibitors analyzed, and prevented TGF-β1 upregulation of TIMP-2 and MMP-2 proteins. Moreover, ERK1/2 inhibition increased RECK and prevented the TGF-β1 induction of pro-MMP-9 and TIMP-2 proteins. TGF-β1-enhanced migration and invasion capacities were blocked by p38MAPK, ERK1/2 and MMP inhibitors.
Altogether, our results support that TGF-β1 modulates the mRNA and protein levels of MMPs (MMP-2 and MMP-9) as much as their inhibitors (TIMP-2 and RECK). Therefore, this cytokine plays a crucial role in breast cancer progression by modulating key elements of ECM homeostasis control. Thus, although the complexity of this signaling network, TGF-β1 still remains a promising target for breast cancer treatment.
PMCID: PMC3277461  PMID: 22260435
6.  Intrinsic genetic characteristics determine tumor-modifying capacity of fibroblasts: matrix metalloproteinase-3 5A/5A genotype enhances breast cancer cell invasion 
Stromal fibroblasts can contribute to tumor invasion through the release of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Population studies have suggested that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MMP genes influence levels of expression and may be associated with breast cancer risk and with disease progression. This study directly examined the impact of MMP SNP genotype on the ability of host fibroblasts to promote tumor cell invasion.
Primary breast fibroblasts were isolated from patients with (n = 13) or without (n = 19) breast cancer, and their ability to promote breast cancer cell invasion was measured in in vitro invasion assays. Fibroblast invasion-promoting capacity (IPC) was analyzed in relation to donor type (tumor or non-tumor patient), MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-9 SNP genotype and MMP activity using independent samples t test and analysis of variance. All statistical tests were two-sided.
Tumor-derived fibroblasts promoted higher levels of invasion than normal fibroblasts (p = 0.041). When IPC was related to genotype, higher levels of IPC were generated by tumor fibroblasts with the high-expressing MMP-3 5A/5A genotype compared with the 5A/6A and 6A/6A genotypes (p = 0.05 and 0.07, respectively), and this was associated with enhanced MMP-3 release. The functional importance of MMP-3 was demonstrated by enhanced invasion in the presence of recombinant MMP-3, whereas reduction occurred in the presence of a specific MMP-3 inhibitor. An inverse relationship was demonstrated between fibroblast IPC and the high-expressing MMP-1 genotype (p = 0.031), but no relationship was seen with MMP-9 SNP status. In contrast, normal fibroblasts showed no variation in IPC in relation to MMP genotype, with MMP-3 5A/5A fibroblasts exhibiting significantly lower levels of IPC than their tumor-derived counterparts (p = 0.04).
This study has shown that tumor-derived fibroblasts exhibit higher levels of IPC than normal fibroblasts and that the MMP-3 5A/5A genotype contributes to this through enhanced MMP-3 release. Despite a high-expressing genotype, normal fibroblasts do not exhibit higher IPC or enhanced MMP release. This suggests that more complex changes occur in tumor-derived fibroblasts, enabling full expression of the MMP SNP genotype and these possibly are epigenetic in nature. The results do suggest that, in women with breast cancer, a high-expressing MMP-3 genotype may promote tumor progression more effectively.
PMCID: PMC2242664  PMID: 17922906
7.  Matrix metalloproteinase-9, -10, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 blood levels as biomarkers of severity and mortality in sepsis 
Critical Care  2009;13(5):R158.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a role in infectious diseases through extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, which favors the migration of immune cells from the bloodstream to sites of inflammation. Although higher levels of MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) have been found in small series of patients with sepsis, MMP-10 levels have not been studied in this setting. The objective of this study was to determine the predictive value of MMP-9, MMP-10, and TIMP-1 on clinical severity and mortality in a large series of patients with severe sepsis.
This was a multicenter, observational, and prospective study carried out in six Spanish Intensive Care Units. We included 192 (125 surviving and 67 nonsurviving) patients with severe sepsis and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy controls in the study. Serum levels of MMP-9, MMP-10, TIMP-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and interleukin (IL)-10 were measured in patients with severe sepsis at the time of diagnosis and in healthy controls.
Sepsis patients had higher levels of MMP-10 and TIMP-1, higher MMP-10/TIMP-1 ratios, and lower MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratios than did healthy controls (P < 0.001). An association was found between MMP-9, MMP-10, TIMP-1, and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratios and parameters of sepsis severity, assessed by the SOFA score, the APACHE-II score, lactic acid, platelet count, and markers of coagulopathy. Nonsurviving sepsis patients had lower levels of MMP-9 (P = 0.037), higher levels of TIMP-1 (P < 0.001), lower MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio (P = 0.003), higher levels of IL-10 (P < 0.001), and lower TNF-α/IL-10 ratio than did surviving patients. An association was found between MMP-9, MMP-10, and TIMP-1 levels, and TNF-α and IL-10 levels. The risk of death in sepsis patients with TIMP-1 values greater than 531 ng/ml was 80% higher than that in patients with lower values (RR = 1.80; 95% CI = 1.13 to 2.87;P = 0.01; sensitivity = 0.73; specificity = 0.45).
The novel findings of our study on patients with severe sepsis (to our knowledge, the largest series reporting data about MMP levels in sepsis) are that reduced MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratios and increased MMP-10 levels may be of great pathophysiologic significance in terms of severity and mortality, and that TIMP-1 levels may represent a biomarker to predict the clinical outcome of patients with sepsis.
PMCID: PMC2784384  PMID: 19799791
8.  Expression of the Matrix Metalloproteases 2, 14, 24, and 25 and Tissue Inhibitor 3 as Potential Molecular Markers in Advanced Human Gastric Cancer 
Disease Markers  2014;2014:285906.
Background. During progression of gastric cancer (GC), degradation of the extracellular matrix is mediated by the matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs): changes in the expression of these have been related to unfavorable prognosis in GC. Objective. To analyze the expression of certain MMPs and TIMPs in chronic superficial gastritis (SG) and GC. Methods. The expression of MMPs and TIMPs was determined using qRT-PCR; the expression was classified, using threshold cycle (CT) values, as very high (CT ≤ 25), high (CT = 26–30), moderate (CT = 31–35), low (CT = 36–39), or not detected (CT = 40). Strength of association was estimated between the proteins, which were detected by Western blot, and the risk of developing GC. Results. We found a high expression of MMP1, MMP2, MMP14, TIMP1, and TIMP3; moderate one of MMP9 and MMP25, and low one of MMP13 and MMP24 in both tissues. In absolute mRNA levels, significant differences were found in expression of MMP2, MMP24, and MMP25, which are overexpressed in GC compared with SG. The presence of the proteins MMP-14 and TIMP-3 was associated with the risk of developing GC. Conclusions. We consider that MMP2, MMP24, and MMP25 and the proteins MMP-14 and TIMP-3 could be candidates for prognostic molecular markers in GC.
PMCID: PMC3942291  PMID: 24669030
9.  Tumor-derived Matrix Metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) correlates with poor prognoses of invasive breast cancer 
BMC Cancer  2008;8:83.
Experimental evidence suggests that matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) protein may promote breast tumor progression. However, its relevance to the progression of human breast cancer is yet to be established. Furthermore, it is not clear whether MMP-13 can be used as an independent breast cancer biomarker. This study was conducted to assess the expression profile of MMP-13 protein in invasive breast carcinomas to determine its diagnostic and prognostic significance, as well as its correlation with other biomarkers including estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), Her-2/neu, MMP-2, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of MMP-1 and -2 (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2).
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue microarray containing specimens from 263 breast carcinomas. The intensity and the extent of IHC were scored by pathologists in blind fashion. The correlation of the gene expression profiles with patients' clinicopathological features and clinical outcomes were analyzed for statistical significance.
MMP-13 protein was detected in the cytoplasm of the malignant cells and the peritumoral stromal cells. MMP-13 expression by tumor cells (p < 0.001) and stromal fibroblasts (p <0.001) both correlated with carcinoma infiltration of lymph nodes. MMP-13 also correlated with the expression of Her-2/neu (p = 0.015) and TIMP-1 (p < 0.010), respectively in tumor cells. Tumor-derived, but not stromal fibroblast-derived, MMP-13 correlated with aggressive tumor phenotypes. Moreover, high levels of MMP-13 expression were associated with decreased overall survival. In parallel, the prognostic value of MMP-13 expressed by peritumoral fibroblasts seems less significant. Our data suggest that lymph node status, tumor size, Her-2/neu expression, TIMP-1 and MMP-13 expression in cancer cells are independent prognostic factors.
Tumor-derived, but not stromal fibroblast-derived, MMP-13 correlated with aggressive tumor phenotypes, and inversely correlated with the overall survival of breast cancer patients. MMP-13 may serve as an independent prognostic factor for invasive breast cancer patients. MMP-13 may be particularly useful as a prognostic marker when evaluated along with Her-2/neu and lymph node status.
PMCID: PMC2362123  PMID: 18373849
10.  Clinical significance and prognostic value of S100A4 and matrix metalloproteinase-14 in patients with organ-confined bladder cancer 
Various therapeutic modalities are available for treatment of bladder cancer, and their effectiveness and patient outcome often depend on cancer cell invasiveness. However, the mechanisms underlying the early steps of bladder cancer cell invasion remain unknown. This study aimed to clarify the relationships between S100A4 expression and bladder cancer invasion of surrounding muscles, prognosis and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-14 in patients with organ-confined bladder cancer. S100A4 and MMP-14 expression was analyzed in 85 cases of organ-confined (pTa, pT1 and pT2) bladder cancer using immunohistochemical technique. The expression levels were compared among the pTa, pT1 and pT2 tumors. In addition, the predictive values of S100A4 or MMP-14 expression for muscle invasion, metastasis and survival were investigated, as was the possible correlation between the expression of the two proteins. The proportion of S100A4-positive cancer cells in pT2 tumors (53%) was significantly higher (p<0.001) than in pTa (38.7%) or pT1 (40.9%) tumors; there was no difference between pTa and pT1. The results were similar for MMP-14 expression, which was significantly correlated with S100A4 expression (r=0.360, p<0.001). S100A4 expression predicted metastasis-free survival (p=0.009), but not cause-specific survival. The results implicated S100A4 in the early steps of muscle invasion via MMP-14, but not for mucosal invasion. S100A4 is therefore a potential therapeutic target for bladder cancer, and its expression is a risk factor for muscle invasion in patients with superficial tumors. In addition, S100A4 expression may be a useful prognostic factor for metastasis in patients with organ-confined bladder cancer.
PMCID: PMC3490373  PMID: 23136588
bladder cancer; S100A4; matrix metalloproteinase-14; muscle invasion; disease-specific survival
11.  Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Their Inhibitors in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Tonsil and Their Clinical Significance 
To investigate expressions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil and to correlate expression profiles with clinicopathological characteristics.
Paraffin blocks were obtained from 45 tonsil squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients, who underwent surgery as an initial treatment between 1994 and 2004, and from 20 normal controls. Expressions of MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-13, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 were investigated immunohistochemically.
The expressions of MMPs (except MMP-2) and TIMPs were found to be significantly different in tonsil SCC and normal control tissues. Furthermore, MMP-13 expression was found to be correlated with tumor invasion (P=0.05), and the expressions of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 with nodal metastasis (P=0.048, 0.031). No relation was found between MMP or TIMP expression and recurrence. However, MMP-9 expression was found to be significantly associated with 5-year survival in tonsil SCC patients by multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 3.853; P=0.013).
Significant overexpressions of multiple MMPs and TIMPs were found in tonsil SCC tissues. Furthermore, our findings suggest that MMP-9 expression might be a useful prognostic factor.
PMCID: PMC3109333  PMID: 21716956
MMP; TIMP; Tonsil; Squamous cell carcinoma; Prognosis
12.  Expression of MMP-2, −7, −9, MT1-MMP and TIMP-1 and −2 has no prognostic relevance in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer 
Oncology Reports  2012;27(4):1049-1057.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) are involved in tumor invasion, but their prognostic significance is still under discussion. We set out to analyze the epithelial and stromal expression of MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in advanced epithelial ovarian cancers and to assess their prognostic value. A tissue microarray of malignant ovarian tumors from 69 patients was constructed. Immunostaining results were scored using the HSCORE and assessed by univariate analysis with Bonferroni correction and classical multidimensional scaling (CMDS). Kaplan-Meier survival curves calculated with regard to patient and tumor characteristics were compared by the log-rank test. Patients treated by primary surgery (n=43) had a higher tumor size and a trend toward higher epithelial MMP and TIMP expression than those treated by interval surgery (n=26). Optimal cytoreduction (residue ≤1 cm) was obtained in 27 and 18 patients, respectively. Clinical and histological characteristics were not different in patients with optimal cytoreduction and those with suboptimal cytoreduction. The expression of epithelial MMP-9 (P=0.002) and TIMP-2 (P=0.026) were higher in the latter group. CMDS failed to demonstrate any influence of MMP and TIMP expression with regard to cytoreduction outcome. MMP and TIMP expression did not influence survival. Their prognostic values were outweighed by histological type, lymph node involvement and cytoreduction. Standard statistical analysis adjusted after Bonferroni correction and CMDS reduced the relevance of MMPs and TIMPs in the prognosis of patients with advanced ovarian cancer.
PMCID: PMC3583568  PMID: 22200690
matrix metalloproteinase; prognosis; ovarian neoplasms
13.  Changes in the expression of MMP2, MMP9, and ColIV in stromal cells in oral squamous tongue cell carcinoma: relationships and prognostic implications 
Type IV collagen (ColIV) is the most important scaffold for the basement membrane (BM) proteins, and plays an important role in regulating and limiting tumour invasion and metastasis.
Here, we observed the changes in morphology and distribution of type IV collagen (ColIV) in the basement membrane (BM) surrounding nests of carcinoma in 48 patients with oral tongue squamous cell (OTSCC). We examined the correlation between the expressions of ColIV, MMP-2 and MMP-9 and the prognosis of OTSCC patients. The intensity and patterns of expression were assessed immunohistochemically using anti-human mouse monoclonal MMP-2, MMP-9 and Col IV antibodies. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the prognostic correlations of ColIV, MMP-2, and MMP-9 levels.
MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions in OTSCC were higher than those in normal oral mucosa and dysplastic oral mucosa group(MMP-2 iOD: 66.40 ± 24.20, 134.69 ± 37.08, and 357.79 ± 116.78; MMP-9 iOD: 88.05 ± 23.85, 307.13 ± 93.22, and 791.31 ± 260.52; in normal, dysplastic oral mucosa, and tumour tissues, respectively, P < 0.01); however, ColIV immunoreactivity was lower (ColIV iOD: 406.87 ± 62.95, 247.83 ± 42.30, and 151.92 ± 38.17 in normal, dysplastic oral mucosa, and tumour tissues, respectively, P < 0.01). High tumour and stromal MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression was significantly associated with positive lymph node status. Col IV expression was associated with positive lymph node status (P < 0.05), and have negatively correlated with the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Overall survival was significantly shorter in patients with high tumour and stromal MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression, and tended to be shorter in patients with low ColIV expression.
Degradation of ColIV was closely related to increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression; MMP-9 have more important function than MMP-2 during the cancer development. Monitoring changes in the expression of ColIV, MMP-2, and MMP-9 may be a useful technique for assessing prognoses in OTSCC patients.
PMCID: PMC3490717  PMID: 23107277
Oral tongue squamous carcinoma; MMPs; ColIV; Immunohistochemistry; Prognosis
14.  Expression of tissue levels of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in renal cell carcinoma 
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are one of the major classes of proteolytic enzymes involved in tumor invasion and metastasis and are inhibited by naturally occurring tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). {AU Query: Please verify that corrections made to previous sentence did not alter intended meaning}. In this study, we examined the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, membrane-type 1 (MT1)-MMP, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in renal tissue samples of renal cell cancer and examined the correlation between their expression and clinicopathological parameters.
Renal tissue samples from 76 patients with renal cell carcinoma were available for this study. To determine the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2, semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was carried out on tumor and normal tissues.
Mean MMP-2, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 mRNA expression in the renal cell carcinomas was significantly higher than in the normal renal tissue (P <0.05). The RT-PCR data of MMP-2, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 did not show any significant correlation with tumor type or pathologic grade of renal cell carcinoma. MMP-2, MMP-9 and MT1-MMP mRNA expression increased significantly with the TNM stage of the tumor.
Mean MMP-2, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 mRNA expression in the renal cell carcinomas was significantly higher than in the normal renal tissue.
PMCID: PMC3548713  PMID: 23281640
Matrix metalloproteinase; Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase; Semi-quantitative RT-PCR; Renal cell carcinoma
15.  Urinary high molecular weight matrix metalloproteinases as non-invasive biomarker for detection of bladder cancer 
BMC Urology  2013;13:25.
Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key molecules for tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. Over-expression of different MMPs in tumor tissues can disturb the homeostasis and increase the level of various body fluids. Many MMPs including high molecular weights (HMWs) were detected in the urine of prostate and bladder cancer patients. Our aim here is to assess the usefulness of HMW MMPs as non invasive biomarkers in bilharzial bladder cancer in Egyptian patients.
The activity of different MMPs including HMW species was determined using zymographic analysis technique in the urine samples procured from sixty six bladder cancer patients (bilharzial and non-bilharzial) as well as hundred healthy control subjects. Also, the correlation between these HMW MMPs activities and different clinico-pathological parameters was investigated.
High frequency of urine MMPs (uMMPs) activity was determined in 63.6% of examined tumor cases, however, none of the control cases showed any uMMPs activity. MMP-9 had the highest activity (62%) followed by MMP9/NGAL (60%), MMP-2 (54.5%), MMP-9 dimer (53%), ADAMTS (25.6%), and the lowest one was MMP-9/TIMP-1 (12%) only. There was no correlation between uMMPs and any of clinico-pathological parameters including age, gender, tumor size and type, bilharziasis, grade, lymph node involvement, and invasion to the prostate. A significant correlation was established only between MMP-9/TIMP-1 activities with the tumor size.
This study revealed that the detection of urinary MMPs including HMWs activity might be sensitive biomarkers for prediction of bladder cancer. It is also demonstrate that the detection of these urinary HMW gelatinases could not differentiate between bilharzial and non bilharzial bladder cancer subtypes.
PMCID: PMC3656799  PMID: 23672427
Bladder cancer; High molecular weight matrix metalloproteinases; Early detection; Biomarkers
16.  HPV16 Oncoproteins Induce MMPs/RECK-TIMP-2 Imbalance in Primary Keratinocytes: Possible Implications in Cervical Carcinogenesis 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(3):e33585.
Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV types, principally HPV16 and 18 is the main risk factor for the development of this malignancy. However, the onset of invasive tumor occurs many years after initial exposure in a minority of infected women. This suggests that other factors beyond viral infection are necessary for tumor establishment and progression. Tumor progression is characterized by an increase in secretion and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) produced by either the tumor cells themselves or tumor-associated fibroblasts or macrophages. Increased MMPs expression, including MMP-2, MMP-9 and MT1-MMP, has been observed during cervical carcinoma progression. These proteins have been associated with degradation of ECM components, tumor invasion, metastasis and recurrence. However, few studies have evaluated the interplay between HPV infection and the expression and activity of MMPs and their regulators in cervical cancer. We analyzed the effect of HPV16 oncoproteins on the expression and activity of MMP-2, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, and their inhibitors TIMP-2 and RECK in cultures of human keratinocytes. We observed that E7 expression is associated with increased pro-MMP-9 activity in the epithelial component of organotypic cultures, while E6 and E7 oncoproteins co-expression down-regulates RECK and TIMP-2 levels in organotypic and monolayers cultures. Finally, a study conducted in human cervical tissues showed a decrease in RECK expression levels in precancer and cancer lesions. Our results indicate that HPV oncoproteins promote MMPs/RECK-TIMP-2 imbalance which may be involved in HPV-associated lesions outcome.
PMCID: PMC3306414  PMID: 22438955
17.  miR-21 may acts as an oncomir by targeting RECK, a matrix metalloproteinase regulator, in prostate cancer 
BMC Urology  2012;12:14.
Prognosis of prostate cancer (PCa) is based mainly in histological aspects together with PSA serum levels that not always reflect the real aggressive potential of the neoplasia. The micro RNA (miRNA) mir-21 has been shown to regulate invasiveness in cancer through translational repression of the Metaloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor RECK. Our aim is to investigate the levels of expression of RECK and miR-21 in PCa comparing with classical prognostic factors and disease outcome and also test if RECK is a target of miR-21 in in vitro study using PCa cell line.
Materials and methods
To determine if RECK is a target of miR-21 in prostate cancer we performed an in vitro assay with PCa cell line DU-145 transfected with pre-miR-21 and anti-miR-21. To determine miR-21 and RECK expression levels in PCa samples we performed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).
The in vitro assays showed a decrease in expression levels of RECK after transfection with pre-miR-21, and an increase of MMP9 that is regulated by RECK compared to PCa cells treated with anti-miR-21. We defined three profiles to compare the prognostic factors. The first was characterized by miR-21 and RECK underexpression (N = 25) the second was characterized by miR-21 overexpression and RECK underexpression (N = 12), and the third was characterized by miR-21 underexpression and RECK overexpression (N = 16). From men who presented the second profile (miR-21 overexpression and RECK underexpression) 91.7% were staged pT3. For the other two groups 48.0%, and 46.7% of patients were staged pT3 (p = 0.025).
Our results demonstrate RECK as a target of miR-21. We believe that miR-21 may be important in PCa progression through its regulation of RECK, a known regulator of tumor cell invasion.
PMCID: PMC3431982  PMID: 22642976
Prostate cancer; Prognosis; RECK; Micro RNA; Metaloproteinases
18.  Imbalance between serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 and its inhibitor as a predictor of recurrence of urothelial cancer. 
British Journal of Cancer  1998;77(4):650-655.
Serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) were evaluated as prognostic indicators of the recurrence of urothelial cancer. Sera were obtained from 127 healthy control subjects and 97 urothelial cancer patients who underwent complete resection and were measured for MMP-2 and TIMP-2 using a one-step enzyme immunoassay. The relationship between the serum MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio and the recurrence of urothelial cancer was examined. The mean serum MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio in the 31 advanced urothelial cancer patients with recurrence was significantly higher than that in the 22 patients without recurrence (P = 0.0029) and in the 44 superficial bladder cancer patients (P < 0.0001). The 1- and 3-year disease-free survival rates in the patients with high MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratios (50% and 12%) were significantly poorer than those of the patients with normal ratios (82% and 56%) (P = 0.0152). Univariate and multivariate analyses of recurrence demonstrated that the serum MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio is a significant independent indicator of advanced urothelial cancer. Our results indicate that an imbalance between the serum levels of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 could be a new predictor of recurrence in advanced urothelial cancer patients.
PMCID: PMC2149919  PMID: 9484825
19.  Invasive properties of fibroblast-like synoviocytes: correlation with growth characteristics and expression of MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-10 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2002;61(11):975-980.
Background: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have a pivotal role in the destruction of cartilage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which is mediated by the fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS).
Objective: To examine the in vitro invasiveness of synoviocytes obtained from inflamed joints of patients with arthritis in relation to the expression of MMP 1–14, 17, 19, cathepsin-K, the tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 by FLS.
Methods: FLS were derived from 56 patients (30 with RA, 17 with osteoarthritis (OA), and nine with avascular necrosis (AVN)). Invasive growth of FLS through an artificial matrix (Matrigel) was measured in a transwell system. The number of cells that migrated through the matrix were counted. Proliferation rate was determined by counting the FLS after seven days of culturing. Expression of MMPs, cathepsin-K and TIMPs was investigated with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and related to the expression of a household gene, ß-actin.
Results: FLS from RA showed greater invasive growth than FLS from OA and AVN. The median number of cells that grew through the matrix membrane was 4788 for RA, significantly higher than the number for OA, 1875 (p<0.001) and for AVN, 1530 (p=0.014). The median rate of proliferation of RA FLS was 0.27 per day compared with OA 0.22 per day (p= 0.012) and AVN 0.25 per day, but there was no correlation between the rate of proliferation and invasive growth in vitro. FLS from RA and OA that expressed MMP-1, MMP-3, or MMP-10 were significantly more invasive (median number of invasive cells: 3835, 4248, 4990, respectively) than cells that did not express these MMPs (1605, p=0.03; 1970, p=0.004; 2360, p=0.012, respectively). There was also a significant relationship between the expression of MMP-1 and MMP-9 and the diagnosis RA (both p=0.013). The expression levels of mRNA for MMP-1 and MMP-2 correlated with the protein levels produced by the synoviocytes as measured by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Conclusion: FLS of RA invade more aggressively in a Matrigel matrix than OA and AVN FLS; this is not because of a higher rate of proliferation of RA FLS. The significant correlation between the expression of MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-10 and invasive growth in a Matrigel transwell system suggests that these MMPs play a part in the invasive growth of FLS obtained from patients with RA.
PMCID: PMC1753950  PMID: 12379519
20.  Matrix Metalloproteinases and Their Inhibitors: Correlation with Invasion and Metastasis in Oral Cancer 
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in invasion and metastasis of various malignancies. The study evaluated a comprehensive profile of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and their inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), respectively in 50 controls and 75 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Blood samples from controls and patients as well as malignant and adjacent normal tissues from the patients were collected. The study examined pro, active and total forms of MMP-2 and MMP-9 using zymography. Enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were carried out to evaluate protein levels and mRNA expression; respectively, for the MMPs and TIMPs. Plasma pro, active and total MMP-2, MMP-9 as well as TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels were significantly higher in oral cancer patients as compared to the controls. mRNA expression of the MMPs and TIMPs was significantly higher in malignant tissues as compared to adjacent normal tissues. A significant positive correlation was observed between levels of proMMP-9 and active MMP-9 with differentiation, stage and infiltration. ProMMP-2 and active MMP-2 exhibited significant positive correlation with differentiation and lymph node involvement. The multivariate analysis of ELISA results revealed a significant positive correlation between MMP-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels with lymph node involvement, stage and differentiation. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis showed that the levels of MMPs and TIMPs have significant discriminatory efficacy to differentiate between controls and patients. The results indicate that MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 have significant clinical usefulness for oral cancer patients. Zymographic analysis is a simple, cost effective, rapid and sensitive alternative assay.
PMCID: PMC3001841  PMID: 21731196
MMPs; TIMPs; Oral cancer; Zymography; Metastasis; Invasion
21.  Role of Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and MMP-9 in Soft Tissue Sarcoma 
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery  2014;6(4):443-454.
We investigated the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), and determined whether these could be useful as prognostic factors.
Among patients treated from 1993 to 2007, 30 cases of MFH were evaluated. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 using paraffin wax-embedded blocks of MFH tissues. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot and zymography were performed using fresh tissues obtained from 17 of the 30 cases. The levels of MMP and TIMP expression were compared between the MFH and normal control groups, and between non-metastatic and metastatic MFH groups.
Expression levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 were higher in the MFH group than the control group by RT-PCR, Western blotting, and zymography. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein expression was higher in the metastatic than in the non-metastatic group. The expression levels of MMP-2 and TIMP-1 were significantly higher in the metastatic than in the non-metastatic group (p < 0.05) by RT-PCR. By Western blot analysis, the expression levels of MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 were higher in the metastatic group (p < 0.05), but MMP-9 showed only a slight increase in the metastatic group compared with the non-metastatic group (p > 0.05). Finally, gelatin zymography analysis showed that the expression levels of the pro- and active forms of MMP-2 were significantly higher in the metastatic group (p < 0.05), but the expression of the pro- and active forms of MMP-9 showed a slight decrease in the metastatic group (p > 0.05).
These results suggest that MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 may have important roles in the development and progression of MFH, and that the degree of expression of these metalloproteinases and their inhibitors, especially MMP-2, could be useful as prognostic factors related to metastasis in MFH.
PMCID: PMC4233225  PMID: 25436070
Matrix metalloproteinases; Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases; Malignant fibrous histiocytoma
22.  Matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in synovial fluids from patients with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2000;59(6):455-461.
OBJECTIVE—Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are expressed in joint tissues of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). The objective of this study was to define the steady state levels of seven different MMPs and two tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) as well as the potential metalloproteinase activity in the synovial fluid (SF) to provide more insight into the role of MMPs in cartilage destruction in RA and OA.
METHODS—Levels of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-13, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in SF aspirated from knee joints of 97 patients with RA and 103 patients with OA were measured by the corresponding one step sandwich enzyme immunoassays. Proteolytic activity of MMPs in these SFs was examined in an assay using [3H]carboxymethylated transferrin substrate in the presence of inhibitors of serine and cysteine proteinases after activation with p-aminophenylmercuric acetate (APMA). Destruction of RA knee joints was radiographically evaluated.
RESULTS—Levels of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-8, and MMP-9 were significantly higher in RA SF than in OA SF. MMP-7 and MMP-13 were detectable in more than 45% of RA SFs and in less than 20% of OA SFs, respectively. Among the MMPs examined, MMP-3 levels were extremely high compared with those of other MMPs. Direct correlations were seen between the levels of MMP-1 and MMP-3 and between those of MMP-8 and MMP-9 in RA SF. Although the levels of MMP-1 and MMP-3 increased even in the early stage of RA, those of MMP-8 and MMP-9 were low in the early stage and increased with the progression of RA. Molar ratios of the total amounts of the MMPs to those of the TIMPs were 5.2-fold higher in patients with RA than in OA, which was significant. APMA-activated metalloproteinase activity in SF showed a similar result, and a direct correlation was seen between the molar ratios and the activity in RA SF.
CONCLUSIONS—Our results show that high levels of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-8, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 are present in RA SF and suggest that once these MMPs are fully activated, they have an imbalance against TIMPs, which may contribute to the cartilage destruction in RA.

PMCID: PMC1753174  PMID: 10834863
23.  The biochemical value of urinary metalloproteinases 3 and 9 in diagnosis and prognosis of bladder cancer in Egypt 
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have long been associated with cancer-cell invasion and metastasis. Few studies are available that describe this association with bladder cancer either related or unrelated to schistosoma infection.
Evaluating the urinary levels of MMP3 and MMP9 as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in different stages of schistosomal and non schistosomal bladder cancer was the aim of the present study.
Urine samples were collected from 70 patients with schistosomal and non schistosomal bladder cancer at early and advanced stages and also from12 healthy volunteers as controls. Urinary levels of MMP-3 and MMP-9 was measured by ELISA technique. Sensitivity and specificity of both markers were determined.
Urinary levels of both MMP-3 and MMP-9 were significantly elevated in all bladder cancer patients compared with controls. MMP-3 started to elevate in early stages of schistosomal bladder cancer ( 0.173 ng/ml) and non-schistosomal bladder cancer patients (0.308 ng/ml) compared to control (0.016 ng/ml) and remained elevated in advanced stages (0.166, 0.235 ng/ml) of both types of bladder cancer patients. In contrast, MMP-9 showed a significant elevation in advanced stages only of both schistosomal and non schistosomal bladder cancer patients (10.33, 21.22 ng/ml) compared to control (0.409 ng/ml) and this elevation of both markers was much higher in non schistosomal bladder cancer. Both Metalloproteinases were specific for the diagnosis of the disease but MMP-3 was more sensitive and this sensitivity was evident in the early stage (84.85% for MMP3, 27.28% for MMP9).
MMP3 may be the recommended urinary metalloproteinases as early diagnostic biomarker in the early stages of both types of bladder cancer although both MMP9 and MMP3 can be used in the diagnosis of advanced stages. Further studies are required on large number of urine samples to confirm these results.
PMCID: PMC4237805  PMID: 25135219
Bladder cancer; Schistosoma; MMP3,MMP9
24.  MMP-9 expression varies according to molecular subtypes of breast cancer 
BMC Cancer  2014;14(1):609.
In 2014, breast cancer remains a major cause of mortality worldwide mostly due to tumor relapse and metastasis. There is currently a great interest in identifying cancer biomarkers and signalling pathways mechanistically related to breast cancer progression. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is a member of matrix degrading enzymes involved in cancer development, invasion and metastasis. Our objective was to investigate MMP-9 expression in normal human breast tissue and to compare it to that of breast cancer of various histological grades and molecular subtypes. We also sought to correlate MMP-9 expression with the incidence of metastasis, survival rates and relapse in breast cancer patients.
MMP-9 was first studied using in silico analysis on available DNA microarray and RNA sequencing data of human breast cancer tissues and human breast cancer cell lines. We next ascertained MMP-9 expression in both normal breast tissue and in human breast carcinoma tissue microarrays.
Significant increase in MMP-9 expression was found in breast cancer cells where compared to normal breast tissue. A positive correlation could also be established between elevated levels of MMP-9 and breast cancer of high histological grade. Furthermore, our results indicate that not only MMP-9 is differentially expressed between each molecular subset but also, more importantly MMP-9 overexpression revealed itself as a startling feature of triple-negative and HER2-positive breast cancers. Lastly, the clinical relevance of MMP-9 overexpression is strongly supported by its significant association with a higher incidence of metastasis and relapse.
Differential expression of MMP-9 reflects the extent of cellular differentiation in breast cancer cells and is closely related to the most aggressive subtypes of breast cancer. Hence, MMP-9 is a promising prognostic biomarker of high-grade breast cancer. In our opinion, MMP-9 expression could help segregate subsets of aggressive breast cancer into clinically meaningful subtypes.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-609) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4150970  PMID: 25151367
MMP-9; Human breast cancers; Metastasis; In silico analysis; Tissue microarrays
25.  Modulation of u-PA, MMPs and their inhibitors by a novel nutrient mixture in pediatric human sarcoma cell lines  
International Journal of Oncology  2013;43(4): 1027 - 1035 .
Pediatric sarcomas are highly aggressive tumors that are characterized by high levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 secretions that degrade the ECM and basement membrane, allowing cancer cells to spread to distal organs. Proteases play a key role in tumor cell invasion and metastasis by digesting the basement membrane and ECM components. Strong clinical and experimental evidence demonstrates association of elevated levels of u-PA and MMPs with cancer progression, metastasis and shortened patient survival. MMP activities are regulated by specific tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Our main objective was to study the effect of a nutrient mixture (NM) on activity of u-PA, MMPs and TIMPs in various human pediatric sarcomas. Human osteosarcoma MNNG-HOS, osteosarcoma U-2OS and rhabdomyosarcoma RD cell lines (ATCC) were cultured in their respective media and treated at confluence with NM at 0, 50, 100, 250, 500 and 1,000 μ g/ml. Analysis of u-PA activity was carried out by fibrin zymography, MMPs by gelatinase zymography and TIMPs by reverse zymography. All sarcoma cell lines studied expressed u-PA, which was inhibited by NM in a dose-dependent manner. On gelatinase zymography, osteosarcoma MNNG-HOS showed a band corresponding to MMP-2 and induction of MMP-9 with PMA (100 ng/ml) treatment. U-2OS osteosarcoma cells showed strong bands corresponding to inactive MMP-2 and MMP-9 and faint bands corresponding to active MMP-2 and MMP-9 dimer; PMA treatment enhanced MMP-9 and MMP-9 dimer activity. Rhabdomyosarcoma showed MMP-2 and faint MMP-9 bands; PMA treatment enhanced MMP-9 expression. NM inhibited their expression in a dose-dependent manner. Activity of TIMPs was upregulated by NM in all cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis revealed a positive correlation between u-PA and MMPs and a negative correlation between u-PA/MMPs and TIMPs. These findings suggest the therapeutic potential of NM in treatment of pediatric sarcomas.
doi: 10.3892/ijo.2013.2031
PMCID: PMC3829799  PMID: 23900236
osteosarcoma MNNG-HOS and U-2OS ;  rhabdomyosarcoma RD ;  urokinase plasminogen activator ;  matrix metalloproteinase-2 ;  matrix metalloproteinase-9 ;  tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 ;  PMA ;  nutrient mixture

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