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1.  Tourniquet-induced acute ischemia-reperfusion injury in mouse skeletal muscles: involvement of superoxide 
European journal of pharmacology  2010;650(1):328-334.
Although arterial limb tourniquet is one of the first-line treatments to prevent exsanguinating hemorrhage in both civilian pre-hospital and battlefield casualty care, prolonged application of a limb tourniquet can lead to serious ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the underlying pathomechanisms of tourniquet-induced ischemia-reperfusion injury are still poorly understood. Using a murine model of acute limb ischemia-reperfusion, we investigated if acute limb ischemia-reperfusion injury is mediated by superoxide overproduction and mitochondrial dysfunction. Hind limbs of C57/BL6 mice were subjected to 3 h ischemia and 4 h reperfusion via placement and release of a rubber tourniquet at the greater trochanter. Approximately 40% gastrocnemius muscle suffered infarction in this model. Activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes including complex I, II, III, and IV in gastrocnemius muscle were decreased in the ischemia-reperfusion group compared to sham. Superoxide production was increased while activity of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, the mitochondria-targeted SOD isoform) was decreased in the ischemia-reperfusion group compared to sham group. Pretreatment with tempol (a SOD mimetic, 50 mg/kg) or co-enzyme Q10 (50 mg/kg) not only decreased the superoxide production, but also reduced the infarct size and normalized mitochondrial dysfunction in the gastrocnemius muscle. Our results suggest that tourniquet-induced skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion injuries including infarct size and mitochondrial dysfunction may be mediated via the superoxide over-production and reduced antioxidant activity. In the future, this murine ischemia-reperfusion model can be adapted to mechanistically evaluate anti-ischemic molecules in tourniquet-induced skeletal muscle injury.
doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.10.037
PMCID: PMC3008320  PMID: 21036124
Infarct size; Ischemia-reperfusion injury; Mitochondria; Superoxide; Tourniquet
2.  Superoxide flashes: illuminating new insights into cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury 
Future cardiology  2008;4(6):551-554.
SUMMARY
Although the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) was first discovered almost 30 years ago [1], it did not attract significant research attention until the 1990's when several studies implicated mPTP in apoptosis [2]. Today, the dogma suggests that opening of mPTP is detrimental to the cell and mPTP activation is widely thought to contribute to disease in cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, muscular dystrophy, and cardiac reperfusion injury [3]. Multiple factors including Ca2+, OH−, Pi, cyclophilin D, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) trigger mPTP opening [4]. However, whether mPTP activation feeds back to alter mitochondrial ROS generation remains unclear. We recently demonstrated that under normal conditions, individual mitochondria undergo spontaneous transient bursts of quantal superoxide generation, termed “superoxide flashes” [5]. Superoxide flashes are observed in all cell types investigated to date and are triggered by a surprising functional coupling between mPTP activation and electron transport chain (ETC) dependent superoxide production. Additionally, reoxgenation following anoxia leads to uncontrolled superoxide flash genesis in cardiomyocytes. This positive feedback mechanism for mPTP/ETC-dependent ROS generation may drive localized redox signaling in individual mitochondria under physiological conditions, and when left unchecked, contribute to global cellular oxidative stress under pathological conditions in cardiac disease. The mPTP activity-dependent cell life and death determination imposes new challenges and opportunities in the pursuit of therapeutic agents for treating diseases in which oxidative stress has been implicated such as cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury.
PMCID: PMC2718790  PMID: 19649173
3.  The Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore Regulates Nitric Oxide-Mediated Apoptosis of Neurons Induced by Target Deprivation 
Ablation of mouse occipital cortex induces precisely timed and uniform p53-modulated and Bax-dependent apoptosis of thalamocortical projection neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) by 7 days postlesion. We tested the hypothesis that this neuronal apoptosis is initiated by oxidative stress and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Pre-apoptotic LGN neurons accumulate mitochondria, Zn2+ and Ca2+, and generate higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide, nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite, than LGN neurons with an intact cortical target. Pre-apoptosis of LGN neurons is associated with increased formation of protein carbonyls, protein nitration, and protein S-nitrosylation. Genetic deletion of nitric oxide synthase 1 (nos1) and inhibition of NOS1 with nitroindazole protected LGN neurons from apoptosis, revealing NO as a mediator. Putative components of the mPTP are expressed in mouse LGN, including the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), and cyclophilin D (CyPD). Nitration of CyPD and ANT in LGN mitochondria occurs by 2 days after cortical injury. Chemical cross-linking showed that LGN neuron pre-apoptosis is associated with formation of CyPD and VDAC oligomers, consistent with mPTP formation. Mice without CyPD are rescued from neuron apoptosis as are mice treated with the mPTP inhibitors TRO-19622 and TAT-Bcl-XL-BH4. Manipulation of the mPTP markedly attenuated the early pre-apoptotic production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species in target-deprived neurons. Our results demonstrate in adult mouse brain neurons that the mPTP functions to enhance ROS production and the mPTP and NO trigger apoptosis; thus, the mPTP is a target for neuroprotection in vivo.
doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2225-10.2010
PMCID: PMC3078575  PMID: 21209222
Alzheimer’s disease; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; axotomy; cell death; DNA damage; Parkinson’s disease; target deprivation; traumatic brain injury
4.  MITOCHONDRIAL OXIDANT STRESS TRIGGERS CELL DEATH IN SIMULATED ISCHEMIA-REPERFUSION 
Biochimica et biophysica acta  2010;1813(7):1382-1394.
To clarify the relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death during ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), we studied cell death mechanisms in a cellular model of I/R. Oxidant stress during simulated ischemia was detected in the mitochondrial matrix using mito-roGFP, a ratiometric redox sensor, and by Mito-Sox Red oxidation. Reperfusion-induced death was attenuated by over-expression of Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) or mitochondrial phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (mito-PHGPx), but not by catalase, mitochondria-targeted catalase, or Cu,Zn-SOD. Protection was also conferred by chemically distinct antioxidant compounds, and mito-roGFP oxidation was attenuated by NAC, or by scavenging of residual O2 during the ischemia (anoxic ischemia). Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) oscillation/opening was monitored by real-time imaging of mitochondrial calcein fluorescence. Oxidant stress caused release of calcein to the cytosol during ischemia, a response that was inhibited by chemically diverse antioxidants, anoxia, or over-expression of Mn-SOD or mito-PHGPx. These findings suggest that mitochondrial oxidant stress causes oscillation of the mPTP prior to reperfusion. Cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytosol was not detected until after reperfusion, and was inhibited by anoxic ischemia or antioxidant administration during ischemia. Although DNA fragmentation was detected after I/R, no evidence of Bax activation was detected. Over-expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-XL in cardiomyocytes did not confer protection against I/R-induced cell death. Moreover, murine embryonic fibroblasts with genetic depletion of Bax and Bak, or over-expression of Bcl-XL, failed to show protection against I/R. These findings indicate that mitochondrial ROS during ischemia triggers mPTP activation, mitochondrial depolarization, and cell death during reperfusion through a Bax/Bak-independent cell death pathway. Therefore, mitochondrial apoptosis appears to represent a redundant death pathway in this model of simulated I/R.
doi:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2010.12.008
PMCID: PMC3089816  PMID: 21185334
5.  Opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore links mitochondrial dysfunction to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle☆ 
Molecular Metabolism  2013;3(2):124-134.
Insulin resistance is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, but the mechanism by which mitochondria inhibit insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into the cytoplasm is unclear. The mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is a protein complex that facilitates the exchange of molecules between the mitochondrial matrix and cytoplasm, and opening of the mPTP occurs in response to physiological stressors that are associated with insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated whether mPTP opening provides a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance by inhibiting the mPTP gatekeeper protein cyclophilin D (CypD) in vivo and in vitro. Mice lacking CypD were protected from high fat diet-induced glucose intolerance due to increased glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. The mitochondria in CypD knockout muscle were resistant to diet-induced swelling and had improved calcium retention capacity compared to controls; however, no changes were observed in muscle oxidative damage, insulin signaling, lipotoxic lipid accumulation or mitochondrial bioenergetics. In vitro, we tested 4 models of insulin resistance that are linked to mitochondrial dysfunction in cultured skeletal muscle cells including antimycin A, C2-ceramide, ferutinin, and palmitate. In all models, we observed that pharmacological inhibition of mPTP opening with the CypD inhibitor cyclosporin A was sufficient to prevent insulin resistance at the level of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. The protective effects of mPTP inhibition on insulin sensitivity were associated with improved mitochondrial calcium retention capacity but did not involve changes in insulin signaling both in vitro and in vivo. In sum, these data place the mPTP at a critical intersection between alterations in mitochondrial function and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.
doi:10.1016/j.molmet.2013.11.003
PMCID: PMC3953683  PMID: 24634818
MPTP, mitochondrial permeability transition pore; CYPD, cyclophilin D; HFD, high fat diet; LFD, low fat diet; WT, wild type; KO, knockout; CSA, cyclosporin A; BKA, bongkrekic acid; O2•, superoxide; [3H]-2-DOG, [3H]-2-deoxyglucose; Rg′, rate of glucose transport; FFA, free fatty acid; DAG, diacylglycerol; TEM, transmission electron microscopy; PDH, pyruvate dehydrogenase; PDHa, active PDH; PDHt, total PDH; MCAD, medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase; β-HAD, β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase; PM, plasma membrane; ANT, adenine nucleotide translocator; VDAC, voltage-dependent anion channel; HK2, hexokinase 2; ETC, electron transport chain; OXPHOS, oxidative phosphorylation; MnSOD, mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase; MIRKO, muscle insulin receptor knockout; MHC, myosin heavy chain; TBARS, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; Glucose; Insulin resistance; Mitochondrial dysfunction; Mitochondrial permeability transition pore; Cyclophilin D; Skeletal muscle
6.  GNX-4728, a novel small molecule drug inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition, is therapeutic in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurological disorder in humans characterized by progressive degeneration of skeletal muscle and motor neurons in spinal cord, brainstem, and cerebral cortex causing skeletal muscle paralysis, respiratory insufficiency, and death. There are no cures or effective treatments for ALS. ALS can be inherited, but most cases are not associated with a family history of the disease. Mitochondria have been implicated in the pathogenesis but definitive proof of causal mechanisms is lacking. Identification of new clinically translatable disease mechanism-based molecular targets and small molecule drug candidates are needed for ALS patients. We tested the hypothesis in an animal model that drug modulation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is therapeutic in ALS. A prospective randomized placebo-controlled drug trial was done in a transgenic (tg) mouse model of ALS. We explored GNX-4728 as a therapeutic drug. GNX-4728 inhibits mPTP opening as evidenced by increased mitochondrial calcium retention capacity (CRC) both in vitro and in vivo. Chronic systemic treatment of G37R-human mutant superoxide dismutase-1 (hSOD1) tg mice with GNX-4728 resulted in major therapeutic benefits. GNX-4728 slowed disease progression and significantly improved motor function. The survival of ALS mice was increased significantly by GNX-4728 treatment as evidence by a nearly 2-fold extension of lifespan (360 days–750 days). GNX-4728 protected against motor neuron degeneration and mitochondrial degeneration, attenuated spinal cord inflammation, and preserved neuromuscular junction (NMJ) innervation in the diaphragm in ALS mice. This work demonstrates that a mPTP-acting drug has major disease-modifying efficacy in a preclinical mouse model of ALS and establishes mitochondrial calcium retention, and indirectly the mPTP, as targets for ALS drug development.
doi:10.3389/fncel.2014.00433
PMCID: PMC4271619  PMID: 25565966
motor neuron disease; therapeutics; motoneuron; mitochondrial permeability transition pore; mitochondria; mitochondrial calcium uptake; neuromuscular junction
7.  Inorganic polyphosphate is a potent activator of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in cardiac myocytes 
The Journal of General Physiology  2012;139(5):321-331.
Mitochondrial dysfunction caused by excessive Ca2+ accumulation is a major contributor to cardiac cell and tissue damage during myocardial infarction and ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI). At the molecular level, mitochondrial dysfunction is induced by Ca2+-dependent opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) in the inner mitochondrial membrane, which leads to the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), disruption of adenosine triphosphate production, and ultimately cell death. Although the role of Ca2+ for induction of mPTP opening is established, the exact molecular mechanism of this process is not understood. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the adverse effect of mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation is mediated by its interaction with inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), a polymer of orthophosphates linked by phosphoanhydride bonds. We found that cardiac mitochondria contained significant amounts (280 ± 60 pmol/mg of protein) of short-chain polyP with an average length of 25 orthophosphates. To test the role of polyP for mPTP activity, we investigated kinetics of Ca2+ uptake and release, ΔΨm and Ca2+-induced mPTP opening in polyP-depleted mitochondria. polyP depletion was achieved by mitochondria-targeted expression of a polyP-hydrolyzing enzyme. Depletion of polyP in mitochondria of rabbit ventricular myocytes led to significant inhibition of mPTP opening without affecting mitochondrial Ca2+ concentration by itself. This effect was observed when mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake was stimulated by increasing cytosolic [Ca2+] in permeabilized myocytes mimicking mitochondrial Ca2+ overload observed during IRI. Our findings suggest that inorganic polyP is a previously unrecognized major activator of mPTP. We propose that the adverse effect of polyphosphate might be caused by its ability to form stable complexes with Ca2+ and directly contribute to inner mitochondrial membrane permeabilization.
doi:10.1085/jgp.201210788
PMCID: PMC3343371  PMID: 22547663
8.  Reducing the oxidative stress mediates the cardioprotection of bicyclol against ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats*  
Objective: To investigate the beneficial effect of bicyclol on rat hearts subjected to ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injuries and its possible mechanism. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intragastrically administered with bicyclol (25, 50 or 100 mg/(kg∙d)) for 3 d. Myocardial IR was produced by occlusion of the coronary artery for 1 h and reperfusion for 3 h. Left ventricular hemodynamics was continuously monitored. At the end of reperfusion, myocardial infarct was measured by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level and myocardial superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were determined by spectrophotometry. Isolated ventricular myocytes from adult rats were exposed to 60 min anoxia and 30 min reoxygenation to simulate IR injuries. After reperfusion, cell viability was determined with trypan blue; reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential of the cardiomyocytes were measured with the fluorescent probe. The mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening induced by Ca2+ (200 μmol/L) was measured with the absorbance at 520 nm in the isolated myocardial mitochondria. Results: Low dose of bicyclol (25 mg/(kg∙d)) had no significant improving effect on all cardiac parameters, whereas pretreatment with high bicyclol markedly reduced the myocardial infarct and improved the left ventricular contractility in the myocardium exposed to IR (P<0.05). Medium dose of bicyclol (50 mg/(kg∙d)) markedly improved the myocardial contractility, left ventricular myocyte viability, and SOD activity, as well decreased infarct size, serum LDH level, ROS production, and mitochondrial membrane potential in rat myocardium exposed to IR. The reduction of ventricular myocyte viability in IR group was inhibited by pretreatment with 50 and 100 mg/(kg∙d) bicyclol (P<0.05 vs. IR), but not by 25 mg/(kg∙d) bicyclol. The opening of mPTP evoked by Ca2+ was significantly inhibited by medium bicyclol. Conclusions: Bicyclol exerts cardioprotection against IR injury, at least, via reducing oxidative stress and its subsequent mPTP opening.
doi:10.1631/jzus.B1200263
PMCID: PMC3682164  PMID: 23733425
Ischemia-reperfusion injury; Cardioprotection; Oxidative stress; Mitochondrial permeability transition pore; Bicyclol
9.  Radiation-Induced Alterations in Mitochondria of the Rat Heart 
Radiation research  2014;181(3):324-334.
Radiation therapy for the treatment of thoracic cancers may be associated with radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD), especially in long-term cancer survivors. Mechanisms by which radiation causes heart disease are largely unknown. To identify potential long-term contributions of mitochondria in the development of radiation-induced heart disease, we examined the time course of effects of irradiation on cardiac mitochondria. In this study, Sprague-Dawley male rats received image-guided local X irradiation of the heart with a single dose ranging from 3–21 Gy. Two weeks after irradiation, left ventricular mitochondria were isolated to assess the dose-dependency of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening in a mitochondrial swelling assay. At time points from 6 h to 9 months after a cardiac dose of 21 Gy, the following analyses were performed: left ventricular Bax and Bcl-2 protein levels; apoptosis; mitochondrial inner membrane potential and mPTP opening; mitochondrial mass and expression of mitophagy mediators Parkin and PTEN induced putative kinase-1 (PINK-1); mitochondrial respiration and protein levels of succinate dehydrogenase A (SDHA); and the 70 kDa subunit of complex II. Local heart irradiation caused a prolonged increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and induced apoptosis between 6 h and 2 weeks. The mitochondrial membrane potential was reduced until 2 weeks, and the calcium-induced mPTP opening was increased from 6 h up to 9 months. An increased mitochondrial mass together with unaltered levels of Parkin suggested that mitophagy did not occur. Lastly, we detected a significant decrease in succinate-driven state 2 respiration in isolated mitochondria from 2 weeks up to 9 months after irradiation, coinciding with reduced mitochondrial levels of succinate dehydrogenase A. Our results suggest that local heart irradiation induces long-term changes in cardiac mitochondrial membrane functions, levels of SDH and state 2 respiration. At any time after exposure to radiation, cardiac mitochondria are more prone to mPTP opening. Future studies will determine whether this makes the heart more susceptible to secondary stressors such as calcium overload or ischemia/reperfusion.
doi:10.1667/RR13452.1
PMCID: PMC4029615  PMID: 24568130
10.  Propofol and magnesium attenuate isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation via inhibiting mitochondrial permeability transition pore 
Medical Gas Research  2012;2:20.
Background
The inhalation anesthetic isoflurane has been shown to open the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) and induce caspase activation and apoptosis, which may lead to learning and memory impairment. Cyclosporine A, a blocker of mPTP opening might attenuate the isoflurane-induced mPTP opening, lessening its ripple effects. Magnesium and anesthetic propofol are also mPTP blockers. We therefore set out to determine whether propofol and magnesium can attenuate the isoflurane-induced caspase activation and mPTP opening.
Methods
We investigated the effects of magnesium sulfate (Mg2+), propofol, and isoflurane on the opening of mPTP and caspase activation in H4 human neuroglioma cells stably transfected to express full-length human amyloid precursor protein (APP) (H4 APP cells) and in six day-old wild-type mice, employing Western blot analysis and flowcytometry.
Results
Here we show that Mg2+ and propofol attenuated the isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation in H4-APP cells and mouse brain tissue. Moreover, Mg2+ and propofol, the blockers of mPTP opening, mitigated the isoflurane-induced mPTP opening in the H4-APP cells.
Conclusion
These data illustrate that Mg2+ and propofol may ameliorate the isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity by inhibiting its mitochondrial dysfunction. Pending further studies, these findings may suggest the use of Mg2+ and propofol in preventing and treating anesthesia neurotoxicity.
doi:10.1186/2045-9912-2-20
PMCID: PMC3489514  PMID: 22901676
11.  The role of oxidized cytochrome c in regulating mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and its perturbation in ischaemia 
Biochemical Journal  2011;436(Pt 2):493-505.
Oxidized cytochrome c is a powerful superoxide scavenger within the mitochondrial IMS (intermembrane space), but the importance of this role in situ has not been well explored. In the present study, we investigated this with particular emphasis on whether loss of cytochrome c from mitochondria during heart ischaemia may mediate the increased production of ROS (reactive oxygen species) during subsequent reperfusion that induces mPTP (mitochondrial permeability transition pore) opening. Mitochondrial cytochrome c depletion was induced in vitro with digitonin or by 30 min ischaemia of the perfused rat heart. Control and cytochrome c-deficient mitochondria were incubated with mixed respiratory substrates and an ADP-regenerating system (State 3.5) to mimic physiological conditions. This contrasts with most published studies performed with a single substrate and without significant ATP turnover. Cytochrome c-deficient mitochondria produced more H2O2 than control mitochondria, and exogenous cytochrome c addition reversed this increase. In the presence of increasing [KCN] rates of H2O2 production by both pre-ischaemic and end-ischaemic mitochondria correlated with the oxidized cytochrome c content, but not with rates of respiration or NAD(P)H autofluorescence. Cytochrome c loss during ischaemia was not mediated by mPTP opening (cyclosporine-A insensitive), neither was it associated with changes in mitochondrial Bax, Bad, Bak or Bid. However, bound HK2 (hexokinase 2) and Bcl-xL were decreased in end-ischaemic mitochondria. We conclude that cytochrome c loss during ischaemia, caused by outer membrane permeabilization, is a major determinant of H2O2 production by mitochondria under pathophysiological conditions. We further suggest that in hypoxia, production of H2O2 to activate signalling pathways may be also mediated by decreased oxidized cytochrome c and less superoxide scavenging.
doi:10.1042/BJ20101957
PMCID: PMC3195442  PMID: 21410437
Bcl-xL; cytochrome c; hexokinase (HK); mitochon-drial permeability transition pore (mPTP); superoxide; ANT, adenine nucleotide translocase; CHO, Chinese-hamster ovary; CsA, cyclosporine A; DEA, diethylamine NONOate diethylammonium salt; DTT, dithiothreitol; FCCP, carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone; GMS, 5 mM L-glutamate+2 mM L-malate+5 mM succinate; HK, hexokinase; IMS, intermembrane space; IP, ischaemic pre-conditioning; mPTP, mitochondrial permeability transition pore; OMM, outer mitochondrial membrane; ROS, reactive oxygen species; SOD, superoxide dismutase; VDAC, voltage-dependent anion channel
12.  Ischemia/reperfusion injury and cardioprotective mechanisms: Role of mitochondria and reactive oxygen species 
World Journal of Cardiology  2011;3(6):186-200.
Reperfusion therapy must be applied as soon as possible to attenuate the ischemic insult of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However reperfusion is responsible for additional myocardial damage, which likely involves opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). In reperfusion injury, mitochondrial damage is a determining factor in causing loss of cardiomyocyte function and viability. Major mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction include the long lasting opening of mPTPs and the oxidative stress resulting from formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Several signaling cardioprotective pathways are activated by stimuli such as preconditioning and postconditioning, obtained with brief intermittent ischemia or with pharmacological agents. These pathways converge on a common target, the mitochondria, to preserve their function after ischemia/reperfusion. The present review discusses the role of mitochondria in cardioprotection, especially the involvement of adenosine triphosphate-dependent potassium channels, ROS signaling, and the mPTP. Ischemic postconditioning has emerged as a new way to target the mitochondria, and to drastically reduce lethal reperfusion injury. Several clinical studies using ischemic postconditioning during angioplasty now support its protective effects, and an interesting alternative is pharmacological postconditioning. In fact ischemic postconditioning and the mPTP desensitizer, cyclosporine A, have been shown to induce comparable protection in AMI patients.
doi:10.4330/wjc.v3.i6.186
PMCID: PMC3139040  PMID: 21772945
Adenosine triphosphate-dependent potassium channels; Cardioprotection; Ischemia-reperfusion injury; Mitochondrial permeability transition pore; Reactive oxygen species
13.  Repetitive Nerve Stimulation Transiently Opens the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore in Motor Nerve Terminals of Symptomatic Mutant SOD1 Mice 
Neurobiology of disease  2011;42(3):381-390.
Mitochondria in motor nerve terminals temporarily sequester large Ca2+ loads during repetitive stimulation. In wild-type mice this Ca2+ uptake produces a small (<5 mV), transient depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (Ψm, motor nerve stimulated with at 100 Hz for 5 s). We demonstrate that this stimulation-induced Ψm depolarization attains much higher amplitudes in motor terminals of symptomatic mice expressing the G93A or G85R mutation of human superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), models of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS). These large Ψm depolarizations decayed slowly and incremented with successive stimulus trains. Additional Ψm depolarizations occurred that were not synchronized with stimulation. These large Ψm depolarizations were reduced (a) by cyclosporin A (CsA, 1-2 uM), which inhibits opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), or (b) by replacing bath Ca2+ with Sr2+, which enters motor terminals and mitochondria but does not support mPTP opening. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the large Ψm depolarizations evoked by repetitive stimulation in motor terminals of symptomatic fALS mice result from mitochondrial dysfunction that increases the likelihood of transient mPTP opening during Ca2+ influx. Such mPTP openings, a sign of mitochondrial stress, would disrupt motor terminal handling of Ca2+ loads and might thereby contribute to motor terminal degeneration in fALS mice. Ψm depolarizations resembling those in symptomatic fALS mice could be elicited in wild-type mice following 0.5-1 hr exposure to diamide (200 μM), which produces an oxidative stress, but these depolarizations were not reduced by CsA.
doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2011.01.031
PMCID: PMC3079773  PMID: 21310237
motor nerve terminal; superoxide dismutase 1 G93A; superoxide dismutase 1 G85R; mouse models of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; mitochondria; mitochondrial permeability transition pore; mitochondrial calcium uptake; oxidative stress; mitochondrial membrane potential; motor neuron
14.  Modulation of Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore Affects Multidrug Resistance in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells 
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a critical problem in the chemotherapy of cancers. Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) responds poorly to chemotherapy owing to its potent MDR. Chemotherapeutic drugs primarily act by inducing apoptosis of cancer cells, and defects in apoptosis may result in MDR. Mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) is implicated as an important event in the control of cell death or survival and mPT represents a target for the development of cytotoxic drugs. This study aimed to investigate the effects of selective opener (Atractyloside glycoside, ATR) and inhibitor (Cyclosporine A, CsA) of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) on a CDDP-resistant HCC cell line (SK-Hep1 cells). In this study, a stable MDR phenotype characterization of SK-Hep1 cell line (SK-Hep1/CDDP cells) was established and used to investigate the role of mPTP in MDR. Results suggested that ATR accelerated the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), reduced the Bax activity, and increased the apoptosis of SK-Hep1/CDDP cells; while CsA inhibited mPTP opening, reduced and delayed the decline of mitochondrial membrane potential, and increased the Bax activity, leading to increased tolerance of SK-Hep1/CDDP cells to apoptosis induction. However, mPTP activity had no effect on the expression of MDR1 in cells,meanwhile the P-gp translocation to mitochondria was increased, and functionally activated. In conclusion, selective modulation of mPTP can affect MDR in human HCC cells. Therefore, activation of mPTP may provide a new strategy to sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs and to reverse the MDR in cancer cells.
PMCID: PMC2999853  PMID: 21152118
hepatocellular carcinoma; mitochondrial permeability transition pore; multidrug resistance; mitochondrial membrane potential.
15.  Anesthetics Isoflurane and Desflurane Differently Affect Mitochondrial Function, Learning, and Memory 
Annals of neurology  2012;71(5):687-698.
Objective
There are approximately 8.5 million Alzheimer disease (AD) patients who need anesthesia and surgery care every year. The inhalation anesthetic isoflurane, but not desflurane, has been shown to induce caspase activation and apoptosis, which are part of AD neuropathogenesis, through the mitochondria-dependent apoptosis pathway. However, the in vivo relevance, underlying mechanisms, and functional consequences of these findings remain largely to be determined.
Methods
We therefore set out to assess the effects of isoflurane and desflurane on mitochondrial function, cytotoxicity, learning, and memory using flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, Western blot analysis, immunocytochemistry, and the fear conditioning test.
Results
Here we show that isoflurane, but not desflurane, induces opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), increase in levels of reactive oxygen species, reduction in levels of mitochondrial membrane potential and adenosine-5′-triphosphate, activation of caspase 3, and impairment of learning and memory in cultured cells, mouse hippocampus neurons, mouse hippocampus, and mice. Moreover, cyclosporine A, a blocker of mPTP opening, attenuates isoflurane-induced mPTP opening, caspase 3 activation, and impairment of learning and memory. Finally, isoflurane may induce the opening of mPTP via increasing levels of reactive oxygen species.
Interpretation
These findings suggest that desflurane could be a safer anesthetic for AD patients as compared to isoflurane, and elucidate the potential mitochondria-associated underlying mechanisms, and therefore have implications for use of anesthetics in AD patients, pending human study confirmation.
doi:10.1002/ana.23536
PMCID: PMC3942786  PMID: 22368036
16.  Intralipid, a Clinically Safe Compound, Protects the Heart Against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury More Efficiently Than Cyclosporine-A 
Anesthesiology  2012;117(4):836-846.
Background
We have recently shown that post-ischemic administration of intralipid protects the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury. Here we compared the cardioprotective effects of intralipid with cyclosporine-A, a potent inhibitor of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening.
Methods
In-vivo rat hearts or isolated Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts were subjected to ischemia followed by reperfusion with Intralipid (0.5%, 1% and 2% ex-vivo and 20% in-vivo), cyclosporine-A (0.2μM, 0.8μM and 1.5μM ex-vivo and 10mg/kg in-vivo) or vehicle. The hemodynamic function, infarct size, calcium retention capacity, mitochodrial superoxide production and phosphorylation levels of Akt/GSK-3β were measured. The values are mean±SEM.
Results
Administration of intralipid at reperfusion significantly reduced myocardial infarct size compared with cyclosporine-A in-vivo ((infarct size/area at risk)%: 22.9±2.5% vs. 35.2±3.5%; p=0.030, n=7/group). Postischemic administration of intralipid at its optimal dose (1%) was more effective than cyclosporine-A (0.8μM) in protecting the ex-vivo heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury as the rate pressure product at the end of reperfusion was significantly higher (mmHg*beats/min:12740±675(n=7) vs. 9203±10781(n=5), p=0.024), and the infarct size was markedly smaller (17.3±2.9(n=7) vs. 29.2±2.7(n=5), p=0.014). Intralipid was as efficient as cyclosporine-A in inhibiting the mPTP opening (calcium retention capacity=280±8.2 vs. 260.3±2.9nmol/mg-mitochondria-protein in cyclosporine-A, p=0.454, n=6) and in reducing cardiac mitochondrial superoxide production. Unlike intralipid, which increased phosphorlyation of Akt (6-fold) and GSK-3β (5-fold), cyclosporine-A had no effect on the activation of these pro-survival kinases.
Conclusions
Although intralipid inhibits the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore as efficiently as cyclosporine-A, intralipid is more effective in reducing the infarct size and improving the cardiac functional recovery.
doi:10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182655e73
PMCID: PMC3769111  PMID: 22814384
17.  Is further improvement of the treatment of acute coronary syndromes still possible? 
Successful treatment of myocardial infarction related to early reperfusion therapy has caused growing interest in not only ischemic but also myocardial reperfusion injury. Most experimentally confirmed preservation myocardial reperfusion injury methods have failed in clinical practice. Probably one reason for their ineffectiveness was the very narrow “time window” necessitating application of protective methods before obtaining reperfusion. Reducing the myocardial necrosis and preservation of the left ventricular function are the main goals of the therapy. Experimental data suggest that up to 50% of the infarct size may be related to reperfusion injury. Function of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) in the inner mitochondrial membrane, being closed during myocardial ischemia and opening at the beginning of reperfusion, is the common element linking protective methods. Their opening gives rise to metabolic alterations and may lead to cardiomyocyte death (lethal reperfusion injury). That is why successful intervention, very difficult to achieve, has to take precedence over coronary blood flow restoration. Cyclosporin A, an mPTP blocker, was effective in the first small clinical trial in preservation of myocardial reperfusion injury in acute coronary syndrome intervention. Second mitochondrial injury action is related to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) including superoxide anions. Reactive oxygen species accumulation results in mitochondrial pH increase leading to mPTP opening. Discovery of a small molecule cationic peptide, readily penetrating cell membranes and concentrating in mitochondria, may give new therapy perspectives. Combining therapy may be possible as well.
doi:10.5114/pwki.2013.34027
PMCID: PMC3915943  PMID: 24570690
myocardial infarction; reperfusion; cyclosporin A; Bendavia; reactive oxygen species
18.  Permeability Transition Pore-Mediated Mitochondrial Superoxide Flashes Mediate an Early Inhibitory Effect of Aβ1–42 on Neural Progenitor Cell Proliferation 
Neurobiology of aging  2013;35(5):975-989.
Cellular damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and altered neurogenesis are implicated in the etiology of AD and the pathogenic actions of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ); the underlying mechanisms and the early oxidative intracellular events triggered by Aβ are not established. In the present study, we found that mouse embryonic cortical neural progenitor cells exhibit intermittent spontaneous mitochondrial superoxide (SO) flashes that require transient opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pores (mPTPs). The incidence of mitochondria SO flash activity in NPCs increased during the first 6 – 24 hours of exposure to aggregating amyloid β-peptide (Aβ1-42), indicating an increase in transient mPTP opening. Subsequently, the SO flash frequency progressively decreased and ceased between 48 and 72 hours of exposure to Aβ1-42, during which time global cellular ROS increased, mitochondrial membrane potential decreased, cytochrome C was released from mitochondria and the cells degenerated. Inhibition of mPTPs and selective reduction in mitochondrial SO flashes significantly ameliorated the negative effects of Aβ1-42 on NPC proliferation and survival. Our findings suggest that mPTP-mediated bursts of mitochondrial SO production is a relatively early and pivotal event in the adverse effects of Aβ1-42 on NPCs. If Aβ inhibits NPC proliferation in the brains of AD patients by a similar mechanism, then interventions that inhibit mPTP-mediated superoxide flashes would be expected to protect NPCs against the adverse effects of Aβ.
doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2013.11.002
PMCID: PMC3946227  PMID: 24325797
Alzheimer’s disease; amyloid β-peptide; ERK; mitochondrial permeability transition pore; neurogenesis; SOD
19.  Mitochondrial iron accumulation with age and functional consequences 
Aging cell  2008;7(5):706-716.
Summary
During the aging process, an accumulation of non-heme iron disrupts cellular homeostasis and contributes to the mitochondrial dysfunction typical of various neuromuscular degenerative diseases. Few studies have investigated the effects of iron accumulation on mitochondrial integrity and function in skeletal muscle and liver tissue. Thus, we isolated liver mitochondria (LM), as well as quadriceps-derived subsarcolemmal mitochondria (SSM) and interfibrillar mitochondria (IFM), from male Fischer 344× Brown Norway rats at 8, 18, 29 and 37 months of age. Non-heme iron content in SSM, IFM and LM was significantly higher with age, reaching a maximum at 37 months of age. The mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) was more susceptible to the opening in aged mitochondria containing high levels of iron (i.e. SSM and LM) compared to IFM. Furthermore, mitochondrial RNA oxidation increased significantly with age in SSM and LM, but not in IFM. Levels of mitochondrial RNA oxidation in SSM and LM correlated positively with levels of mitochondrial iron, whereas a significant negative correlation was observed between the maximum Ca2+ amounts needed to induce mPTP opening and iron contents in SSM, IFM and LM. Overall, our data suggest that age-dependent accumulation of mitochondrial iron may increase mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage, thereby enhancing the susceptibility to apoptosis.
PMCID: PMC3849824  PMID: 18843794
mitochondrial aging; mitochondrial iron homeostasis; mitochondrial permeability transition pore; mitochondrial RNA; oxidative stress; skeletal muscle subsarcolemmal and interfibrillar mitochondria
20.  Mitochondrial Permeability Transition and Cell Death: The Role of Cyclophilin D 
Mitochondria serve as a “powerhouse” which provides near 90% of ATP necessary for cell life. However, recent studies provide strong evidence that mitochondria also play a central role in cell death. Mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) at high conductance in response to oxidative or other cellular stresses is accompanied by pathological and non-specific mPT pore (mPTP) opening in the inner membrane of mitochondria. Mitochondrial PTP can serve as a target to prevent cell death under pathological conditions such as cardiac and brain ischemia/reperfusion injury and diabetes. On the other hand, mPTP can be used as an executioner to specifically induce cell death thus blocking tumorigenesis in cancer diseases. Despite many studies, the molecular identity of the mPTP remains unclear. Cyclophilin D (CyP-D) plays an essential regulatory role in pore opening. This review will discuss direct and indirect mechanisms underlying CyP-D interaction with a target protein of the mPTP complex. Understanding of the mechanisms of mPTP opening will be helpful to further develop new pharmacological agents targeting mitochondria-mediated cell death.
doi:10.3389/fphys.2013.00076
PMCID: PMC3622878  PMID: 23596421
mitochondria; permeability transition pore; cyclophilin D; cell death
21.  Bax and Bak function as the outer membrane component of the mitochondrial permeability pore in regulating necrotic cell death in mice 
eLife  2013;2:e00772.
A critical event in ischemia-based cell death is the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). However, the molecular identity of the components of the MPTP remains unknown. Here, we determined that the Bcl-2 family members Bax and Bak, which are central regulators of apoptotic cell death, are also required for mitochondrial pore-dependent necrotic cell death by facilitating outer membrane permeability of the MPTP. Loss of Bax/Bak reduced outer mitochondrial membrane permeability and conductance without altering inner membrane MPTP function, resulting in resistance to mitochondrial calcium overload and necrotic cell death. Reconstitution with mutants of Bax that cannot oligomerize and form apoptotic pores, but still enhance outer membrane permeability, permitted MPTP-dependent mitochondrial swelling and restored necrotic cell death. Our data predict that the MPTP is an inner membrane regulated process, although in the absence of Bax/Bak the outer membrane resists swelling and prevents organelle rupture to prevent cell death.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00772.001
eLife digest
In all multicellular plants and animals, cells are continuously dying and being replaced. There are a number of different types of cell death, but two of the best studied are apoptosis and necrosis. Apoptosis, sometimes referred to as ‘cell suicide’, is a form of programmed cell death that is generally beneficial to the organism. Necrosis, however, occurs whenever cells are damaged—for example, due to a lack of oxygen—and can trigger harmful inflammation in surrounding tissue. Although the processes leading up to apoptosis and necrosis are very different, they both involve regulated changes in mitochondria—the organelles that supply cells with chemical energy.
Mitochondria have a distinctive appearance, being enclosed by two membranes, the innermost of which is highly folded. During apoptosis, large pores form in the outer membranes of mitochondria. These pores are generated by two proteins—Bax and Bak—and they enable the mitochondrion to release proteins that activate processes involved in apoptosis. Pores also form in the mitochondrial membrane during necrosis. However, these mitochondrial permeability transition pores (MPTPs) occur simultaneously in both the inner and outer membranes and are thought to lead to swelling and rupture of mitochondria.
Now, Karch et al. have shown that Bax and Bak are also involved in the formation of these permeability pores that underlie necrosis. When mouse cells that had been genetically modified to lack Bak and Bax were grown in cell culture, they were found to be resistant to substances that normally induce necrosis. Instead, their mitochondria continued to function normally, suggesting that MPTPs cannot form in the absence of Bak and Bax.
Karch et al. then generated mice with heart cells that lack Bax and Bak, and deprived their hearts of oxygen to simulate a heart attack. Compared to normal mice, the genetically modified animals experienced less damage to their heart muscle, suggesting that the absence of Bax and Bak prevents cell death due to necrosis. If Bax and Bak are involved in both apoptosis and necrosis, inhibiting them could be a powerful therapeutic approach for preventing all forms of cell death during heart attacks or in certain degenerative diseases.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00772.002
doi:10.7554/eLife.00772
PMCID: PMC3755340  PMID: 23991283
cell death; mitochondria; necrosis; Mouse
22.  The Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore in Motor Neurons: Involvement in the Pathobiology of ALS Mice 
Experimental neurology  2009;218(2):333-346.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of motor neurons (MNs) that causes paralysis. Some forms of ALS are inherited, caused by mutations in the superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) gene. The mechanisms of human mutant SOD1 (mSOD1) toxicity to MNs are unresolved. Mitochondria in MNs might be key sites for ALS pathogenesis, but cause-effect relationships between mSOD1 and mitochrondiopathy need further study. We used transgenic mSOD1 mice to test the hypothesis that the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is involved in the MN degeneration of ALS. Components of the multi-protein mPTP are expressed highly in mouse MNs, including the voltage-dependent anion channel, adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), and cyclophilin D (CyPD), and are present in mitochondria marked by manganese SOD. MNs in pre-symptomatic mSOD1-G93A mice form swollen megamitochondria with CyPD immunoreactivity. Early disease is associated with mitochondrial cristae remodeling and matrix vesiculation in ventral horn neuron dendrites. MN cell bodies accumulate mitochondria derived from the distal axons projecting to skeletal muscle. Incipient disease in spinal cord is associated with increased oxidative and nitrative stress, indicated by protein carbonyls and nitration of CyPD and ANT. Reducing the levels of CyPD by genetic ablation significantly delays disease onset and extends the lifespan of G93A-mSOD1 mice expressing high and low levels of mutant protein in a gender-dependent pattern. These results demonstrate that mitochondria have causal roles in the disease mechanisms in MNs in ALS mice. This work defines a new mitochondrial mechanism for MN degeneration in ALS.
doi:10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.02.015
PMCID: PMC2710399  PMID: 19272377
adenine nucleotide translocase; cristae remodeling; mutant SOD1; nitration; porin; ppif; voltage-dependent anion channel
23.  Is mPTP the gatekeeper for necrosis, apoptosis, or both? 
Biochimica et biophysica acta  2010;1813(4):616-622.
Permeabilization of the mitochondrial membranes is a crucial step in apoptosis and necrosis. This phenomenon allows the release of mitochondrial death factors which trigger or facilitate different signaling cascades ultimately causing the execution of the cell. The mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) has long been known as one of the main regulators of mitochondria during cell death. mPTP opening can lead to matrix swelling, subsequent rupture of the outer membrane and a nonspecific release of intermembrane space proteins into the cytosol. While mPTP was purportedly associated with early apoptosis, recent observations suggest that mitochondrial permeabilization mediated by mPTP is generally more closely linked to events of late apoptosis and necrosis. Mechanisms of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization during cell death, involving three different mitochondrial channels, have been postulated. These include the mPTP in the inner membrane, and the mitochondrial apoptosis-induced channel (MAC) and voltage dependent anion-selective channel (VDAC) in the outer membrane. New developments on mPTP structure and function, and the involvement of mPTP, MAC, and VDAC in permeabilization of mitochondrial membranes during cell death are explored.
doi:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2010.09.013
PMCID: PMC3050112  PMID: 20888866
mPTP, mitochondrial permeability transition pore; MAC, mitochondrial apoptosis-induced channel; VDAC, voltage dependent anion-selective channel; Bcl-2 family proteins; patch clamp, pharmacology
24.  Neuroglobin Overexpression Inhibits Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation-induced Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore Opening in Primary Cultured Mouse Cortical Neurons 
Neurobiology of disease  2013;0:95-103.
Neuroglobin (Ngb) is an endogenous neuroprotective molecule against hypoxic/ischemic brain injury, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely undefined. Our recent study revealed that Ngb can bind to voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), a regulator of mitochondria permeability transition (MPT). In this study we examined the role of Ngb in MPT pore (mPTP) opening following oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in primary cultured mouse cortical neurons. Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and immuocytochemistry showed that the binding between Ngb and VDAC was increased after OGD compared to normoxia, indicating the OGD-enhanced Ngb-VDAC interaction. Ngb overexpression protected primary mouse cortical neurons from OGD-induced neuronal death, to an extent comparable to mPTP opening inhibitor, cyclosporine A (CsA) pretreatment. We further measured the role of Ngb in OGD-induced mPTP opening using Ngb overexpression and knockdown approaches in primary cultured neurons, and recombinant Ngb exposure to isolated mitochondria. Same as CsA pretreatment, Ngb overexpression significantly reduced OGD-induced mPTP opening markers including mitochondria swelling, mitochondrial NAD+ release, and cytochrome c (Cyt c) release in primary cultured neurons. Recombinant Ngb incubation significantly reduced OGD-induced NAD+ release and Cyt c release from isolated mitochondria. In contrast, Ngb knockdown significantly increased OGD-induced neuron death, and increased OGD-induced mitochondrial NAD+ release and Cyt c release as well, and these outcomes could be rescued by CsA pretreatment. In summary, our results demonstrated that Ngb overexpression can inhibit OGD-induced mPTP opening in primary cultured mouse cortical neurons, which may be one of the molecular mechanisms of Ngb's neuroprotection.
doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2013.04.015
PMCID: PMC3674158  PMID: 23639789
25.  The role of hexokinase in cardioprotection – mechanism and potential for translation 
British Journal of Pharmacology  2014;172(8):2085-2100.
Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening plays a critical role in cardiac reperfusion injury and its prevention is cardioprotective. Tumour cell mitochondria usually have high levels of hexokinase isoform 2 (HK2) bound to their outer mitochondrial membranes (OMM) and HK2 binding to heart mitochondria has also been implicated in resistance to reperfusion injury. HK2 dissociates from heart mitochondria during ischaemia, and the extent of this correlates with the infarct size on reperfusion. Here we review the mechanisms and regulations of HK2 binding to mitochondria and how this inhibits mPTP opening and consequent reperfusion injury. Major determinants of HK2 dissociation are the elevated glucose-6-phosphate concentrations and decreased pH in ischaemia. These are modulated by the myriad of signalling pathways implicated in preconditioning protocols as a result of a decrease in pre-ischaemic glycogen content. Loss of mitochondrial HK2 during ischaemia is associated with permeabilization of the OMM to cytochrome c, which leads to greater reactive oxygen species production and mPTP opening during reperfusion. Potential interactions between HK2 and OMM proteins associated with mitochondrial fission (e.g. Drp1) and apoptosis (B-cell lymphoma 2 family members) in these processes are examined. Also considered is the role of HK2 binding in stabilizing contact sites between the OMM and the inner membrane. Breakage of these during ischaemia is proposed to facilitate cytochrome c loss during ischaemia while increasing mPTP opening and compromising cellular bioenergetics during reperfusion. We end by highlighting the many unanswered questions and discussing the potential of modulating mitochondrial HK2 binding as a pharmacological target.
doi:10.1111/bph.12899
PMCID: PMC4386983  PMID: 25204670

Results 1-25 (676472)