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1.  User Acceptance of Picture Archiving and Communication System in the Emergency Department 
Iranian Journal of Radiology  2016;13(2):e20102.
Picture archiving and communication system (PACS) has allowed the medical images to be transmitted, stored, retrieved, and displayed in different locations of a hospital or health system. Using PACS in the emergency department will eventually result in improved efficiency and patient care. In spite of the abundant benefits of employing PACS, there are some challenges in implementing this technology like users’ resistance to accept the technology, which has a critical role in PACS success.
In this study, we will assess and compare user acceptance of PACS in the emergency departments of three different hospitals and investigate the effect of socio-demographic factors on this acceptance.
Materials and Methods
A variant of technology acceptance model (TAM) has been used in order to measure the acceptance level of PACS in the emergency department of three educational hospitals in Iran. A previously used questionnaire was validated and utilized to collect the study data. A stepwise multiple regression model was used to predict factors influencing acceptance score as the dependent variable.
Mean age of participants was 32.9 years (standard deviation [SD] = 6.08). Participants with the specialty degree got a higher acceptance score than the three other groups (Mean ± SD = 4.17 ± 0.20). Age, gender, degree of PACS usage and participant’s occupation (profession) did not influence the acceptance score. In our multiple regression model, all three variables of perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEU) and the effect of PACS (change) had a significant effect in the prediction of acceptance. The most influencing factor was change with the beta of 0.22 (P value < 0.001).
PACS is highly accepted in all three emergency departments especially among specialists. PU, PEU and change are factors influencing PACS acceptance. Our study can be used as an evidence of PACS acceptance in emergency wards.
PMCID: PMC5036459  PMID: 27679692
Emergency Service; Hospital; Radiology Information Systems; PACS; Technology Acceptance; TAM
2.  Continuing quality improvement procedures for a clinical PACS 
Journal of Digital Imaging  1998;11(Suppl 1):111-114.
The University of California at San Francisco (USCF) Department of Radiology currently has a clinically operational picture archiving and communication system (PACS) that is thirty-five percent filmless, with the goal of becoming seventy-five percent filmless within the year. The design and implementation of the clinical PACS has been a collaborative effort between an academic research laboratory and a commercial vendor partner. Images are digitally acquired from three computed radiography (CR) scanners, five computed tomography (CT) scanners, five magnetic resonance (MR) imagers, three digital fluoroscopic rooms, an ultrasound mini-PACS and a nuclear medicine mini-PACS. The DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) standard communications protocol and image format is adhered to throughout the PACS. Images are archived in hierarchical staged fashion, on a RAID (redundant array of inexpensive disks) and on magneto-optical disk jukeboxes. The clinical PACS uses an object-oriented Oracle SQL (systems query language) database, and interfaces to the Radiology Information System using the HL7 (Health Languages 7) standard. Components are networked using a combination of switched and fast ethernet, and ATM (asynchronous transfer mode), all over fiber optics. The wide area network links six UCSF sites in San Francisco. A combination of high and medium resolution dual-monitor display stations have been placed throughout the Department of Radiology, the Emergency Department (ED) and Intensive Care Units (ICU). A continuing quality improvement (CQI) committee has been formed to facilitate the PACS installation and training, workflow modifications, quality assurance and clinical acceptance. This committee includes radiologists at all levels (resident, fellow, attending), radiology technologists, film library personnel, ED and ICU clinian end-users, and PACS team members. The CQI committee has proved vital in the creation of new management procedures, providing a means for user feedback and education, and contributing to the overall acceptance of, and user satisfaction with the system. Well developed CQI procedures have been essential to the successful clinical operation of the PACS as UCSF Radiology moves toward, a filmless department.
PMCID: PMC3453403  PMID: 9735446
PACS; continuing quality improvement (CQI); quality assurance (QA); filmless
3.  Users’ Perspectives on a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS): An In-Depth Study in a Teaching Hospital in Kuwait 
JMIR Medical Informatics  2016;4(2):e21.
Picture archiving and communication system (PACS) is a well-known imaging informatics application in health care organizations, specifically designed for the radiology department. Health care providers have exhibited willingness toward evaluating PACS in hospitals to ascertain the critical success and failure of the technology, considering that evaluation is a basic requirement.
This study aimed at evaluating the success of a PACS in a regional teaching hospital of Kuwait, from users’ perspectives, using information systems success criteria.
An in-depth study was conducted by using quantitative and qualitative methods. This mixed-method study was based on: (1) questionnaires, distributed to all radiologists and technologists and (2) interviews, conducted with PACS administrators.
In all, 60 questionnaires were received from the respondents. These included 39 radiologists (75% response rate) and 21 technologists (62% response rate), with the results showing almost three-quarters (74%, 44 of 59) of the respondents rating PACS positively and as user friendly. This study’s findings revealed that the demographic data, including computer experience, was an insignificant factor, having no influence on the users’ responses. The findings were further substantiated by the administrators’ interview responses, which supported the benefits of PACS, indicating the need for developing a unified policy aimed at streamlining and improving the departmental workflow.
The PACS had a positive and productive impact on the radiologists’ and technologists’ work performance. They were endeavoring to resolve current problems while keeping abreast of advances in PACS technology, including teleradiology and mobile image viewer, which is steadily increasing in usage in the Kuwaiti health system.
PMCID: PMC4927806  PMID: 27307046
PACS evaluation; user perspective; IS success; imaging informatics; radiology
4.  Electronic teaching files: Seven-year experience using a commercial picture archiving and communication system 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2001;14(Suppl 1):125-127.
With the advent of electronic imaging and the internet, the ability to create, search, access, and archive digital imaging teaching files has dramatically improved. Despite the fact that a picture archival and communication system (PACS) has the potential to greatly simplify the creation of, archival, and access to a department or multifacility teaching file, this potential has not yet been satisfactorily realized in our own and most other PACS installations. Several limitations of the teaching file tools within our PACS have become apparent over time. These have, at our facility, resulted in a substantially reduced role of the teaching file tools for conferences, daily teaching, and research purposes. With the PACS at our institution, academic folders can only be created by the systems engineer, which often serves as an impediment to the teaching process. Once these folders are created, multiple steps are required to identify the appropriate folders, and subsequently save images. Difficulties exist for those attempting to search for the teaching file images. Without pre-existing knowledge of the folder name and contents, it is difficult to query the system for specific images. This is due to the fact that there is currently no fully satisfactory mechanism for categorizing, indexing, and searching cases using the PACS. There is currently no easy mechanism to save teaching, research, or clinical files onto a CD or other removable media or to automatically strip demographic or other patient information from the images. PACS vendors should provide much more sophisticated tools to create and annotate teaching file images in an easy to use but standard format (possibly Radiological Society of North America’s Medical Image Resource Center [MIRC] format) that could be exchanged with other sites and other vendors’ PAC systems. The privilege to create teaching or conference files should be given to the individual radiologists, technologists, and other users, and an audit should be kept of who has created these files, as well as keep track of who has accessed the files. Vendors should maintain a local PACS library of image quality phantoms, normal variants, and interesting cases and should have the capability of accessing central image repositories such as the RSNA’s MIRC images. Commercial PAC systems should utilize a standard lexicon to facilitate the creation and categorization of images, as well as to facilitate sharing of images and related text with other sites. This should be combined with a very easy to use mechanism to write images and related text when appropriate onto removable media (while maintaining a high level of security and confidentiality) to make it easier to share images for teaching, research, or clinical purposes.
PMCID: PMC3452728  PMID: 11442071
5.  Care and feeding of a staff for filmless radiology 
Journal of Digital Imaging  1999;12(Suppl 1):38-40.
Texas Children’s Hospital, a definitive care pediatric hospital located in the Texas Medical Center, has been constructing a large-scale picture archival and communications system (PACS) including ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR), and computed radiography (CR). Developing staffing adequate to meet the demands of filmless radiology operations has been a continuous challenge. Overall guidance for the PACS effort is provided by a hospital-level PACS Committee, a department-level PACS Steering Committee, and an Operations Committee. Operational Subcommittees have been formed to address service-specific implementations, such as the Emergency Center Operations Subcommittee. These committees include membership by those affected by the change, as well as those effecting the change. Initially, personnel resources for PACS were provided through additional duties of existing imaging service personnel. As the PACS effort became more complex, full-time positions were created, including a PACS Coordinator, a PACS Analyst, and a Digital Imaging Assistant. Each position requires a job description, qualifications, and personnel development plans that are difficult to anticipate in an evolving PACS implementation. These positions have been augmented by temporary full-time assignments, position reclassifications, and cross-training of other imaging personnel. Imaging personnel are assisted by other hospital personnel from Biomedical Engineering and Information Services. Ultimately, the PACS staff grows to include all those who must operate the PACS equipment in the normal course of their duties. The effectiveness of the PACS staff is limited by their level of their expertise. This report discusses our methods to obtain training from outside our institution and to develop, conduct, and document standardized in-house training. We describe some of the products of this work, including policies and procedures, clinical competency criteria, PACS inservice topics, and an informal PACS newsletter. As the PACS system software and hardware changes, and as our implementation grows, these products must to be revised and training must be repeated.
PMCID: PMC3452899  PMID: 10342162
6.  Maintaining continuity of clinical operations while implementing large-scale filmless operations 
Journal of Digital Imaging  1999;12(Suppl 1):50-53.
Texas Children’s Hospital is a pediatric tertiary care facility in the Texas Medical Center with a large-scale, Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)-compliant picture archival and communications system (PACS) installation. As our PACS has grown from an ultrasound niche PACS into a full-scale, multimodality operation, assuring continuity of clinical operations has become the number one task of the PACS staff. As new equipment is acquired and incorporated into the PACS, workflow processes, responsibilities, and job descriptions must be revised to accommodate filmless operations. Round-the-clock clinical operations must be supported with round-the-clock service, including three shifts, weekends, and holidays. To avoid unnecessary interruptions in clinical service, this requirement includes properly trained operators and users, as well as service personnel. Redundancy is a cornerstone in assuring continuity of clinical operations. This includes all PACS components such as acquisition, network interfaces, gateways, archive, and display. Where redundancy is not feasible, spare parts must be readily available. The need for redundancy also includes trained personnel. Procedures for contingency operations in the event of equipment failures must be devised, documented, and rehearsed. Contingency operations might be required in the event of scheduled as well as unscheduled service events, power outages, network outages, or interruption of the radiology information system (RIS) interface. Methods must be developed and implemented for reporting and documenting problems. We have a Trouble Call service that records a voice message and automatically pages the PACS Console Operator on duty. We also have developed a Maintenance Module on our RIS system where service calls are recorded by technologists and service actions are recorded and monitored by PACS support personnel. In a filmless environment, responsibility for the delivery of images to the radiologist and referring physician must be accepted by each imaging supervisor. Thus, each supervisor must initiate processes to verify correct patient and examination identification and the correct count and routing of images with each examination.
PMCID: PMC3452870  PMID: 10342165
7.  The importance of a picture archiving and communications system (PACS) manager for large-scale PACS installations 
Journal of Digital Imaging  1999;12(Suppl 1):37.
Installing a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) is a massive undertaking for any radiology department. Facilities making a successful transition to digital systems are finding that a PACS manager helps guide the way and offers a heightened return on the investment. The PACS manager fills a pivotal role in a multiyear, phased PACS installation. PACS managers navigate a facility through the complex sea of issues surrounding a PACS installation by coordinating the efforts of the vendor, radiology staff, hospital administration, and the information technology group. They are involved in the process from the purchase decision through the design and implementation phases. They can help administrators justify a PACS, purchase and shape the request for proposal (RFP) process before a vendor is even chosen. Once a supplier has been selected, the PACS manager works closely with the vendor and facility staff to determine the best equipment configuration for his or her facility, and makes certain that all deadlines are met during the planning and installation phase. The PACS manager also ensures that the infrastructure and backbone of the facility are ready for installation of the equipment. PACS managers also help the radiology staff gain acceptance of the technology by serving as teachers, troubleshooters, and the primary point-of-contact for all PACS issues. This session will demonstrate the value of a PACS manager, as well as point out ways to determine the manager’s responsibilities. By the end of the session, participants will be able to describe the role of a PACS manager as it relates to departmental operation and in partnership with equipment vendors, justify a full-time position for a PACS manager, and identify the qualifications of candidates for the position of PACS manager.
PMCID: PMC3452919  PMID: 10342161
8.  Monitoring the PACS Implementation Process in a Large University Hospital—Discrepancies Between Radiologists and Physicians 
Successfully introducing a new technology in a health-care setting is not a walk in the park. Many barriers need to be overcome, not only technical and financial but also human barriers. In this study, we focus on the human barriers to health-care information systems’ implementation. We monitored the acceptance of a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) by radiologists and hospital physicians in a large Belgian university hospital. Hereto, questionnaires were taken pre-implementation (T1) and 1 year after the radiology department stopped printing film (T2). The framework we used to perform the study was the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. Main findings were that both groups were positive toward PACS prior to the introduction and that each group was even more positive at T2 with extensive PACS experience. In general, the ratings of the radiologists were higher than those of the physicians, as the radiologists experienced more of the benefits of PACS and had to use PACS throughout the day. Two factors were salient for predicting users’ intention to use PACS: the usefulness of PACS (performance expectancy) and the availability of support of any kind (facilitating conditions). The results show that our approach was successful. Both radiologists and physicians give evidence of an excellent level of user acceptance. We can conclude that the implementation of PACS into our hospital has succeeded.
PMCID: PMC3043749  PMID: 18956231
PACS; acceptance testing; computers in medicine; radiology workflow; UTAUT; attitude; university hospital
9.  How many people does it take to operate a picture archiving and communication system? 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2001;14(Suppl 1):40-43.
The most frequently asked question without a correct answer is: “Just how many people does it take to operate a picture archiving and communication system (PACS)?” At Texas Children’s Hospital, our consensus is that we do not yet know. As soon as we felt we had adequate staffing to provide timely response for routine services, we found that including the Intensive Care Units (ICUs) increased our demand for urgent response beyond our capacity. The addition of inpatient bedside imaging to PACS also increased the demand for round-the-clock and weekend PACS services. Our answer to the staffing question changes every year, in accordance with changes in the scope of services that our PACS is expected to provide. Our administration drew up a 5-year plan for PACS implementation, concentrating on purchase and installation of equipment, but neglected to estimate requirements for full-time equivalents (FTEs) for PACS. Our administration reasonably assumed that existing employees would be galvanized into PACS personnel. It is now clear that new FTEs need to be created strictly for the PACS service. Our 5-year plan also did not anticipate significant changes in the extent of our healthcare enterprise. Our PACS accommodates limited remote service: providing a PACS Analyst to travel to the site when a problem is not resolved remotely is another demand on staffing. Our PACS service was formed using staffing numbers based on assumptions about the minimum number of employees needed to perform routine duties, field trouble calls, conduct training, and work on special projects, such as adding new acquisition modalities or troubleshooting longstanding problems. This staffing was based on a single shift operation, with on-call coverage for second, third, and weekend shifts. The number of employees also considered absences for vacation, sick leave, and training. The service has administrative overhead that should be covered by a secretary. Someone is also needed to supervise the team. Once the number of personnel is determined, detailed definition of qualifications and responsibilities is required. Each job description must accurately reflect what is expected of the employee, but must be constructed in such a way to be graded appropriately by Human Resources, without excluding potentially desirable applicants. In addition to competitive pay. other factors play an important role in recruiting and retention. These include training that the hospital provides, opportunities for advancement, relief from menial duties, adequate working space and facilities, and opportunities for self-development. There is high turnover of personnel in computer services, and we are in a highly competitive market. The correct number of FTEs must consider that we will have to operate the PACS during periods when one or more positions are open or occupied by “greenhorns.” In our case, where the vendor provides on-site service engineers, we are able to operate with fewer FTEs. The more distant and tenuous our vendor support, the more we would need to depend on hospital FTEs. While remote vendor maintenance is helpful, it is not useful in reducing the number of FTEs. Instead of adding PACS responsibilities to supervisors of imaging services, we are creating new PACS FTEs outside the PACS service. The idea is to give imaging supervisors the assets they need to perform the additional tasks involving PACS, such as first-line response to trouble, user training, and quality-control oversight. It also frees up PACS service personnel to deal with training and problems with customers outside the Radiology Department.
PMCID: PMC3452718  PMID: 11442117
10.  Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS): Clinician’s Perspective About Filmless Imaging 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2013;77(Suppl 3):774-777.
Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) are most appropriate means of acquiring, archiving, and communicating all forms of radiology imaging. The present study is to decide applicability of PACS, its exact role in patient care, and benefit as a teaching tool. To compare conventional imaging with picture archiving and communication system from user’s point of view, impact of PACS on patient care and teaching. This was a single center, observational study over a period of 4 weeks from 15 January 2010 to 15 February 2010 carried out in Pravara Rural Hospital. For the present study, 100 users from various clinical disciplines were included who routinely use PACS. A pretested questionnaire related to various aspects of PACS was devised considering its advantage to clinicians, role in patient care, and as tool for teaching. Out of 100 users, 85 % users reported PACS easy to very easy for handle. Ninety-four percent users reported PACS as useful tool for the hospital. Fifty-one percent of users found image quality at image review workstation to be good to very good against 49 % found it poor to very poor. There have been several studies to demonstrate the benefits of PACS to users, but many of these have concentrated on radiology trainees, users in a particular department. Present study concentrates on the impact that PACS has made to the working of the clinicians in many different disciplines. The perceived benefits of PACS outnumbered the disadvantages and reflected the widely documented benefits of PACS in the literature.
PMCID: PMC4775666  PMID: 27011455
Picture archiving and communication system (PACS)
11.  Developing policies and procedures for a picture archiving and communication system 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2001;14(Suppl 1):44-47.
Policies and procedures (P&P) constitute the mechanism for planning, standardizing, and documenting the provision of clinical services. Upon approval by hospital management, the P&P is an official statement of hospital rules and regulations. Each P&P establishes organizational responsibility for providing services. P&P are a mechanism for communicating standard operating procedures to hospital and medical staff. P&P serve as a reference document for unusual events, as well as routine procedures. P&P are often reviewed by inspection teams from the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospital Organizations (JCAHO) to determine whether the hospital has documented systematic practices. A picture archival and communications system (PACS) provides a new vehicle for providing radiology services. P&P that were designed for conventional film-based imaging are often not appropriate for electronic imaging. Because PACS is new and not yet widespread, good examples of PACS P&P are not yet available. JCAHO has no official requirements for PACS: PACS is viewed only as a means for the hospital to accomplish its work. Successful P&P development is a team effort, drafted by personnel responsible for executing the procedure, assisted by staff proficient in PACS technology, and tested in the field. The P&P should be reviewed and approved by management personnel knowledgeable about hospital and imaging operations. P&P should be written in clear and concise language. Successful P&P development is an ongoing effort. P&P must be periodically reviewed and updated to reflect changes in PACS technology and changes in clinical operations. New P&P must be developed when a deficit is noted. PACS security is a good example of a topic worthy of P&P development, especially in the face of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) legislation of 1996. What are the provisions for access control? Does the system include a feature for automatic shut-off of the software? Are there “generic” passwords and log-ins shared by a community of users? How are passwords assigned and how frequently are they changed? What security measures are in place to assure passwords are given to the appropriate user? Who grants and denies access? Service calls are another topic for P&P. Who initiates a service call? What is the process for escalating a service call from the operator level to the vendor? What immediate actions are expected by the operator in order to restore PACS services? How are service events documented? Who is responsible for determining when “downtime” procedures should be initiated or suspended? When our hospital’s total electrical system had to be shut down for an extended period, we found that a P&P was lacking for a task as mundane as shutting down and restarting our PACS components. What is the sequence for the shutdown? Who is responsible for shutting down and restarting? How long can the devices operate on uninteruptible power supplies (UPS)? What components are on emergency power? Should we expect the components to survive the switchover to generator power? Developing this P&P was worth the effort: it made the PACS more fault-tolerant and served as a reference document 3 years later when expansion of our physical plant required two more power outages.
PMCID: PMC3452735  PMID: 11442118
12.  Using technology assessment as the picture archiving and communication system spreads outside radiology to the enterprise 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2000;13(Suppl 1):114-116.
Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) are being implemented within radiology departments, and many facilities are entering the next stage of PACS use by deploying PACS to departments outside of radiology and to other facilities located at a distance. Many PACS vendors and department administrators have based cost-justification analyses on the anticipated savings from expanding PACS to these areas. However, many of these cost-savings analyses can be highly suspect in their assumptions and findings. Technology assessment (TA) at the hospital/health system level is an organized, systematic approach to examining the efficacy of a technology in relation to the health system’s mission and clinical needs. It can be an organized and unifying approach to aid in the distribution of limited capital resources. As extraradiology PACS deployment is a costly endeavor, TA may be used to plan for PACS implementation throughout the enterprise. In many organizations, PACS is thought of as a radiology domain as its first uses were centered on this image-producing service. Now, as PACS technology spreads to other service areas, such as cardiology, dermatology, pathology, orthopedics, obstetrics, etc, the need to incorporate other view-points in a system-based PACS is necessary to avoid having independent PACS that may duplicate archives and may not communicate with each other. How to meet the diverse PACS needs of clinical services can be a challenging task; a TA program has been demonstrated to effectively handle the clinical needs, demands, and timeframes of PACS planning and support throughout hospitals and health systems. A hospitalbased TA program can assist health care organizations to present PACS as a system-wide need and program rather than a radiology-based program gobbling up the capital budget. Submitting PACS to the TA review process can identify essential elements in planning and help avoid many of the pitfalls of PACS implementation and operations. Thorough cost and/or return on investment analyses, phasing decisions, workflow re-engineering, and outcomes assessment programs are a few of the issues that a TA program can address to help in the transition to a complete electronic image environment. The TA process includes clinician selection, evaluation criteria and their selection for technologies under review, a policy for review/authorization/denial, and measurement of expected outcomes.
PMCID: PMC3453279  PMID: 10847377
13.  Reengineering the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) process for digital imaging networks PACS 
Journal of Digital Imaging  1999;12(Suppl 1):59-61.
Prior to June 1997, military picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) were planned, procured, and installed with key decisions on the system, equipment, and even funding sources made through a research and development office called Medical Diagnostic Imaging Systems (MDIS). Beginning in June 1997, the Joint Imaging Technology Project Office (JITPO) initiated a collaborative and consultative process for planning and implementing PACS into military treatment facilities through a new Department of Defense (DoD) contract vehicle called digital imaging networks (DIN)-PACS. The JITPO reengineered this process incorporating multiple organizations and politics. The reengineered PACS process administered through the JITPO transformed the decision process and accountability from a single office to a consultative method that increased end-user knowledge, responsibility, and ownership in PACS. The JITPO continues to provide information and services that assist multiple groups and users in rendering PACS planning and implementation decisions. Local site project managers are involved from the outset and this end-user collaboration has made the sometimes difficult transition to PACS an easier and more acceptable process for all involved. Corporately, this process saved DoD sites millions by having PACS plans developed within the government and proposed to vendors second, and then having vendors respond specifically to those plans. The integrity and efficiency of the process have reduced the opportunity for implementing nonstandard systems while sharing resources and reducing wasted government dollars. This presentation will describe the chronology of changes, encountered obstacles, and lessons learned within the reengineering of the PACS process for DIN-PACS.
PMCID: PMC3452894  PMID: 10342167
14.  Study of Radiologic Technologists’ Perceptions of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) Competence and Educational Issues in Western Australia 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2015;28(3):315-322.
Although the implementation of picture archiving and communication system (PACS) could increase productivity of radiology departments, this depends on factors such as the PACS competence of radiologic technologists (RTs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the RTs’ perceptions of PACS competence and educational issues in Western Australia (WA). A hardcopy questionnaire was distributed to WA RTs for obtaining their perceptions of PACS competence and educational issues. Descriptive (percentage of frequency, mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (t test and analysis of variance) were used to analyze the responses of the multiple choice and five-point scale questions from the returned questionnaires. The questionnaire response rate was 57.7 % (173 out of 300). The mean values of all PACS competence questions except questions 2e–g are in the range of 3.9–4.9, i.e., around competent to very competent. Participants indicated they received adequate PACS training (mean 3.8). Statistically significant variables influencing RTs’ perceptions of their PACS competence and educational issues including the age (p < 0.01), gender (p < 0.05), years of practice (p < 0.005–0.05), primary duty (p < 0.05), medical imaging qualification (p < 0.001), general computer skills (p < 0.001), and type of PACS education received (p < 0.001–0.05). The WA RTs indicated that they were competent in using the modality workstation, PACS and radiology information system, and received adequate training. However, future PACS education programs should be tailored to different RTs’ groups. For example, multiple training modules might be necessary to support the PACS competence development of older RTs and those with lower general computer literacy.
PMCID: PMC4441692  PMID: 25561072
PACS competence; PACS education; Radiologic technologist
15.  The Information Security Needs in Radiological Information Systems—an Insight on State Hospitals of Iran, 2012 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2013;26(6):1040-1044.
Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS) was originally developed for radiology services over 20 years ago to capture medical images electronically. Medical diagnosis methods are based on images such as clinical radiographs, ultrasounds, CT scans, MRIs, or other imaging modalities. Information obtained from these images is correlated with patient information. So with regards to the important role of PACS in hospitals, we aimed to evaluate the PACS and survey the information security needed in the Radiological Information system. First, we surveyed the different aspects of PACS that should be in any health organizations based on Department of Health standards and prepared checklists for assessing the PACS in different hospitals. Second, we surveyed the security controls that should be implemented in PACS. Checklists reliability is affirmed by professors of Tehran Science University. Then, the final data are inputted in SPSS software and analyzed. The results indicate that PACS in hospitals can transfer patient demographic information but they do not show route of information. These systems are not open source. They don’t use XML-based standard and HL7 standard for exchanging the data. They do not use DS digital signature. They use passwords and the user can correct or change the medical information. PACS can detect alternation rendered. The survey of results demonstrates that PACS in all hospitals has the same features. These systems have the patient demographic data but they do not have suitable flexibility to interface network or taking reports. For the privacy of PACS in all hospitals, there were passwords for users and the system could show the changes that have been made; but there was no water making or digital signature for the users.
PMCID: PMC3824932  PMID: 23852637
Picture Archiving and Communications System; Radiological Information System; Information Security
16.  Computers in imaging and health care: Now and in the future 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2000;13(4):145-156.
Early picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) were characterized by the use of very expensive hardware devices, cumbersome display stations, duplication of database content, lack of interfaces to other clinical information systems, and immaturity in their understanding of the folder manager concepts and workflow reengineering. They were implemented historically at large academic medical centers by biomedical engineers and imaging informaticists. PACS were nonstandard, home-grown projects with mixed clinical acceptance. However, they clearly showed the great potential for PACS and filmless medical imaging. Filmless radiology is a reality today. The advent of efficient softcopy display of images provides a means for dealing with the ever-increasing number of studies and number of images per study. Computer power has increased, and archival storage cost has decreased to the extent that the economics of PACS is justifiable with respect to film. Network bandwidths have increased to allow large studies of many megabytes to arrive at display stations within seconds of examination completion. PACS vendors have recognized the need for efficient workflow and have built systems with intelligence in the mangement of patient data. Close integration with the hospital information system (HIS)-radiology information system (RIS) is critical for system functionality. Successful implementation of PACS requires integration or interoperation with hospital and radiology information systems. Besides the economic advantages, secure rapid access to all clinical information on patients, including imaging studies, anytime and anywhere, enhances the quality of patient care, although it is difficult to quantify. Medical image management systems are maturing, providing access outside of the radiology department to images and clinical information throughout the hospital or the enterprise via the Internet. Small and medium-sized community hospitals, private practices, and outpatient centers in rural areas will begin realizing the benefits of PACS already realized by the large tertiary care academic medical centers and research institutions. Hand-held devices and the Worldwide Web are going to change the way people communicate and do business. The impact on health care will be huge, including radiology. Computer-aided diagnosis, decision support tools, virtual imaging, and guidance systems will transform our practice as value-added applications utilizing the technologies pushed by PACS development efforts. Outcomes data and the electronic medical record (EMR) will drive our interactions with referring physicians and we expect the radiologist to become the informaticist, a new version of the medical management consultant.
PMCID: PMC3453069  PMID: 11110253
picture archiving and communication systems (PACS); image storage and retrieval; folder manager; workflow manager; radiology information systems; computers; digital radiology
17.  Efficiency and Effectiveness of an Innovative RIS Function for Patient Information Reconciliation Directly Integrated with PACS 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2012;26(3):412-418.
In RIS-PACS systems, potential errors occurring during the execution of a radiologic examination can amplify the clinical risks of the patient during subsequent treatments, e.g., of oncologic patients or of those who must do additional treatments based on the initial diagnosis. In Reggio Emilia Province Diagnostic Imaging Department (REDID) we experienced different strategies to reduce clinical risks due to patient reconciliation errors. In 2010, we developed a procedure directly integrated in our RIS-PACS that uses Health Level 7 (HL7) standard messaging, which generates an overlay with the text "under investigation" on the images of the study to be corrected. All the healthcare staff is informed of the meaning of that overlay, and only the radiologist and the emergency services staff can consult these images on PACS. The elimination of image overlay and of any access limitation to PACS was triggered to confirm of the right correction made by RIS-PACS system administrator (SA). The RIS-PACS integrated tool described in this paper allows technologists and radiologists to efficiently highlight patient exam errors and to inform all the users to minimize the overall clinical risks, with a significant savings in costs. Over the years, we have observed a steady decrease in the percentage of reconciled studies. Error reconciliation requires an effective and efficient mechanism. The RIS-PACS integrated tool described in this paper enables technologists and radiologists to quickly and efficiently highlight patient exam errors and inform all the users. Next generation of RIS-PACS could be equipped with similar reconciliation tools.
PMCID: PMC3649044  PMID: 23224607
RIS; PACS; Quality assurance; Patient information reconciliation
18.  Large-scale PACS implementation 
Journal of Digital Imaging  1998;11(Suppl 1):3-7.
The transition to filmless radiology is a much more formidable task than making the request for proposal to purchase a (Picture Archiving and Communications System) PACS. The Department of Defense and the Veterans Administration have been pioneers in the transformation of medical diagnostic imaging to the electronic environment. Many civilian sites are expected to implement large-scale PACS in the next five to ten years. This presentation will relate the empirical insights gleaned at our institution from a large-scale PACS implementation. Our PACS integration was introduced into a fully operational department (not a new hospital) in which work flow had to continue with minimal impact. Impediments to user acceptance will be addressed. The critical components of this enormous task will be discussed. The topics covered during this session will include issues such as phased implementation, DICOM (digital imaging and communications in medicine) standard-based interaction of devices, hospital information system (HIS)/radiology information system (RIS) interface, user approval, networking, workstation deployment and backup procedures. The presentation will make specific suggestions regarding the implementation team, operating instructions, quality control (QC), training and education. the concept of identifying key functional areas is relevant to transitioning the facility to be entirely on line. Special attention must be paid to specific functional areas such as the operating rooms and trauma rooms where the clinical requirements may not match the PACS capabilities. The printing of films may be necessary for certain circumstances. The integration of teleradiology and remote clinics into a PACS is a salient topic with respect to the overall role of the radiologists providing rapid consultation. A Webbased server allows a clinician to review images and reports on a desk-top (personal) computer and thus reduce the number of dedicated PACS review workstations. This session will focus on effective strategies for a seamless transition. Critical issues involve maintaining a good working relationship with the vendor, cultivating personnel readiness and instituting well-defined support systems. Success depends on the ability to integrate the institutional directives, user expectations and available technologies. A team approach is mandatory for success.
PMCID: PMC3453381  PMID: 9735422
19.  Radiology workflow and patient volume: Effect of picture archiving and communication systems on technologists and radiologists 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2000;13(Suppl 1):97-100.
This study was performed to evaluate the changes in workflow and efficiency in various clinical settings in the radiology department after the introduction of a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). Time and motion data were collected when conventional image management was used, and again after the introduction of a PACS. Changes in the elapsed time from examination request until the image dispatch to the radiologist, and from dispatch until report dictation, were evaluated. The relationship between patient volume and throughput was evaluated. The time from examination request until dispatch was significantly longer after the introduction of PACS for examinations taken on patients from the emergency department (ED) (pre-PACS, 20 minutes; post-PACS, 25 minutes;P<.0001), and for examinations taken on patients in the medical intensive care unit (MICU) (pre-PACS, 34 minutes; post-PACS, 42 minutes;P<.0001). The interval from image dispatch until report dictation shortened significantly after the introduction of PACS in the ED (pre-PACS, 38 minutes; post-PACS, 23 minutes;P<.0001) and in the outpatient department (OPD) (pre-PACS, 38 minutes; post-PACS, 20 minutes;P<.0001). Simple least squares regression showed a significant relationship between daily patient volume and the daily median time until report dictation (F=43.42,P<.001). PACS slowed technologists by prolonging the quality-control procedure. Radiologist workflow was shortened or not affected. Efficiency is dependent on patient volume, and workflow improvements are due to a shift from batch to on-line reading that is enabled by the ability of PACS to route enough examinations to keep radiologists fully occupied.
PMCID: PMC3453253  PMID: 10847373
20.  A Socio-technical assessment of the success of picture archiving and communication systems: the radiology technologist’s perspective 
With the increasing prevalence of Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) in healthcare institutions, there is a growing need to measure their success. However, there is a lack of published literature emphasizing the technical and social factors underlying a successful PACS.
An updated Information Systems Success Model was utilized by radiology technologists (RTs) to evaluate the success of PACS at a large medical center in Taiwan. A survey, consisting of 109 questionnaires, was analyzed by Structural Equation Modeling.
Socio-technical factors (including system quality, information quality, service quality, perceived usefulness, user satisfaction, and PACS dependence) were proven to be effective measures of PACS success. Although the relationship between service quality and perceived usefulness was not significant, other proposed relationships amongst the six measurement parameters of success were all confirmed.
Managers have an obligation to improve the attributes of PACS. At the onset of its deployment, RTs will have formed their own subjective opinions with regards to its quality (system quality, information quality, and service quality). As these personal concepts are either refuted or reinforced based on personal experiences, RTs will become either satisfied or dissatisfied with PACS, based on their perception of its usefulness or lack of usefulness. A satisfied RT may play a pivotal role in the implementation of PACS in the future.
PMCID: PMC3849362  PMID: 24053458
Socio-technical evaluation; Information systems success model; Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS)
21.  How to satisfy both clinical and information technology goals in designing a successful picture archiving and communication system 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2000;13(Suppl 1):10-12.
Designing and operating a PACS system requires an integrated focus to maintain peak performance of the system from an information technology (IT) perspective and to ensure that all clinical and financial requirements are met. An IT-based picture archiving and communication system (PACS) manager is in the best position to satisfy these sometime conflicting audiences. This report will describe how an institution moving towards PACS can unite radiologists, hospital administrators, and information systems (IS)/IT specialists into one cohesive team to ensure the highest levels of success with their future PACS. There are several keys to success: (1) Designing and selecting PACS requires a dedicated team, with representatives from radiology, as well as IS/IT and administration. (2) Each group needs to thoroughly outline their specific needs, so that the final PACS solution is relevant from all perspectives. This needs assessment needs to be made before issuing a request for proposal (RFP) and interviewing vendors. (3) The team needs to be small to be effective. Each group should have one or at most two representatives that collect input from, and report to, a group of his or her peers. (4) Plans need to be made to determine how to integrate current and future hospital information systems (HIS), in order to ensure a smooth pathway to the electronic medical record. (5) All team members should agree on the overall objectives for PACS and participate in its design and installation. (6) Each team member is charged with motivating, and helping to educate, his or her peers. (7) Training should be tailored to the needs of each audience. Explain how each staff member benefits from the PACS. Training should be ongoing to accommodate the addition of new system features and new users. This report will describe the importance of recognizing PACS as being an IT system with a clinical focus. The importance of designing goals of the PACS system from various perspectives, including clinical, technical, and financial, will be addressed. More importantly, this presentation will high-light the benefits a medical institution will receive if the various groups can work together, while at the same time outlining some pitfalls they can expect to encounter if the groups take an adversarial approach.
PMCID: PMC3453267  PMID: 10847353
22.  Towards a Theory of PACS Deployment: An Integrative PACS Maturity Framework 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2014;27(3):337-350.
Owing to large financial investments that go along with the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) deployments and inconsistent PACS performance evaluations, there is a pressing need for a better understanding of the implications of PACS deployment in hospitals. We claim that there is a gap in the research field, both theoretically and empirically, to explain the success of the PACS deployment and maturity in hospitals. Theoretical principles are relevant to the PACS performance; maturity and alignment are reviewed from a system and complexity perspective. A conceptual model to explain the PACS performance and a set of testable hypotheses are then developed. Then, structural equation modeling (SEM), i.e. causal modeling, is applied to validate the model and hypotheses based on a research sample of 64 hospitals that use PACS, i.e. 70 % of all hospitals in the Netherlands. Outcomes of the SEM analyses substantiate that the measurements of all constructs are reliable and valid. The PACS alignment—modeled as a higher-order construct of five complementary organizational dimensions and maturity levels—has a significant positive impact on the PACS performance. This result is robust and stable for various sub-samples and segments. This paper presents a conceptual model that explains how alignment in deploying PACS in hospitals is positively related to the perceived performance of PACS. The conceptual model is extended with tools as checklists to systematically identify the improvement areas for hospitals in the PACS domain. The holistic approach towards PACS alignment and maturity provides a framework for clinical practice.
PMCID: PMC4026462  PMID: 24448919
Picture archiving and communication systems; PACS maturity model; Performance; Complexity theory; Strategic planning; Structural equation modeling
23.  Radiology information systems, picture archiving and communication systems, teleradiology— Overview and design criteria 
Journal of Digital Imaging  1998;11(Suppl 2):2-7.
Information technology (IT), long taken for granted in commercial settings, is now being utilized for healthcare applications. Medical imaging has lagged comparatively due to the extremely vast data content of each frame; thus, the requirement for expensive high-end components. Further, IT in radiology has evolved from two distinctly separate camps—information systems, known as RIS (radiology information systems) and PACS (picture archiving and communications systems). Both RIS and PACS applications have migrated to the PC environment, enabling cost-effective implementation, but from two backgrounds: RIS from vendors using conventional information systems platforms and products, and PACS from radiographic film and modality vendors. The radiology department at Texas Tech University has assembled a seamlessly integrated, enterprise-wide RIS/PACS/teleradiology intranet. The design criteria include user-friendliness, flexibility to respond to changing needs, and open modular architecture to assure interoperability, cost-effectiveness, and future-proofing of investment. Since no single venor could provide an integrated system meeting our specifications, we decided to assume the burden of constructing our own system. As the system integrator, we embrace open architecture, thus enabling the incorporation of industry-standard-compliant, COTS (commercially off the shelf) products as modules. Microsoft Windows NT operating system, Visual C++ programming language, TCP/IP (transmission control protocol/internetworking protocol), relational SQL (structured query language) database, ODBC (open database connectivity), HL-7 (health level seven) and DICOM (digital imaging and communications in medicine) interfaces are utilized. The usage of COTS components reduces the cost to very affordable levels. With this approach, any module in our system can be replaced when outmoded, without affecting other modules in our system, making it truly future-proof. Construction and evolution of our system (TECHRAD) is reviewed.
PMCID: PMC3453327  PMID: 9848053
24.  Tools to manage the enterprise-wide picture archiving and communications system environment 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2001;14(Suppl 1):17-21.
The presentation will focus on the implementation and utilization of a central picture archiving and communications system (PACS) network-monitoring tool that allows for enterprise-wide operations management and support of the image distribution network. The MagicWatch (Siemens, Iselin, NJ) PACS/radiology information system (RIS) monitoring station from Siemens has allowed our organization to create a service support structure that has given us proactive control of our environment and has allowed us to meet the service level performance expectations of the users. The Radiology Help Desk has used the MagicWatch PACS monitoring station as an applications support tool that has allowed the group to monitor network activity and individual systems performance at each node. Fast and timely recognition of the effects of single events within the PACS/RIS environment has allowed the group to proactively recognize possible performance issues and resolve problems. The PACS/operations group performs network management control, image storage management, and software distribution management from a single, central point in the enterprise. The MagicWatch station allows for the complete automation of software distribution, installation, and configuration process across all the nodes in the system. The tool has allowed for the standardization of the workstations and provides a central configuration control for the establishment and maintenance of the system standards. This report will describe the PACS management and operation prior to the implementation of the MagicWatch PACS monitoring station and will highlight the operational benefits of a centralized network and system-monitoring tool.
PMCID: PMC3452670  PMID: 11442085
25.  Four-Year Enterprise PACS Support Trend Analysis 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2010;24(2):284-294.
While health care facilities recognize the need for dedicated picture archiving and communication system (PACS) staff at the time of the initial implementation of PACS, they often do not plan accordingly for ongoing or increasing PACS support needs as a PACS matures. This article reviews trends in a health care system’s PACS support data over 4 years to show how PACS support needs evolve over time. PACS support items were logged and categorized over this period and were used by the health care system to become more proactive in system support and adjust staffing levels accordingly. This article details how PACS support needs change over the life of a PACS installation and can be used as a model for health care facilities planning for future PACS support needs.
PMCID: PMC3056965  PMID: 20052544
PACS; digital imaging; support

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