Urinary tract infections are the most commonly acquired bacterial infections and they account for an estimated 25-40% of the nosocomial infections. The microbial biofilms pose a public health problem for the persons who require indwelling medical devices, as the microorganisms in the biofilms are difficult to treat with antimicrobial agents.
The present study included the isolation and the biofilm formation of the uropathogens in patients with catheter associated urinary tract infections.
Methods and Materials
This prospective analysis which was carried out over a period of two months, included 50 urine samples from catheterized patients with symptoms of UTI. Following their isolation and identification, all the isolates were subjected to the biofilm detection by the tube adherence method and the Congo Red agar method.
E.coli was found to be the most frequently isolated uropathogen 35(70%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae 8(16%), Pseudomona aeruginosa 2(4%), Acinetobacter spp 1(2%), coagulase negative Staphylococci 3(6%) and Enterococci spp 1(2%). In the current study, 30 (60%) strains were positive in vitro for the biofilm production.
To conclude, there was significant bacteriuria in all the symptomatic catheterized patients and E.coli was the most frequent isolate. Diabetes (44%) was the most common factor which was associated with the UTIs in the catheterized patients.
Biofilm; Uropathogens; The tube adherence method; The Congo Red agar method
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) remain the common infections diagnosed in outpatients as well as hospitalized patients. Current knowledge on antimicrobial susceptibility pattern is essential for appropriate therapy. Extended-Spectrum beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria may not be detected by routine disk diffusion susceptibility test, leading to inappropriate use of antibiotics and treatment failure. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of bacterial strains isolated from patients with community acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs) at Aligarh hospital in India as well as identification of ESBL producers in the population of different uropathogens.
Urinary isolates from symptomatic UTI cases attending to the JN Medical College and hospital at Aligarh were identified by conventional methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method. Isolates resistant to third generation cephalosporin were tested for ESBL production by double disk synergy test method.
Of the 920 tested sample 100 samples showed growth of pathogens among which the most prevalent were E. coli (61%) followed by Klebsiella spp (22%). The majority (66.66%) of the isolates were from female while the remaining were from male. Among the gram-negative enteric bacilli high prevalence of resistance was observed against ampicillin and co-trimoxazole. Most of the isolates were resistant to 4 or more number of antibiotics. Forty two percent of isolates were detected to produce ESBL among which 34.42 % were E. coli isolates.
This study revealed that E. coli was the predominant bacterial pathogen of community acquired UTIs in Aligarh, India. It also demonstrated an increasing resistance to Co-trimoxazole and production of extended spectrum β-lactamase among UTI pathogens in the community. This study is useful for clinician in order to improve the empiric treatment.
Background & objectives:
The resistance of bacteria causing urinary tract infection (UTI) to commonly prescribed antibiotics is increasing both in developing as well as in developed countries. Resistance has emerged even to more potent antimicrobial agents. The present study was undertaken to report the current antibiotic resistance pattern among common bacterial uropathogens isolated in a tertiary care hospital in south India, with a special reference to ciprofloxacin.
A total of 19,050 consecutive urine samples were cultured and pathogens isolated were identified by standard methods. Antibiotic susceptibility was done by Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method. The clinical and demographic profile of the patients was noted.
Of the 19,050 samples, 62 per cent were sterile, 26.01 per cent showed significant growth, 2.3 per cent showed insignificant growth and 9.6 per cent were found contaminated. Significant association (P<0.001) of prior use of antibiotics in males, UTI in adults, gynaecological surgery in females, obstructive uropathy in males and complicated UTI in females with the occurrence of UTI with ciprofloxacin resistant Escherichia coli was noted. Significant association was noted in females with prior antibiotics, with prior urological surgery and in males with prior complicated UTI. There was no significant association with diabetes mellitus with the occurrence of UTI with ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli. Fluoroquinolone resistance was found to increase with age.
Interpretations & conclusions:
Ciprofloxacin resistance has emerged due to its frequent use. This resistance was seen more in the in-patients, elderly males and females. Also the resistance to other antibiotics was also high. Increasing antibiotic resistance trends indicate that it is imperative to rationalize the use of antimicrobials in the community and also use these conservatively.
Ciprofloxacin; Escherichia coli; minimum inhibitory concentration; urinary tract infection
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important health problem worldwide, with many millions of cases each year, and Escherichia coli is the most common organism causing UTI in humans. Also, E. coli is responsible for most infections in patients with chronic indwelling bladder catheter. The two asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) E. coli strains 83972 and VR50 are significantly better biofilm formers in their natural growth medium, human urine, than the two uropathogenic E. coli isolates CFT073 and 536. We used DNA microarrays to monitor the expression profile during biofilm growth in urine of the two ABU strains 83972 and VR50. Significant differences in expression levels were seen between the biofilm expression profiles of the two strains with the corresponding planktonic expression profiles in morpholinepropanesulfonic acid minimal laboratory medium and human urine; 417 and 355 genes were up- and down-regulated, respectively, during biofilm growth in urine of 83972 and VR50. Many genes involved in transcription and stress were up-regulated in biofilm-grown cells. The role in biofilm formation of four of the up-regulated genes, i.e., yceP, yqgA, ygiD, and aaeX, was investigated by creating single-knockout mutant versions of 83972 and VR50; all mutants showed reduced biofilm formation in urine by 18 to 43% compared with the wild type (P < 0.05). Also, the expression profile of strain 83972 in the human urinary tract partially overlaps with the biofilm expression profile.
Indwelling medical devices (IMDs) in critical patients are vulnerable to colonization by biofilm producing bacteria. Complex characteristics of bacterial biofilms promote antibiotic resistance, leading to the emergence of resistant device-related infections (DRI), which pose new challenges in their management.
Materials and Methods:
The study was done on 135 hospitalized (Intensive care units) pediatric patients with IMDs (intravascular catheter, urinary catheter, and endotracheal tube) to determine the device-specific infection rates. Biofilm formations were demonstrated by the tube method and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Bacteria in biofilms were identified by the standard conventional methods and tested for antibiotic resistance. We also detected the presence of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESβLs), particularly, blaCTX-M, in gram-negative isolates.
The rates of biofilm-based catheter-related blood stream infections (CRBSI), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), and Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP), in our study, were 10.4, 26.6, and 20%. Biofilm formation by the tube method correlated well with the SEM findings. A majority of infections were caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae followed by Staphylococcal biofilms. A high percentage (85.7%, 95% confidence interval 64.5 to 95.8%) of biofilm producing bacterial isolates, causing infection, were multidrug resistant. Many biofilm producing gram-negative isolates were ESβLs producers, and a majority particularly harbored blaCTX-M, among the ESβLs genotypes.
The incidence of resistant device-related infections, predominantly caused by biofilm producing bacteria, is rising. The tube method is an effective screening method to test biofilm production, where sophisticated microscopy facilities are not available. The varying resistance pattern of organisms isolated in our setup, emphasizes the importance of studying the pattern of infection in every setting and providing antibiotic guidelines in the management of such infections.
Biofilms; Device-related infection; ESβL; MRSA; Scanning electron microscopy
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are amongst the most common infections described in outpatients setting.
A study was conducted to evaluate the uropathogenic bacterial flora and its antimicrobial susceptibility profile among patients presenting to the out-patient clinics of a tertiary care hospital at Jaipur, Rajasthan.
Materials and Methods:
2012 consecutive urine specimens from symptomatic UTI cases attending to the outpatient clinics were processed in the Microbiology lab. Bacterial isolates obtained were identified using biochemical reactions. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) production was determined by the double disk approximation test and the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (formerly NCCLS) confirmatory method.
Pathogens were isolated from 346 (17.16%) of the 2012 patients who submitted a urine sample. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated community acquired uropathogen accounting for 61.84% of the total isolates. ESBL production was observed in 23.83% of E. coli strains and 8.69% of Klebsiella strains. With the exception of Nitrofurantoin, resistance to agents commonly used as empiric oral treatments for UTI was quite high.
The study revealed E. coli as the predominant bacterial pathogen for the community acquired UTIs in Jaipur, Rajasthan. An increasing trend in the production ESBLs among UTI pathogens in the community was noted. Nitrofurantoin should be used as empirical therapy for primary, uncomplicated UTIs.
Urinary tract infection; outpatients; Escherichia coli
Urinary tract Infection (UTI) is among the most common infections described in outpatient setting and hospital patients. In almost all cases empirical antimicrobial treatment initiates before the laboratory results of urine culture are available; thus antibiotic resistance may increase in uropathogens due to frequent use of antibiotics.
The study was designed to find the prevalence of UTI in females with urinary tract symptoms, to determine the causative organism (s) of UTI, and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of microbial agents isolated from urine culture (antibiogram).
Materials and Methods:
The prospective, observational study involved 139 females, aged 15 years and above clinically suspected for UTI attending outpatient Departments of Vivekananda Polyclinic and Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow. A structured questionnaire was used to interview the study subjects. A chi-square test and Fisher Exact test were used to analyze data.
The overall prevalence of UTI was found to be 45.32% (63/139). Escherichia coli (33.1%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (7.9%) were the most common organisms isolated. The most effective antibiotic for both was Nitrofurantoin.
Regular monitoring is required to establish reliable information about susceptibility pattern of urinary pathogens for optimal empirical therapy of patients with UTI.
Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns; Prevalence; Urinary tract infections
The role of Diabetes mellitus (DM) in the etiology and in the antimicrobial resistance of uropathogens in patients with urinary tract infection has not been well clarified. For this reason we have evaluated the spectrum of uropathogens and the profile of antibiotic resistance in both diabetic and non diabetic patients with asymptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI).
Urinary isolates and their patterns of susceptibility to the antimicrobials were evaluated in 346 diabetics (229 females and 117 males) and 975 non diabetics (679 females and 296 males) who were screened for significant bacteriuria (≥105 CFU/mL urine). The mean age of diabetic and non diabetic patients was respectively 73.7 yrs ± 15 S.D. and 72.7 ± 24 (p = NS).
Most of our patients had asymptomatic UTI. The most frequent causative organisms of bacteriuria in females with and without DM were respectively : E. coli 54.1% vs 58.2% (p = NS), Enterococcus spp 8.3% vs 6.5% (p = NS), Pseudomonas spp 3.9 vs 4.7% (p = NS). The most frequent organisms in diabetic and non diabetic males were respectively E. coli 32.5% vs 31.4% (p = NS), Enterococcus spp 9.4% vs 14.5% (p = NS), Pseudomonas spp 8.5% vs 17.2% (p = <0.02). A similar isolation rate of E. coli, Enterococcus spp and Pseudomonas spp was also observed in patients with indwelling bladder catheter with and without DM. No significant differences in resistance rates to ampicillin, nitrofurantoin, cotrimoxazole and ciprofloxacin of E. coli and Enteroccus spp were observed between diabetic and non diabetic patients.
In our series of patients with asymptomatic UTI (mostly hospital acquired), diabetes mellitus per se does not seem to influence the isolation rate of different uropathogens and their susceptibility patterns to antimicrobials.
Escherichia coli-associated urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in humans. UTIs are usually managed with antibiotic therapy, but over the years, antibiotic-resistant strains of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) have emerged. The formation of biofilms further complicates the treatment of these infections by making them resistant to killing by the host immune system as well as by antibiotics. This has encouraged research into therapy using bacteriophages (phages) as a supplement or substitute for antibiotics. In this study we characterized 253 UPEC in terms of their biofilm-forming capabilities, serotype, and antimicrobial resistance. Three phages were then isolated (vB_EcoP_ACG-C91, vB_EcoM_ACG-C40 and vB_EcoS_ACG-M12) which were able to lyse 80.5% of a subset (42) of the UPEC strains able to form biofilms. Correlation was established between phage sensitivity and specific serotypes of the UPEC strains. The phages’ genome sequences were determined and resulted in classification of vB_EcoP_ACG-C91 as a SP6likevirus, vB_EcoM_ACG-C40 as a T4likevirus and vB_EcoS_ACG-M12 as T1likevirus. We assessed the ability of the three phages to eradicate the established biofilm of one of the UPEC strains used in the study. All phages significantly reduced the biofilm within 2–12 h of incubation.
UPEC; bacteriophage; biofilms
Background: The most common oral antibiotics used in the treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) are sulphonamides and cephalosporins, but emerging resistance is not unusual.
Aims: To assess the change in susceptibility of urinary pathogens to oral antibiotics during the past decade in children with community acquired UTI.
Methods: The study sample included two groups of children with a first community acquired UTI: 142 children enrolled in 1991 and 124 enrolled in 1999. UTI was diagnosed by properly collected urine specimen (suprapubic aspiration, transurethral catheterisation, or midstream specimen in circumcised males) in symptomatic patients. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was compared between the two groups.
Results: The pathogens recovered in the two groups were similar: in 1991—E coli 86%, Klebsiella 6%, others 8%; in 1999—E coli 82%, Klebsiella 13%, and others 5%. A slight but generalised decrease in bacterial susceptibility to common antibiotics in the two groups was shown: ampicillin 35% versus 30%; cephalexin 82% versus 63% (p < 0.001); nitrofurantoin 93% versus 92%. The only exception was co-trimoxazole, 60% versus 69%. Overall resistance to antibiotics in 1999 was as follows: ampicillin 70%, cephalexin 37%, co-trimoxazole 31%, amoxicillin-clavulanate 24%, nitrofurantoin 8%, cefuroxime-axetil 5%, nalidixic acid 3%.
Conclusions: This study shows a slight but generalised decrease in bacterial susceptibility to common oral antibiotics in the past decade in our population. Empirical initial treatment with co-trimoxazole or cephalexin is inadequate in approximately one third of UTI cases. A larger number of pathogens may be empirically treated with amoxicillin-clavulanate (24% resistance); 95% of organisms are susceptible to cefuroxime-axetil.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important cause of nosocomial infections worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of MRSA and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in our hospital located in Mangalore, India.
Materials and Methods:
The bacterial isolates from various clinical specimens of patients admitted in our hospital were cultured as per standard protocol and all isolates of Staphylococcus aureus obtained were included in the study. The isolates were identified by standard methods like catalase test, slide and tube coagulase tests, and growth on Mannitol salt agar (HiMedia Lab, Mumbai). The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method. The D-test for inducible clindamycin resistance was performed. The isolates were tested for methicillin resistance by using oxacillin disc by disc diffusion method and confirmed by agar screen test (oxacillin 6 μgm/ml). The results were interpreted according to CLSI criteria.
During a period of one year, a total of 237 isolates of S. aureus were studied and 69 (29.1%) were found to be methicillin-resistant. MRSA isolates showed greater resistance to multiple drugs than methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus MSSA isolates. Inducible clindamycin resistance was 18.8% in MRSA as against 3.5% in MSSA. About 40–50% of MRSA were resistant to erythromycin, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol, while less than 30% were resistant to ciprofloxacin and amikacin. However, all strains were sensitive to vancomycin.
The regular surveillance of hospital-acquired infections of MRSA may be helpful in formulating and monitoring the antibiotic policy. This may also help in preserving antibiotics like vancomycin, only for life-threatening staphylococcal diseases.
Antibiotic; MRSA; prevalence
Thirty-two Tenckhoff catheters retrieved from continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients with a history of peritonitis were examined for microbial biofilm. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was successfully employed to visualize bacteria in biofilm occluded from view by scanning electron microscopy. Occluded but viable microbial biofilm was associated with 17 (81%) catheters from patients free from infection following renal transplant. Mixed isolate biofilm with two or more isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci or Staphylococcus aureus was found on 41% of these catheters. Clearly visible viable biofilm consisting exclusively of Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurred on all four catheters removed due to recurrent peritonitis. Five (71%) catheters retrieved from patients transferred to haemodialysis had viable biofilm. Antibiotic sensitivities of the biofilm isolates were similar in profile to those reported for non-biofilm isolates from infected dialysate. Persistence of catheter biofilm despite direct contact with therapeutic levels of antibiotics in peritoneal dialysate requires that attention be directed towards improving antibiotic efficacy against peritonitis-causing bacteria in biofilm form.
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections encountered by clinicians in developing countries. Area-specific monitoring studies aimed to gain knowledge about the type of pathogens responsible for urinary tract infections and their resistance patterns may help the clinician to choose the correct empirical treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the type and antibiotic resistance pattern of the urinary pathogens isolated from patients attending Jimma University Specialized Hospital from April to June 2010.
A hospital based cross sectional stud was conducted and urine samples were collected using the mid-stream “clean catch” method from 228 clinically-suspected cases of urinary tract infections and tested bacteriologically using standard procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for the isolated pathogens using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines.
Significant bacteria were detected from 9.2% of the total patients. The most common pathogens isolated were Escherichia coli (33.3%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (19%) and S. saprophyticus (14.3%). E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae showed the highest percentage of resistance to ampicillin and amoxacillin (100%) however, all isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. S. saprophyticus and S. aureus were resistant to ampicillin (100%) and amoxicillin (66.7%). For all UTI isolates, least resistance was observed against drugs such as ceftriaxone, gentamycin and chloramphenicol.
This study finding showed that E. coli isolates were the predominant pathogens and the presence of bacterial isolates with very high resistance to the commonly prescribed drugs that in turn leaves the clinicians with very few alternative options of drugs for the treatment of UTIs. As drug resistance among bacterial pathogens is an evolving process, routine surveillance and monitoring studies should be conducted to provide physicians knowledge on the updated and most effective empirical treatment of UTIs.
Urinary tract infection; antimicrobial resistance; Jimma; Ethiopia
Numerous antibiotics have proven to be effective at ameliorating the clinical symptoms of urinary tract infections (UTIs), but recurrent and chronic infections continue to plague many individuals. Most UTIs are caused by strains of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), which can form both extra- and intracellular biofilm-like communities within the bladder. UPEC also persist inside host urothelial cells in a more quiescent state, sequestered within late endosomal compartments. Here, we tested a panel of 17 different antibiotics, representing seven distinct functional classes, for their effects on the survival of the reference UPEC isolate UTI89 within both biofilms and host bladder urothelial cells. All but one of the tested antibiotics prevented UTI89 growth in broth culture, and most were at least modestly effective against bacteria present within in vitro-grown biofilms. In contrast, only a few of the antibiotics, including nitrofurantoin and the fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin and sparfloxacin, were able to eliminate intracellular bacteria in bladder cell culture-based assays. However, in a mouse UTI model system in which these antibiotics reached concentrations in the urine specimens that far exceeded minimal inhibitory doses, UPEC reservoirs in bladder tissues were not effectively eradicated. We conclude that the persistence of UPEC within the bladder, regardless of antibiotic treatments, is likely facilitated by a combination of biofilm formation, entry of UPEC into a quiescent or semiquiescent state within host cells, and the stalwart permeability barrier function associated with the bladder urothelium.
Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important cause of urinary tract infection (UTI), but little is known about its pathogenesis in vivo. The pathogenesis of the K. pneumoniae cystitis isolate TOP52 was compared to that of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolate UTI89 in a murine cystitis model. Bladder and kidney titers of TOP52 were lower than those of UTI89 at early time points but similar at later time points. TOP52, like UTI89, formed biofilm-like intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs) within the murine bladder, albeit at significantly lower levels than UTI89. Additionally, filamentation of TOP52 was observed, a process critical for UTI89 evasion of neutrophil phagocytosis and persistence in the bladder. Thus, the IBC pathway is not specific to UPEC alone. We investigated if differences in type 1 pilus expression may explain TOP52's early defect in vivo. The type 1 pilus operon is controlled by recombinase-mediated (fimE, fimB, and fimX) phase variation of an invertible promoter element. We found that K. pneumoniae carries an extra gene of unknown function at the 3′ end of its type 1 operon, fimK, and the genome lacks the recombinase fimX. A deletion mutant of fimK was constructed, and TOP52 ΔfimK had higher titers and formed more IBCs in the murine cystitis model than wild type. The loss of fimK or expression of E. coli fimX from a plasmid in TOP52 resulted in a larger phase-ON population and higher expression levels of type 1 pili and gave TOP52 the ability to form type 1-dependent biofilms. Complementation with pfimK decreased type 1 pilus expression and biofilm formation of TOP52 ΔfimK and decreased UTI89 biofilm formation. Thus, K. pneumoniae appears programmed for minimal expression of type 1 pili, which may explain, in part, why K. pneumoniae is a less prevalent etiologic agent of UTI than UPEC.
To describe the epidemiological, clinical, microbiological characteristics and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Bloodstream infections in Dhahira region, Oman.
Clinical data was collected from all patients with positive blood cultures for two years period. Standard laboratory methods were used for blood culture. Antibiotic sensitivity was tested using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method.
Of the 360 bacterial pathogens isolated from 348 patients, 57.8% were gram-positive and 42.2% were gram-negative. The common isolates were: Streptococcus species 76 (21.1%), coagulase-negative Staphylococci 75 (20.8%), Escherichia coli 43 (11.9%), Staphylococcus aureus 41 (11.4%). Overall, mortality was 21.3% (74/348). Staphylococcus species (Staphylococcus aureus and CoNS) were more commonly resistant to Trimethoprim/ Sulphamethoxazole (35.3%) and Penicillin (25.9%). Streptococcus species were resistant to Trimethoprim/Sulphamethoxazole (39.1%) and Erythromycin (19.6%).
Bloodstream infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in our patients, especially among chronically ill elderly adult males. Prescription of proven resistant antibiotics to suspected bacteremic patients needs attention in Dhahira region.
Bloodstream infections; Antibiotic resistance; Bacterial pathogen; Epidemiology; Oman
Wound infections, due to biofilms, are a constant problem because of their recalcitrant nature towards antibiotics. Appropriate antibiotic selection for the treatment of these biofilm infections is important. The traditional in vitro disc diffusion method for antibiotic selection uses bacterial cultures grown on agar plates. However, the form of bacterial growth on agar is not representative of how bacteria grow in wounds and other tissue sites as here bacteria grow naturally in a biofilm. The aim of this research was to test a more appropriate method for testing antimicrobial efficacy on biofilms and compare with the standard methods used for antibiotic sensitivity testing.
Outer Membrane Protein analysis was performed on E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Acinetobacter juni when grown on Mueller Hinton agar ('quasi-biofilm state') and 30% Poloxamer hydrogel ('true- biofilm state). Susceptibility to antibiotics on 28 clinical isolates was determined using the modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method, on agar and 30% Poloxamer.
Similar outer membrane proteins [OMPs] were identified in bacteria grown in a biofilm state and on a 30% poloxamer hydrogel, which were very different to the OMPs identified in bacteria grown on Mueller-Hinton agar and broth. There was a significant difference between the means of the clearance zones around the antibiotic discs on standard agar and poloxamer gels [P < 0.05]. The zones of clearance were generally smaller for poloxamer-grown bacteria than those grown on standard agar. Diffusion distances of various antibiotics through agar and 30% poloxamer showed no significant difference [P > 0.05].
The findings of this experiment suggest that poloxamer gel could be used as an appropriate medium on which to conduct biofilm antibiotic susceptibility tests as it enables bacteria to be grown in a state representative of the infected surface from which the culture was taken.
Staphylococcus lugdunensis is an atypically virulent coagulase-negative staphylococcal species associated with acute and destructive infections that often resemble Staphylococcus aureus infections. Several types of infection caused by S. lugdunensis (e.g., native valve endocarditis, prosthetic joint infection, and intravascular catheter infection) are associated with biofilm formation, which may lead to an inability to eradicate the infection due to the intrinsic nature of biofilms to resist high levels of antibiotics. In this study, planktonic MICs and MBCs and biofilm bactericidal concentrations of 10 antistaphylococcal antimicrobial agents were measured for 15 S. lugdunensis isolates collected from patients with endocarditis, medical device infections, or skin and soft tissue infections. Planktonic isolates were susceptible to all agents studied, but biofilms were resistant to high concentrations of most of the drugs. However, moxifloxacin was able to kill 73% of isolates growing in biofilms at ≤0.5 μg/ml. Relative to the effect on cell density, subinhibitory concentrations of nafcillin substantially stimulated biofilm formation of most isolates, whereas tetracycline and linezolid significantly decreased biofilm formation in 93 and 80% of isolates, respectively. An unexpected outcome of MBC testing was the observation that vancomycin was not bactericidal against 93% of S. lugdunensis isolates, suggesting widespread vancomycin tolerance in this species. These data provide insights into the response of S. lugdunensis isolates when challenged with various levels of antimicrobial agents in clinical use.
The threat to human health posed by antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens is of growing concern to medical practice. This study investigated the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Salmonella typhi isolated from blood specimen. One hundred blood samples were collected from suspected typhoid fever patients in 31 Artillery Brigade Medical Centre, Minna, and were analyzed for S. typhi while antibiotic sensitivity testing was done Kirby-Bauer method. Sixty (60.0%) samples out of the total 100 were positive for bacterial growth. The organisms isolated 2 include Salmonella typhi; 45 (75.0%), Shigella; 6 (10.0%), E. coli; 3 (5.0%), Klebsiella; 3 (5.0%), Enterobacter; 2 (3.3%), and Citrobacter; 1 (1.7%). Result of the sensitivity test showed that the isolates were resistant to all the antibiotics; ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, amoxicillin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and augmentin, which are the drug of choice routinely used in the study area for the treatment of typhoid fever. They were however sensitive to chloramphenicol and ofloxacin, which, unfortunately, are not used in this study area for the treatment of typhoid fever. There appear to be multiple drug resistant (MDR) strain of S. typhi in the study area. These may be as a result of overdependence or uncontrolled use of the few available antibiotics and/or inaccurate or inconclusive diagnosis resulting in the development and spread of resistant strains of S. typhi. The study, therefore, highlights the need for a strong collaboration between the physicians and the laboratory in the choice of antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial diseases in order to discourage the development of resistant strain of bacterial pathogen.
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most common medical complications of pregnancy. The emergence of drug resistance and particularly the Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production by Escherichia coli and methicillin resistance in Staphylococci, limits the choice of antimicrobials.
Materials and Methods:
Patients in different stages of pregnancy with or without symptoms of urinary tract infection attending the antenatal clinic of obstetrics and gynaecology were screened for significant bacteriuria, by standard loop method on 5% sheep blood agar and teepol lactose agar. Isolates were identified by using standard biochemical tests and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method.
A total of 4290 (51.2%) urine samples from pregnant females showed growth on culture. Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria 3210 (74.8%) was higher than symptomatic UTI 1080 (25.2%). Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen accounting for 1800 (41.9%) of the urinary isolates. Among the gram-positive cocci, coagulase negative species of Staphylococci 270 (6.4%) were the most common pathogen. Significantly high resistance was shown by the gram negative bacilli as well as gram positive cocci to the β-lactam group of antimicrobials, flouroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Most alarming was the presence of ESBL in 846 (47%) isolates of Escherichia coli and 344 (36.9%) isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, along with the presence of methicillin resistance in 41% of Staphylococcus species and high-level aminoglycoside resistance in 45(30%) isolates of Enterococcus species. Glycopeptides and carbepenems were the only group of drugs to which all the strains of gram positive cocci and gram negative bacilli were uniformly sensitive, respectively.
Regular screening should be done for the presence of symptomatic or asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy and specific guidelines should be issued for testing antimicrobial susceptibility with safe drugs in pregnant women so that these can be used for the treatment. For empirical treatment cefoperazone-sulbactum can be recommended, which is a safe drug, covering both gram positive and gram negative organisms and with a good sensitivity.
Antimicrobial resistance; extended-spectrum beta-lactamase; high-level aminoglycoside resistance; MRSA; pregnancy; urinary tract infection
Urinary tract infections are the most common urologic disease in the United States and one of the most common bacterial infections of any organ system. Biofilms persist in the urinary tract and on catheter surfaces because biofilm microorganisms are resistant to host defense mechanisms and antibiotic therapy. The first step in the establishment of biofilm infections is bacterial adhesion; preventing bacterial adhesion represents a promising method of controlling biofilms. Evidence suggests that capsular polysaccharides play a role in adhesion and pathogenicity. This study focuses on the role of physiochemical and specific binding interactions during adhesion of colanic acid exopolysaccharide mutant strains. Bacterial adhesion was evaluated for isogenic uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains that differed in colanic acid expression. The atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to directly measure the reversible physiochemical and specific binding interactions between bacterial strains and various substrates as bacteria initially approach the interface. AFM results indicate that electrostatic interactions were not solely responsible for the repulsive forces between the colanic acid mutant strains and hydrophilic substrates. Moreover, hydrophobic interactions were not found to play a significant role in adhesion of the colanic acid mutant strains. Adhesion was also evaluated by parallel-plate flow cell studies in comparison to AFM force measurements to demonstrate that prolonged incubation times alter bacterial adhesion. Results from this study demonstrate that the capsular polysaccharide colanic acid does not enhance bacterial adhesion but rather blocks the establishment of specific binding as well as time-dependent interactions between uropathogenic E. coli and inert substrates.
Recent studies from North America and Europe have demonstrated community-wide clonal spread of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). To investigate if a similar pattern of spread occurs in Brazil, we characterized UPEC from women with community-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI) in Rio de Janeiro. E. coli isolates from women with UTI in one public outpatient clinic were evaluated for antibiotic susceptibility, E. coli phylogenetic grouping, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) 2 PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis fingerprinting, and multilocus sequence typing. From March 2005 to November 2006, 344 patients were studied. Of these, 186 (54%) had confirmed UTI, 118 (63.4%) of which were caused by E. coli. More than 50% of these isolates were resistant to ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Of these, 96 (81%) belonged to 19 ERIC2 clonal groups. The largest group included 15 isolates, all belonging to multilocus sequence typing group ST69 and phylogenetic group D; they had pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns sharing at least 89% similarity compared with the CgA reference strain ATCC BAA-457. CgA strains have been found to be widespread in the United States in the early 2000s. Clonal group E. coli strains accounted for a large proportion (52%) of all UTIs and 82% of the trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-resistant E. coli UTIs. Thus, as in North America and Europe, UPECs that cause UTI in Rio de Janeiro also show clonal distribution, and a substantial proportion of drug-resistant UTI is caused by a small set of genetically related E. coli strains.
Biofilm formation is a major virulence factor contributing to the chronicity of infections. To date few studies have evaluated biofilm formation in infecting isolates of patients including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative multidrug-resistant (MDR) species in the context of numerous types of infectious syndromes. Herein, we investigated the biofilm forming capacity in a large collection of single patient infecting isolates and compared the relationship between biofilm formation to various strain characteristics.
The biofilm-forming capacity of 205 randomly sampled clinical isolates from patients, collected from various anatomical sites, admitted for treatment at Brooke Army Medical Center (BAMC) from 2004–2011, including methicillin-resistant/methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA/MSSA) (n=23), Acinetobacter baumannii (n=53), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=36), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=54), and Escherichia coli (n=39), were evaluated for biofilm formation using the high-throughput microtiter plate assay and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Relationships between biofilm formation to clonal type, site of isolate collection, and MDR phenotype were evaluated. Furthermore, in patients with relapsing infections, serial strains were assessed for their ability to form biofilms in vitro.
Of the 205 clinical isolates tested, 126 strains (61.4%) were observed to form biofilms in vitro at levels greater than or equal to the Staphylococcus epidermidis, positive biofilm producing strain, with P. aeruginosa and S. aureus having the greatest number of biofilm producing strains. Biofilm formation was significantly associated with specific clonal types, the site of isolate collection, and strains positive for biofilm formation were more frequently observed to be MDR. In patients with relapsing infections, the majority of serial isolates recovered from these individuals were observed to be strong biofilm producers in vitro.
This study is the first to evaluate biofilm formation in a large collection of infecting clinical isolates representing diverse types of infections. Our results demonstrate: (1) biofilm formation is a heterogeneous property amongst clinical strains which is associated with certain clonal types, (2) biofilm forming strains are more frequently isolated from non-fluid tissues, in particular bone and soft tissues, (3) MDR pathogens are more often biofilm formers, and (4) strains from patients with persistent infections are positive for biofilm formation.
Biofilm formation; Clinical isolates; Chronic infection; Multidrug-resistant; MRSA
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most commonly encountered infections in obstetric patients. Although a variety of etiology is involved, Escherichia coli and other coliforms account for a large majority of these naturally acquired infections. The estimation of local etiology and susceptibility profile could support the most effective empirical treatment.
The current study was undertaken to find the spectrum of micro-organisms responsible for causing UTI in obstetric patients and to find out the most appropriate antibiotic.
Materials and Methods:
Consecutive patients in different stages of pregnancy with or without symptoms of UTI attending the antenatal clinic during November 2011 to March 2012 were screened for significant bacteriuria. The bacterial uropathogens isolated were then subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and screened for ESBL production and methicillin resistance.
During the 5-month study period, out of the 250 samples screened, a total of 60 (24%) samples of urine from pregnant females, in different stages of pregnancy were found to be positive on culture. The Enterobacteriaceae accounted for nearly two-thirds of the isolates and E. coli alone accounted for 63% of the urinary isolates followed by Klebsiella pneumonia 8%. Among the Gram-positive cocci, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (15%) were more frequently isolated than Staphylococcus aureus (8.3%). A significantly high resistance was noted to the beta-lactam group of antimicrobials, fluoroquinolones and cotrimoxazole, both by the Gram-negative bacilli as well as Gram-positive cocci. Resistance was quite low against the aminoglycosides and nitrofurantoin and virtually absent against imipenem.
The susceptibility patterns seen in our study seem to suggest that it is absolutely necessary to obtain sensitivity reports before initiation of antibiotic therapy in cases of suspected UTI.
ESBL; Pregnancy; Urinary tract infection; Uropathogens
Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is the most common nosocomial infection in the United States. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the most common cause of CAUTI, can form biofilms on indwelling catheters. Here, we identify and characterize novel factors that affect biofilm formation by UPEC strains that cause CAUTI. Sixty-five CAUTI UPEC isolates were characterized for phenotypic markers of urovirulence, including agglutination and biofilm formation. One isolate, E. coli MS2027, was uniquely proficient at biofilm growth despite the absence of adhesins known to promote this phenotype. Mini-Tn5 mutagenesis of E. coli MS2027 identified several mutants with altered biofilm growth. Mutants containing insertions in genes involved in O antigen synthesis (rmlC and manB) and capsule synthesis (kpsM) possessed enhanced biofilm phenotypes. Three independent mutants deficient in biofilm growth contained an insertion in a gene locus homologous to the type 3 chaperone-usher class fimbrial genes of Klebsiella pneumoniae. These type 3 fimbrial genes (mrkABCDF), which were located on a conjugative plasmid, were cloned from E. coli MS2027 and could complement the biofilm-deficient transconjugants when reintroduced on a plasmid. Primers targeting the mrkB chaperone-encoding gene revealed its presence in CAUTI strains of Citrobacter koseri, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Klebsiella oxytoca. All of these mrkB-positive strains caused type 3 fimbria-specific agglutination of tannic acid-treated red blood cells. This is the first description of type 3 fimbriae in E. coli, C. koseri, and C. freundii. Our data suggest that type 3 fimbriae may contribute to biofilm formation by different gram-negative nosocomial pathogens.