Surveillance after orchiectomy has recently been a management option in patients with stage I seminoma, while it remains controversial in those with stage I nonseminoma, and the risk factor associated with relapse is still a matter of concern in both entities. This study was performed to explore pathological risk factors for post-orchiectomy relapse in patients with stage I seminoma and nonseminoma, and to assess oncological outcomes in those managed with surveillance.
In this single institution study, 118 and 40 consecutive patients with stage I seminoma and nonseminoma were reviewed, respectively. Of the 118 patients with stage I seminoma, 56 and one received adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy, respectively, and 61 were managed with surveillance. Of the 40 men with stage I nonseminoma, 4 underwent adjuvant chemotherapy and 36 were managed with surveillance.
No patient had cause-specific death during the mean observation period of 104 and 99 months in men with seminoma and nonseminoma, respectively. In men with stage I seminoma, 1 (1.7%) receiving radiotherapy and 4 (6.6%) men managed with surveillance had disease relapse; the 10-year relapse-free survival (RFS) rate was 93.4% in men managed with surveillance, and their RFS was not different from that in patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy (logrank P=0.15). Patients with tunica albuginea involvement showed a poorer RFS than those without (10-year RFS rate 80.0% vs. 94.1%), although the difference was of borderline significance (P=0.09). In men with stage I nonseminoma, 9 (22.5%) patients experienced relapse. Patients with lymphovascular invasion seemingly had a poorer RFS than those without; 40.0% and 18.7% of the patients with and without lymphovascular invasion had disease relapse, respectively, although the difference was not significant (logrank P=0.17).
In both men with stage I seminoma and nonseminoma, surveillance after orchiectomy is a feasible option. However, disease extension through tunica albuginea might be a factor associated with disease relapse in patients with organ-confined seminoma, and those with stage I nonseminoma showing lymphovascular invasion may possibly be at high risk for disease relapse.
Stage I seminoma; Stage I nonseminoma; Surveillance; Outcome
Prompt diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary embolism (PE) can help reduce its associated morbidity and mortality. Computed tomography chest angiography (CTA) scanning is the most widely used diagnostic modality. In noncancer patients, only 10% of such studies are positive for PE. Clinical variables, individual or in combination, that can predict test positivity are highly needed.
Materials and methods
All CTAs requested to confirm or exclude a diagnosis of PE in a single comprehensive cancer center were reviewed. In addition to the Wells score, other clinical variables known to increase the risk of PE were analyzed.
A total of 778 adult cancer patients were treated at King Hussein Cancer Center (Amman, Jordan) and were included in this study; the majority of patients (64.2%) had stage 4 disease. Overall, 129 (16.6%) patients had positive scans for PE, while alternative diagnoses were made in 308 (39.6%) patients. Cancer stage and anticancer treatment had no impact on positive PE rates. However, Wells criteria classified patients into three risk groups with PE rates of 10.2%, 16.1%, and 62.5% among the patients with low, moderate, and high risk, respectively (P < 0.0001). Duration of cancer diagnosis (<12 months versus >12 months) had a significant impact on positive PE studies (22.0% versus 12.4%, respectively, P = 0.007).
The rate of positive PE studies in cancer patients is higher than previously reported in noncancer patients. Positivity for PE was higher during the first 12 months of cancer diagnosis and in those with high probability score according to the Wells criteria. Factors like primary tumor stage and anticancer therapy had no significant impact on PE-positive studies.
pulmonary embolism; thromboembolism; cancer; CT angiography
The aims of the study were to evaluate the role of magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) of the wrist in detecting full-thickness tears of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) and to compare the results of the magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) with the gold standard arthroscopic findings.
The study was performed at King Hussein Medical Center, Amman, Jordan, between January 2008 and December 2011. A total of 42 patients (35 males and 7 females) who had ulnar-sided wrist pain and clinical suspicions of TFCC tears were included in the study. All patients underwent wrist magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) and then a wrist arthroscopy. The results of MRA were compared with the arthroscopic findings.
After comparison with the arthroscopic findings, the MRA had three false-negative results (sensitivity = 93%) and no false-positive results. A total of 39 patients were able to return to work. Satisfaction was high in 38 of the patients and 33 had satisfactory pain relief. The sensitivity of the wrist MRA in detecting TFCC full-thickness tears was 93% (39), and specificity was 80% (16/20). The overall accuracy of wrist arthroscopy in detecting a full-thickness tear of the TFCC in our study was 85% (29/34).
These results illustrate the role of wrist MRA in assessing the TFCC pathology and suggest its use as the first imaging technique, following a plain X-ray, in evaluating patients with chronic ulnar side wrist pain with suspected TFCC injuries.
Triangular fibrocartilage complex; Wrist; Magnetic resonance imaging; Arthrography
Accurate data about adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are lacking. We aim to assess demographics, prognostic factors, and outcome of ALL therapy at King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC) in Jordan, and to compare the efficacy of two protocols.
We reviewed medical records of adults diagnosed and treated for ALL at KHCC from January, 2007 to December, 2011.
Over a 5-year period, 108 patients with ALL were treated (66 with the Hyper-CVAD regimen, and 42 with the CALGB 8811 regimen). Median age at diagnosis was 33 years, with 63% males. The most common immunophenotype was CD10-positive common ALL, and 16% have BCR-ABL translocation. Complete response (CR) rate was 88%. After a median follow-up of 32 months (range, 10–72 months), the median survival (MS) was 30 months, and CR duration (CRD) was 28 months. In the multivariate analysis, the presence of BCR-ABL translocation was the only poor prognostic factor with lower MS of 23 months (p<0.01). There was no difference in MS or CRD between the two used regimens.
International protocols for adult ALL were successfully applied to our patients. There is no difference in efficacy between Hyper-CVAD and CALGB 8811 regimens. Future protocols for adult ALL should incorporate new targeted agents and minimal residual disease monitoring to improve outcome.
There are only sporadic reports on the clinical behavior and appropriate treatment of anaplastic seminoma. This retrospective study summarizes our experience with the anaplastic variant of classical (typical) seminoma.
Between 1986 and 2006, seven anaplastic seminoma patients were staged and treated at the Northern Israel Oncology Center. Staging procedures included meticulous physical and neurological examinations, complete blood count, full biochemistry profile, specific tumor markers, testicular ultrasound, and other radiological measures. All patients underwent inguinal orchiectomy and were staged properly. Six patients had stage I disease, and one patient had stage IIA disease. Patients were irradiated with doses ranging from 2,500 to 3,000 cGy, and the stage IIA patient received an additional 1,000 cGy boost to radiographically involved lymph nodes.
After a mean follow-up of 11 years, six patients are alive with no evidence of disease. One patient died due to an unknown, non-oncological, cause, unrelated to his previous testicular tumor, while in complete remission.
Despite the low patient numbers and the retrospective nature of our study, it can be concluded that radiotherapy treatment for early-stage anaplastic seminoma patients might achieve the same excellent survival as for classical seminoma. However, the general consensus achieved through large-scale studies suggests that active surveillance should be offered to all stage I seminoma patients, regardless of the pathologic variant.
Anaplastic seminoma; early stage; good prognosis; radiotherapy
Many studies have provided evidence that favor the use of insulin pens over traditional insulin vials due to lower overall costs. The cost of insulin in the Royal Medical Services in Jordan is subject to other considerations due to the favorable tender prices and the process of dispensing of insulin within the Royal Medical Services.
To highlight further cost considerations associated with the wastage in the use of insulin vials and cartridges in the Jordanian Royal Medical Services.
Two random samples were selected from prescriptions dispensed for diabetic patients using insulin in January 2012 from the outpatient pharmacy in Al-Hussein Hospital, King Hussein Medical Center, Amman, Jordan. First sample was selected from prescriptions of patients using vials; second sample was selected from prescriptions of patients using pens and cartridges. Average costs for insulin and wastage were calculated per patient from the Royal Medical Services perspective.
The average direct cost per patient using vials was JD 5.197 and for those using cartridges was JD 22.135. The average wasted quantity per patient in the first sample was more than ten times that of the second sample. The cost of the average wasted quantity per patient in the first sample (1.022 JD) was more than the double that in the second sample (0.441 JD).
Although, the direct cost of insulin per patient by using vials was lower than cartridges, there was a substantial reduction in the cost of wastage by using the cartridges in the Jordanian Royal Medical Services outpatients.
Insulin; Vial; Cartridge; Wastage; Cost
A retrospective analysis was performed of 18 patients with primary malignant germ cell tumours of the mediastinum treated with platinum-based chemotherapy between 1977 and 1990. All seven patients with pure seminoma were treated initially with chemotherapy and four of these patients received additional mediastinal radiotherapy. Only one patient relapsed; his initial therapy had included radiotherapy and single-agent carboplatin and he was successfully salvaged with combination chemotherapy. With a follow-up of 11 to 117 months (median 41 months) all seven patients with seminoma remain alive and disease free giving an overall survival of 100%. Eleven patients had malignant non seminoma; following chemotherapy eight of these had elective surgical resection of residual mediastinal masses. Complete remission was achieved in nine (82%) patients, however, one of these patients died from bleomycin pneumonitis. With a follow-up of 12 to 113 months (median 55 months) eight of 11 (73%) patients with malignant mediastinal teratoma remain alive and disease free.
Myeloid sarcoma (MS) is a neoplasm of immature granulocytes, monocytes, or both involving any extramedullary site. Twenty one patients with MS at diagnosis who were treated at King Hussein Cancer Center in Jordan were included in this retrospective study with a male to female ratio of 2 : 1. The most common site was the reticuloendothelial system. The most common morphology subtype was M2 (38%) and the most frequent chromosomal abnormality was trisomy 8. Twenty patients received induction chemotherapy; only 14 (70%) achieved complete remission. Median survival time was 24.7 months for the whole group and 58.6 months for patients who underwent allogenic bone marrow transplant. This paper showed that MS has frequent M2 morphology, carries chromosomal aberrations other than t(8;21), and requires aggressive therapy as a front line approach.
Aim of the study
To review management and outcomes in patients with stage I seminoma after orchidectomy.
Material and methods
Between 1979 and 2004 a total 292 patients with stage I seminoma were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy or were placed on surveillance. Median age at diagnosis was 36 years (range 20-69), with median follow-up 76.5 months (range 11-294). Of the patients, 200 (68.5%) were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy, 72 (24.6%) were irradiated and 20 (6.8%) were placed on surveillance.
The probability of 5-year overall survival and relapse-free survival for the entire group was 100% and 95.1% respectively. The 5-year relapse-free survival for adjuvant chemotherapy was 97.2%, for radiotherapy 94.6%, and 31.4% for the surveillance group. Of 24 (8.4%) patients who had relapse in lymph nodes and/or internal organs, 14/20 patients were in the surveillance group. All patients who had a relapse were salvaged successfully with chemotherapy. The toxicity of chemotherapy and radiotherapy was acceptable. No severe reactions were observed.
Our results confirm the excellent prognosis for patients with stage I seminoma after orchidectomy treated with adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The high rate of relapse in our surveillance group suggests the necessity of adjuvant treatment.
seminoma stage I; radiotherapy; chemotherapy; surveillance
Background. Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in men 15 to 35 years old. Histological subtypes are seminoma, non-seminoma and mixed tumours (partly seminoma and partly non-seminoma). Seminomas are more sensitive to radiation therapy and are easier to cure than non-seminomas. The surgical treatment is either orchiectomy, either orchiectomy plus lymph node dissection of the involved ganglia.
Case presentation. We present the case of a 42-year-old man with scrotal pain, important swelling and erythema admitted into our surgical unit. Clinical exam and ultrasound revealed a testicular augmentation of 6/15 cm. Radical orchiectomy was performed and the patient was further referred to the oncology department.
Conclusions. Even though the common causes of scrotal erythema with local swelling and pain are orchiepididimitis and testicular torsion, a careful examination followed by a precise ultrasound can reveal a developing testicular tumor, which was complicated by inflammation. Moreover, a careful anamnesis hints to the development of a tumor as the patient was operated on for cryptorchidism in childhood. Orchiectomy followed by radiotherapy in seminomas, has a cure rate of 70 to 100%.
seminoma; orchiectomy; acute scrotum
To clarify the contemporary clinical outcome of stage I seminoma and to provide information on treatment options to patients.
A retrospective analysis of 425 patients who underwent orchiectomy for stage I seminoma between 1985 and 2006 at 25 hospitals in Japan. Relapse-free survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method and clinicopathological factors associated with relapse were examined by univariate and multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model.
A total of 30 out of 425 patients had relapsed. Relapse-free survival rates at 10 years were 79, 94 and 94% in the surveillance, chemotherapy and radiotherapy groups, respectively. Post-orchiectomy management and rete testis invasion were identified as independent predictive factors associated with relapse. Rete testis invasion remained to be an independent predictive factor, even if the cases with relapses in the contralateral testis were censored. Only one patient, who relapsed after adjuvant radiotherapy, died of the disease. Overall survival at 10 years was 100, 100 and 99% in the surveillance, chemotherapy and radiotherapy groups, respectively. More than half of the patients were lost to follow up within 5 years.
The outcome of Japanese patients with stage I seminoma is similar to previously published Western reports. Surveillance policy is becoming a popular option in Japan, although the relapse rate in patients opting for surveillance policy is higher than those opting for adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Rete testis invasion is an independent predictive factor associated with relapse regardless of the post-orchiectomy management. Long-term follow up is mandatory for detection of late relapse.
chemotherapy; outcome; radiotherapy; stage I seminoma; surveillance
We report the epidemiologic features and the treatment experience of advanced gastric cancer (GC) at King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC) in Jordan, and we retrospectively compare outcomes of two different regimens: DCF (docetaxel/cisplatin/5-fluorouracil) vs. ECF (epirubicin/cisplatin/5-fluorouracil).
Charts of 162 patients with inoperable GC treated between January 2004 and December 2008 were reviewed. A total 143 patients received chemotherapy (ECF = 113; DCF = 30). Choice of regimen was changed from ECF to DCF on January 2008 according to KHCC guidelines.
The median patient age was 59 years, with a male:female ratio of 1.8:1. Lymph nodes (67.9%) and liver (49.4%) were the most common sites of metastasis. Primary disease site was stomach in 78.4%, gastroesophageal junction in 16.7%, lower esophagus in 4.9%. Poorly differentiated histology was predominant (46.9%). Anemia (53.7%), pain (48.1%), and reflux (44.4%) were the most common presenting symptoms. Helicobacter pylori infection was present in 79%. Average time between initial symptom and diagnosis was 6.0 months. The overall response rate (ORR) was 59.3% with DCF and 32.6% with ECF (P = .01). Time to tumor progression (TTP) was 6.9 months with DCF and 5.9 months with ECF (P = .005). Median survival was 11.0 months with DCF and 10.2 months with ECF (P = .17).
Some epidemiologic features of GC in Jordan mimic those of high-risk areas. Our outcomes of chemotherapy are comparable to internationally reported data and suggest superiority of DCF over ECF in terms of ORR and TTP.
Few cases of synchronous bilateral stage I seminomas have been reported in the world literature. We present a case of bilateral synchronous testicular seminoma, the current literature on the management of stage I seminoma, and the implications for radiotherapy. A forty-year-old man presented with synchronous bilateral classical seminomas, both stage IA. After undergoing bilateral inguinal orchiectomy, he received adjuvant external beam radiotherapy, with a standard paraaortic field. After 18 months of followup, he remains well, without evidence of recurrence. Bilateral germ cell tumors (BGCTs) are reported consistently at a low rate. Bilateral radical inguinal orchiectomy is standard of care, yet some groups have proposed an organ preservation approach. Of the reported cases of bilateral stage I synchronous GCT, with concordant seminoma histology, most of them were treated with bilateral orchiectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy. Although morbidity associated with radiotherapy directed at the abdomen is not negligible, adjuvant paraaortic radiotherapy remains safe and well-tolerated treatment regime. Bilateral synchronous stage I seminoma of the testes is rare. Organ preservation remains investigational. Chemotherapy is probably a reasonable option. We propose that patients with bilateral stage I synchronous GCT, with concordant seminoma histology, should be managed with bilateral orchiectomy, followed by paraaortic radiotherapy.
Spermatocytic seminoma (SS) is a distinct testicular germ cell tumor, representing less than 1% of testicular cancers. The clinical features that distinguish ss from classical seminoma are an older age at presentation and a reduced propensity to metastasize. The aim of our work is to underline the epidemiological, clinical, histological, therapeutical and prognostic features of this tumor.
A retrospective analysis of patients referred to the national institute of oncology with seminoma, identified from the institutional tumor registry, between January 1996 and February 2009, was performed. Information reviewed included demographics, clinical, pathological staging, surgical management, adjuvant treatment and last follow-up. We studied four cases of spermatocytic seminoma, which represented 1% of testicular tumor and 6,4% of all seminoma treated at our institution during the study period. Median age at diagnosis was 45 years (range: 42-48). Mean delay before consulting was 9 months and the mean tumor size was 13,75 cm (10-18 cm). No patient had a history of maldescended testis. The main clinical complaint was unilateral testis mass with low progression. Pathology showed that tumors had a polymorphic appearance with small, intermediate and large cells. In all cases, the tumor was limited to the testis. immunohistochemical studies showed that tumors were negative for all the classical antibodies tested (LCA, cytokeratins, PLAP, lymphoid markers, CD117). Thoraco-abdomino-pelvic CT scan and tumor markers (AFP and hCG) were normal. All patients were Stage I. Treatment consisted on an orchidectomy associated with adjuvant radiotherapy in one patient. After a median follow-up of 6 years ranging from 2 to 15 years, we did not note any relapse or metastasis.
The diagnosis of spermatocytic seminoma must be considered in all patients aged of more than 50 with testicular tumor. With only three cases of metastatic disease confirmed in the literature, this is a subgroup of patients in whom radiotherapy can safely be omitted.
Between July 1979 and December 1981, 43 patients with metastatic germ-cell tumours (36 testicular non-seminomas and 7 testicular seminomas) were treated with 2-6 cycles of bleomycin, etoposide and cis-platin (BEP). Forty (93%) are alive, 37 (86%) with no evidence of disease. Of 36 men with testicular non-seminoma 30 (83.3%) are alive and disease-free at 8-38 months (median 17.0 months). In the latter group 25/28 (89.3%) who had had no prior irradiation are alive and disease-free. Fourteen non-seminoma patients had small volume metastases and 13 are in complete remission, as are 12/14 patients with bulky disease. All 7 patients with advanced seminoma are alive and disease-free. It is concluded that BEP is a well tolerated and effective first line treatment for patients with metastatic germ-cell tumours.
Perivascular Epithelioid Cell tumour (PEComa) is rare. We describe a 39-year-old man who underwent a left radical orchidectomy and adjuvant radiation therapy for a stage IA classical testicular seminoma. He was diagnosed with a mass lateral to the right common iliac artery that was considered suspicious for late lymph node relapse after 3 years of follow-up. Due to the unusual location of the mass and the equivocal findings of percutaneous biopsy, a laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed. Final pathology revealed PEComa of soft tissue. The patient is disease-free after 38 months of follow-up without adjuvant treatment. The presence of rare soft-tissue neoplasm should be considered in differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal masses during follow-up of germ cell tumours. Suspicious isolated recurrences of these neoplasms in unusual locations can require surgical excision to confirm diagnosis and avoid inappropriate treatment.
Following the demise of Jordan's King Hussein bin Talal to cancer in 1999, the country's Al-Amal Center was transformed from a poorly perceived and ineffectual cancer care institution into a Western-style comprehensive cancer center. Renamed King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC), it achieved improved levels of quality, expanded cancer care services and achieved Joint Commission International accreditation under new leadership over a three-year period (2002–2005).
An exploratory case research method was used to explain the rapid change to international standards. Sources including personal interviews, document review and on-site observations were combined to conduct a robust examination of KHCC's rapid changes.
The changes which occurred at the KHCC during its formation and leading up to its Joint Commission International (JCI) accreditation can be understood within the conceptual frame of the transformational leadership model. Interviewees and other sources for the case study suggest the use of inspirational motivation, idealized influence, individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation, four factors in the transformational leadership model, had significant impact upon the attitudes and motivation of staff within KHCC. Changes in the institution were achieved through increased motivation and positive attitudes toward the use of JCI continuous improvement processes as well as increased professional training. The case study suggests the role of culture and political sensitivity needs re-definition and expansion within the transformational leadership model to adequately explain leadership in the context of globalizing health care services, specifically when governments are involved in the change initiative.
The KHCC case underscores the utility of the transformational leadership model in an international health care context. To understand leadership in globalizing health care services, KHCC suggests culture is broader than organizational or societal culture to include an informal global network of medical professionals and Western technologies which facilitate global interaction. Additionally, political competencies among leaders may be particularly relevant in globalizing health care services where the goal is achieving international standards of care. Western communication technologies facilitate cross-border interaction, but social and political capital possessed by the leaders may be necessary for transactions across national borders to occur thus gaining access to specialized information and global thought leaders in a medical sub-specialty such as oncology.
Synchronous presentation of more than one germ cell tumours of different histology in the same patient is considered to be very rare. In these cases of multiple germ cell tumours, strong theoretical and clinical data suggest an underlying common pathogenetic mechanism concerning genetic instability or abnormalities during the pluripotent embryonic differentiation and maturation of the germ cell.
A 25 year-old young man presented with an enlarging, slightly painful left cervical mass. Despite the initial disorientation of the diagnosis to a possible thyroid disorder, the patient underwent complete surgical resection of the mass revealing mediastinal choriocarcinoma. Subsequent ultrasound of the scrotum indicated the presence of a small lobular node in the upper pole of the left testicle and the patient underwent radical left inguinal orchiectomy disclosing a typical seminoma. Based on these results, the patient received 4 cycles of Bleomycin, Etoposide and Platinum chemotherapy experiencing only mild toxicity and resulting in complete ongoing clinical and biochemical remission.
The pathogenesis of concurrent germ cell tumours in the same patient remains an area of controversy. Although the genetic instability of the pluripotent germ cell offers an adequate explanation, the possibility of metastasis from the primary, less differentiated tumour to a distant location as a more mature subtype cannot be excluded. Possible development of a metastatic site of different histology and thus biological behaviour (e.g choriocarcinoma) should be anticipated. Furthermore, urologists, pathologists and medical oncologists should be meticulous in the original pathological diagnosis in these patients, since there is a significant frequency of germ cell tumours with mixed or overlapping histological elements with diverse potential of evolution and differentiation.
Between 1978 and 1983, 44 patients with advanced seminoma were treated with cis-platinum-based combination chemotherapy (39 patients) or with carboplatin (JM8), as a single agent (5 patients). Of the total group, 40 (90%) are alive and disease free. Two of the 4 patients who died relapsed as non-seminomatous germ-cell tumours. Results in previously untreated patients indicate that tumour volume is less important as a prognostic factor than in non-seminomas. Residual masses were present in almost 80% of patients 1 month after chemotherapy; such masses regress slowly and surgery is not indicated. Elective radiotherapy after chemotherapy appears to be inessential since relapse rates are comparable in irradiated (1/15) and unirradiated patients (1/16). Pretreatment serum HCG concentrations did not influence the outcome of chemotherapy. Preliminary results with JM8 suggest that it is an active single agent in the treatment of seminoma.
This study aimed at assessing the outcome of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) by determining the frequency of complications, especially of bile duct injuries.
Materials and Methods:
The case files of all patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy between 2002 and 2006 (inclusive) at King Hussein Medical Center (KHMC) were retrospectively analyzed. We evaluated the data according to outcome measures, such as bile duct injury, morbidity, mortality and numbers of patients whose resections had to be converted from laparoscopic to open.
During the four years (January 2002 and December 2006), 336 patients underwent LC for chronic cholecystitis (CC), of whom 22 (6.5%) developed complications. Among those who developed complications, two patients had major bile duct injuries (0.4%); 43 other patients (12.8%) had planned laparoscopic operations converted to open cholecystectomy intra-operatively. None of the patients in this study died as a result of LC.
Bile duct injury is a major complication of LC. Anatomical anomalies, local pathology, and poor surgical techniques are the main factors responsible. The two patients who had severe common bile duct injury in this study had major anatomical anomalies that were only recognized during surgery.
Laparoscopic; open; cholecystectomy; common bile duct; chronic cholecystitis; complications
Over the past 30 years, great strides have been made in the treatment of disseminated testicular tumors. Despite the low number of patients and the rarity of studies concerning primary advanced seminoma, the efficacy of chemotherapy is clear, mainly 3–4-cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Aiming to contribute to the understanding and implementation of proper chemotherapeutic management in advanced seminoma patients, we retrospectively summarized our experience with 26 patients who were referred for platinum-based chemotherapy, post-orchiectomy to the Northern Israel Oncology Center between 1989 and 2010. Response rate, side effects, and long-term outcome were investigated.
Before chemotherapy, meticulous staging was done, including tumor markers (B-human chorionic gonadotropin (B-HCG), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH)), and abdominal and pelvic computerized tomography (CT) scans were carried out.
All 26 treated patients achieved complete remission, clinically and symptomatically, with normalization of their CT scans. At a median follow-up of 120 months (range, 24–268 months) all patients are alive, without evidence of recurrent disease. One patient whose disease recurred twice achieved a third complete remission following salvage treatment with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation. Another patient, who preferred surveillance, relapsed abdominally after 9 months but achieved long-standing complete remission with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Both these patients are alive with no evidence of disease. Three patients recovered uneventfully from bleomycin-induced pneumonitis.
Advanced seminoma is a highly curable disease using platinum-based chemotherapy. Our study confirms the efficacy and safety of cisplatin-based chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced seminoma.
Cisplatin-based chemotherapy; primary advanced seminoma
Stages in the retrogression of testicular seminoma are described. Eosinophilic necrosis fringed by palisaded histiocytes may be followed by fibrous replacement. Oxidation of unsaturated phospholipids in necrotic tumour may lead to deposition of lipofuscin around the lesion. Search for partially or completely scarred lesions is essential before contemplating a diagnosis of primary retroperitoneal seminoma.
Retrogressed seminoma can often be distinguished from retrogressed teratoid tumours. Apparently paradoxical teratoid metastases in association with a testicular seminoma are explained on the basis of misinterpreted retrogressed teratoid tumours in association with the seminoma.
Inguinal node metastases from testicular seminoma may be the result of abnormal lymphatic drainage following previous scrotal operations, testicular torsion etc.
There has been a paucity of research describing a potential role of radiotherapy as salvage treatment for recurrent seminoma following primary chemotherapy for bulky stage IIC seminoma. We report a case of a bulky stage IIC seminoma relapsed in the pelvis after primary chemotherapy and surgery for post-chemotherapy residual mass, which was subsequently salvaged with radiotherapy. The patient has remained free of relapse at 3.7 years post-salvage radiotherapy. This case demonstrates that radiotherapy can be a salvage therapeutic option for recurrent seminoma following primary chemotherapy for bulky stage IIC seminoma, provided that the recurrent tumour is confined to a limited area of the infradiaphragmatic region. There is a need for further study to examine the potential role of radiotherapy as a salvage therapeutic tool for post-chemotherapy recurrent seminoma.
Between 1979 and 1984 thirty-seven patients were treated with combination chemotherapy for metastatic seminoma; 27 of these had relapsed following initial radiotherapy for stage I and IIA disease and 10 patients with stage IIB-IV disease received chemotherapy de novo followed by radiotherapy to sites of bulk disease. Treatment consisted of either a cis-platinum containing combination (25 patients), or cyclophosphamide and etoposide (12 patients). The overall survival of all patients at 5 years was 49%, 34 patients were assessable for response; a CR was obtained in 8 (24%) and a GPR in 19 (56%), the 5 year survival of this group being 66% at 5 years. No difference in survival was seen in relation to age, previous irradiation, serum HCG or LDH; bulk disease however, was an adverse prognostic factor. Survival was similar for both chemotherapy schedules but neutropenia and life-threatening sepsis was less with the cyclophosphamide etoposide combination.
To determine whether the presence of Clinical Pharmacist affects the cost of drug therapy for patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) at Al-Hussein hospital at Royal Medical Services in Amman, Jordan.
This study compares the consumed quantities of drugs over two periods of time. Each period was ten months long. In the second period there was a Clinical Pharmacist. The decrease in consumption rate of drugs is considered to be an indicator of the success of Clinical Pharmacist in the ICU, as any decrease in consumption rate reflects the correct application of Clinical Pharmacy practices. The cost of this decrease in consumption rate represents the total reduction of drug therapy cost.
The total reduction of drug therapy cost after applying Clinical Pharmacy practices in the ICU over a period of ten months was 149946.80 JD (211574.90 USD), which represents an average saving of 35.8% when compared to the first period in this study.
The results of this study showed a significant reduction in the consumed quantities of drugs and therefore a reduction in cost of drug therapy. Such findings highlight the importance of the presence of Clinical Pharmacist in all Jordanian hospitals wards and units.
Clinical pharmacist; Intensive care unit; Drugs consumption; Cost saving