Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (lipoid CAH) is the most severe form of CAH in which the synthesis of all gonadal and adrenal cortical steroids is markedly impaired. We report here the clinical, endocrinological, and molecular analyses of two unrelated Japanese kindreds of 46,XX subjects affected with lipoid CAH who manifested spontaneous puberty. Phenotypic female infants with 46,XX karyotypes were diagnosed with lipoid CAH as newborns based on a clinical history of failure to thrive, hyperpigmentation, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and low basal values of serum cortisol and urinary 17-hydroxycorticosteroid and 17-ketosteroid. These patients responded to treatment with glucocorticoid and 9alpha-fludrocortisone. Spontaneous thelarche occurred in association with increased serum estradiol levels at the age of 10 and 11 yr, respectively. Pubic hair developed at the age of 12 yr 11 mo in one subject and menarche was at the age of 12 yr in both cases. Both subjects reported periodic menstrual bleeding and subsequently developed polycystic ovaries. To investigate the molecular basis of the steroidogenic lesion in these patients, the StAR gene was characterized by PCR and direct DNA sequence analyses. DNA sequence analysis revealed that one patient is homozygous for the Gln 258 Stop mutation in exon 7 and that the other patient is a compound heterozygote with the Gln 258 Stop mutation and a single A deletion at codon 238 in the other allele causing a frame-shift, which renders the StAR protein nonfunctional. These findings demonstrate that ovarian steroidogenesis can be spared to some extent through puberty when the StAR gene product is inactive. This is in marked contrast to the early onset of severe defects in testicular and adrenocortical steroidogenesis which are characteristics of this disease.
Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (lipoid CAH) is a severe disorder of adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis caused by mutations in the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). Affected children typically present with life-threatening adrenal insufficiency in early infancy due to a failure of glucocorticoid (cortisol) and mineralocorticoid (aldosterone) biosynthesis, and 46,XY genetic males have complete lack of androgenization and appear phenotypically female due to impaired testicular androgen secretion in utero.
The objective of this study was to investigate whether non-classic forms of this condition exist.
Patients & Methods
Sequence analysis of the gene encoding StAR was undertaken in three children from two families who presented with primary adrenal insufficiency at 2-4 years of age; the males had normal genital development. Identified mutants were tested in a series of biochemical assays.
DNA sequencing identified homozygous StAR mutations Val187Met and Arg188Cys in these two families. Functional studies of StAR activity in cells and in vitro, and cholesterol-binding assays showed these mutants retained ∼20% of wild type activity.
These patients define a new disorder, “non-classic lipoid CAH”, and represent a new cause of non-autoimmune Addison disease (primary adrenal failure).
Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (LCAH), a rare disorder of steroid biosynthesis, is the most severe form of CAH. We report novel molecular findings of three unrelated infants with LCAH diagnosed at our center. A known missense mutation c.653C>T (p.A218V) and two novel mutations [premature termination c.441G>A (or p.W147X) and frameshift deletion c.del815G (or p.R272PfsX35)] were identified after complete sequencing of the STAR gene. Prenatal diagnosis was carried out for the family with mutation c.815delG by molecular testing wherein the fetus was found to be homozygous for the mutation. This is the first report of molecular diagnosis and prenatal testing for LCAH from India.
Conflict of interest:None declared.
Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia; STAR gene; mutation; XY sex reversal
Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia is the most severe form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Affected individuals can synthesize no steroid hormones, and hence are all phenotypic females with a severe salt-losing syndrome that is fatal if not treated in early infancy. All previous studies have suggested that the disorder is in the cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), which converts cholesterol to pregnenolone. A newborn patient was diagnosed by the lack of significant concentrations of adrenal or gonadal steroids either before or after stimulation with corticotropin (ACTH) or gonadotropin (hCG). The P450scc gene in this patient and in a previously described patient were grossly intact, as evidenced by Southern blotting patterns. Enzymatic (polymerase chain reaction) amplification and sequencing of the coding regions of their P450scc genes showed these were identical to the previously cloned human P450scc cDNA and gene sequences. Undetected compound heterozygosity was ruled out in the new patient by sequencing P450scc cDNA enzymatically amplified from gonadal RNA. Northern blots of gonadal RNA from this patient contained normal sized mRNAs for P450scc and also for adrenodoxin reductase, adrenodoxin, sterol carrier protein 2, endozepine, and GRP-78 (the precursor to steroidogenesis activator peptide). These studies show that lipoid CAH is not caused by lesions in the P450scc gene, and suggest that another unidentified factor is required for the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone, and is disordered in congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia.
Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (CLAH) is caused by mutations to the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene associated with the inability to synthesize all adrenal and gonadal steroids. Inadequate treatment in an infant with this condition may result in sudden death from an adrenal crisis. We report a case in which CLAH developed in Korean siblings; the second child was prenatally diagnosed because the first child was affected and low maternal serum estriol was detected in a prenatal screening test. To our knowledge, this is the first prenatal diagnosis of the Q258X StAR mutation, which is the only consistent genetic cluster identified to date in Japanese and Korean populations.
Lipoid hyperplasia; congenital; prenatal; sibling
Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is crucial for transport of cholesterol to mitochondria where biosynthesis of steroids is initiated. Loss of StAR function causes lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (LCAH).
StAR gene mutations causing partial loss of function manifest atypical and may be mistaken as familial glucocorticoid deficiency. Only a few mutations have been reported.
To report clinical, biochemical, genetic, protein structure and functional data on two novel StAR mutations, and to compare them with published literature.
Collaboration between the University Children's Hospital Bern, Switzerland, and the CIBERER, Hospital Vall d'Hebron, Autonomous University, Barcelona, Spain.
Two subjects of a non-consanguineous Caucasian family were studied. The 46,XX phenotypic normal female was diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency at the age of 10 months, had normal pubertal development and still has no signs of hypergonodatropic hypogonadism at 32 years of age. Her 46,XY brother was born with normal male external genitalia and was diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency at 14 months. Puberty was normal and no signs of hypergonadotropic hypogonadism are present at 29 years of age.
StAR gene analysis revealed two novel compound heterozygote mutations T44HfsX3 and G221S. T44HfsX3 is a loss-of-function StAR mutation. G221S retains partial activity (∼30%) and is therefore responsible for a milder, non-classic phenotype. G221S is located in the cholesterol binding pocket and seems to alter binding/release of cholesterol.
StAR mutations located in the cholesterol binding pocket (V187M, R188C, R192C, G221D/S) seem to cause non-classic lipoid CAH. Accuracy of genotype-phenotype prediction by in vitro testing may vary with the assays employed.
Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia, is the rarest and usually the most severe form of adrenal steroidogenic defect,which may presents as infantile cholestasis.
Here we present a 45 days old infant who came to our attention with cholestasis and severe intractable vomiting and electrolyte disturbances. Evaluation resulted in diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Hydrocortisone and flodrocortisone improved the symptoms including jaundice and vomiting. Hyponatremia and hyperkalemia also resolved with above mentioned treatment.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia as one of the causes of neonatal cholestasis should be kept in mind, whenever there are also electrolytes abnormalities.
Cholestasis; Lipoid Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia; Neonate; Adrenal Hyperplasia
We report on a patient with genetically confirmed adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) whose presentation and laboratory abnormalities were consistent with the more common condition, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). The patient presented with failure to thrive and salt wasting. General appearance showed marked hyperpigmentation and normal male genitalia. He displayed mildly elevated 17-hydroxyprogesterone and markedly elevated 11-deoxycortisol levels at baseline and with ACTH stimulation testing. Results were consistent with 11β-hydroxylase deficiency. He required glucocorticoids and high doses of mineralocorticoids. The marked elevation in 11-deoxycortisol directed our clinical reasoning away from a hypoplastic condition and towards a hyperplasic adrenal condition. Sequencing of the DAX1 gene (named for dosage-sensitive sex reversal (DSS) locus and the AHC locus on the X chromosome) revealed a missense mutation. A review of the literature revealed that elevated 11-deoxycortisol levels have been noted in kindreds with DAX1 mutations, but only when measured very early in life. A mouse model has recently been described that displays elevated 11-deoxycorticosterone levels and evidence for hyperplasia of the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland. We conclude that DAX1 testing may be considered in patients with laboratory evidence of 11β-hydroxylase deficiency, especially in those with severe salt wasting.
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) refers to a group of congenital conditions characterized by disordered cortisol synthesis. The correlation between CAH and sports performance has been less studied before and there is very limited information regarding the impacts of this congenital disease on sports performance. Probably, there are some limitations for patients who suffer from CAH in sports, but at the same time, they may enjoy some advantage due to the probable effect of endogenous hyperandrogenism on their exercise performance.
The case is a 14 - year old girl with male phenotype who is a known case of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. She plays in the women's national soccer team of under 16. She has been in the first division league of indoor soccer for 4 years and was also selected in the preparation training camp of women's football team for Singapore's youth Olympic Games. Her illness and dependence on corticosteroid have caused some concerns for her participation in the international competitions of women. However, following consultations with the Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) Committee of games organization, she received TUE to use corticosteroid only within the games period. Despite all her problems, she is now playing in the Second Division League of indoor soccer.
A female adolescent with CAH may compete at the high level of outdoor and indoor soccer. However, there are many questions regarding the advantages and disadvantages of this congenital disorder and its treatment on sports related issues.
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia; Doping; Gender Identity; Sports; Soccer; Therapeutic Use Exemption
21-Hydroxylase Deficiency (21-OH Deficiency) represents the most common form of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH), a complex and heterogenous group of conditions, characterised by defects in one of the five enzymes involved in adrenal steroidogenesis. Defects in this steroidogenic enzyme, the product of the CYP21A2 gene, cause disruption in the pathway involved in cortisol and aldosterone production and consequently, the accumulation of their steroid precursors as well as a resulting adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-driven overproduction of adrenal androgens. Treatment with glucocorticoid, with or without mineralocorticoid and salt replacement, is directed at preventing adrenal crises and ensuring normal childhood growth by alleviating hyperandrogenism. Conventionally, two clinical forms of 21-OH Deficiency are described - the classical form, separated into salt-wasting and simple-virilising phenotypes, and the non-classical form. They are differentiated by their hormonal profile, predominant clinical features and age of presentation. A greater understanding of the genotype-phenotype correlation supports the view that 21-OH Deficiency is a continuum of phenotypes as opposed to a number of distinct phenotypical entities. Significant advancements in technologies such as Tandem Mass Spectrometry (TMS) and improvements in gene analysis, such as complete PCR-based sequencing of the involved gene, have resulted in remarkable developments in the areas of diagnosis, treatment and treatment monitoring, neonatal screening, prenatal diagnosis and prenatal therapy.
Early disruption of steroids affects the development of mammalian neural circuits underlying affective processes. In humans, patients with classic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) can serve as a natural model to study early hormonal alterations on functional brain development. CAH is characterized by congenital glucocorticoid insufficiency, leading to altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function, and hyperandrogenism. Using fMRI, we compared fourteen adolescents with CAH to 14 healthy controls on amygdala response to a face viewing task. In response to negative facial emotions, CAH females activated the amygdala significantly more than healthy females, whereas CAH males did not differ from control males. Furthermore, females with CAH showed a similar pattern of amygdala activation to control males, suggesting virilized amygdala function in females with CAH. These findings suggest a prominent effect of early hyperandrogenism on the development and function of the amygdala in females with CAH, whereas no effects were detected in males with CAH. This study provides data that can be further tested in a model of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying early androgen organizational effect on amygdala function.
development; corticosteroid; androgen; affective processing; fMRI; stress hormones
Treatment with glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids has changed congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) from a fatal to a chronic lifelong disease. Long-term treatment, in particular the chronic (over-)treatment with glucocorticoids, may have an adverse effect on the cardiovascular risk profile in adult CAH patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cardiovascular risk profile of adult CAH patients.
Patients and Measurements
In this case-control study the cardiovascular risk profile of 27 adult CAH patients and 27 controls, matched for age, sex and body mass index was evaluated by measuring ambulatory 24-hour blood pressure, insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR), lipid profiles, albuminuria and circulating cardiovascular risk markers (PAI-1, tPA, uPA, tPA/PAI-1 complex, hsCRP, adiponectin, IL-6, IL-18 and leptin).
24-Hour systolic (126.3 mmHg±15.5 vs 124.8 mmHg±15.1 in controls, P = 0.019) and diastolic (76.4 mmHg±12.7 vs 73.5 mmHg±12.4 in controls, P<0.001) blood pressure was significantly elevated in CAH patients compared to the control population. CAH patients had higher HDL cholesterol levels (P<0.01), lower hsCRP levels (P = 0.03) and there was a trend toward elevated adiponectin levels compared to controls. Other cardiovascular risk factors were similar in both groups.
Adult CAH patients have higher ambulatory blood pressure compared to healthy matched controls. Other cardiovascular risk markers did not differ, while HDL-cholesterol, hsCRP and adiponectin levels tended to be more favorable.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia consists of a heterogenous group of inherited disorders
due to enzymatic defects in the biosynthetic pathway of cortisol and/or aldosterone. This
results in glucocorticoid deficiency, mineralocorticoid deficiency, and androgen excess.
95% of CAH cases are due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Clinical forms range from the
severe, classical CAH associated with complete loss of enzyme function, to milder,
non-classical forms (NCAH). Androgen excess affects the pilosebaceous unit, causing
cutaneous manifestations such as acne, androgenetic alopecia and hirsutism. Clinical
differential diagnosis between NCAH and polycystic ovary syndrome may be difficult. In
this review, the evaluation of patients with suspected CAH, the clinical presentation of
CAH forms, with emphasis on the cutaneous manifestations of the disease, and available
treatment options, will be discussed.
acne; congenital adrenal hyperplasia; hirsutism
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by defects in the steroid 21 hydroxylase gene (CYP21A2). We studied the spectrum of mutations in CYP21A2 gene in a multi-ethnic population in Pakistan to explore the genetics of CAH.
A cross sectional study was conducted for the identification of mutations CYP21A2 and their phenotypic associations in CAH using ARMS-PCR assay.
Overall, 29 patients were analyzed for nine different mutations. The group consisted of two major forms of CAH including 17 salt wasters and 12 simple virilizers. There were 14 phenotypic males and 15 females representing all the major ethnic groups of Pakistan. Parental consanguinity was reported in 65% cases and was equally distributed in the major ethnic groups. Among 58 chromosomes analyzed, mutations were identified in 45 (78.6%) chromosomes. The most frequent mutation was I2 splice (27%) followed by Ile173Asn (26%), Arg 357 Trp (19%), Gln319stop, 16% and Leu308InsT (12%), whereas Val282Leu was not observed in this study. Homozygosity was seen in 44% and heterozygosity in 34% cases. I2 splice mutation was found to be associated with SW in the homozygous. The Ile173Asn mutation was identified in both SW and SV forms. Moreover, Arg357Trp manifested SW in compound heterozygous state.
Our study showed that CAH exists in our population with ethnic difference in the prevalence of mutations examined.
Four patients with salt-losing congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) who had stopped mineralocorticoid therapy for several years, showed raised plasma concentrations of 17OH-progesterone and plasma renin activity, despite adequate glucoticoid therapy. One patient was able to reduce urinary sodium excretion when the sodium intake was restricted. Another patient who was a salt-loser, developed signs of an adrenal crisis when salt deprived. In comparison, one nonsalt-loser and 2 normal subjects decreased urinary sodium excretion in response to sodium restriction. The addition of fludrocortisone (100 micrograms) to usual maintenance doses of glucocorticoid, resulted in normal levels of plasma 17OH-progesterone and plasma renin activity in all 4 salt-losers. Two female salt-losers, with raised plasma testosterone concentrations, began menstruating when their plasma testosterone concentrations returned to normal after treatment with fludrocortisone. It is recommended that salt-losing CAH patients should be given mineralocorticoid, in addition to glucocorticoid therapy, at least until adult life.
Major questions remain about the exact role of hormones in cognition. Furthermore, the extent to which early perturbation in steroid function affects human brain development continues to be a wide open area of research. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH), a genetic disorder of steroid dysfunction characterized in part by in utero over-production of testosterone, was used as a natural model for addressing this question. Here, CAH (n=54, mean age = 17.53, 31 female) patients were compared to healthy age- and sex-matched individuals (n=55, mean age = 19.02, 22 female) on a virtual equivalent of the Morris Water Maze task (Morris, 1984), an established measure of sex differences in spatial cognition in rodents. Findings revealed that females with CAH with the most severe form of the disease and expected highest level of in utero exposure to androgens were found to perform similarly to both healthy males and CAH males, whereas strong sex differences were apparent in milder forms of the disorder and in controls. Moreover, advanced bone age, an indicator of long-term childhood exposure to testosterone was correlated with improved performance. The results indicate that individuals exposed to both excess androgens prenatally and prolonged exposure during childhood may manifest long-lasting changes in cognitive function. Such finding suggests a pivotal role of hormonal function on brain development in humans, mirroring results from the animal literature.
spatial navigation; hormones; sex differences; steroids; brain development; adolescents
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of disorders affecting the adrenal steroid synthesis. The most common form, 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD), leads to decreased production of cortisol and aldosterone with increased androgen secretion. In classic CAH, glucocorticoid treatment can be life-saving and serves to bring the symptoms under control. However, the treatment challenge is to effectively control the excess androgen effect by using the lowest possible glucocorticoid dose. Previous studies suggested a relationship between ovarian cyst formation and adrenal androgen excess, but neonatal large ovarian cysts have been very rarely reported in newborns with CAH. Here, we present the unique case of a neonate with classical 21-OHD who underwent surgery for a giant (10x8x7 cm) unilateral solitary ovarian follicular cyst on the 2nd postnatal day. Hormonal evaluation of the patient revealed high-dose hook effect for serum testosterone levels for the first time by a two-site immunoradiometric assay. Possible mechanisms by which androgen excess may cause ovarian cyst formation are discussed.
Conflict of interest:None declared.
21-hydroxylase deficiency; Ovarian cyst; testosterone; ambiguous genitalia; hook effect; Neonate
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by enzyme deficiency which leads to defects in biosynthesis of steroid precursors. Most common is 21 hydroxylase deficiency. Clinical spectrum varies from non-classical CAH to classic CAH, and it may be simple virilising form or salt-wastinfg type. 29 patients were included in our study from January 2012 to October 2012. 76% were females. Male babies typically presented with adrenal crisis between 3rd to 6th week of life. Around 20% of females were identified and appropriately treated only after late adolescence. Short stature was seen in 1/3rd of patients. 1/3rd of patients had suppressed 17 OHP levels suggestive of over-replacement therapy which may contribute to final reduction in adult height.
CAH; 21 hydroxylase deficiency; adrenal crisis; genital ambiguity
Fertility in women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) appears to be reduced, especially in women with the classic salt-wasting type. Several factors have been suggested to contribute to this subfertility such as androgen excess, adrenal progesterone hypersecretion, consequences of genital reconstructive surgery, secondary polycystic ovaries syndrome, and psychosexual factors. In contrast to this subfertility, pregnancies are commonly normal and uneventful. Adequate glucocorticoid therapy and improvement of surgical and psychological management could contribute to optimize fertility in CAH female patients, even among women with the classic variant. This review provides current information regarding the reproductive outcomes of women with CAH due to 21-OHD and the fertility and pregnancy issues in this population.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia; fertility; 21-hydroxylase deficiency; pregnancy
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is one of the most common autosomal recessive disorders. Many issues in the management of CAH in children still remain unresolved.
To assess how children with CAH are treated in Canada.
Fifty-nine paediatric endocrinologists and postgraduate trainees from across Canada took part in a survey that evaluated four areas of CAH management: type and dose of glucocorticoid therapy, current use of alternative therapies, monitoring of care, and approach/attitude to prenatal diagnosis and treatment of CAH.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS
The present survey demonstrated that there is general agreement among paediatric endocrinologists in Canada regarding the management of patients with CAH, which includes very little use of newer antiandrogen therapies. The goal remains to be the optimization of currently available therapy to ensure normal growth and sexual maturation without any evidence of glucocorticoid excess or deficiency. Prenatal diagnosis and management is widely, but infrequently, used.
21-hydroxylase deficiency; Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
OBJECTIVE: Texas mandates a two-test newborn screening program for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH): one test at birth and a second test at approximately one to two weeks after birth. The authors compared the dollar cost of detecting infants with CAH clinically and through the screening program. METHODS: The authors estimated the costs of screening newborns in 1994 for CAH, including resources used by the Texas Department of Health and the broader cost to society. RESULTS: Fifteen infants with classic CAH were diagnosed in Texas in 1994 among 325,521 infants born (1:21,701 cumulative incidence). Seven infants were detected clinically and the others were detected through screening, six on the first screen and two on the second screen. The first screen identified all previously undetected infants with severe salt-wasting CAH. The cumulative cost to diagnose the seven infants detected clinically was $79,187. The incremental costs for the screening program were $115,169 per additional infant diagnosed through the first screen and $242,865 per additional infant diagnosed through the second screen. CONCLUSIONS: If the goal is early diagnosis of infants with the severe salt-wasting form of CAH, a single screen is effective. If the goal is to detect infants with the simple virilizing form of the disorder who may benefit from early treatment, the second screen is necessary, but it is not as cost-effective as the first screen.
We provide evidence regarding the nature, causes, and consequences of intelligence in patients with 21-hydroxylase deficient congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Intelligence and quality of life (psychological adjustment) were measured on multiple occasions from childhood to young adulthood in 104 patients with CAH (62 females, 42 males) and 88 unaffected relatives (31 females, 57 males). Information on disease severity (CAH type, age at diagnosis, genital virilization for girls) and salt-wasting crises was obtained from medical records. There was no evidence of intellectual deficit in either female or male patients with CAH. Intelligence was not significantly associated with psychological adjustment or disease characteristics. CAH itself does not appear to increase risk for poor intellectual function. In a sample of patients with generally good disease control, intelligence is not related to adjustment problems, disease severity, or salt-wasting crises.
Hyponatremia and hyperpotassemia occurring in the first few weeks of life primarily indicate aldosterone deficiency due to salt-losing congenital adrenal hyperplasia (SL-CAH), while mineralocorticoid deficiency and insensitivity are the main causes of hyponatremia and hyperpotassemia in older infants. Some patients who present with vomiting and poor sucking, who have hyponatremia and hyperpotassemia and are initially diagnosed as CAH, during follow-up, are found to suffer from pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA). This situation has been reported several times before. The cases described here represent the opposite situation: they presented with hyponatremia and hyperpotassemia, thus PHA was considered as aldosterone levels were very high, but subsequent investigation and genetic analysis led to the diagnosis of SL-CAH.
Conflict of interest:None declared.
Pseudohypoaldosteronism; congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Approximately 75%–80% of patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) fail to synthesize sufficient mineralocorticoids to maintain salt and water balance. In most instances genotype can predict mineralocorticoid deficiency in CAH. Early recognition and replacement with 9α-fludrocortisone and salt supplements will prevent development of potentially lethal salt losing crises. In infancy a relative state of aldosterone resistance exists and replacement dose of 9α-fludrocortisone based on body surface area is higher during infancy compared to childhood and adults. Salt supplementation is generally not required after weaning is started. Regular monitoring of blood pressure and measurements of plasma electrolytes and renin are required to prevent complications of under or over dosage.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) refers to group of inherited diseases resulting from impaired adrenal steroidogenesis, and its most common cause is 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs) are an important complication of CAH, which probably develop from ectopic remnants of intra-testicular adrenal tissue stimulated by Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) hypersecretion. These lesions are typically located within the rete testis and are bilateral, synchronous, nodular and multiple. TART usually, but not always, responses to suppressive medical therapy. TART leads to testicular structural damage, spermatogenesis disorders, infertility and most importantly, mass-forming lesions that could be mistaken for Leydig cell tumor (LCT). The later has a significantly different behavior with up to 10% of being malignant. Nowadays, due to advances in diagnosing and treating CAH, mass-forming TART is rarely encountered. As a result, there is the paucity in the medical literature regarding its features from pathological perspective. We herein present a case of mass-forming TART and we discuss the clinical, radiological, and morphological features as well as the major differential diagnosis of this rare lesion.
Leydig cell tumor; testicular adrenal rest tumor; testicular mass