Antibiotic exposure exerts strong selective pressure and is an important modifiable risk factor for antibiotic resistance. We aimed to identify the role of various antibiotics as risk factors for the isolation of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella spp. in hospitalized patients at a tertiary-care hospital. A parallel multivariable model was created to compare two groups of cases with either nosocomially acquired ESBL- or non-ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. to a common control group of hospitalized patients (a case-case-control design). Seventy-eight ESBL cases, 358 non-ESBL cases, and 444 controls were analyzed. Significant factors associated with the isolation of Klebsiella spp. were an age of >65 years, transfer from a health care facility, an intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and the presence of a comorbid malignancy or lung, hepatic, or renal disease. A propensity score was generated from the above, and our ability to discriminate between Klebsiella cases and controls (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic [ROC] curve, 0.78) was good. The ESBL phenotype was tightly linked with fluoroquinolone resistance (95% versus 18%, P < 0.001). Factors associated with isolation of ESBL Klebsiella spp. in a multivariable analysis, adjusting for the propensity score, included exposure to β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations (odds ratio [OR], 10.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19 to 86.92) and to fluoroquinolones (OR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.37 to 5.97). Exposure to broad-spectrum cephalosporins was statistically associated with ESBL Klebsiella spp. only among the subgroup of patients not treated with fluoroquinolones. In our institution, where the ESBL-producing-Klebsiella phenotype is coselected with fluoroquinolone resistance, fluoroquinolone and β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, rather than cephalosporins, are the main risk factors for ESBL isolates. Formulary interventions to limit the spread of ESBL-producing isolates should be tailored to each setting.
Enterobacter cloacae has been associated with several outbreaks, usually involving strains that overproduce chromosomal β-lactamase or, uncommonly, strains expressing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL). Only sporadic cases of ESBL-producing E. cloacae have been identified in our hospital in recent years. We describe the epidemiology and clinical and microbiological characteristics of an outbreak caused by ESBL-producing E. cloacae in a cardiothoracic intensive care unit (CT-ICU). Prospective surveillance of patients with infection or colonization by ESBL-producing E. cloacae among patients admitted to the CT-ICU was performed during the outbreak. Production of ESBL was determined by decreased susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and a positive double-disk test result. Clone relatedness was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). From July to September 2005, seven patients in the CT-ICU with ESBL-producing E. cloacae were identified (four males; median age, 73 years; range, 45 to 76 years); six patients had cardiac surgery. Four patients developed infections; three had primary bacteremia, one had ventilator-associated pneumonia, and one had tracheobronchitis. ESBL-producing E. cloacae showed resistance to quinolones and aminoglycosides. PFGE revealed two patterns. Five isolates belonged to clone A; two carried a single ESBL (pI 8.2 and a positive PCR result for the SHV type), and three carried two ESBLs (pIs 8.1 and 8.2 and positive PCR results for the SHV and CTX-M-9 types). Isolates belonging to clone B carried a single ESBL (pI 5.4 and a positive PCR result for the TEM type). Review of antibiotic consumption showed increased use of cefepime and quinolones during June and July 2005. The outbreak was stopped by the implementation of barrier measures and cephalosporin restriction. ESBL production could be increasingly common in nosocomial pathogens other than Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Twelve clonally related and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were recovered during a 4-month period from 12 patients hospitalized at the Valenciennes Hospital in France. Antibiograms determined by the double-disk diffusion technique on cloxacillin-containing plates detected a clavulanic acid-inhibited extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). PCR and sequencing identified the gene encoding the Ambler class A ESBL VEB-1. This gene was located on the chromosome and was part of a class 1 integron identical to that previously identified in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from Thailand. Additionally, seven clonally related blaVEB-1-positive A. baumannii strains were identified in the immediate environment of the hospitalized patients. This is the first report of the ESBL VEB-1 in Acinetobacter spp. and the first description of VEB-1-producing strains as a source of an outbreak occurring outside Southeast Asia. This report underlines the difficulty of the identification of ESBLs in A. baumannii.
This study was aimed to investigate the genetic diversity and antibiotic resistance profile of the nosocomial infection agent Acinetobacter baumannii from a medical intensive care unit (ICU) in a teaching hospital in Suzhou, China.
The genetic relationship among A. baumannii isolates in an ICU was investigated using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The antibiotic resistance pattern was determined by performing an antibiotic susceptible test, which included an agar dilution method and an E-test method. Resistant determinants, e.g., carbapenemase genes, metallo-β-lactamases, and class 1 integron, were analyzed by specific PCR and DNA sequencing.
In the present study, 33 non-duplicate isolates were identified as 5 existing sequence types (STs) (ST92, ST75, ST112, ST145, and ST345) and 1 new sequence type STn, which has a G-A mutation at nt268 on ropD40 of ST251. These results reveal limited diversity in carbapenem non-susceptible A. baumannii (CNSAb) isolates in our ICU, which are comprised of only 2 distinct STs, with ST92 and ST75 clustering into a clonal complex (CC) 92. Most CNSAb isolates (94.4%, 17/18) harbored the OXA-23 gene, while no carbapenem-susceptible A. baumannii (CSAb) isolates harbored it. In addition, 66.7% (22/33) isolates were positive for class 1 integrase, and gene cassette analysis showed there are 3 gene arrays among them, i.e., aacA4-catB8-aadA1 (77.3%, 17/22), aacA4 (22.7%, 5/22), and aacC1-orfX-orfX'-aadA1 (4.5%, 1/22).
When all these data are combined, the antibiotic resistance and wide distribution of CNSAb isolates in our ICU are probably caused by expansion of the CC92 clone.
MLST; Molecular epidemiology; Acinetobacter baumannii
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria have been increasingly reported as causal agents of nosocomial infection worldwide. Resistance patterns vary internationally, and even locally, from one institution to the other. We investigated the clinical isolates positive for ESBL-producing bacteria in our institution, a tertiary care hospital in Madrid (Spain), during a 2-year period (2007–2008).
Clinical and microbiological data were retrospectively reviewed. Two hundred and nineteen patients were included in the study.
Advanced age, diabetes, use of catheters, previous hospitalization and previous antibiotic treatment were some of the risk factors found among patients. Escherichia coli was the most frequent isolate, and urinary tract the most common site of isolation. Internal Medicine, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and General Surgery presented the highest number of isolates. There were no outbreaks during the study period. Antibiotic patterns showed high resistance rates to quinolones in all isolates. There was 100% sensitivity to carbapenems.
Carbapenems continue to be the treatment of choice for ESBL-producing bacteria. Infection control measures are of great importance to avoid the spread of these nosocomial infections.
extended spectrum beta-lactamases; ESBL; Enterobacteriaceae; institutional epidemiology; nosocomial infection; antimicrobial resistance
Resistance to third generation cephalosporins due to acquisition and expression of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes among Gram-negative bacteria is on the increase. Presence of ESBL producing organisms has been reported to significantly affect the course and outcome of an infection. Therefore infections due to ESBL isolates continue to pose a challenge to infection management worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the existence and to describe phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of ESBLs in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) setting in Tanzania.
Between October 2002 and April 2003, clinical information and samples were collected from patients suspected to have nosocomial infections in an Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary hospital in Tanzania. The isolates were identified, tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and analysed for presence of ESBL genes.
Thirty-nine Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from clinical samples of 39 patients. These isolates included 13 Escherichia coli, 12 Enterobacter spp, 5 Pseudomonas spp, 4 Proteus spp, 2 Klebsiella. pneumoniae, 2 Citrobacter freundii and 1 Chryseomonas luteola. Eleven (28.2%) of these isolates were ESBL producing. The ESBL genes characterised were SHV-12, SHV-28 and CTX-M-15. The ESBL producing isolates were more resistant to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin than non-ESBL producing isolates.
This study shows the presence of ESBL genes among Gram-negative bacteria in the ICU setting in Tanzania. There is a need to institute strict hospital infection control policy and a regular surveillance of resistance to antimicrobial agents.
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production in members of the Enterobacteriaceae can confer resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, aztreonam, and penicillin. As such, the accurate detection of ESBL producers is essential for the appropriate selection of antibiotic therapy. Twenty previously characterized isolates and 49 clinical isolates suspected of ESBL production were tested by four ESBL phenotypic confirmatory methods for accuracy and ease of use. The four ESBL phenotypic confirmation tests included Dried MicroScan ESBL plus ESBL Confirmation panels (Dade Behring, Inc., West Sacramento, Calif.), Etest ESBL (AB BIODISK, Piscataway, N.J.), Vitek GNS-120 (bioMérieux, Inc., Hazelwood, Mo.), and BD BBL Sensi-Disk ESBL Confirmatory Test disks (BD Biosciences, Sparks, Md.). Results were compared to frozen microdilution panels prepared according to NCCLS specifications, and discrepant isolates were sent for molecular testing. The test sensitivities for the ESBL phenotypic confirmatory test methods used in this study were as follows: MicroScan ESBL plus ESBL confirmation panel, 100%; VITEK 1 GNS-120, 99%; Etest ESBL, 97%; and BD BBL Sensi-Disk ESBL Confirmatory Test disks, 96%. The test specificities were as follows: BD BBL Sensi-Disk ESBL Confirmatory Test disks, 100%; MicroScan ESBL plus ESBL confirmation panel and VITEK 1 GNS-120, 98%; and Etest ESBL, 94%. All methods were easy to perform; however, the Etest method required more expertise to interpret the results. All tests offer a feasible solution for confirming ESBL production in the clinical laboratory.
There is no information regarding the resistance mechanisms of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in community setting in Cameroon. The current study aimed to determine the proportion of ESBLs in Enterobacteriaceae isolated in the community and to analyse some risk factors associated with ESBL carriage.
Faecal samples were collected from 208 different outpatients and 150 healthy student volunteers between 3 January and 3 April 2009. Enterobacterial isolates resistant to third-generation cephalosporins were screened for ESBL production by the double-disk synergy test. Presumptive ESBL-producing isolates with positive synergy test were identified by Mass Spectrometry using the BioTyper MALDI-TOF. For such ESBL positive isolates, antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the Vitek 2 system. PCR and sequencing were performed for the detection of different types of ESBL genes in presumptive ESBL-producing isolates. Statistical methods were used for the univariate calculation of risk factors.
During the study period, a total of 358 faecal samples were analysed; 58 of such samples (16%) showed an ESBL phenotype and were confirmed by PCR. The proportion of ESBL producers in faecal carriage was statistically different between outpatients and student volunteers (23.1% vs. 6.7%: p < 0.000). According to a univariate analysis, previous use of antibiotics (ciprofloxacin) appeared to be a risk factor for ESBL carriage (p < 0.05).
Escherichia coli was the species most frequently isolated among the ESBL producers in outpatients (66.7%) and student volunteers (90%). Isolates showed additional resistance to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole but none of them was resistant to temocillin, amikacin or meropenem. Most of the strains (97%) produced a CTX-M group 1 enzymes [CTX-M-15 (98%) or CTX-M-1 (2%)] and the remaining strains produced SHV-12 enzyme (3%).
The use of drugs such as amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole does not seem appropriate for empirical treatment because of emerging resistance. The implementation in Cameroon or in other African countries of methods of screening ESBL-producing organisms in routine laboratories is of great importance in order for us to offer patients appropriate treatment and for infection control efforts to succeed.
Newer β-lactamases such as extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), transferable AmpC β-lactamases, and carbapenemases are associated with laboratory testing problems of false susceptibility that can lead to inappropriate therapy for infected patients. Because there appears to be a lack of awareness of these enzymes, a study was conducted during 2001 to 2002 in which 6,421 consecutive, nonduplicate clinical isolates of aerobically growing gram-negative bacilli from patients at 42 intensive care unit (ICU) and 21 non-ICU sites across the United States were tested on-site for antibiotic susceptibility. From these isolates, 746 screen-positive isolates (11.6%) were referred to a research facility and investigated to determine the prevalence of ESBLs in all gram-negative isolates, transferable AmpC β-lactamases in Klebsiella pneumoniae, and carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae. The investigations involved phenotypic tests, isoelectric focusing, β-lactamase inhibitor studies, spectrophotometric assays, induction assays, and molecular analyses. ESBLs were detected only in Enterobacteriaceae (4.9% of all Enterobacteriaceae) and were found in species other than those currently recommended for ESBL testing by the CLSI (formerly NCCLS). These isolates occurred at 74% of the ICU sites and 43% of the non-ICU sites. Transferable AmpC β-lactamases were detected in 3.3% of K. pneumoniae isolates and at 16 of the 63 sites (25%) with no difference between ICU and non-ICU sites. Three sites submitted isolates that produced class A carbapenemases. No class B or D carbapenemases were detected. In conclusion, organisms producing ESBLs and transferable AmpC β-lactamases were widespread. Clinical laboratories must be able to detect important β-lactamases to ensure optimal patient care and infection control.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
Patients in the ICU have encountered an increasing emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. We examined patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility in gram-negative isolates to commonly used drugs in an adult ICU at a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
A retrospective study was carried out of gram-negative isolates from the adult ICU of King Fahad National Guard Hospital (KFNGH) between 2004 and 2009. Organisms were identified and tested by an automated identification and susceptibility system, and the antibiotic susceptibility testing was confirmed by the disk diffusion method.
The most frequently isolated organism was Acinetobacter baumannii, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pnemoniae, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Enterobacter. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns significantly declined in many organisms, especially A baumannii, E coli, S marcescens, and Enterobacter. A baumannii susceptibility was significantly decreased to imipenem (55% to 10%), meropenem (33% to 10%), ciprofloxacin (22% to 10%), and amikacin (12% to 6%). E coli susceptibility was markedly decreased (from 75% to 50% or less) to cefuroxime, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, and cefepime. S marcescens susceptibility was markedly decreased to cefotaxime (100% to 32%), ceftazidime (100% to 35%), and cefepime (100% to 66%). Enterobacter susceptibility was markedly decreased to ceftazidime (34% to 5%), cefotaxime (34% to 6%), and pipracillin-tazobactam (51% to 35%). Respiratory samples were the most frequently indicative of multidrug-resistant pathogens (63%), followed by urinary samples (57%).
Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging problem in the KFNGH ICU, justifying new more stringent antibiotic prescription guidelines. Continuous monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility and strict adherence to infection prevention guidelines are essential to eliminate major outbreaks in the future.
The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-mediated resistance remains unknown for most hospitals, and national guidelines for testing and reporting ESBL-mediated resistance have not yet been developed. We undertook a study to determine the prevalence of ESBLs and the clinical need for testing in our tertiary-care medical center. Members of the family Enterobacteriaceae isolated over a 6-month period for which ceftazidime or ceftriaxone MICs were greater than 1 microg/ml were tested for production of ESBLs by the double-disk synergy method. Approximately 1.5% of isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae (50 of 3,273), which were isolated from 1.2% of patients (23 of 1,844), were found to express ESBLs. ESBL-producing strains included eight different species and were isolated from patients located throughout the hospital, including outpatient clinics. By using the interpretive guidelines of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, 26 to 39% of the isolates would have been reported to be susceptible to ceftazidime, depending upon the routine susceptibility method used. However, tests with cefpodoxime found all of the ESBL-producing strains to be resistant or intermediate. Nine patients infected with ESBL-producing isolates were treated with therapy which included an expanded-spectrum cephalosporin. Seven were cured. The deaths of the other two patients were not attributed to bacterial resistance missed by routine susceptibility testing. These observations suggest that in our tertiary-care medical center, it may not be clinically necessary or cost-effective at this time to institute additional testing on a routine basis to detect ESBL production in all clinical isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae.
Detection of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production among uropathogens is an important marker of endemicity.
Intervention of this endemic transmission is important for the control of initial outbreak of ESBL producing organisms in a hospital or specialized unit of hospital.
Materials and Methods:
During the study period of one and a half months, 1,551 urine samples were processed for significant bacteriuria. Two hundred gram negative bacterial isolates were tested for ESBL production. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern was ascertained for ESBL producing isolates.
ESBL production was seen in 36% of isolates. All the isolates were multidrug resistant with uniform sensitivity to imipenem.
This study reveals the significant prevalence of ESBL producing organisms in this north Indian tertiary care hospital. Constant revision of antibiotic policies with infection control interventions is suggested.
ESBL; endemicity; infection; uropathogens
Over a 4-month period from November 2002 to February 2003, 27 ceftazidime-resistant or cefotaxime-resistant nonrepetitive Enterobacter cloacae isolates were collected from 27 patients hospitalized at HuaShan Hospital, Shanghai, People's Republic of China. The Etest did not detect extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in those 27 isolates; however, screening by the NCCLS ESBL disk test and confirmatory tests detected ESBLs in 4 of 27 isolates and PCR detected ESBLs in 23 of 27 isolates. The majority of ESBL producers exhibited the same repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR pattern but harbored different ESBL genes. CTX-M-3 was the most prevalent ESBL in our study. Interestingly, 12 clonally related E. cloacae isolates possessed a novel blaVEB-type beta-lactamase, blaVEB-3. BlaVEB-3 was encoded by the chromosome and was located in an integron. Nine of the 12 isolates harbored both the blaVEB-3 and the blaCTX-M-3-like ESBLs. This is the first report of a VEB-1-like ESBL in China and the first report of the simultaneous presence of VEB-1 and CTX-M-3-like ESBLs in an isolate.
Organisms producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) have been reported in many countries, but there is no information on the prevalence of ESBL-producing members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in Ireland. A total of 925 isolates of ampicillin-resistant members of the Enterobacteriaceae were received from six hospitals in Ireland over a 3-year period from September 1996 to September 1999. Isolates were screened for ESBL production by the double-disk diffusion (DDD) method. DDD-positive isolates that were (i) confirmed as ESBL producers by National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) confirmatory testing and (ii) susceptible to cefoxitin by disk diffusion were considered ESBL producers. By these criteria, 27 (3%) of the ampicillin-resistant members of the Enterobacteriaceae studied were categorized as ESBL producers. Molecular typing suggested that some intra- and interhospital spread of ESBL-producing isolates had occurred. DNA sequencing of amplified blaTEM and blaSHV genes resulted in the detection of a novel blaTEM ESBL gene, blaTEM-102 in two isolates (Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae) received from the same hospital but isolated from different patients. The study suggests dissemination of ESBL-producing bacteria within the health care system in Ireland and emphasizes the need for measures to control such spread.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are important hospital pathogens in Canada and worldwide.
To genotypically and phenotypically characterize the isolates of MRSA, VRE and ESBL-producing E coli collected from patients in Canadian intensive care units (ICUs) in 2005 and 2006.
Between September 1, 2005, and June 30, 2006, 19 medical centres participating in the Canadian National Intensive Care Unit (CAN-ICU) study collected 4133 unique patient isolates associated with infections in ICUs. Isolates of MRSA underwent mecA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Panton-Valentine leukocidin analysis; they were typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All isolates of E coli with ceftriaxone minimum inhibitory concentrations greater than or equal to 1 μg/mL were tested for the presence of an ESBL using the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute double-disk diffusion method. Subsequently, PCR and sequence analysis were used to identify blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M. Isolates of VRE were tested for the presence of vanA and vanB genes by PCR.
Of the 4133 ICU isolates collected, MRSA accounted for 4.7% (193 of 4133) of all isolates. MRSA represented 21.9% (193 of 880) of all S aureus collected during the study; 90.7% were health care-associated MRSA strains and 9.3% were community-associated MRSA strains. Resistance rates for the isolates of MRSA were 91.8% to levofloxacin, 89.9% to clarithromycin, 76.1% to clindamycin and 11.7% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole; no isolates were resistant to vancomycin, linezolid, tigecycline or daptomycin. ESBL-producing E coli accounted for 0.4% (18 of 4133) of all isolates and 3.7% (18 of 493) of E coli isolates. All 18 ESBL-producing E coli were PCR-positive for CTX-M, with blaCTX-M-15 occurring in 72% (13 of 18) of isolates. All ESBL-producing E coli displayed a multidrug-resistant phenotype (resistant to third-generation cephalosporins and one or more other classes of antimicrobials), with 77.8% of isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin, 55.6% resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 27.8% resistant to gentamicin and 26.3% resistant to doxycycline; all isolates were susceptible to ertapenem, meropenem and tigecycline. VRE accounted for 0.4% (17 of 4133) of all isolates and 6.7% (17 of 255) of enterococci isolates; 88.2% of VRE had the vanA genotype. Isolated VRE that were tested were uniformly susceptible to linezolid, tigecycline and daptomycin.
MRSA isolated in Canadian ICUs in 2005 and 2006 was predominately health care-associated (90.7%), ESBL-producing E coli were all CTX-M producers (72% blaCTX-M-15) and VRE primarily harboured a vanA genotype (88.2%). MRSA, ESBL-producing E coli and VRE were frequently multidrug resistant.
CAN-ICU; ESBL E coli; Intensive care; MRSA; Resistance; VRE
To determine whether confirmatory tests for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production in Escherichia coli are necessary, we selected 131 E. coli isolates that met the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) screening criteria for potential ESBL production from the Project ICARE (Intensive Care Antimicrobial Resistance Epidemiology) strain collection. For all 131 isolates, the broth microdilution (BMD) MIC of at least one extended-spectrum cephalosporin was ≥2 μg/ml. For 21 of 131 (16%) isolates, the ESBL confirmatory test was positive; i.e., the BMD MICs of ceftazidime or cefotaxime decreased by ≥3 doubling dilutions in the presence of clavulanic acid (CA) or the disk diffusion zone diameters increased by ≥5 mm around ceftazidime or cefotaxime disks in the presence of CA. All 21 isolates were shown by PCR to contain at least one of the genes blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaOXA, and in isoelectric focusing (IEF) tests, all isolates demonstrated at least one β-lactamase band consistent with a TEM, SHV, or OXA enzyme. Of the 21 isolates, 3 showed a CA effect for cefotaxime by BMD but not by disk diffusion testing. A total of 59 (45%) of the 131 isolates demonstrated decreased susceptibility to cefpodoxime alone (MIC = 2 to 4 μg/ml), and none had a positive ESBL confirmatory test result. These were classified as false positives according to ESBL screen test results. For the remaining 51 (39%) isolates, the cefpodoxime MICs ranged from 16 to >128 μg/ml and the MICs for the other extended-spectrum cephalosporins were highly variable. All 51 isolates gave negative ESBL confirmatory test results. Most showed IEF profiles consistent with production of both a TEM and an AmpC β-lactamase, and representative isolates of several phenotypic groups showed changes in porin profiles; these 51 isolates were considered true negatives. In all, only 16% of 131 E. coli isolates identified as potential ESBL producers by the current NCCLS screening criteria were confirmed as ESBL producers. Thus, changing the interpretation of extended-spectrum cephalosporins and aztreonam results from the susceptible to the resistant category without confirming the presence of an ESBL phenotype would lead to a large percentage of false resistance results and is not recommended. However, by increasing the cefpodoxime MIC screening breakpoint to ≥8 μg/ml, 45% of the false-positive results could be eliminated. NCCLS has incorporated this change in the cefpodoxime screening breakpoint in its recent documents.
Critical care units provide a favourable environment for the antimicrobial resistant organisms to disseminate. There is recent increase in number of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producers because of the emergence of CTX M Beta lactamases produced by Enterobacteriaceae. They colonize the intestinal flora and spread with greater intensity in the community and hospital. Usage of Carbapenems becomes mandatory as the ESBL inhibitor combination antibiotics (Amoxicillin/Clavulanate) are not effective especially against CTX M ESBLs.
The aim of this study is to detect ESBL producing bla CTX M gene in Enterobacteriaceae from infections in Critical care patients and to stress on the intensity of the problem and to make interventions to curb the emergence and dissemination of CTX M ESBLs.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 118 Enterobacteriaceae isolates from Critical care unit patients were recovered from a variety of clinical specimens. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done and isolates with resistance or with reduced susceptibility to any of the third generation Cephalosporins were selected for the study. Phenotypic confirmation of ESBL production was done by Double Disc Synergy Test and confirmed by minimum inhibitory concentration. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction was performed to screen the four groups of CTX-M ESBLs.
Among the 118 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae 54 isolates were positive for CTX-M group I ESBL which constitutes 45.7 %.
Early detection of CTX M producing Enterobacteriaceae by continuous surveillance and thereby reducing their spread and restricted use of third generation Cephalosporins (3GC) antibiotics could be the possible routes to prevent the emergence and spread of CTX M ESBL producing organisms.
CTX M; Critical care; Enterobacteriaceae; Extended spectrum beta lactamase
The incidence and transmission patterns of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of a university hospital were investigated over a 3-year period. K. pneumoniae isolates were characterized by antibiotic susceptibility, capsular serotyping, plasmid profiles, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of genome macrorestriction patterns with XbaI, and the results were compared with those obtained by typing with the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns. The discriminatory power of RAPD typing was evaluated for three primers. The incidence of isolation of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae was 2.5 cases per 1,000 admissions to the ICU versus 0.35 cases per 1,000 admissions to other units (relative risk, 7.03; 95% confidence interval, 3.89 to 12.69). Infection developed in 53% of evaluable patients. Thirty-six percent of the cases were possibly acquired in other institutions. Isolates from ICU patients were subdivided into six capsular serotypes and into four clonal groups based on antibiotype, plasmid content, and PFGE and RAPD patterns. Two clones were associated with clusters of cross-infection, involving 5 and 12 patients, respectively. Following implementation of contact isolation precautions, the incidence of nosocomial acquisition of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae decreased from 0.55 to 0.26 cases per 1,000 admissions (P = 0.03). PFGE and RAPD analysis showed concordant results and comparable discrimination for differentiation between groups of epidemiologically related strains of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae. More subclonal variants were determined among epidemic clones by PFGE analysis than by RAPD analysis. Both methods are useful for typing K. pneumoniae strains in epidemiological investigations, although RAPD analysis is more efficient.
Salmonella spp. producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have been reported in many countries, but there is no information on their prevalence in Africa. ESBL-producing Salmonella enterica serotype Isangi and S. enterica serotype Typhimurium strains have been noted in South Africa since 2001. A total of 160 consecutive isolates of Salmonella spp. were collected from 13 hospitals located in different cities in South Africa over a 5-month period from December 2002 to April 2003. All strains were screened for production of ESBLs by the double disk diffusion test and for AmpC production by assessing resistance to cefoxitin. blaSHV, blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaCMY-2 were sought from all ESBL-positive and cefoxitin-resistant isolates. A total of 15.6% (25 of 160) isolates produced SHV or TEM ESBLs, and 1.9% (3 of 160) produced CMY-2. Nine S. enterica serotype Typhimurium, eight S. enterica serotype Isangi, and three S. enterica serotype Muenchen strains produced either TEM-63 or a derivative of TEM-63 designated TEM-131. Both TEM-63 and TEM-131 have an isoelectric point of 5.6, and their sequences have the following amino acid substitutions compared to the TEM-1 sequence: Leu21Phe, Glu104Lys, Arg164Ser, and Met182Thr. Additionally, TEM-131 has an Ala237Thr substitution. ESBL-producing Salmonella spp. have become a significant public health problem in South Africa with particular implications for the treatment of serious nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in children, for whom extended-spectrum cephalosporins were the preferred treatment.
Acinetobacter spp. are emerging as opportunistic hospital pathogens that demonstrate resistance to many classes of antibiotics. In a metropolitan hospital in Cleveland, a clinical isolate of Acinetobacter baumannii that tested resistant to cefepime and ceftazidime (MIC = 32 μg/ml) was identified. Herein, we sought to determine the molecular basis for the extended-spectrum-cephalosporin resistance. Using analytical isoelectric focusing, a β-lactamase with a pI of ≥9.2 was detected. PCR amplification with specific A. baumannii cephalosporinase primers yielded a 1,152-bp product which, when sequenced, identified a novel 383-amino-acid class C enzyme. Expressed in Escherichia coli DH10B, this β-lactamase demonstrated greater resistance against ceftazidime and cefotaxime than cefepime (4.0 μg/ml versus 0.06 μg/ml). The kinetic characteristics of this β-lactamase were similar to other cephalosporinases found in Acinetobacter spp. In addition, this cephalosporinase was inhibited by meropenem, imipenem, ertapenem, and sulopenem (Ki < 40 μM). The amino acid compositions of this novel enzyme and other class C β-lactamases thus far described for A. baumannii, Acinetobacter genomic species 3, and Oligella urethralis in Europe and South Africa suggest that this cephalosporinase defines a unique family of class C enzymes. We propose a uniform designation for this family of cephalosporinases (Acinetobacter-derived cephalosporinases [ADC]) found in Acinetobacter spp. and identify this enzyme as ADC-7 β-lactamase. The coalescence of Acinetobacter ampC β-lactamases into a single common ancestor and the substantial phylogenetic distance separating them from other ampC genes support the logical value of developing a system of nomenclature for these Acinetobacter cephalosporinase genes.
The emergence of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae has now become a global concern. KPC beta-lactamases are plasmid-borne and, like extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs), can accumulate and transfer resistance determinants to other classes of antibiotics. Therefore, infection control guidelines on early identification and control of the spread of organisms carrying these resistant determinants are needed.
Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) was detected in two isolates of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae obtained from patients at an Italian teaching hospital. The first strain was isolated from a culture drawn from a central venous device (CVC) in a patient with Crohn's disease who was admitted to a gastroenterology ward. The second was isolated from a urine sample collected from an indwelling urinary catheter in an intensive care unit (ICU) patient with a subdural haematoma. The patients had not travelled abroad. Both isolates were resistant to all β-lactams and were susceptible to imipenem and meropenem but resistant to ertapenem. Isolates also showed resistance to other classes of non-β-lactam antibiotics, such as quinolones, aminoglycosides (with the exception for amikacin), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and nitrofurantoin. They were determined to contain the plasmid encoding the carbapenemase gene bla-KPC and were also positive in the Hodge test.
This is the second report of KPC-producing isolates in Italy, but the first concerning KPC type 2 gene, and it may have important implications for controlling the transmission of microorganisms resistant to antibiotics.
The incidence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) has been increasing worldwide, but screening criteria for detection of ESBLs are not standardized for AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae such as Enterobacter species. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of ESBLs and/or AmpC β-lactamases in Japanese clinical isolates of Enterobacter spp. and the association of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants with ESBL producers. A total of 364 clinical isolates of Enterobacter spp. collected throughout Japan between November 2009 and January 2010 were studied. ESBL-producing strains were assessed by the CLSI confirmatory test and the boronic acid disk test. PCR and sequencing were performed to detect CTX-M, TEM, and SHV type ESBLs and PMQR determinants. For ESBL-producing Enterobacter spp., pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed using XbaI restriction enzyme. Of the 364 isolates, 22 (6.0%) were ESBL producers. Seven isolates of Enterobacter cloacae produced CTX-M-3, followed by two isolates producing SHV-12. Two isolates of Enterobacter aerogenes produced CTX-M-2. Of the 22 ESBL producers, 21 had the AmpC enzyme, and six met the criteria for ESBL production in the boronic acid test. We found a significant association of qnrS with CTX-M-3-producing E. cloacae. The 11 ESBL-producing Enterobacter spp. possessing blaCTX-M, blaSHV, or blaTEM were divided into six unique PFGE types. This is the first report about the prevalence of qnr determinants among ESBL-producing Enterobacter spp. from Japan. Our results suggest that ESBL-producing Enterobacter spp. with qnr determinants are spreading in Japan.
NCCLS screening and confirmation methods for detecting extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) apply only to Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp., yet ESBLs have been found in other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. We evaluated the effectiveness of NCCLS methods for detecting ESBLs in 690 gram-negative isolates of Enterobacteriaceae that excluded E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Klebsiella oxytoca. Isolates were collected between January 1996 and June 1999 from 53 U.S. hospitals participating in Project ICARE (Intensive Care Antimicrobial Resistance Epidemiology). The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates were determined by using the NCCLS broth microdilution method (BMD), and those isolates for which the MIC of ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, or aztreonam was ≥2 μg/ml or the MIC of cefpodoxime was ≥8 μg/ml (positive ESBL screen test) were further tested for a clavulanic acid (CA) effect by BMD and the disk diffusion method (confirmation tests). Although 355 (51.4%) of the isolates were ESBL screen test positive, only 15 (2.2%) showed a CA effect. Since 3 of the 15 isolates were already highly resistant to the five NCCLS indicator drugs, ESBL detection would have an impact on the reporting of only 1.7% of the isolates in the study. Only 6 of the 15 isolates that showed a CA effect contained a blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, or blaOXA β-lactamase gene as determined by PCR (with a corresponding isoelectric focusing pattern). Extension of the NCCLS guidelines for ESBL detection to Enterobacteriaceae other than E. coli and Klebsiella spp. does not appear to be warranted in the United States at present, since the test has poor specificity for this population and would result in changes in categorical interpretations for only 1.7% of Enterobacteriaceae tested.
Recent evidence indicates that Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, the most common of which are Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae, and Acinetobacter baumannii, are frequent causes of hospital-acquired infections. This study aims to evaluate the in vitro activity of doripenem and comparator carbapenem antibiotics against Gram-negative clinical isolates collected from COMParative Activity of Carbapenem Testing (COMPACT) study centres in Turkey.
Ten centres in Turkey were invited to submit Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae, and other Gram-negative isolates from intensive care unit (ICU)/non-ICU patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections, bloodstream infections, or nosocomial pneumonia, including ventilator-associated pneumonia, between May and October 2008. Susceptibility was determined by each centre using E-test. A central laboratory performed species confirmation as well as limited susceptibility and quality-control testing.
Five hundred and ninety six isolates were collected. MIC90 values for doripenem, meropenem, and imipenem, respectively, were 32, ≥ 64, and ≥ 64 mg/L against Pseudomonas spp.; 0.12, 0.12, and 0.5 mg/L against Enterobacteriaceae; and ≥ 64 mg/L for each against other Gram-negative isolates. In determining the susceptibility of hospital isolates of selected Gram-negative pathogens to doripenem, imipenem, and meropenem, we found that against all pathogens combined, the MIC90 for ICU compared with non-ICU isolates was higher.
Doripenem showed similar or slightly better activity than meropenem and better activity than imipenem against the Gram-negative pathogens collected in Turkey.
Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are cephalosporinases that confer resistance to a wide variety of oxyimino cephalosporins and create serious therapeutic problems. In addition, the quinolone resistance qnr genes are becoming increasingly prevalent in clinical isolates, some of which also produce ESBL. This study was designed to evaluate the occurrence and genotypic distribution of ESBL producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) as well as the prevalence and distribution of qnr genes in ESBL-producing isolates in a tertiary care hospital in Korea.
Materials and Methods
We tested a total of 111 ESBL-producing isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae, which were collected at Kyung Hee Medical Center from November 2006 to June 2008. ESBL production was determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) ESBL confirmatory test. The cefotaxime and ceftazidime resistance of the ESBL-producers were transferred to azide-resistant E. coli J53 by conjugation. The presence and identity of ESBL and qnr genes were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nucleotide sequencing.
The prevalence of ESBLs was 17.7% (297/1,680) of E. coli and 26.5% (240/904) of K. pneumoniae in our hospital during the study periods. Of the 111 collected isolates, 69 isolates were E. coli and 42 isolates were K. pneumoniae. The most prevalent ESBL genotype was CTX-M15. Among the ESBL-producing isolates, 4 E. coli (5.8%) and 17 K. pneumoniae (40.5%) contained qnr genes. qnrB4 was the most frequent type in both E. coli and K. pneumoniae.
CTX-M15 was the most frequently encountered ESBL. In addition, a high prevalence of qnr genes among ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae was identified in this study.
E. coli; K. pneumoniae; Antimicrobial resistance; ESBL; qnr