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1.  Prevalence of PER and VEB Type Extended Spectrum Betalactamases among Multidrug Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates in North-West of Iran 
Objective(s): Drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii have emerged as a major problem in many hospitals and intensive care units. Various types of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are responsible for resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in different parts of the world. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of integron class1 (INT 1) and ESBL types PER-1, PER-2 and VEB-1 among A. baumannii strains isolated from Tabriz, North-West of Iran.
Material and Methods: A total of 100 A. baumannii isolates collected from different clinical samples were included in the study. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were determined using the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method. Production of ESBL was investigated by testing resistance against ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and verified by Double Disk Synergy Test. DNA was extracted from the isolates and the frequency of INT 1 and ESBL types PER-1, PER-2 and VEB-1 were determined by PCR using specific primers.
Results: Among 100 A. baumannii isolates screened, 80 isolates were multidrug-resistant and 70 isolates were positive for ESBL production. PCR screening revealed that 74 % of the isolates contained class 1 integron, 51% were positive for PER-1 gene, 10% positive for VEB1 whereas none of the isolates were positive for PER2 type gene.
Conclusion: This is the first report of ESBL types VEB and PER in A. baumannii from North West of Iran. The results of this study demonstrated high prevalence of PER-1 and VEB-1 type ESBLs among A. baumannii isolates in the study region and reminded the necessity of appropriate infection control strategy to prevent further spread of infection by these organisms.
PMCID: PMC3758029  PMID: 23997900
Acinetobacter baumannii; Extended spectrum betalactamases; Integron class I
2.  Clinical and antimicrobial profile of Acinetobacter spp.: An emerging nosocomial superbug 
Recently, Acinetobacter has emerged as significant hospital pathogen, notoriously known to acquire antibiotic resistance to most of the commonly prescribed antimicrobials. Many risk factors are associated with Acinetobacter infections, especially in patients in intensive care unit (ICU). This study aims to isolate Acinetobacter from various clinical specimens and to determine its antimicrobial sensitivity pattern.
Materials and Methods:
Identification, speciation and antimicrobial sensitivity testing were performed using the standard microbiological techniques. Slime production was also tested by microtiter plate and tube method.
From the processed clinical specimens, 107 Acinetobacter strains (1.02%) were isolated of which 76 (0.74%) isolates were from general wards and 31 (11.96%) were from ICU. Significantly higher percentage of Acinetobacter strains was found in ICU compared with general wards (P < 0.05). Most common Acinetobacter infection was abscess. Infections were more common in males and were associated with major risk factors such as post-surgical, diabetes mellitus, catheterization, extended hospital stay and prolonged antibiotic usage. Acinetobacter baumanii was the most common species isolated to cause abscess, wound infection, etc. 62.61% and 28.97% isolates produced slime by microtiter plate and tube method. Imipenem was most sensitive drug followed by amikacin. Ceftazidime, cefotaxime, piperacillin were most resistant. 43.00% isolates were IPM resistant. A. baumanii was more resistant to commonly used antimicrobials.
Acinetobacter nosocomial infections resistant to most antimicrobials have emerged, especially in ICU. Early identification and continued surveillance of prevalent organism will help prevent the spread of Acinetobacter in hospital environment.
PMCID: PMC3929011  PMID: 24600597
Acinetobacter; antimicrobial resistance; nosocomial pathogen
3.  Treatment with Fluoroquinolones or with β-Lactam-β-Lactamase Inhibitor Combinations Is a Risk Factor for Isolation of Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella Species in Hospitalized Patients▿  
Antibiotic exposure exerts strong selective pressure and is an important modifiable risk factor for antibiotic resistance. We aimed to identify the role of various antibiotics as risk factors for the isolation of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella spp. in hospitalized patients at a tertiary-care hospital. A parallel multivariable model was created to compare two groups of cases with either nosocomially acquired ESBL- or non-ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. to a common control group of hospitalized patients (a case-case-control design). Seventy-eight ESBL cases, 358 non-ESBL cases, and 444 controls were analyzed. Significant factors associated with the isolation of Klebsiella spp. were an age of >65 years, transfer from a health care facility, an intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and the presence of a comorbid malignancy or lung, hepatic, or renal disease. A propensity score was generated from the above, and our ability to discriminate between Klebsiella cases and controls (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic [ROC] curve, 0.78) was good. The ESBL phenotype was tightly linked with fluoroquinolone resistance (95% versus 18%, P < 0.001). Factors associated with isolation of ESBL Klebsiella spp. in a multivariable analysis, adjusting for the propensity score, included exposure to β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations (odds ratio [OR], 10.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19 to 86.92) and to fluoroquinolones (OR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.37 to 5.97). Exposure to broad-spectrum cephalosporins was statistically associated with ESBL Klebsiella spp. only among the subgroup of patients not treated with fluoroquinolones. In our institution, where the ESBL-producing-Klebsiella phenotype is coselected with fluoroquinolone resistance, fluoroquinolone and β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, rather than cephalosporins, are the main risk factors for ESBL isolates. Formulary interventions to limit the spread of ESBL-producing isolates should be tailored to each setting.
PMCID: PMC2863615  PMID: 20211888
4.  Emerging threat of multidrug resistant bugs – Acinetobacter calcoaceticus baumannii complex and Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus 
BMC Research Notes  2013;6:98.
Infections caused by bacteria such as multidrug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter spp. and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) constitute a worldwide pandemic. Without gathering information about these strains, we cannot reduce the morbidity and mortality due to infections caused by these notorious bugs.
This study was conducted to identify the status of MDR Acinetobacter spp. and MRSA in a tertiary care centre of Nepal. Sputum, endotracheal aspirate and bronchial washing specimens were collected and processed from patients suspected of lower respiratory tract infection following standard microbiological methods recommended by the American Society for Microbiology (ASM). Double disk synergy test method was employed for the detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) in Acinetobacter isolates. Methicillin resistance in S. aureus was confirmed by using cefoxitin and oxacillin disks.
Different genomespecies of Acinetobacter were isolated; these consisted of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus baumannii complex and A. lwoffii. Around 95% of Acinetobacter isolates were MDR, while 12.9% were ESBL-producer. Of the total 33 isolates of S. aureus, 26 (78.8%) were MDR and 14 (42.4%) were methicillin resistant.
A large number of MDR Acinetobacter spp. and MRSA has been noted in this study. The condition is worsened by the emergence of ESBL producing Acinetobacter spp. Hence, judicious use of antimicrobials is mandatory in clinical settings. Moreover, there should be vigilant surveillance of resistant clones in laboratories.
PMCID: PMC3605284  PMID: 23497675
Acinetobacter spp.; MDR; MRSA; ESBL
5.  Detection of the Most Common Microorganisms and Their Resistance against Anti-microbials in Intubated Patients in an ICU in Kerman, Iran 
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-microbial resistance in intubated patients in intensive care unit (ICU) of Bahonar hospital in Kerman province, Iran during the year 2008.
Tracheal samples were obtained from 111 intubated patients in the ICU by broncoalveolar lavage method. Amikacin, Ceftazidim and Imipenem were used to evaluate antibiotic susceptibility. For detecting anti-microbial susceptibility, minimum inhibitory concentration method were used. Colony counts equal or more than 104 microorganisms/mL were considered resistant.
Overall we obtained positive tracheal cultures from 32 patients (29%) out of 111 intubated ones. The most common micro organisms isolated were Klebsiella (90.6%), Acinetobacter (28.1%) and Pseudomonas (21.9%). The results showed that the most common resistance was against to ceftazidim. The susceptibility of Klebsiellain tracheal cultures to the antibiotics was only 5%. E. coli in both sexes was 100% resistant to the tested antibiotics.
In the ICU, There was a very big problem concerning antibiotic resistance. Most of the isolated microorganisms were resistant to both the old and the new antibiotics. It may be related to the inappropriate use of antibiotics, bacterial contamination of enteral feeding and infection transmission by medical staff or instruments.
PMCID: PMC3870069  PMID: 24381610
Minimum inhibitory concentration; Antimicrobial resistant; Intensive care unit; Intubated patients; Klebsiella
6.  Prevalence of multi drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in the clinical samples from Tertiary Care Hospital in Islamabad, Pakistan 
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences  2013;29(5):1253-1258.
Background & Objectives: Acinetobacter baumannii can cause a wide range of infections, including bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, peritonitis, etc. This organism is becoming resistant to a large group of antibiotics, especially β-lactam antibiotics. The reason for multi-drug resistance may be the production of extended- spectrum β-lactamses (ESBLs), carbapenemases/metallo β-lactamases or AmpC β-lactamases. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from the patients in Surgical Intensive Care Units (SICUs) of Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad, Pakistan.
Methods: A total of 91 A. baumanni isolates were collected from PIMS during the period from February 2011 to December 2011. The antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by standard disc diffusion method as recommended by CLSI. Combination disc method, Modified Hodge test, EDTA disc synergy test and AmpC disc test were performed for detection of ESBLs, carbapenemases, metallo β-lactamases, and AmpC β-lactamases, respectively.
Results: The prevalence of MDRs was reported 100% among A. baumannii. The antibiotic susceptibility profile showed that minocycline and tigecycline were the most effective drugs against A. baumannii. Almost all of A. baumannii isolates were carbapenemase and metallo β-lactamase producers. AmpC prevalence was observed in 41.76%, while none of the isolates was ESBL producer. Antibiogram and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) indicated tetracycline is relatively effective against A. baumanii.
Conclusions: Increased frequency of multi-drug resistance supports the need for continuous surveillance to determine prevalence and evolution of these enzymes in Pakistan.
PMCID: PMC3858913  PMID: 24353731
Acinetobacter baumannii; AmpC β-lactamases; Carbapenemases; Extended-spectrum β-lactamases; Multi-drug resistant; Minimal inhibitory concentration
7.  Nosocomial Outbreak Due to Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase- Producing Enterobacter cloacae in a Cardiothoracic Intensive Care Unit▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2007;45(8):2365-2369.
Enterobacter cloacae has been associated with several outbreaks, usually involving strains that overproduce chromosomal β-lactamase or, uncommonly, strains expressing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL). Only sporadic cases of ESBL-producing E. cloacae have been identified in our hospital in recent years. We describe the epidemiology and clinical and microbiological characteristics of an outbreak caused by ESBL-producing E. cloacae in a cardiothoracic intensive care unit (CT-ICU). Prospective surveillance of patients with infection or colonization by ESBL-producing E. cloacae among patients admitted to the CT-ICU was performed during the outbreak. Production of ESBL was determined by decreased susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and a positive double-disk test result. Clone relatedness was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). From July to September 2005, seven patients in the CT-ICU with ESBL-producing E. cloacae were identified (four males; median age, 73 years; range, 45 to 76 years); six patients had cardiac surgery. Four patients developed infections; three had primary bacteremia, one had ventilator-associated pneumonia, and one had tracheobronchitis. ESBL-producing E. cloacae showed resistance to quinolones and aminoglycosides. PFGE revealed two patterns. Five isolates belonged to clone A; two carried a single ESBL (pI 8.2 and a positive PCR result for the SHV type), and three carried two ESBLs (pIs 8.1 and 8.2 and positive PCR results for the SHV and CTX-M-9 types). Isolates belonging to clone B carried a single ESBL (pI 5.4 and a positive PCR result for the TEM type). Review of antibiotic consumption showed increased use of cefepime and quinolones during June and July 2005. The outbreak was stopped by the implementation of barrier measures and cephalosporin restriction. ESBL production could be increasingly common in nosocomial pathogens other than Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae.
PMCID: PMC1951272  PMID: 17581932
8.  Rates of Fecal Transmission of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing and Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Among Patients in Intensive Care Units in Korea 
Annals of Laboratory Medicine  2013;34(1):20-25.
We investigated the rates of fecal transmission of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) among patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs).
From June to August 2012, rectal cultures were acquired from all patients at ICU admission. For patients not carrying ESBL-E or CRE at admission, follow-up cultures were performed to detect acquisition. A chromogenic assay was used to screen for ESBL-E and CRE. Bacterial species identification and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed using the Vitek 2 system (bioMérieux, France). ESBL genotypes were determined by PCR, and clonal relatedness of the isolates was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.
Out of 347 ICU admissions, 98 patients were found to be carriers of ESBL-E (28.2%, 98/347). Follow-up cultures were acquired from 91 of the patients who tested negative for ESBL-E at admission; the acquisition rate in this group was 12.1% (11/91), although none was a nosocomial transmission. For CRE, the prevalence of fecal carriage was 0.3% (1/347), and the acquisition rate was 2.9% (4/140). None of the CRE isolates were carbapenemase-producers.
The high prevalence of ESBL-E carriage on admission (28.2%), coupled with rare nosocomial transmission and the very low carriage rate of CRE (0.3%), challenge the routine use of active surveillance in non-epidemic settings. Nevertheless, passive surveillance measures, such as rapid and accurate screening of clinical specimens, will be critical for controlling the spread of CRE.
PMCID: PMC3885768  PMID: 24422191
Rectal swab; Colonization; Transmission; ESBL-E; CRE; CTX-M
9.  Frequency, risk factors, and antibiogram of Acinetobacter species isolated from various clinical samples in a tertiary care hospital in Odisha, India 
Avicenna Journal of Medicine  2013;3(4):97-102.
For the past two decades, Acinetobacter spp. have emerged as an important pathogen globally in various infections.
This study was conducted to determine the frequency, risk factors, and antibiotic resistance pattern of Acinetobacter spp. from various clinical samples.
Materials and Methods:
This retrospective, hospital record–based, cross-sectional study included a total of 8749 clinical samples collected from patients at a tertiary care hospital in Odisha, India from July 2010 to December 2012. The samples were processed and identified by standard protocol. The Acinetobacter isolates were tested for antibiotic resistance by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method [according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines].
From 8749 clinical samples, 4589 (52.5%) yielded significant growth and only 137 (3%, 137/4589) Acinetobacter spp. were isolated. Maximum (56.9%) isolates were obtained from pus/swab, followed by blood (13.1%) and urine (12.4%). Elderly age, being inpatients, longer duration of stay in the hospital, associated co-morbidity, and invasive procedure were found to be significant risk factors in the setup investigated (P is less than 0.05). Out of 137 isolates, 75 (54.7%) were resistant to more than three classes of antibiotics (multidrug resistant) and 8 (5.8%) were resistant to all commonly used antibiotics (pan-drug resistant). Majority of the isolates were sensitive to imipenem, meropenem, and piperacillin/tazobactam, and showed resistance rates of 19%, 22%, and 23%, respectively. All eight pan-drug resistant isolates were 100% sensitive to colistin.
This hospital-based epidemiological data will help to implement better infection control strategies and improve the knowledge of antibiotic resistance patterns in our region.
PMCID: PMC3841484  PMID: 24327968
Acinetobacter species; antibiotics; frequency; resistance; risk factors
10.  Clonal Spread of Carbapenem Non-susceptible Acinetobacter baumannii in an Intensive Care Unit in a Teaching Hospital in China 
Annals of Laboratory Medicine  2012;32(6):413-419.
This study was aimed to investigate the genetic diversity and antibiotic resistance profile of the nosocomial infection agent Acinetobacter baumannii from a medical intensive care unit (ICU) in a teaching hospital in Suzhou, China.
The genetic relationship among A. baumannii isolates in an ICU was investigated using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The antibiotic resistance pattern was determined by performing an antibiotic susceptible test, which included an agar dilution method and an E-test method. Resistant determinants, e.g., carbapenemase genes, metallo-β-lactamases, and class 1 integron, were analyzed by specific PCR and DNA sequencing.
In the present study, 33 non-duplicate isolates were identified as 5 existing sequence types (STs) (ST92, ST75, ST112, ST145, and ST345) and 1 new sequence type STn, which has a G-A mutation at nt268 on ropD40 of ST251. These results reveal limited diversity in carbapenem non-susceptible A. baumannii (CNSAb) isolates in our ICU, which are comprised of only 2 distinct STs, with ST92 and ST75 clustering into a clonal complex (CC) 92. Most CNSAb isolates (94.4%, 17/18) harbored the OXA-23 gene, while no carbapenem-susceptible A. baumannii (CSAb) isolates harbored it. In addition, 66.7% (22/33) isolates were positive for class 1 integrase, and gene cassette analysis showed there are 3 gene arrays among them, i.e., aacA4-catB8-aadA1 (77.3%, 17/22), aacA4 (22.7%, 5/22), and aacC1-orfX-orfX'-aadA1 (4.5%, 1/22).
When all these data are combined, the antibiotic resistance and wide distribution of CNSAb isolates in our ICU are probably caused by expansion of the CC92 clone.
PMCID: PMC3486935  PMID: 23130340
MLST; Molecular epidemiology; Acinetobacter baumannii
11.  Outbreak of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase VEB-1-Producing Isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii in a French Hospital 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2003;41(8):3542-3547.
Twelve clonally related and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were recovered during a 4-month period from 12 patients hospitalized at the Valenciennes Hospital in France. Antibiograms determined by the double-disk diffusion technique on cloxacillin-containing plates detected a clavulanic acid-inhibited extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). PCR and sequencing identified the gene encoding the Ambler class A ESBL VEB-1. This gene was located on the chromosome and was part of a class 1 integron identical to that previously identified in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from Thailand. Additionally, seven clonally related blaVEB-1-positive A. baumannii strains were identified in the immediate environment of the hospitalized patients. This is the first report of the ESBL VEB-1 in Acinetobacter spp. and the first description of VEB-1-producing strains as a source of an outbreak occurring outside Southeast Asia. This report underlines the difficulty of the identification of ESBLs in A. baumannii.
PMCID: PMC179787  PMID: 12904353
12.  The occurrence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Shigella spp. in Tehran, Iran 
Iranian Journal of Microbiology  2013;5(2):108-112.
Background and Objectives
The emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Shigella spp. is of increasing clinical concern specially in children worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Shigella spp. in Tehran, Iran
Materials and Methods
The study included all Shigella isolates recovered from pediatric patients aged less than 12 years admitted to a major pediatric hospital in Tehran, Iran, from 2008 to 2010. Bacterial identification, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) screening and confirmatory tests were performed according to the standard guidelines. Conjugal transfer experiments and plasmid analysis were also carried out. Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were used to identify the genetic determinants responsible for ESBL production.
Four out of 55 Shigella isolates, including three S. sonnei and one S. flexneri, showed an ESBL-positive phenotype. Plasmid transfer of the ESBL phenotype was successful for the S. flexneri isolate only. By PCR and sequencing, one S. sonnei isolate tested positive for the CMY-59 gene, while the other two S. sonnei and the S. flexneri isolates tested positive for the bla TEM-1 and bla CTX-M-15 genes.
We found the prevalence of ESBL producing Shigella isolates was higher than detection rates observed in many other countries. Our finding raise concerns about the dissemination of ESBL among the strains of endemic S. sonnei throughout the country, because this species is now the most frequently isolated Shigella species in Iran and shigellosis by such strains in the community can pose a significant threat to patients and presents a challenge for disease management.
PMCID: PMC3696844  PMID: 23825726
ESBLs; Shigella spp; Antibiotic resistance
13.  Detection of Extended Spectrum β-lactamase Production Among Uropathogens 
Detection of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production among uropathogens is an important marker of endemicity.
Intervention of this endemic transmission is important for the control of initial outbreak of ESBL producing organisms in a hospital or specialized unit of hospital.
Materials and Methods:
During the study period of one and a half months, 1,551 urine samples were processed for significant bacteriuria. Two hundred gram negative bacterial isolates were tested for ESBL production. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern was ascertained for ESBL producing isolates.
ESBL production was seen in 36% of isolates. All the isolates were multidrug resistant with uniform sensitivity to imipenem.
This study reveals the significant prevalence of ESBL producing organisms in this north Indian tertiary care hospital. Constant revision of antibiotic policies with infection control interventions is suggested.
PMCID: PMC3167965  PMID: 21938241
ESBL; endemicity; infection; uropathogens
14.  The Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli, With Special Reference to the Fluoroquinolones 
Context: The emergence of drug resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, the penicillins, cephalosporins, and fluoroquinolones by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) has limited the options for selecting the appropriate antibiotic for the treatment of urinary tract infections.
Aims: The The E. coli isolates, which were obtained from the culture of urine samples,were studied for their antibiotic resistance patterns, with special reference to the antimicrobial activity of the fluoroquinolones and the production of the extended spectrum β-lactamases. (ESBL), Settings and Design: This was a hospital based, prospective study which was done for a period of eighteen months.
Material and Methods: This study was done by using the standard culture techniques for urine samples, the modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method for the antibiotic susceptibility testing and the disk diffusion method to confirm the ESBL production by the clinical isolates of E. coli in urine. The sensitivity pattern was correlated with the clinical condition and the presence of the risk factors.
The statistical analysis which was used: The statistical analysis was done by using the proportions of sensitive, resistant and intermediates. Descriptive statistics like the total, mean and percentage were done by using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 15.0.
Results: The hospital isolates showed high degrees of resistance to the penicillins, cephalosporins, nalidixic acid and the fluoroquinolones, with 59% of the isolates being ESBL producers.
Conclusions: The incidence of the multidrug resistant strains of Escherichia coli has been steadily increasing over the past few years. The knowledge on the resistance pattern of the bacterial strains in a geographical area will help in guiding the appropriate and the judicious use of antibiotics. Also, the formulation of an appropriate hospital antibiotic policy will go a long way in controlling these infections.
PMCID: PMC3708190  PMID: 23905095
ESBL; UPEC; Fluoroquinolones; Escherichia coli
15.  Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria in a tertiary care hospital in Madrid: epidemiology, risk factors and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns 
Emerging Health Threats Journal  2012;5:10.3402/ehtj.v5i0.11589.
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria have been increasingly reported as causal agents of nosocomial infection worldwide. Resistance patterns vary internationally, and even locally, from one institution to the other. We investigated the clinical isolates positive for ESBL-producing bacteria in our institution, a tertiary care hospital in Madrid (Spain), during a 2-year period (2007–2008).
Clinical and microbiological data were retrospectively reviewed. Two hundred and nineteen patients were included in the study.
Advanced age, diabetes, use of catheters, previous hospitalization and previous antibiotic treatment were some of the risk factors found among patients. Escherichia coli was the most frequent isolate, and urinary tract the most common site of isolation. Internal Medicine, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and General Surgery presented the highest number of isolates. There were no outbreaks during the study period. Antibiotic patterns showed high resistance rates to quinolones in all isolates. There was 100% sensitivity to carbapenems.
Carbapenems continue to be the treatment of choice for ESBL-producing bacteria. Infection control measures are of great importance to avoid the spread of these nosocomial infections.
PMCID: PMC3400742  PMID: 22822411
extended spectrum beta-lactamases; ESBL; Enterobacteriaceae; institutional epidemiology; nosocomial infection; antimicrobial resistance
16.  Molecular Detection of Integron Genes and Pattern of Antibiotic Resistance in Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Strains Isolated from Intensive Care Unit, Shahid Beheshti Hospital, North of Iran 
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most important pathogens that causes nosocomial infections and shows high level of antibiotic resistance. Integrons are one of the transposable elements in bacteria and their role in antibiotic resistance has been well demonstrated. The aim of this study was a molecular characterization of the integron genes and the determination of the resistance or sensitivity pattern to ceftizoxime, cephizoxim. cephotaxim, amikacin, ofloxacin, imipenem, cefepime, ticarcillin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, cefazolin and ceftriaxone antibiotics in P. aeruginosa strains isolated from Intensive Care Units (ICU), Shahid Beheshti Hospital, North of Iran. This cross-sectional study was performed from 2011 to 2012. Totally, fifty four P. aeruginosa strains were isolated from ICU at Shahid-Beheshti hospital, Babol, North of Iran. The bacteria were diagnosed based on mobility, pigment production, growth in 420 C, oxidase and catalase tests. PCR analysis was carried out to detect integron genes using hep 35 and hep 36 primers. Also, disk diffusion method was performed to evaluate antibiotic susceptibility of the bacteria using ceftizoxime, ceftazidime, cephotaxime, amikacin, ofloxacin, imipenem, cefepime, ticarcillin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, cefazolin and ceftriaxone antibacterial reagents. This study revealed that 20 (37%) P. aeruginosa isolates had integron genes. The antibiotic susceptibility test showed that 53 (98.1%) of the isolates were multidrug-resistant. 12 out of 54 isolated bacteria were resistant to all antibiotics tested. All bacteria were resistant to cefepime and the highest resistance rate was seen to ceftizoxime 92.6% followed by cefazolin 92.3%. The lowest resistance rate was observed to ciprofloxacin 38.9%, ofloxacin 44.4%, amikacin 46.3% and ticarcillin 48.1%. According to this study, P. aeruginosa isolates showed high level of antibiotic resistance and the presence of integrons in these strains can explain the influence of these genes in resistance creation. There was a significant association between resistance to cefotaxime, amikacin, ofloxacin, imipenem, ticarcillin, gentamicin and the presence of integrons.
PMCID: PMC3920509  PMID: 24551780
Pseudomonas aeruginosa; integrons; drug resistance
17.  Therapeutic challenges of ESBLS and AmpC beta-lactamase producers in a tertiary care center 
Resistance to broad-spectrum beta lactams mediated by extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC beta lactamases (AmpC βLs) enzymes is an increasing problem worldwide. Determination of their prevalence is essential to formulate an effective antibiotic policy and hospital infection control measures. Present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of ESBL and AmpC βL producers in ICU of a tertiary care center.
A total of 262 clinical isolates comprising of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis that were recovered from various clinical specimens over a one year period, were studied. Antibiogram profile was determined to conventionally used antibiotics, along with recommended tests for detection of ESBL and AmpC βL production.
40.07% (105/262) were found to be ESBL producers, 14.8% (39/262) were AmpC bL producers. The coexistence of ESBL and AmpC βL producers was detected in 9.9% (26/262) of the isolates.
Screening of multidrug resistant bacteria especially belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae poses considerable therapeutic challenges in critical care patients because of the production of ESBL and AmpC βL. Strategies to keep a check on the emergence of such drug resistant microbes by hospital environmental surveillance and laboratory monitoring should form an important aspect of Hospital Infection control policy guidelines.
PMCID: PMC3862620  PMID: 24532926
Extended spectrum beta lactamase; AmpC beta lactamase; Escherichia coli; Klebsiella pneumoniae
18.  Evaluation of Four Commercially Available Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Phenotypic Confirmation Tests 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2005;43(3):1081-1085.
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production in members of the Enterobacteriaceae can confer resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, aztreonam, and penicillin. As such, the accurate detection of ESBL producers is essential for the appropriate selection of antibiotic therapy. Twenty previously characterized isolates and 49 clinical isolates suspected of ESBL production were tested by four ESBL phenotypic confirmatory methods for accuracy and ease of use. The four ESBL phenotypic confirmation tests included Dried MicroScan ESBL plus ESBL Confirmation panels (Dade Behring, Inc., West Sacramento, Calif.), Etest ESBL (AB BIODISK, Piscataway, N.J.), Vitek GNS-120 (bioMérieux, Inc., Hazelwood, Mo.), and BD BBL Sensi-Disk ESBL Confirmatory Test disks (BD Biosciences, Sparks, Md.). Results were compared to frozen microdilution panels prepared according to NCCLS specifications, and discrepant isolates were sent for molecular testing. The test sensitivities for the ESBL phenotypic confirmatory test methods used in this study were as follows: MicroScan ESBL plus ESBL confirmation panel, 100%; VITEK 1 GNS-120, 99%; Etest ESBL, 97%; and BD BBL Sensi-Disk ESBL Confirmatory Test disks, 96%. The test specificities were as follows: BD BBL Sensi-Disk ESBL Confirmatory Test disks, 100%; MicroScan ESBL plus ESBL confirmation panel and VITEK 1 GNS-120, 98%; and Etest ESBL, 94%. All methods were easy to perform; however, the Etest method required more expertise to interpret the results. All tests offer a feasible solution for confirming ESBL production in the clinical laboratory.
PMCID: PMC1081251  PMID: 15750065
19.  Extended Spectrum β-Lactamases among Gram-negative bacteria of nosocomial origin from an Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary health facility in Tanzania 
Resistance to third generation cephalosporins due to acquisition and expression of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes among Gram-negative bacteria is on the increase. Presence of ESBL producing organisms has been reported to significantly affect the course and outcome of an infection. Therefore infections due to ESBL isolates continue to pose a challenge to infection management worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the existence and to describe phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of ESBLs in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) setting in Tanzania.
Between October 2002 and April 2003, clinical information and samples were collected from patients suspected to have nosocomial infections in an Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary hospital in Tanzania. The isolates were identified, tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and analysed for presence of ESBL genes.
Thirty-nine Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from clinical samples of 39 patients. These isolates included 13 Escherichia coli, 12 Enterobacter spp, 5 Pseudomonas spp, 4 Proteus spp, 2 Klebsiella. pneumoniae, 2 Citrobacter freundii and 1 Chryseomonas luteola. Eleven (28.2%) of these isolates were ESBL producing. The ESBL genes characterised were SHV-12, SHV-28 and CTX-M-15. The ESBL producing isolates were more resistant to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin than non-ESBL producing isolates.
This study shows the presence of ESBL genes among Gram-negative bacteria in the ICU setting in Tanzania. There is a need to institute strict hospital infection control policy and a regular surveillance of resistance to antimicrobial agents.
PMCID: PMC1274314  PMID: 16225701
20.  Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among gram-negative isolates in an adult intensive care unit at a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia 
Annals of Saudi Medicine  2010;30(5):364-369.
Patients in the ICU have encountered an increasing emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. We examined patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility in gram-negative isolates to commonly used drugs in an adult ICU at a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
A retrospective study was carried out of gram-negative isolates from the adult ICU of King Fahad National Guard Hospital (KFNGH) between 2004 and 2009. Organisms were identified and tested by an automated identification and susceptibility system, and the antibiotic susceptibility testing was confirmed by the disk diffusion method.
The most frequently isolated organism was Acinetobacter baumannii, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pnemoniae, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Enterobacter. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns significantly declined in many organisms, especially A baumannii, E coli, S marcescens, and Enterobacter. A baumannii susceptibility was significantly decreased to imipenem (55% to 10%), meropenem (33% to 10%), ciprofloxacin (22% to 10%), and amikacin (12% to 6%). E coli susceptibility was markedly decreased (from 75% to 50% or less) to cefuroxime, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, and cefepime. S marcescens susceptibility was markedly decreased to cefotaxime (100% to 32%), ceftazidime (100% to 35%), and cefepime (100% to 66%). Enterobacter susceptibility was markedly decreased to ceftazidime (34% to 5%), cefotaxime (34% to 6%), and pipracillin-tazobactam (51% to 35%). Respiratory samples were the most frequently indicative of multidrug-resistant pathogens (63%), followed by urinary samples (57%).
Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging problem in the KFNGH ICU, justifying new more stringent antibiotic prescription guidelines. Continuous monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility and strict adherence to infection prevention guidelines are essential to eliminate major outbreaks in the future.
PMCID: PMC2941248  PMID: 20697174
21.  Prevalence of Newer β-Lactamases in Gram-Negative Clinical Isolates Collected in the United States from 2001 to 2002 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2006;44(9):3318-3324.
Newer β-lactamases such as extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), transferable AmpC β-lactamases, and carbapenemases are associated with laboratory testing problems of false susceptibility that can lead to inappropriate therapy for infected patients. Because there appears to be a lack of awareness of these enzymes, a study was conducted during 2001 to 2002 in which 6,421 consecutive, nonduplicate clinical isolates of aerobically growing gram-negative bacilli from patients at 42 intensive care unit (ICU) and 21 non-ICU sites across the United States were tested on-site for antibiotic susceptibility. From these isolates, 746 screen-positive isolates (11.6%) were referred to a research facility and investigated to determine the prevalence of ESBLs in all gram-negative isolates, transferable AmpC β-lactamases in Klebsiella pneumoniae, and carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae. The investigations involved phenotypic tests, isoelectric focusing, β-lactamase inhibitor studies, spectrophotometric assays, induction assays, and molecular analyses. ESBLs were detected only in Enterobacteriaceae (4.9% of all Enterobacteriaceae) and were found in species other than those currently recommended for ESBL testing by the CLSI (formerly NCCLS). These isolates occurred at 74% of the ICU sites and 43% of the non-ICU sites. Transferable AmpC β-lactamases were detected in 3.3% of K. pneumoniae isolates and at 16 of the 63 sites (25%) with no difference between ICU and non-ICU sites. Three sites submitted isolates that produced class A carbapenemases. No class B or D carbapenemases were detected. In conclusion, organisms producing ESBLs and transferable AmpC β-lactamases were widespread. Clinical laboratories must be able to detect important β-lactamases to ensure optimal patient care and infection control.
PMCID: PMC1594717  PMID: 16954267
22.  Outbreak of Infection Caused by Enterobacter cloacae Producing the Novel VEB-3 Beta-Lactamase in China 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2005;43(2):826-831.
Over a 4-month period from November 2002 to February 2003, 27 ceftazidime-resistant or cefotaxime-resistant nonrepetitive Enterobacter cloacae isolates were collected from 27 patients hospitalized at HuaShan Hospital, Shanghai, People's Republic of China. The Etest did not detect extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in those 27 isolates; however, screening by the NCCLS ESBL disk test and confirmatory tests detected ESBLs in 4 of 27 isolates and PCR detected ESBLs in 23 of 27 isolates. The majority of ESBL producers exhibited the same repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR pattern but harbored different ESBL genes. CTX-M-3 was the most prevalent ESBL in our study. Interestingly, 12 clonally related E. cloacae isolates possessed a novel blaVEB-type beta-lactamase, blaVEB-3. BlaVEB-3 was encoded by the chromosome and was located in an integron. Nine of the 12 isolates harbored both the blaVEB-3 and the blaCTX-M-3-like ESBLs. This is the first report of a VEB-1-like ESBL in China and the first report of the simultaneous presence of VEB-1 and CTX-M-3-like ESBLs in an isolate.
PMCID: PMC548041  PMID: 15695687
23.  Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Ireland, Including a Novel Enzyme, TEM-102 
Organisms producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) have been reported in many countries, but there is no information on the prevalence of ESBL-producing members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in Ireland. A total of 925 isolates of ampicillin-resistant members of the Enterobacteriaceae were received from six hospitals in Ireland over a 3-year period from September 1996 to September 1999. Isolates were screened for ESBL production by the double-disk diffusion (DDD) method. DDD-positive isolates that were (i) confirmed as ESBL producers by National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) confirmatory testing and (ii) susceptible to cefoxitin by disk diffusion were considered ESBL producers. By these criteria, 27 (3%) of the ampicillin-resistant members of the Enterobacteriaceae studied were categorized as ESBL producers. Molecular typing suggested that some intra- and interhospital spread of ESBL-producing isolates had occurred. DNA sequencing of amplified blaTEM and blaSHV genes resulted in the detection of a novel blaTEM ESBL gene, blaTEM-102 in two isolates (Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae) received from the same hospital but isolated from different patients. The study suggests dissemination of ESBL-producing bacteria within the health care system in Ireland and emphasizes the need for measures to control such spread.
PMCID: PMC166109  PMID: 12878521
24.  Evaluation of the NCCLS Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Confirmation Methods for Escherichia coli with Isolates Collected during Project ICARE 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2003;41(7):3142-3146.
To determine whether confirmatory tests for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production in Escherichia coli are necessary, we selected 131 E. coli isolates that met the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) screening criteria for potential ESBL production from the Project ICARE (Intensive Care Antimicrobial Resistance Epidemiology) strain collection. For all 131 isolates, the broth microdilution (BMD) MIC of at least one extended-spectrum cephalosporin was ≥2 μg/ml. For 21 of 131 (16%) isolates, the ESBL confirmatory test was positive; i.e., the BMD MICs of ceftazidime or cefotaxime decreased by ≥3 doubling dilutions in the presence of clavulanic acid (CA) or the disk diffusion zone diameters increased by ≥5 mm around ceftazidime or cefotaxime disks in the presence of CA. All 21 isolates were shown by PCR to contain at least one of the genes blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaOXA, and in isoelectric focusing (IEF) tests, all isolates demonstrated at least one β-lactamase band consistent with a TEM, SHV, or OXA enzyme. Of the 21 isolates, 3 showed a CA effect for cefotaxime by BMD but not by disk diffusion testing. A total of 59 (45%) of the 131 isolates demonstrated decreased susceptibility to cefpodoxime alone (MIC = 2 to 4 μg/ml), and none had a positive ESBL confirmatory test result. These were classified as false positives according to ESBL screen test results. For the remaining 51 (39%) isolates, the cefpodoxime MICs ranged from 16 to >128 μg/ml and the MICs for the other extended-spectrum cephalosporins were highly variable. All 51 isolates gave negative ESBL confirmatory test results. Most showed IEF profiles consistent with production of both a TEM and an AmpC β-lactamase, and representative isolates of several phenotypic groups showed changes in porin profiles; these 51 isolates were considered true negatives. In all, only 16% of 131 E. coli isolates identified as potential ESBL producers by the current NCCLS screening criteria were confirmed as ESBL producers. Thus, changing the interpretation of extended-spectrum cephalosporins and aztreonam results from the susceptible to the resistant category without confirming the presence of an ESBL phenotype would lead to a large percentage of false resistance results and is not recommended. However, by increasing the cefpodoxime MIC screening breakpoint to ≥8 μg/ml, 45% of the false-positive results could be eliminated. NCCLS has incorporated this change in the cefpodoxime screening breakpoint in its recent documents.
PMCID: PMC165309  PMID: 12843054
25.  Identification of a New Allelic Variant of the Acinetobacter baumannii Cephalosporinase, ADC-7 β-Lactamase: Defining a Unique Family of Class C Enzymes‡  
Acinetobacter spp. are emerging as opportunistic hospital pathogens that demonstrate resistance to many classes of antibiotics. In a metropolitan hospital in Cleveland, a clinical isolate of Acinetobacter baumannii that tested resistant to cefepime and ceftazidime (MIC = 32 μg/ml) was identified. Herein, we sought to determine the molecular basis for the extended-spectrum-cephalosporin resistance. Using analytical isoelectric focusing, a β-lactamase with a pI of ≥9.2 was detected. PCR amplification with specific A. baumannii cephalosporinase primers yielded a 1,152-bp product which, when sequenced, identified a novel 383-amino-acid class C enzyme. Expressed in Escherichia coli DH10B, this β-lactamase demonstrated greater resistance against ceftazidime and cefotaxime than cefepime (4.0 μg/ml versus 0.06 μg/ml). The kinetic characteristics of this β-lactamase were similar to other cephalosporinases found in Acinetobacter spp. In addition, this cephalosporinase was inhibited by meropenem, imipenem, ertapenem, and sulopenem (Ki < 40 μM). The amino acid compositions of this novel enzyme and other class C β-lactamases thus far described for A. baumannii, Acinetobacter genomic species 3, and Oligella urethralis in Europe and South Africa suggest that this cephalosporinase defines a unique family of class C enzymes. We propose a uniform designation for this family of cephalosporinases (Acinetobacter-derived cephalosporinases [ADC]) found in Acinetobacter spp. and identify this enzyme as ADC-7 β-lactamase. The coalescence of Acinetobacter ampC β-lactamases into a single common ancestor and the substantial phylogenetic distance separating them from other ampC genes support the logical value of developing a system of nomenclature for these Acinetobacter cephalosporinase genes.
PMCID: PMC1168656  PMID: 15980372

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