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1.  Effects of a home visiting nurse intervention versus care as usual on individual activities of daily living: a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial 
BMC Geriatrics  2014;14:24.
Background
Home visiting nurses (HVNs) have long been part of home and community-based care interventions designed to meet the needs of functionally declining older adults. However, only one of the studies including HVNs that have demonstrated successful impacts on Activities of Daily Living (ADL) has reported how those interventions affected individual ADLs such as bathing, instead reporting the effect on means of various ADL indices and scales. Reporting impacts on means is insufficient since the same mean can consist of many different combinations of individual ADL impairments. The purpose of our study was to identify which individual ADLs were affected by a specific HVN intervention.
Methods
This is a secondary analysis comparing two arms of a randomized controlled study that enrolled Medicare patients (mean age = 76.8 years; 70% female) with considerable ADL impairment. At baseline difficulty with individual ADLs ranged from a low of 16.0% with eating to a high of 78.0% with walking. Through monthly home visits, the HVN focused on empowering patients and using behavior change approaches to facilitate chronic disease self-management. Three categories of analyses were used to compare difficulty with and dependence in 6 individual ADLs between the HVN (n = 237) and care as usual (n = 262) groups (total N = 499) at 22 months after study entry: (1) unadjusted analyses that strictly depend on random assignment, (2) multinomial logistic regression analyses adjusting for baseline risk factors, and (3) multinomial regression analyses that include variables reporting post-randomization healthcare use as well as the baseline risk factors.
Results
Compared to care as usual, patients receiving the HVN intervention had less difficulty performing bathing at 22 months. However, there were no effects for difficulty performing the other 5 ADLs. While no effects were found for lower levels of dependence for any ADLs, impacts were detected for the most dependent levels of 4 ADLs: patients experienced less dependence in walking and transferring, a substitution effect for toileting, and more dependence in eating.
Conclusions
Future research is needed to confirm these findings and determine how HVN interventions affect individual ADLs of older adults with multiple ADLs.
doi:10.1186/1471-2318-14-24
PMCID: PMC3933382  PMID: 24555502
Activities of daily living; Disability; Home care; Visiting nurses; Medicare
2.  Solitary living in Alzheimer’s disease over 3 years: association between cognitive and functional impairment and community-based services 
Introduction
Many individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) live alone, and this figure is expected to increase. This study aimed to describe the cognitive and functional abilities of solitary-living AD patients, and the potential predictors of their usage of community-based services.
Methods
This 3-year, prospective, multicenter study included 1,021 participants with mild-to-moderate AD (Mini-Mental State Examination score, 10–26) treated with a cholinesterase inhibitor in a routine clinical setting. At baseline and every 6 months, patients were assessed using cognitive, instrumental, and basic activities of daily living (ADL) scales, and service utilization was recorded. Logistic regression models were used to predict the usage of community-based services.
Results
At the start of cholinesterase inhibitor therapy (time of AD diagnosis), 355 individuals (35%) were living alone. They were mainly female, older, had more impaired basic ADL capacity, and had a larger number of concomitant medications when compared with those living with family. Regarding the solitary-living patients, lower instrumental ADL (IADL) ability and more medications were independent predictors of usage of home-help services, whereas more impaired IADL at baseline and faster IADL deterioration were predictors of nursing home admission. For those living with family, older age, lower basic ADL, and a greater number of medications predicted home-help services, whereas a larger amount of home help predicted nursing home placement. In addition, female sex was a risk factor for both the utilization of home-help services and nursing home placement. Cognitive ability was not significantly associated with the usage of community-based services.
Conclusion
A large number of AD patients, predominantly females, live alone with severe cognitive and functional impairment. The amount of home-help services used did not reflect cognitive severity, suggesting that home help did not meet the needs related to cognitive deterioration. Increased knowledge of how community-based services can better accommodate the care needs of solitary-living individuals with AD is essential.
doi:10.2147/CIA.S71709
PMCID: PMC4238751  PMID: 25484578
cognition; activities of daily living; living status; home-help services; nursing home placement; longitudinal study
3.  Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Trajectories Surrounding Acute Hospitalization of Long-stay Nursing Home Residents 
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society  2013;61(11):10.1111/jgs.12511.
OBJECTIVES
To explore patterns of change in nursing home residents’ activities of daily living (ADLs), particularly surrounding acute hospital stays.
DESIGN
Longitudinal study using Medicare and Minimum Data Set (MDS) assessments
SETTING
National sample of long-stay nursing home residents
PARTICIPANTS
We identified 40,128 residents who were hospitalized for the seven most common inpatient diagnoses. Each hospital admission was at least 90 days after any prior hospitalization and had at least two preceding MDS assessments.
MEASUREMENTS
We represented residents’ ADL function with the MDS ADL-Long form score, a simple sum of seven self-care variables coded from 0 (independent) to 4 (totally dependent). Scores ranged from 0 to 28; higher scores indicated greater impairment. We jointly estimated a linear mixed model describing ADL trajectories with mortality and hospital readmission.
RESULTS
Before hospitalization, the most common trajectory represented stability (53.7%), with 27.5% of residents worsening and 18.8% improving. ADL function after hospital discharge was most often characterized by stability (43.1%) or worsening (39.2%). Mortality (20.3%) was higher for those with worsening pre-hospital ADL function (28.9%) compared to those with stable (19.1%) or improving (11.3%) trajectories. Hospital diagnosis was associated with both the amount of ADL worsening and the rate of subsequent ADL change. Most residents with the best initial function continued to worsen after hospital discharge. Cognitive impairment was associated with poorer ADL function and accelerated worsening of ADLs.
CONCLUSION
For many long-stay nursing home residents acute hospitalization is accompanied by substantial and sustained ADL worsening. Thus, acute hospitalization presents an opportunity to revisit care goals; our results can help inform decision-making.
doi:10.1111/jgs.12511
PMCID: PMC3831170  PMID: 24219192
nursing homes; activities of daily living; hospitalization; Minimum Data Set
4.  A Clinical Index to Stratify Hospitalized Older Adults According to Risk for New-Onset Disability 
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society  2011;59(7):10.1111/j.1532-5415.2011.03409.x.
BACKGROUND
Many older adults who are independent prior to hospitalization develop a new disability by hospital discharge. Early risk stratification for new-onset disability may improve care. Thus, this study’s objective was to develop and validate a clinical index to determine, at admission, risk for new-onset disability among older, hospitalized adults at discharge.
DESIGN
Data analyses derived from two prospective studies.
SETTING
Two teaching hospitals in Ohio.
PARTICIPANTS
Eight hundred eighty-five patients aged 70 years and older were discharged from a general medical service at a tertiary care hospital (mean age 78, 59% female) and 753 patients discharged from a separate community teaching hospital (mean age 79, 63% female). All participants reported being independent in five activities of daily living (ADLs: bathing, dressing, transferring, toileting, and eating) 2 weeks before admission.
MEASUREMENTS
New-onset disability, defined as a new need for personal assistance in one or more ADLs at discharge in participants who were independent 2 weeks before hospital admission.
RESULTS
Seven independent risk factors known on admission were identified and weighted using logistic regression: age (80–89, 1 point; ≥90, 2 points); dependence in three or more instrumental ADLs at baseline (2 points); impaired mobility at baseline (unable to run, 1 point; unable to climb stairs, 2 points); dependence in ADLs at admission (2–3 ADLs, 1 point; 4–5 ADLs, 3 points); acute stroke or metastatic cancer (2 points); severe cognitive impairment (1 point); and albumin less than 3.0 g/dL (2 points). New-onset disability occurred in 6%, 13%, 18%, 34%, 35%, 45%, 50%, and 87% of participants with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 or more points, respectively, in the derivation cohort (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) =0.784), and in 8%, 10%, 27%, 38%, 44%, 45%, 58%, and 83%, respectively, in the validation cohort (AUC =0.784). The risk score also predicted (P<.001) disability severity, nursing home placement, and long-term survival.
CONCLUSION
This clinical index determines risk for new-onset disability in hospitalized older adults and may inform clinical care.
doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2011.03409.x
PMCID: PMC3839864  PMID: 21649616
hospitalization; prognosis; disability; activities of daily living
5.  Patient and Caregiver Characteristics Associated with Depression in Caregivers of Patients with Dementia 
Journal of General Internal Medicine  2003;18(12):1006-1014.
OBJECTIVE
Many patients with dementia who live at home would require nursing home care if they did not have the assistance of family caregivers. However, caregiving sometimes has adverse health consequences for caregivers, including very high rates of depression. The goal of this study was to determine the patient and caregiver characteristics associated with depression among caregivers of patients with dementia.
DESIGN
Cross-sectional study.
PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING
Five thousand six hundred and twenty-seven patients with moderate to advanced dementia and their primary caregivers upon enrollment in the Medicare Alzheimer's Disease Demonstration (MADDE) at 8 locations in the United States.
MEASUREMENTS
Caregiver depression was defined as 6 or more symptoms on the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Patient characteristics measured included ethnicity and other demographic characteristics, income, activities of daily living (ADL) function, Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) score, and behavioral problems. Caregiver characteristics measured included demographic characteristics, relationship to the patient, hours spent caregiving, and ADL and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) function. We used χ2 and t tests to measure the bivariate relationships between patient and caregiver predictors and caregiver depression. We used logistic regression to determine the independent predictors of caregiver depression.
RESULTS
Thirty-two percent of caregivers reported 6 or more symptoms of depression and were classified as depressed. Independent patient predictors of caregiver depression included younger age (odds ratio [OR], 1.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33 to 2.76 in patients less than 65 years compared to patients over 85 years), white (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.99) and Hispanic ethnicity (OR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.69 to 3.70) compared to black ethnicity, education (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.33 for those with less than a high school education), ADL dependence (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.26 to 1.90 for patients dependent in 2 or more ADL compared to patients dependent in no ADL), and behavioral disturbance, particularly angry or aggressive behavior (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.27 to 1.69 for patients with angry or aggressive behavior). Independent caregiver predictors of depression included low income (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.77 for less than $10,000/per year, compared to >$20,000 per year), the relationship to the patient (OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.31 to 5.72 for wife, compared to son of male patient), hours spent caregiving (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.51 to 2.38 for 40 to 79 hours/week compared to less than 40 hours/week), and functional dependence (OR, 2.53; 95% CI, 2.13 to 3.01 for ADL dependent compared to IADL independent).
CONCLUSION
Caregiver depression is a complex process, influenced by ethnicity as well as diverse patient and caregiver characteristics. Efforts to identify and treat caregiver depression will need to be multidisciplinary and focus on multiple risk factors simultaneously.
doi:10.1111/j.1525-1497.2003.30103.x
PMCID: PMC1494966  PMID: 14687259
caregivers; depression; Alzheimer's disease; dementia; race/ethnicity
6.  Measuring Prognosis and Case Mix in Hospitalized Elders 
OBJECTIVE
Although physical function is believed to be an important predictor of outcomes in older people, it has seldom been used to adjust for prognosis or case mix in evaluating mortality rates or resource use. The goal of this study was to determine whether patients’ activity of daily living (ADL) function on admission provided information useful in adjusting for prognosis and case mix after accounting for routine physiologic measures and comorbid diagnoses.
SETTING
The general medical service of a teaching hospital.
PARTICIPANTS
Medical inpatients (n = 823) over age 70 (mean age 80.7, 68% women).
MEASUREMENTS
Independence in ADL function on admission was assessed by interviewing each patient’s primary nurse. We determined the APACHE II Acute Physiology Score (APS) and the Charlson comorbidity score from chart review. Outcome measures were hospital and 1-year mortality, nursing home use in the 90 days following discharge, and cost of hospitalization. Patients were divided into four quartiles according to the number of ADLs in which they were dependent.
MAIN RESULTS
ADL category stratified patients into groups that were at markedly different risks of mortality and higher resource use. For example, hospital mortality varied from 0.9% in patients dependent in no ADL on admission, to 17.4% in patients dependent in all ADLs. One-year mortality ranged from 17.5% to 54.9%, nursing home use from 3% to 33%, and hospital costs varied by 53%. In multivariate analyses controlling for APS, Charlson scores, and demographic characteristics, compared with patients dependent in no ADL, patients dependent in all ADLs were at greater risk of hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR] 13.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.1–58.8), 1-year mortality (OR 4.4; 2.7–7.4), and 90-day nursing home use (OR 14.9; 6.0–37.0). The DRG-adjusted hospital cost was 50% higher for patients dependent in all ADLs. ADL function also improved the discrimination of hospital and 1-year mortality models that considered APS, or Charlson scores, or both.
CONCLUSIONS
ADL function contains important information about prognosis and case mix beyond that provided by routine physiologic data and comorbidities in hospitalized elders. Prognostic and case–mix adjustment methods may be improved if they include measures of function, as well as routine physiologic measures and comorbidity.
doi:10.1046/j.1525-1497.1997.012004203.x
PMCID: PMC1497092  PMID: 9127223
prognosis; case mix; activities of daily living; severity; functional status
7.  The Effects of Resident and Nursing Home Characteristics on Activities of Daily Living 
Background
Existing studies on the relationships between impairments and activities of daily living (ADLs) in nursing home residents have serious limitations. This study examines the relationships among admission impairments, including pain, depression, incontinence, balance, and falls, and follow-up ADLs, as well as the effect of the nursing home on follow-up ADLs of extended-stay nursing home residents.
Methods
This longitudinal cohort study consisted of 4,942 extended-stay residents who were admitted into 377 Minnesota nursing homes during 2004. General linear mixed models were used for all analyses, with 14 resident-level and 8 facility-level control variables.
Results
Incontinence and balance function at admission were significantly associated with increases in ADL dependence at follow-up. Individual nursing homes had independent effects on all three ADL models. Similar findings were found after facility-level control variables were added.
Conclusions
Incontinence predicts subsequent ADL functional levels. The relationship between balance dysfunction and subsequent ADL dependence could be causal. Future studies of the causal relationships between impairments and ADL should examine the effectiveness of impairment interventions on ADL as well as these relationships in different subgroups of nursing home residents.
doi:10.1093/gerona/gln040
PMCID: PMC2657168  PMID: 19201787
Nursing homes; Activities of daily living; Impairments; Incontinence; Falls
8.  Case mix of home health patients under capitated and fee-for-service payment. 
Health Services Research  1995;30(1 Pt 1):79-113.
OBJECTIVE. We compare case mix of Medicare home health patients under HMO and FFS payment. STUDY DESIGN. A pseudo-experimental design was employed to study case mix using three types of Medicare-certified home health agencies (HHAs): HMO-owned agencies, pure FFS agencies that admit few Medicare HMO patients (less than 5 percent of admissions are Medicare HMO patients), and mixed (or contractual) agencies that admit at least 15 Medicare FFS patients and 15 Medicare HMO patients per month. SAMPLES OF PROVIDERS AND PATIENTS. Random samples of Medicare-aged patients (> or = 65 years) were selected at admission between June 1989 and November 1991 from the 38 study HHAs. Sample sizes by agency type were: 308 patients from 9 HMO-owned agencies; 529 patients from 15 pure FFS agencies; and 381 HMO patients and 414 FFS patients from 14 contractual agencies. DATA. Primary longitudinal data were prospectively collected at admission for all patients on health status indicators, demographics, admission source, and home environment. MEASURES. The most important case-mix measures were functional and physiologic indicators of health status, including (instrumental) activities of daily living ([I]ADLs). Selected indicators of demographic variables, prior location, living situation, characteristics of informal caregivers, mental/behavioral factors, and resource needs were also used. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. (a) The case mix of Medicare FFS patients compared with Medicare HMO patients was more intense in terms of impairments in ADLs, IADLs, and various physiologic conditions. Pressure ulcers as well as neurological and orthopedic impairments requiring rehabilitation care were also more prevalent among FFS patients. (b) Relative to HMO patients admitted to contractual agencies, HMO patients admitted to HMO-owned agencies were moderately more dependent in ADLs and IADLs. However, only 62 percent of HMO patients admitted to HMO-owned agencies, in contrast to 77 percent of HMO patients admitted to contractual agencies, had been hospitalized during the 30 days prior to home health admission. (c) In all, the case mix of patients receiving care from HMO-owned agencies is more heterogeneous than the case mix of HMO patients receiving care from contractual agencies. CONCLUSIONS. The case-mix (and selected utilization) findings indicate that HMOs use home health care differently than does the FFS sector. The greater diversity of case mix for HMO-owned agencies and the narrower or less diverse case mix that characterizes HMO patients receiving home care on a contractual basis point to the likelihood of cost differences among the two types of HMO patients and FFS patients, and raise the question of possible outcome differences.
PMCID: PMC1070352  PMID: 7721587
9.  Urinary incontinence and risk of functional decline in older women: data from the Norwegian HUNT-study 
BMC Geriatrics  2013;13:47.
Background
The main objective of the present study was to determine whether UI is an independent predictor of ADL decline and IADL decline in elderly women. We also aimed to find out whether incontinent subjects were at higher risk of needing help from formal home care or home nursing care during 11 year follow-up.
Methods
A prospective cohort study conducted as part of the North-Trøndelag Health Study 2 and 3. Women aged 70–80 years when participating in the HUNT 2 study, who also participated in the HUNT 3 study, were included in this study. Analyses on self-reported urinary incontinence at baseline and functional decline during a11-year period were performed for incontinent and continent subjects.
Results
Baseline prevalence of urinary incontinence was 24%. At on average eleven year follow up, logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between incontinence and decline in activities of daily living (ADL) (OR =2.37, 95% CI =1.01-5.58) (P=0.04). No association between urinary incontinence and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in incontinent women compared with continent women was found (OR=1.18, CI=.75-1.86) (P=.46). Data were adjusted for ADL, IADL and co morbid conditions at baseline. No significant differences in need of more help from formal home care and home nursing care between continent and incontinent women were found after 11 years of follow-up.
Conclusions
Urinary incontinence is an important factor associated with functional decline in women aged 70–80 years living in their own homes. At eleven years of follow up, no significant differences in need of more help from formal home care and home nursing care between continent and incontinent women were found.
doi:10.1186/1471-2318-13-47
PMCID: PMC3660293  PMID: 23678851
10.  Predicting mortality of residents at admission to nursing home: A longitudinal cohort study 
Background
An increasing numbers of deaths occur in nursing homes. Knowledge of the course of development over the years in death rates and predictors of mortality is important for officials responsible for organizing care to be able to ensure that staff is knowledgeable in the areas of care needed. The aim of this study was to investigate the time from residents' admission to Icelandic nursing homes to death and the predictive power of demographic variables, health status (health stability, pain, depression and cognitive performance) and functional profile (ADL and social engagement) for 3-year mortality in yearly cohorts from 1996-2006.
Methods
The samples consisted of residents (N = 2206) admitted to nursing homes in Iceland in 1996-2006, who were assessed once at baseline with a Minimum Data Set (MDS) within 90 days of their admittance to the nursing home. The follow-up time for survival of each cohort was 36 months from admission. Based on Kaplan-Meier analysis (log rank test) and non-parametric correlation analyses (Spearman's rho), variables associated with survival time with a p-value < 0.05 were entered into a multivariate Cox regression model.
Results
The median survival time was 31 months, and no significant difference was detected in the mortality rate between cohorts. Age, gender (HR 1.52), place admitted from (HR 1.27), ADL functioning (HR 1.33-1.80), health stability (HR 1.61-16.12) and ability to engage in social activities (HR 1.51-1.65) were significant predictors of mortality. A total of 28.8% of residents died within a year, 43.4% within two years and 53.1% of the residents died within 3 years.
Conclusion
It is noteworthy that despite financial constraints, the mortality rate did not change over the study period. Health stability was a strong predictor of mortality, in addition to ADL performance. Considering these variables is thus valuable when deciding on the type of service an elderly person needs. The mortality rate showed that more than 50% died within 3 years, and almost a third of the residents may have needed palliative care within a year of admission. Considering the short survival time from admission, it seems relevant that staff is trained in providing palliative care as much as restorative care.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-11-86
PMCID: PMC3112069  PMID: 21507213
11.  A Web-Based Non-Intrusive Ambient System to Measure and Classify Activities of Daily Living 
Background
The number of older adults in the global population is increasing. This demographic shift leads to an increasing prevalence of age-associated disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease and other types of dementia. With the progression of the disease, the risk for institutional care increases, which contrasts with the desire of most patients to stay in their home environment. Despite doctors’ and caregivers’ awareness of the patient’s cognitive status, they are often uncertain about its consequences on activities of daily living (ADL). To provide effective care, they need to know how patients cope with ADL, in particular, the estimation of risks associated with the cognitive decline. The occurrence, performance, and duration of different ADL are important indicators of functional ability. The patient’s ability to cope with these activities is traditionally assessed with questionnaires, which has disadvantages (eg, lack of reliability and sensitivity). Several groups have proposed sensor-based systems to recognize and quantify these activities in the patient’s home. Combined with Web technology, these systems can inform caregivers about their patients in real-time (eg, via smartphone).
Objective
We hypothesize that a non-intrusive system, which does not use body-mounted sensors, video-based imaging, and microphone recordings would be better suited for use in dementia patients. Since it does not require patient’s attention and compliance, such a system might be well accepted by patients. We present a passive, Web-based, non-intrusive, assistive technology system that recognizes and classifies ADL.
Methods
The components of this novel assistive technology system were wireless sensors distributed in every room of the participant’s home and a central computer unit (CCU). The environmental data were acquired for 20 days (per participant) and then stored and processed on the CCU. In consultation with medical experts, eight ADL were classified.
Results
In this study, 10 healthy participants (6 women, 4 men; mean age 48.8 years; SD 20.0 years; age range 28-79 years) were included. For explorative purposes, one female Alzheimer patient (Montreal Cognitive Assessment score=23, Timed Up and Go=19.8 seconds, Trail Making Test A=84.3 seconds, Trail Making Test B=146 seconds) was measured in parallel with the healthy subjects. In total, 1317 ADL were performed by the participants, 1211 ADL were classified correctly, and 106 ADL were missed. This led to an overall sensitivity of 91.27% and a specificity of 92.52%. Each subject performed an average of 134.8 ADL (SD 75).
Conclusions
The non-intrusive wireless sensor system can acquire environmental data essential for the classification of activities of daily living. By analyzing retrieved data, it is possible to distinguish and assign data patterns to subjects' specific activities and to identify eight different activities in daily living. The Web-based technology allows the system to improve care and provides valuable information about the patient in real-time.
doi:10.2196/jmir.3465
PMCID: PMC4129128  PMID: 25048461
ADL classifier; forward chaining inference engine; rule-based; wireless sensor system; dementia; Alzheimer; behavior pattern; activity monitoring; assistive technology; smart homes
12.  Behavioural Interventions for Urinary Incontinence in Community-Dwelling Seniors 
Executive Summary
In early August 2007, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began work on the Aging in the Community project, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding healthy aging in the community. The Health System Strategy Division at the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care subsequently asked the secretariat to provide an evidentiary platform for the ministry’s newly released Aging at Home Strategy.
After a broad literature review and consultation with experts, the secretariat identified 4 key areas that strongly predict an elderly person’s transition from independent community living to a long-term care home. Evidence-based analyses have been prepared for each of these 4 areas: falls and fall-related injuries, urinary incontinence, dementia, and social isolation. For the first area, falls and fall-related injuries, an economic model is described in a separate report.
Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/mas_about.html, to review these titles within the Aging in the Community series.
Aging in the Community: Summary of Evidence-Based Analyses
Prevention of Falls and Fall-Related Injuries in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based Analysis
Behavioural Interventions for Urinary Incontinence in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based Analysis
Caregiver- and Patient-Directed Interventions for Dementia: An Evidence-Based Analysis
Social Isolation in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based Analysis
The Falls/Fractures Economic Model in Ontario Residents Aged 65 Years and Over (FEMOR)
Objective
To assess the effectiveness of behavioural interventions for the treatment and management of urinary incontinence (UI) in community-dwelling seniors.
Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition
Urinary incontinence defined as “the complaint of any involuntary leakage of urine” was identified as 1 of the key predictors in a senior’s transition from independent community living to admission to a long-term care (LTC) home. Urinary incontinence is a health problem that affects a substantial proportion of Ontario’s community-dwelling seniors (and indirectly affects caregivers), impacting their health, functioning, well-being and quality of life. Based on Canadian studies, prevalence estimates range from 9% to 30% for senior men and nearly double from 19% to 55% for senior women. The direct and indirect costs associated with UI are substantial. It is estimated that the total annual costs in Canada are $1.5 billion (Cdn), and that each year a senior living at home will spend $1,000 to $1,500 on incontinence supplies.
Interventions to treat and manage UI can be classified into broad categories which include lifestyle modification, behavioural techniques, medications, devices (e.g., continence pessaries), surgical interventions and adjunctive measures (e.g., absorbent products).
The focus of this review is behavioural interventions, since they are commonly the first line of treatment considered in seniors given that they are the least invasive options with no reported side effects, do not limit future treatment options, and can be applied in combination with other therapies. In addition, many seniors would not be ideal candidates for other types of interventions involving more risk, such as surgical measures.
Note: It is recognized that the terms “senior” and “elderly” carry a range of meanings for different audiences; this report generally uses the former, but the terms are treated here as essentially interchangeable.
Description of Technology/Therapy
Behavioural interventions can be divided into 2 categories according to the target population: caregiver-dependent techniques and patient-directed techniques. Caregiver-dependent techniques (also known as toileting assistance) are targeted at medically complex, frail individuals living at home with the assistance of a caregiver, who tends to be a family member. These seniors may also have cognitive deficits and/or motor deficits. A health care professional trains the senior’s caregiver to deliver an intervention such as prompted voiding, habit retraining, or timed voiding. The health care professional who trains the caregiver is commonly a nurse or a nurse with advanced training in the management of UI, such as a nurse continence advisor (NCA) or a clinical nurse specialist (CNS).
The second category of behavioural interventions consists of patient-directed techniques targeted towards mobile, motivated seniors. Seniors in this population are cognitively able, free from any major physical deficits, and motivated to regain and/or improve their continence. A nurse or a nurse with advanced training in UI management, such as an NCA or CNS, delivers the patient-directed techniques. These are often provided as multicomponent interventions including a combination of bladder training techniques, pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT), education on bladder control strategies, and self-monitoring. Pelvic floor muscle training, defined as a program of repeated pelvic floor muscle contractions taught and supervised by a health care professional, may be employed as part of a multicomponent intervention or in isolation.
Education is a large component of both caregiver-dependent and patient-directed behavioural interventions, and patient and/or caregiver involvement as well as continued practice strongly affect the success of treatment. Incontinence products, which include a large variety of pads and devices for effective containment of urine, may be used in conjunction with behavioural techniques at any point in the patient’s management.
Evidence-Based Analysis Methods
A comprehensive search strategy was used to identify systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials that examined the effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of caregiver-dependent and patient-directed behavioural interventions for the treatment of UI in community-dwelling seniors (see Appendix 1).
Research Questions
Are caregiver-dependent behavioural interventions effective in improving UI in medically complex, frail community-dwelling seniors with/without cognitive deficits and/or motor deficits?
Are patient-directed behavioural interventions effective in improving UI in mobile, motivated community-dwelling seniors?
Are behavioural interventions delivered by NCAs or CNSs in a clinic setting effective in improving incontinence outcomes in community-dwelling seniors?
Assessment of Quality of Evidence
The quality of the evidence was assessed as high, moderate, low, or very low according to the GRADE methodology and GRADE Working Group. As per GRADE the following definitions apply:
Summary of Findings
Executive Summary Table 1 summarizes the results of the analysis.
The available evidence was limited by considerable variation in study populations and in the type and severity of UI for studies examining both caregiver-directed and patient-directed interventions. The UI literature frequently is limited to reporting subjective outcome measures such as patient observations and symptoms. The primary outcome of interest, admission to a LTC home, was not reported in the UI literature. The number of eligible studies was low, and there were limited data on long-term follow-up.
Summary of Evidence on Behavioural Interventions for the Treatment of Urinary Incontinence in Community-Dwelling Seniors
Prompted voiding
Habit retraining
Timed voiding
Bladder training
PFMT (with or without biofeedback)
Bladder control strategies
Education
Self-monitoring
CI refers to confidence interval; CNS, clinical nurse specialist; NCA, nurse continence advisor; PFMT, pelvic floor muscle training; RCT, randomized controlled trial; WMD, weighted mean difference; UI, urinary incontinence.
Economic Analysis
A budget impact analysis was conducted to forecast costs for caregiver-dependent and patient-directed multicomponent behavioural techniques delivered by NCAs, and PFMT alone delivered by physiotherapists. All costs are reported in 2008 Canadian dollars. Based on epidemiological data, published medical literature and clinical expert opinion, the annual cost of caregiver-dependent behavioural techniques was estimated to be $9.2 M, while the annual costs of patient-directed behavioural techniques delivered by either an NCA or physiotherapist were estimated to be $25.5 M and $36.1 M, respectively. Estimates will vary if the underlying assumptions are changed.
Currently, the province of Ontario absorbs the cost of NCAs (available through the 42 Community Care Access Centres across the province) in the home setting. The 2007 Incontinence Care in the Community Report estimated that the total cost being absorbed by the public system of providing continence care in the home is $19.5 M in Ontario. This cost estimate included resources such as personnel, communication with physicians, record keeping and product costs. Clinic costs were not included in this estimation because currently these come out of the global budget of the respective hospital and very few continence clinics actually exist in the province. The budget impact analysis factored in a cost for the clinic setting, assuming that the public system would absorb the cost with this new model of community care.
Considerations for Ontario Health System
An expert panel on aging in the community met on 3 occasions from January to May 2008, and in part, discussed treatment of UI in seniors in Ontario with a focus on caregiver-dependent and patient-directed behavioural interventions. In particular, the panel discussed how treatment for UI is made available to seniors in Ontario and who provides the service. Some of the major themes arising from the discussions included:
Services/interventions that currently exist in Ontario offering behavioural interventions to treat UI are not consistent. There is a lack of consistency in how seniors access services for treatment of UI, who manages patients and what treatment patients receive.
Help-seeking behaviours are important to consider when designing optimal service delivery methods.
There is considerable social stigma associated with UI and therefore there is a need for public education and an awareness campaign.
The cost of incontinent supplies and the availability of NCAs were highlighted.
Conclusions
There is moderate-quality evidence that the following interventions are effective in improving UI in mobile motivated seniors:
Multicomponent behavioural interventions including a combination of bladder training techniques, PFMT (with or without biofeedback), education on bladder control strategies and self-monitoring techniques.
Pelvic floor muscle training alone.
There is moderate quality evidence that when behavioural interventions are led by NCAs or CNSs in a clinic setting, they are effective in improving UI in seniors.
There is limited low-quality evidence that prompted voiding may be effective in medically complex, frail seniors with motivated caregivers.
There is insufficient evidence for the following interventions in medically complex, frail seniors with motivated caregivers:
habit retraining, and
timed voiding.
PMCID: PMC3377527  PMID: 23074508
13.  A 52 month follow-up of functional decline in nursing home residents – degree of dementia contributes 
BMC Geriatrics  2014;14:45.
Background
Few have studied how personal activities of daily living (P-ADL) develop over time in nursing home residents with dementia. Thus, the aim was to study variables associated with the development of P-ADL functioning over a 52-month follow-up period, with a particular focus on the importance of the degree of dementia.
Method
In all, 932 nursing home residents with dementia (Clinical Dementia Rating–CDR- Scale ≥1) were included in a longitudinal study with four assessments of P-ADL functioning during 52 months. P-ADL was measured using the Lawton and Brody’s Physical Self-Maintenance Scale. Degree of dementia (CDR), neuropsychiatric symptoms and use of psychotropic medication were assessed at the same four time points. Demographic information and information about physical health was included at baseline. Linear regression models for longitudinal data were estimated.
Results
Follow-up time was positively associated with a decline in P-ADL functioning. Degree of dementia at baseline was associated with a decline in P-ADL functioning over time. The association between degree of dementia and P-ADL functioning was strongest at baseline, and then flattened over time. A higher level of neuropsychiatric symptoms such as agitation and apathy and no use of anxiolytics and antidementia medication were associated with a decline in P-ADL functioning at four time points. Higher physical co-morbidity at baseline was associated with a decline in P-ADL functioning.
Conclusion
P-ADL functioning in nursing home patients with dementia worsened over time. The worsening was associated with more severe dementia, higher physical comorbidity, agitation, apathy and no use of anxiolytics and antidementia medication. Clinicians should pay attention to these variables (associates) in order to help the nursing home residents with dementia to maintain their level of functioning for as long as possible.
doi:10.1186/1471-2318-14-45
PMCID: PMC3985541  PMID: 24720782
14.  Predictors of Recovery in Activities of Daily Living Among Disabled Older Persons Living in the Community 
OBJECTIVE
To identify the factors that predict recovery in activities of daily living (ADLs) among disabled older persons living in the community.
DESIGN
Prospective cohort study with 2-year follow-up.
SETTING
General community.
PARTICIPANTS
213 men and women 72 years or older, who reported dependence in one or more ADLs.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS
All participants underwent a comprehensive home assessment and were followed for recovery of ADL function, defined as requiring no personal assistance in any of the ADLs within 2 years. Fifty-nine participants (28%) recovered independent ADL function. Compared with those older than 85 years, participants aged 85 years or younger were more than 8 times as likely to recover their ADL function (relative risk [RR] 8.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.7, 26). Several factors besides age were associated with ADL recovery in bivariate analysis, including disability in only one ADL, self-efficacy score greater than 75, Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of 28 or better, high mobility, score in the best third of timed physical performance, fewer than five medications, and good nutritional status. In multivariable analysis, four factors were independently associated with ADL recovery—age 85 years or younger (adjusted RR 4.1; 95% CI 1.3, 13), MMSE score of 28 or better (RR 1.7; 95% CI 1.2, 2.3), high mobility (RR 1.7; 95% CI 1.0, 2.9), and good nutritional status (RR 1.6; 95% CI 1.0, 2.5).
CONCLUSIONS
Once disabled, few persons older than 85 years recover independent ADL function. Intact cognitive function, high mobility, and good nutritional status each improve the likelihood of ADL recovery and may serve as markers of resiliency in this population.
doi:10.1046/j.1525-1497.1997.07161.x
PMCID: PMC1497202  PMID: 9436895
activities of daily living (ADLs); recovery; elderly; prospective cohort study; prognosis
15.  The effect of regular walks on various health aspects in older people with dementia: protocol of a randomized-controlled trial 
BMC Geriatrics  2011;11:38.
Background
Physical activity has proven to be beneficial for physical functioning, cognition, depression, anxiety, rest-activity rhythm, quality of life (QoL), activities of daily living (ADL) and pain in older people. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of walking regularly on physical functioning, the progressive cognitive decline, level of depression, anxiety, rest-activity rhythm, QoL, ADL and pain in older people with dementia.
Methods/design
This study is a longitudinal randomized controlled, single blind study. Ambulatory older people with dementia, who are regular visitors of daily care or living in a home for the elderly or nursing home in the Netherlands, will be randomly allocated to the experimental or control condition. Participants of the experimental group make supervised walks of 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week, as part of their daily nursing care. Participants of the control group will come together three times a week for tea or other sedentary activities to control for possible positive effects of social interaction. All dependent variables will be assessed at baseline and after 6 weeks, and 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months of intervention.
The dependent variables include neuropsychological tests to assess cognition, physical tests to determine physical functioning, questionnaires to assess ADL, QoL, level of depression and anxiety, actigraphy to assess rest-activity rhythm and pain scales to determine pain levels. Potential moderating variables at baseline are: socio-demographic characteristics, body mass index, subtype of dementia, apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype, medication use and comorbidities.
Discussion
This study evaluates the effect of regular walking as a treatment for older people with dementia. The strength of this study is that 1) it has a longitudinal design with multiple repeated measurements, 2) we assess many different health aspects, 3) the intervention is not performed by research staff, but by nursing staff which enables it to become a routine in usual care. Possible limitations of the study are that 1) only active minded institutions are willing to participate creating a selection bias, 2) the drop-out rate will be high in this population, 3) not all participants will be able to perform/understand all tests.
Trial registration
NTR1482
doi:10.1186/1471-2318-11-38
PMCID: PMC3176485  PMID: 21827648
16.  Problems of Older Adults Living Alone After Hospitalization 
OBJECTIVE
To describe functional deficits among older adults living alone and receiving home nursing following medical hospitalization, and the association of living alone with lack of functional improvement and nursing home utilization 1 month after hospitalization.
DESIGN
Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study.
PARTICIPANTS
Consecutive sample of patients age 65 and over receiving home nursing following medical hospitalization. Patients were excluded for new diagnosis of myocardial infarction or stroke in the previous 2 months, diagnosis of dementia if living alone, or nonambulatory status. Of 613 patients invited to participate, 312 agreed.
MEASUREMENTS
One week after hospitalization, patients were assessed in the home for demographic information, medications, cognition, and self-report of prehospital and current mobility and function in activities of daily living (ADLs) and independent activities of daily living (IADLs). One month later, patients were asked about current function and nursing home utilization. The outcomes were lack of improvement in ADL function and nursing home utilization 1 month after hospitalization.
RESULTS
One hundred forty-one (45%) patients lived alone. After hospital discharge, 40% of those living alone and 62% of those living with others had at least 1 ADL dependency (P=.0001). Patients who were ADL–dependent and lived alone were 3.3 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.4 to 7.6) times less likely to improve in ADLs and 3.5 (95% CI, 1.0 to 11.9) times more likely to be admitted to a nursing home in the month after hospitalization.
CONCLUSION
Patients who live alone and receive home nursing after hospitalization are less likely to improve in function and more likely to be admitted to a nursing home, compared with those who live with others. More intensive resources may be required to continue community living and maximize independence.
doi:10.1046/j.1525-1497.2000.06139.x
PMCID: PMC1495595  PMID: 11029674
hospitalization; risk factors; activities of daily living; socioeconomic factors; support; aged
17.  Temporal and Geographic variation in the validity and internal consistency of the Nursing Home Resident Assessment Minimum Data Set 2.0 
Background
The Minimum Data Set (MDS) for nursing home resident assessment has been required in all U.S. nursing homes since 1990 and has been universally computerized since 1998. Initially intended to structure clinical care planning, uses of the MDS expanded to include policy applications such as case-mix reimbursement, quality monitoring and research. The purpose of this paper is to summarize a series of analyses examining the internal consistency and predictive validity of the MDS data as used in the "real world" in all U.S. nursing homes between 1999 and 2007.
Methods
We used person level linked MDS and Medicare denominator and all institutional claim files including inpatient (hospital and skilled nursing facilities) for all Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries entering U.S. nursing homes during the period 1999 to 2007. We calculated the sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of diagnoses taken from Medicare hospital claims and from the MDS among all new admissions from hospitals to nursing homes and the internal consistency (alpha reliability) of pairs of items within the MDS that logically should be related. We also tested the internal consistency of commonly used MDS based multi-item scales and examined the predictive validity of an MDS based severity measure viz. one year survival. Finally, we examined the correspondence of the MDS discharge record to hospitalizations and deaths seen in Medicare claims, and the completeness of MDS assessments upon skilled nursing facility (SNF) admission.
Results
Each year there were some 800,000 new admissions directly from hospital to US nursing homes and some 900,000 uninterrupted SNF stays. Comparing Medicare enrollment records and claims with MDS records revealed reasonably good correspondence that improved over time (by 2006 only 3% of deaths had no MDS discharge record, only 5% of SNF stays had no MDS, but over 20% of MDS discharges indicating hospitalization had no associated Medicare claim). The PPV and sensitivity levels of Medicare hospital diagnoses and MDS based diagnoses were between .6 and .7 for major diagnoses like CHF, hypertension, diabetes. Internal consistency, as measured by PPV, of the MDS ADL items with other MDS items measuring impairments and symptoms exceeded .9. The Activities of Daily Living (ADL) long form summary scale achieved an alpha inter-consistency level exceeding .85 and multi-item scale alpha levels of .65 were achieved for well being and mood, and .55 for behavior, levels that were sustained even after stratification by ADL and cognition. The Changes in Health, End-stage disease and Symptoms and Signs (CHESS) index, a summary measure of frailty was highly predictive of one year survival.
Conclusion
The MDS demonstrates a reasonable level of consistency both in terms of how well MDS diagnoses correspond to hospital discharge diagnoses and in terms of the internal consistency of functioning and behavioral items. The level of alpha reliability and validity demonstrated by the scales suggest that the data can be useful for research and policy analysis. However, while improving, the MDS discharge tracking record should still not be used to indicate Medicare hospitalizations or mortality. It will be important to monitor the performance of the MDS 3.0 with respect to consistency, reliability and validity now that it has replaced version 2.0, using these results as a baseline that should be exceeded.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-11-78
PMCID: PMC3097253  PMID: 21496257
18.  Predictors of Nursing Home Admission among Alzheimer's Disease Patients with Psychosis and/or Agitation 
Background
The purpose of this study is to identify factors that predict nursing home placement among community-dwelling Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients with psychosis or agitation in a randomized clinical trial.
Methods
418 participants with AD enrolled in the CATIE-AD trial of anti-psychotic medications and having no evidence of nursing home use at baseline were followed 9 months post-random assignment using data provided by caregiver proxy. χ2 tests, t-tests and Cox proportional hazard modeling were used to examine the baseline correlates of nursing home use.
Results
Of outpatients with no prior nursing home use, 15.0% were placed in a nursing home in the 9 months following baseline, with the average time to placement being 122 days. Bivariate analyses indicate that those with prior outpatient mental health use at study entry were more likely to be admitted; so too were those with worse physical functioning—lower scores on the AD Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADCS-ADL), lower utility scores on the Health Utility Index (HUI)-III, and worse cognition on the Mini-Mental State Examination. Controlling for other factors, non-Hispanic white race (hazard ratio [HR]=2.16) and prior mental health use (HR=1.87) increased the likelihood of admission. Those with higher ADCS-ADL scores were less likely to be placed (HR=0.97).
Conclusion
Factors leading to nursing home entry among psychotic/agitated AD patients are similar to the general population, though high incidence of nursing home entry highlights the importance of accounting for such utilization in health economic studies of AD outcomes. It also highlights the importance of using information on ADLs and other characteristics to develop profiles identifying those at greater or lesser risk of nursing home entry and, in so doing inform population planning associated with AD and identification of those patients and caregivers who might benefit most from interventions to prevent eventual placement. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00015548.)
doi:10.1017/S1041610210000244
PMCID: PMC3951873  PMID: 20214847
Institutionalization; Elderly; Clinical Trial; Dementia; Risk Factors; Survival Analysis; Mental Health; Psychiatry
19.  Validity and reliability of the Arabic version of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) 
BMC Geriatrics  2009;9:11.
Background
The Activity of Daily Living (ADL) is an instrument that screens elderly respondents for physical functioning and assesses whether they are dependent or independent in their daily activities. This study demonstrates a translation procedure and obtains the reliability and validity of a translated, Arabic ADL.
Methods
The ADL was translated to Arabic through a forward translation method followed by a committee-consensual approach. The ADL and the Arabic Mini-Mental State Examination (AMMSE) were administered to an opportunistic sample of 354 Lebanese elderly living in nursing homes who did not have dementia.
Results
Reliability split half measures, sensitivity, and negative predictive values were high across all dimensions of the ADL with the exception of feeding. There were non-significant differences on the scored ADL between the three age groups: young age, middle age and older old. In addition, a non-significant difference was found on the scored ADL between the high and low AMMSE scores.
Conclusion
Overall, the translated ADL was consistent and valid measure for assessing daily activities in elderly nursing home residents. As it is quick and easy to use, the ADL in Arabic could help caregivers and doctors to prescribe appropriate physical exercise for elderly Arabic speaking patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2318-9-11
PMCID: PMC2670307  PMID: 19327172
20.  Willingness to use and pay for options of care for community-dwelling older people in rural Vietnam 
Background
The proportion of people in Vietnam who are 60 years and over has increased rapidly. The emigration of young people and impact of other socioeconomic changes leave more elderly on their own and with less family support. This study assesses the willingness to use and pay for different models of care for community-dwelling elderly in rural Vietnam.
Methods
In 2007, people aged 60 and older and their family representatives, living in 2,240 households, were randomly selected from the FilaBavi Demographic Surveillance Site. They were interviewed using structured questionnaires to assess dependence in activities of daily living (ADLs), willingness to use and to pay for day care centres, mobile care teams, and nursing centres. Respondent socioeconomic characteristics were extracted from the FilaBavi repeated census. Percentages of those willing to use models and the average amount (with 95% confidence intervals) they are willing to pay were estimated. Multivariate analyses were performed to measure the relationship of willingness to use services with ADL index and socioeconomic factors. Four focus group discussions were conducted to explore people's perspectives on the use of services. The first discussion group was with the elderly. The second discussion group was with their household members. Two other discussion groups included community association representatives, one at the communal level and another at the village level.
Results
Use of mobile team care is the most requested service. The fewest respondents intend to use a nursing centre. Households expect to use services for their elderly to a greater extent than do the elderly themselves. Willingness to use services decreases when potential fees increase. The proportion of respondents who require that services be free-of-charge is two to three times higher than the proportion willing to pay full cost. Households are willing to pay more than the elderly for day care and nursing centres. The elderly are more willing to pay for mobile teams than are their households. Age group, sex, literacy, marital status, living arrangement, living area, working status, poverty, household wealth and dependence in ADLs are factors related to willingness to use services.
Conclusions
Community-centric elderly care will be used and partly paid for by individuals if it is provided by the government or associations. Capacity building for health professional networks and informal caregivers is essential for developing formal care models. Additional support is needed for the most vulnerable elderly to access services.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-12-36
PMCID: PMC3305522  PMID: 22333517
21.  Scaling functional status within the interRAI suite of assessment instruments 
BMC Geriatrics  2013;13:128.
Background
As one ages, physical, cognitive, and clinical problems accumulate and the pattern of loss follows a distinct progression. The first areas requiring outside support are the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living and over time there is a need for support in performing the Activities of Daily Living. Two new functional hierarchies are presented, an IADL hierarchical capacity scale and a combination scale integrating both IADL and ADL hierarchies.
Methods
A secondary analyses of data from a cross-national sample of community residing persons was conducted using 762,023 interRAI assessments. The development of the new IADL Hierarchy and a new IADL-ADL combined scale proceeded through a series of interrelated steps first examining individual IADL and ADL item scores among persons receiving home care and those living independently without services. A factor analysis demonstrated the overall continuity across the IADL-ADL continuum. Evidence of the validity of the scales was explored with associative analyses of factors such as a cross-country distributional analysis for persons in home care programs, a count of functional problems across the categories of the hierarchy, an assessment of the hours of informal and formal care received each week by persons in the different categories of the hierarchy, and finally, evaluation of the relationship between cognitive status and the hierarchical IADL-ADL assignments.
Results
Using items from interRAI’s suite of assessment instruments, two new functional scales were developed, the interRAI IADL Hierarchy Scale and the interRAI IADL-ADL Functional Hierarchy Scale. The IADL Hierarchy Scale consisted of 5 items, meal preparation, housework, shopping, finances and medications. The interRAI IADL-ADL Functional Hierarchy Scale was created through an amalgamation of the ADL Hierarchy (developed previously) and IADL Hierarchy Scales. These scales cover the spectrum of IADL and ADL challenges faced by persons in the community.
Conclusions
An integrated IADL and ADL functional assessment tool is valuable. The loss in these areas follows a general hierarchical pattern and with the interRAI IADL-ADL Functional Hierarchy Scale, this progression can be reliably and validly assessed. Used across settings within the health continuum, it allows for monitoring of individuals from relative independence through episodes of care.
doi:10.1186/1471-2318-13-128
PMCID: PMC3840685  PMID: 24261417
22.  Comparison of Complex versus Simple Activity of Daily Living Staging: Validation of Simple Stages 
OBJECTIVE
To compare simple activities of daily living (ADL) staging with complex ADL staging and to assess the face, construct and predictive validity of simple ADL stages. Activities of Daily Living (ADL) staging is an innovative, partially hierarchical approach to ADL difficulty measurement. Initial staging validation studies used four-level responses to ADL difficulty questions to derive stages (complex ADL staging). Simple ADL stages are based on two-level responses to ADL difficulty questions.
DESIGN
Analysis of the second Longitudinal Study of Aging, a prospective cohort study, using descriptive statistics and logistic regression.
SETTING
United States
PARTICIPANTS
9,447 community dwelling persons ≥ age 70 years in 1994.
INTERVENTIONS
Not applicable
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Agreement & Face Validity: Baseline simple ADL stage
Construct Validity: Baseline health, difficulty and need characteristics
Prognostic Comparison (determined at the Wave 2 interview): Primary: nursing home use and/or death; Secondary: death
RESULTS
The systems showed good agreement (kappa = 0.75). The simple ADL stages stratified people into distinct groups and reflected the expected step-wise increases from Stage 0 to Stage IV in health and need characteristics, such as the prevalence of home-related challenges (2.9% to 84.5%) and perceived need for home modifications (2.1% to 33.6%). In comparing the prognostic ability using the primary outcome, the complex system model demonstrated slightly increased discrimination between milder stages and a slightly higher C-statistic (0.666 vs. 0.664)
CONCLUSION
Although complex staging appears slightly better at classifying people into distinct prognostic strata with respect to nursing home use and/or death at Wave 2, simple ADL stages demonstrate strong, clinically relevant associations with health and need characteristics.
doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2012.11.046
PMCID: PMC4310001  PMID: 23313353
activities of daily living; staging; disability; home environment; Longitudinal Study on Aging II
23.  Small-scale, homelike facilities versus regular psychogeriatric nursing home wards: a cross-sectional study into residents' characteristics 
Background
Nursing home care for people with dementia is increasingly organized in small-scale and homelike care settings, in which normal daily life is emphasized. Despite this increase, relatively little is known about residents' characteristics and whether these differ from residents in traditional nursing homes. This study explored and compared characteristics of residents with dementia living in small-scale, homelike facilities and regular psychogeriatric wards in nursing homes, focusing on functional status and cognition.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted, including 769 residents with dementia requiring an intensive level of nursing home care: 586 from regular psychogeriatric wards and 183 residents from small-scale living facilities. Functional status and cognition were assessed using two subscales from the Resident Assessment Instrument Minimum Data Set (RAI-MDS): the Activities of Daily Living-Hierarchy scale (ADL-H) and the Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS). In addition, care dependency was measured using Dutch Care Severity Packages (DCSP). Finally, gender, age, living condition prior to admission and length of stay were recorded. Descriptive analyses, including independent samples t- tests and chi-square tests, were used. To analyze data in more detail, multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed.
Results
Residents living in small-scale, homelike facilities had a significantly higher functional status and cognitive performance compared with residents in regular psychogeriatric wards. In addition, they had a shorter length of stay, were less frequently admitted from home and were more often female than residents in regular wards. No differences were found in age and care dependency. While controlling for demographic variables, the association between dementia care setting and functional status and cognition remained.
Conclusions
Although residents require a similar intensive level of nursing home care, their characteristics differ among small-scale living facilities and regular psychogeriatric wards. These differences may limit research into effects and feasibility of various types of dementia care settings. Therefore, these studies should take resident characteristics into account in their design, for example by using a matching procedure.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-10-30
PMCID: PMC2827474  PMID: 20113496
24.  Variations in levels of care between nursing home patients in a public health care system 
Background
Within the setting of a public health service we analyse the distribution of resources between individuals in nursing homes funded by global budgets. Three questions are pursued. Firstly, whether there are systematic variations between nursing homes in the level of care given to patients. Secondly, whether such variations can be explained by nursing home characteristics. And thirdly, how individual need-related variables are associated with differences in the level of care given.
Methods
The study included 1204 residents in 35 nursing homes and extra care sheltered housing facilities. Direct time spent with patients was recorded. In average each patient received 14.8 hours direct care each week. Multilevel regression analysis is used to analyse the relationship between individual characteristics, nursing home characteristics and time spent with patients in nursing homes. The study setting is the city of Trondheim, with a population of approximately 180 000.
Results
There are large variations between nursing homes in the total amount of individual care given to patients. As much as 24 percent of the variation of individual care between patients could be explained by variation between nursing homes. Adjusting for structural nursing home characteristics did not substantially reduce the variation between nursing homes. As expected a negative association was found between individual care and case-mix, implying that at nursing home level a more resource demanding case-mix is compensated by lowering the average amount of care. At individual level ADL-disability is the strongest predictor for use of resources in nursing homes. For the average user one point increase in ADL-disability increases the use of resources with 27 percent.
Conclusion
In a financial reimbursement model for nursing homes with no adjustment for case-mix, the amount of care patients receive does not solely depend on the patients’ own needs, but also on the needs of all the other residents.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-14-108
PMCID: PMC4015871  PMID: 24597468
Nursing home; Care level; ADL; IADL; Cognitive impairment; Multi level analysis
25.  Capability and dependency in the Newcastle 85+ cohort study. Projections of future care needs 
BMC Geriatrics  2011;11:21.
Background
Little is known of the capabilities of the oldest old, the fastest growing age group in the population. We aimed to estimate capability and dependency in a cohort of 85 year olds and to project future demand for care.
Methods
Structured interviews at age 85 with 841 people born in 1921 and living in Newcastle and North Tyneside, UK who were permanently registered with participating general practices. Measures of capability included were self-reported activities of daily living (ADL), timed up and go test (TUG), standardised mini-mental state examination (SMMSE), and assessment of urinary continence in order to classify interval-need dependency. To project future demand for care the proportion needing 24-hour care was applied to the 2008 England and Wales population projections of those aged 80 years and over by gender.
Results
Of participants, 62% (522/841) were women, 77% (651/841) lived in standard housing, 13% (106/841) in sheltered housing and 10% (84/841) in a care home. Overall, 20% (165/841) reported no difficulty with any of the ADLs. Men were more capable in performing ADLs and more independent than women. TUG validated self-reported ADLs. When classified by 'interval of need' 41% (332/810) were independent, 39% (317/810) required help less often than daily, 12% (94/810) required help at regular times of the day and 8% (67/810) required 24-hour care. Of care-home residents, 94% (77/82) required daily help or 24-hour care. Future need for 24-hour care for people aged 80 years or over in England and Wales is projected to increase by 82% from 2010 to 2030 with a demand for 630,000 care-home places by 2030.
Conclusions
This analysis highlights the diversity of capability and levels of dependency in this cohort. A remarkably high proportion remain independent, particularly men. However a significant proportion of this population require 24-hour care at home or in care homes. Projections for the next 20 years suggest substantial increases in the number requiring 24-hour care due to population ageing and a proportionate increase in demand for care-home places unless innovative health and social care interventions are found.
doi:10.1186/1471-2318-11-21
PMCID: PMC3097155  PMID: 21542901

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