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1.  Detection of Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans in previously root-filled teeth in a population of Gujarat with polymerase chain reaction 
Background:
Micro-organisms are the primary causative agents of endodontic infections. Phenotype based procedures for bacterial identification has certain drawbacks especially, when investigating the microbiota of root-filled teeth. Thus, more sensitive methods like Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can provide results that are more accurate and reliable for the microbial prevalence in the root filled teeth.
Aim:
In this study, we have investigated twenty symptomatic root-filled teeth with chronic apical periodontitis for the prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans in the root filled teeth associated with symptomatic cases with or without periradicular lesions.
Materials and Methods:
Microbiological samples were taken from the canals immediately after removal of previous gutta percha cones using aseptic techniques. After removal of root canal filling, samples were obtained with paper points placed in the canal. Paper points were transferred to a cryotube containing “Tris EDTA” buffer and immediately frozen at −20°C.
Results:
By PCR amplification of the samples using taxon specific primers, E. faecalis was found to be prevalent species, detected in 65% of the cases and C. albicans was detected in 35% of cases.
Conclusion:
The results of the study shows that geographical influence and dietary factors might have some role to play in the prevalence of the species like C. albicans and presence of E. faecalis confirming the assertion of previous culture-dependent and independent approaches for the microbiological survey of root filled teeth.
doi:10.4103/0976-237X.111622
PMCID: PMC3703696  PMID: 23853454
Candida albicans; Enterococcus faecalis; polymerase chain reaction; root filled teeth
2.  Effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on Enterococcus faecalis biofilm in experimental primary and secondary endodontic infections 
BMC Oral Health  2014;14(1):132.
Background
To determine the antibacterial effect of photodynamic Therapy on Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) biofilms in experimentally infected human root canals in primary infections and endodontic retreatments.
Methods
One hundred and sixty single-rooted extracted teeth with one root canal were prepared using ProTaper instruments. Seventy specimens were left without root canal filling and autoclaved. The root canals of another 70 specimens were filled with Thermafil and AH Plus and the root canal fillings were removed after 24 hours using ProTaper D files and plasma sterilized. The specimens were infected with a clinical isolate of E. faecalis for 72 hours. Samples were taken using sterile paper points to determine the presence of E. faecalis in the root canals. The specimens were randomly divided into groups according to their treatment with 20 teeth each and a control. In the PDT group the teeth were treated using PDT, consisting of the photosensitizer toluidine blue and the PDT light source at 635 nm. In the NaOCl (sodium hypochlorite) group the root canals were rinsed with 10 mL of 3% NaOCl. In the NaOCl-PDT group the root canals were rinsed with 10 mL of 3% of sodium hypochlorite and then treated with PDT. Samples were taken after treatments using sterile paper points. Additionally, remaining root canal filling material was recovered from the root canal walls. Survival fractions of the samples were calculated by counting colony-forming units. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to the data to assess the effect of different treatment techniques.
Results
Antimicrobial treatment of root canals caused a significant reduction of bacterial load in all groups. NaOCl irrigation eliminated E. faecalis most effectively. PDT alone was less effective compared to NaOCl irrigation and the combination of NaOCl irrigation and PDT. CFU levels recovered from the filling material after NaOCl irrigation of the root canals were 10fold higher compared to PDT and the combination of NaOCl irrigation and PDT.
Conclusions
Photodynamic therapy killed E. faecalis in experimental primary endodontic infections and retreated human root canals. PDT is an effective supplement in root canal disinfection, especially in endodontic retreatments.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-14-132
PMCID: PMC4236465  PMID: 25366394
Photodynamic therapy; PDT; Photoactivated chemotherapy; Phototherapy; Laser; Root canal disinfection; Endodontic infection; Enterococcus faecalis
3.  Polymerase chain reaction of enterococcus faecalis and candida albicans in apical periodontitis from Turkish patients 
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of two important pathogenic microorganisms associated with endodontic infections, Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans, in root canal samples from patients with necrotic pulps or failed canal therapy by polymerase chain reaction method. Method: Microbial samples were obtained from 117 teeth with necrotic pulp tissues and 114 teeth with failed endodontic treatment. Results: E.faecalis were identified in 16% of the necrotic and 10% of the retreated root canal infections by PCR. C.albicans genome were identified in 20% and 11% of the necrotic and retreated root canal infections, respectively, by PCR. The frequencies of microbiota were not statistically different between necrotic and retreatment groups (p > 0.05, chi squared test). Conclusions: PCR analysis of teeth with periapical lesions revealed that E.faecalis was found in fewer patients than in previous studies. The C.albicans prevelance was consistent with previous reports. No statistical difference was found between primary and secondary root canal infections for C.albicans or E.faecalis.
Key words:Primary root canal infection, secondary root canal infection, E.faecalis, C.albicans.
doi:10.4317/jced.50669
PMCID: PMC3908807  PMID: 24558522
4.  Root and Canal Morphology of Mandibular Second Molar in an Iranian Population by Clearing Method 
Journal of Dentistry  2013;14(2):78-81.
Statement of Problem: The knowledge of the pulp anatomy plays an important role in the success of endodontic treatments.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the root and canal morphology of the mandibular second molar teeth in an Iranian population.
Material and Methods: One hundred intact human mandibular second molars were collected. The teeth were examined visually and the number of their roots were recorded. The teeth were covered using of lacquer. Access cavities were prepared and the pulp tissue was dissolved by sodium hypochlorite. The apices were covered with the glue and the root canals were injected with the methylene blue and were decalcified with 10% nitric acid, dehydrated with ascending concentrations of alcohol and rendered clear by immersion in methyl salicylate. The following remarks were evaluated: (i) number of root canals per tooth; (ii) number of canals per root; (iii) canal configuration in each root.
Results: Of 100 examined teeth; 6% had one root, 89% had two roots, 2% had three roots and 3% had C-shaped roots. The teeth were classified based on the number of canals: 3 % had single canal, 6 % two canals, 54% three canals, 34% four canals, whilst 3 % had C-shaped roots. Based on the Vertucci classification, the most prevalent canal configuration in the mesial root was type II and in the distal root was type I.
Conclusion : Iranian mandibular second molar teeth exhibit features which are similar to the average Jordanian, Caucasian and Burmese root and canal morphology.
PMCID: PMC3977544  PMID: 24724124
Canal Morphology; Mandibular Second Molar; Clearing; Iranian Population
5.  Prevalence of apical periodontitis and endodontic treatment in a Kosovar adult population 
BMC Oral Health  2011;11:32.
Background
Despite numerous studies on the prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP) and endodontic treatment in diverse geographical populations, there are currently no data on the prevalence of these conditions in populations of adults native to Kosovo. Therefore, little is known about how widespread these conditions are, and whether there is any correlation between root canal treatment and AP. The purpose of our research was to address this anomaly by investigating AP and endodontic treatment in an adult Kosovar population based on radiographic examination.
Methods
The sample used for this study consisted of randomly selected individuals referred to the University Dentistry Clinical Center of Kosovo in the years 2006-2007. Orthopantomographs of 193 patients were evaluated. The periapical status of all teeth (with the exception of third molars) was examined according to Ørstavik's Periapical Index. The quality of the root canal filling was rated as 'adequate' or 'inadequate' based on whether all canals were filled, the depth of fill relative to the radiographic apex and the quality of compaction (absence/presence of voids). Data were analyzed statistically using the Chi-square test and calculation of odds ratios.
Results
Out of 4131 examined teeth, the prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP) and endodontic treatment was 12.3% and 2.3%, respectively. Of 95 endodontically-treated teeth, 46.3% were associated with AP. The prevalence of AP increased with age. The prevalence in subjects aged over 60 years old (20.2%) was higher than in other age groups. A statistically significant difference was found for the frequency of endodontically-treated teeth associated with AP in the 40-49 year age group (P < 0.001). Of some concern was the discovery that only 30.5% of the endodontically-treated teeth examined met the criteria of an acceptable root canal filling. Inadequately root-filled teeth were associated with an increased AP risk.
Conclusions
The prevalence of AP and the frequency of endodontically-treated teeth with AP in this Kosovar population are higher than those found in other countries. Inadequate root canal fillings were associated with an increased prevalence of AP.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-11-32
PMCID: PMC3251521  PMID: 22126237
6.  Endodontic photodynamic therapy ex vivo 
Journal of endodontics  2011;37(2):217-222.
Objective
To evaluate the anti-microbial effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on infected human teeth ex vivo.
Materials and Methods
Fifty-two freshly extracted teeth with pulpal necrosis and associated periradicular radiolucencies were obtained from 34 subjects. Twenty-six teeth with 49 canals received chemomechanical debridement (CMD) with 6% NaOCl and twenty-six teeth with 52 canals received CMD plus PDT. For PDT, root canal systems were incubated with methylene blue (MB) at concentration of 50 µg/ml for 5 minutes followed by exposure to red light at 665 nm with an energy fluence of 30 J/cm2. The contents of root canals were sampled by flushing the canals at baseline and following CMD alone or CMD+PDT and were serially diluted and cultured on blood agar. Survival fractions were calculated by counting colony-forming units (CFU). Partial characterization of root canal species at baseline and following CMD alone or CMD+PDT was performed using DNA probes to a panel of 39 endodontic species in the checkerboard assay.
Results
The Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test for treatment effects demonstrated the better performance of CMD+PDT over CMD (P=0.026). CMD+PDT significantly reduced the frequency of positive canals relative to CMD alone (P=0.0003). Following CMD+PDT, 45 of 52 canals (86.5%) had no CFU as compared to 24 of 49 canals (49%) treated with CMD (canal flush samples). The CFU reductions were similar when teeth or canals were treated as independent entities. Post-treatment detection levels for all species were markedly lower for canals treated by CMD+PDT than were for those treated by CMD alone. Bacterial species within dentinal tubules were detected in 17/22 (77.3%) and 15/29 (51.7%) of canals in the CMD and CMD+PDT group, respectively (P= 0.034).
Conclusion
Data indicate that PDT significantly reduces residual bacteria within the root canal system, and that PDT, if further enhanced by technical improvements, holds substantial promise as an adjunct to CMD.
doi:10.1016/j.joen.2010.10.008
PMCID: PMC3034089  PMID: 21238805
Photodynamic therapy; methylene blue; endodontic disinfection; ex vivo
7.  Prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis in saliva and filled root canals of teeth associated with apical periodontitis 
To investigate the prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis in saliva and filled root canals of patients requiring endodontic retreatment for apical periodontitis. Patients with apical periodontitis who were referred for endodontic retreatment were examined. The type and quality of the restoration, symptoms, quality of obturation were recorded. During retreatment, an oral rinse sample and root canal sample were cultured using brain-heart infusion agar and bile esculinazide agar to select for E. faecalis. The 16S rRNA technique was used to identify E. faecalis. A total of 32 women and 22 men (mean age: 38 years; s.d.: 11 years) and 58 teeth were studied. The prevalence of E. faecalis was 19% in the saliva and 38% in the root canals. The odds that root canals harbored E. faecalis were increased if the saliva habored this bacterium (odds ratio=9.7; 95% confidence interval=1.8–51.6; P<0.05). Teeth with unsatisfactory root obturation had more cultivable bacterial species in root canals than teeth with satisfactory root obturation (P<0.05). E. faecalis is more common in root canals of teeth with apical periodontitis than in saliva. The prevalence of E. faecalis in root canals is associated with the presence of E. faecalis in saliva.
doi:10.1038/ijos.2012.17
PMCID: PMC3412659  PMID: 22422085
apical periodontitis; endodontic treatment; Enterococcus faecalis; saliva; 16S rRNA
8.  Conventional dual-cure versus self-adhesive resin cements in dentin bond integrity 
Journal of Applied Oral Science  2011;19(4):355-362.
During post preparation, the root canal is exposed to the oral cavity, and endodontic treatment may fail because of coronal leakage, bacterial infection and sealing inability of the luting cement.
Objective
this study quantified the interfacial continuity produced with conventional dual-cure and self-adhesive resin cements in the cervical (C), medium (M) and apical (A) thirds of the root.
Material and methods
Forty single-rooted human teeth were restored using Reforpost # 01 conical glass-fiber posts and different materials (N=10 per group): group AC=Adper™ ScotchBond™ Multi-purpose Plus + AllCem; group ARC=Adper™ ScotchBond™ Multi-purpose Plus + RelyX ARC; group U100=RelyX U100; and group MXC=Maxcem Elite. After being kept in 100% humidity at 37ºC for 72 hours, the samples were sectioned parallel to their longitudinal axis and positive epoxy resin replicas were made. The scanning electron micrographs of each third section of the teeth were combined using Image Analyst software and measured with AutoCAD-2002. We obtained percentage values of the interfacial continuity.
Results
Interfacial continuity was similar in the apical, medium and cervical thirds of the roots within the groups (Friedman test, p>0.05). Comparison of the different cements in a same root third showed that interfacial continuity was lower in MXC (C=45.5%; M=48.5%; A=47.3%) than in AC (C=85.9%, M=81.8% and A=76.0%), ARC (C=83.8%, M=82.4% and A=75.0%) and U100 (C=84.1%, M=82.4% and A=77.3%) (Kruskal-Wallis test, p<0.05).
Conclusions
Allcem, Rely X ARC and U100 provide the best cementation; cementation was similar among root portions; in practical terms, U100 is the best resin because it combines good cementation and easy application and none of the cements provides complete interfacial continuity.
doi:10.1590/S1678-77572011005000010
PMCID: PMC4223787  PMID: 21710099
Post and core technique; Resin cements; Dental marginal adaptation; Dentin-bonding agents
9.  Microbial Flora of Root Canals of Pulpally-infected Teeth: Enterococcus faecalis a Prevalent Species 
Background and aims
The aim of this study was to determine the microorganisms prevalent in the necrotic dental pulp and root canals of unsuccessfully treated teeth.
Materials and methods
The present study was conducted on 150 single-rooted teeth of patients referring to a dental clinic. Sampling was performed by placing a sterile paper point in the canal for 60 s. Bacterial samples were evaluated by a microbiological technique specific for anaerobic species, used for isolation and identification of sampled strains.
Results
From the 150 samples taken, 101 were from necrotic pulps (primary infection) and 49 were from the teeth with an unsuccessful endodontic treatment (secondary infection).
Conclusion
Enterococcus faecalis was a prevalent species in the failed root canals evaluated.
doi:10.5681/joddd.2009.007
PMCID: PMC3517199
Endodontic therapy; Enterococcus faecalis; failure
10.  CBVT analysis of canal configuration of the mesio-buccal root of maxillary first permanent molar teeth: An in vitro study 
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry  2012;3(3):277-281.
Context:
For successful endodontic treatment, it's imperative to locate and obturate all root canals. As concluded by Ingle, the major cause for failure of root canal therapy is in ability to recognize all theexisting canals and subsequent failure in their obturation.
Aim:
To analyze the canal configuration of the mesio-buccal root of maxillary first permanent molar teeth.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 30 recently extracted human permanent maxillary first molars were collected and stored in a container with 5% Sodium Chloride solution for four days. Teeth with open apices, external resorption, improperly formed roots and teeth with previous restorations were excluded. Using the dental modeling wax, teeth were arranged in a ‘U’ shaped arch with roots embedded inside the wax and occlusal surface remaining free. 10 teeth were arranged in each arch and three such sample plates were prepared. Flat surface of the base encasing enabled the plate to be mounted on flat plastic bite plate. With bite plate roughly centered in the focal trough area Axial, Coronal and Sagittal section Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) images were taken with Kodak 9000 Extra-oral Imaging System. Images displayed on a monitor were inspected by two endodontists using Kodak Dental Imaging Software 3D Module V2.2.
Statistical Analysis:
When the data was observed, it was found that 24 teeth out of total 30 teeth examined showed some variation (i.e. possible additional canal) along the length of the mesio-buccal root canal. Out of these 24 teeth, 13 showed presence of additional canal at coronal third, 7 showed presence of additional canal at middle third and four showed presence of additional canal in apical third level. Percentage analysis was done as there was no group comparison to be done.
Results:
Cone-Beam Volumetric Tomography (CBVT) evaluation positively identified the variations in mesio-buccal canal in 80% of samples. Out of these, 54.16% were in coronal 3rd, 29.16% in middle 3rd and 16.66% were in apical 3rd.
Conclusion:
Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that- (1) more than half of maxillary first molars have four canals and (2) most of the additional canals were located in the MBR and CBVT is a good diagnostic tool to help diagnose these additional canals. Further investigations using larger sample sizes would be helpful.
doi:10.4103/0976-237X.103618
PMCID: PMC3532788  PMID: 23293481
Cone-beam computed tomography; cone beam projection geometry; MB2 canal; root canal system
11.  Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression in Teeth with Apical Periodontitis Is Differentially Modulated by the Modality of Root Canal Treatment 
Journal of endodontics  2010;36(2):231.
Objectives
To investigate the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in apical periodontitis and during the periapical healing phase following root canal treatment.
Methods
Apical periodontitis was induced in dog teeth and root canal treatment was performed in a single visit or using an additional calcium hydroxide root canal dressing. One hundred and eighty days following treatment the presence of inflammation was examined and tissues were stained to detect bacteria. Bacterial status was correlated to the degree of tissue organization, and to further investigate molecules involved in this process, tissues were stained for MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-8, and MMP-9. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test or Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunn.
Results
Teeth with apical periodontitis that had root canal therapy performed in a single visit presented an intense inflammatory cell infiltrate. Periapical tissue was extremely disorganized, and this was correlated with the presence of bacteria. Higher MMP expression was evident, similar to teeth with untreated apical periodontitis. In contrast, teeth with apical periodontitis submitted to root canal treatment using calcium hydroxide presented a lower inflammatory cell infiltrate. This group had a moderately organized connective tissue, a lower prevalence of bacteria, and a lower number of MMP-positive cells, similar to healthy teeth submitted to treatment.
Conclusion
Teeth treated with calcium hydroxide root canal dressing exhibited a lower percentage of bacterial contamination, a lower MMP expression, and a more organized ECM, unlike those treated in a single visit. This suggests that calcium hydroxide may be beneficial in tissue repair processes.
doi:10.1016/j.joen.2009.10.030
PMCID: PMC2818380  PMID: 20113780
apical periodontitis; root canal treatment; single visit; calcium hydroxide; matrix metalloproteinases
12.  Apical Dimension of Root Canal Clinically Assessed with and without Periapical Lesions 
To clinically evaluate the dimension of the more apical extent of the root canal after appropriate preflaring in the case of primary treatment and retreatment with and without the presence of periapical radiolucency, 392 single-rooted teeth with only one canal were evaluated during endodontic therapy. The canals were divided in two groups depending on the presence or absence of periapical radiolucency. After preflaring of the root canal the size of the root canal terminus (apical canal dimension) was gauged with hand-held Light Speed LS1 files inserted at the estimated working length and established with the use of an electronic apex locator. The dimension recorded in the computer database was represented by the largest instrument able to reach the electronically established working length. The differences between the treatment groups were assessed using the Mann-Whitney U test and the significance level was set at P < 0.05. Teeth with lesions had a significantly greater diameter in the apical region than teeth without lesions (P < 0.001). The dimension of the apical portion of the root canal is larger in the case of periapical radiolucency. This involves verifying this parameter in order to use the correct sized instruments and to obtain an efficient cutting action at the apical level.
doi:10.1155/2014/374971
PMCID: PMC4094701  PMID: 25050122
13.  Prevalence of apical periodontitis and quality of root canal fillings in population of Zagreb, Croatia: a cross-sectional study 
Croatian Medical Journal  2011;52(6):679-687.
Aim
To determine the prevalence of apical periodontitis and assess the quality of endodontic fillings in the population of the city of Zagreb, Croatia.
Methods
A total of 1462 orthopantomograms from new patients at 6 different dental practices was analyzed during 2006 and 2007. The presence of periapical lesions was determined by using the periapical index score (PAI). The quality of endodontic fillings was assessed according to the filling length and homogeinicity. Data were analyzed using t test and ANOVA with Scheffe post-hoc test.
Results
There were 75.9% of participants with endodontically treated teeth and 8.5% of all teeth were endodontically treated. Only 34.2% of endodontically treated roots had adequate root canal filling length, while 36.2% of root canal fillings had homogenous appearance. From the total number of teeth with intracanal post, 17.5% had no visible root canal filling. Using PAI 3 as a threshold value for apical periodontitis, periapical lesions were detected in 8.5% of teeth. Adequate quality of root canal fillings was associated with a lower prevalence of periapical lesions.
Conclusion
We found a large proportion of endodontically treated teeth with apical periodontitis and a correlation between the quality of endodontic filling and the prevalence of periapical lesions. This all suggests that it is necessary to improve the quality of endodontic treatment in order to reduce the incidence and prevalence of apical periodontitis.
doi:10.3325/cmj.2011.52.679
PMCID: PMC3243319  PMID: 22180266
14.  A Survey Report on Effect of Root Canal Fillings and Coronal Restorations on the Periapical Status of Endodontically Treated Teeth in a Selected Group of Population 
ABSTRACT
Aim: A cross-sectional radiographic orthopantomogram (OPG) survey was done to determine the prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP) in root canal–treated teeth in a selected population, and to evaluate the influence of the coronal restorations (CR) and root canal fillings on the periapical status.
Materials and methods: A total of 250 OPGs were evaluated out of which root canal treatment (RCT) had been performed in 438 teeth which was taken as the sample size.
Statistical analysis used: Chi-square test, odds ratio and p-values were recorded.
Results: The results showed that 53.1% of the endodontically treated teeth presented with AP radiographically. Incidence of AP among teeth with acceptable RCT (32.3%) was significantly lower than those suffering from unacceptable RCT (92.7%). Moreover, adequate CR demonstrated a significantly better periapical status (83.2%) compared to teeth with inadequate CR (37.2%). Also, the combination of adequate CR and adequate root filling resulted in significantly reduced incidence of AP (21.6%) compared to the presence of AP (97%) when both parameters scored as inadequate.
Conclusion: Results hence demonstrated that a well-performed RCT and well-sealing CR are both essential for the overall success of endodontic treatment. Therefore, a considerable improvement in the quality of RCT and CR in general dental practice is required to promote oral/periapical health.
How to cite this article: Khullar P, Raisingani D, Gupta S, Khatri RK. A Survey Report on Effect of Root Canal Fillings and Coronal Restorations on the Periapical Status of Endodontically Treated Teeth in a Selected Group of Population. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(2):89-94.
doi:10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1196
PMCID: PMC4086584  PMID: 25206199
Apical periodontitis; Endodontic treatment; Coronal restoration; Root fillings
15.  Success Rate of Nonsurgical Endodontic Treatment of Nonvital Teeth with Variable Periradicular Lesions 
Iranian Endodontic Journal  2011;6(3):119-124.
INTRODUCTION
Bacterial infection of tooth pulp can progress into periapical diseases. Root canal treatment has been established as the best treatment. In cases of failure, nonsurgical retreatment of teeth is preferred to surgical procedure and extraction.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
In this historical cohort study, 104 permanent teeth with apical lesion were treated during 2002-2008. All teeth showed radiographic evidence of periapical lesion varying in size from 1 to >10mm. A total of 55 teeth were treated with initial root canal treatment and 49 teeth required retreatment. Patients were recalled up to ≈7 years. All radiographs were taken by RSV MAC digital imaging set and long cone technique. The presence/absence of signs and symptoms and periapical index scores (PAI) were used for measuring outcome. Teeth were classified as healed (clinical/radiographic absence of signs and symptoms) or diseased (clinical/radiographic presence of signs and symptoms). The data were statistically analyzed using student t-test and Pearson chi-square or fisher’s exact test.
RESULTS
The rate of complete healing for teeth with initial treatment was 89.7%, and for retreatment group was 85.7%; there was no significant difference. Size of lesions did not significantly affect the treatment outcomes. Success of tooth treatment did not reveal significant correlation with gender and number of roots.
CONCLUSION
Orthograde endodontic treatment/retreatment demonstrates favorable outcomes. Thus, nonsurgical endodontic treatment/retreatment should be considered as the first choice in teeth with large periapical lesion.
PMCID: PMC3487520  PMID: 23130063
Endodontics; Periapical Disease; Retreatment; Root Canal Therapy; Treatment Outcome
16.  Comparing the Bacterial Diversity of Acute and Chronic Dental Root Canal Infections 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(11):e28088.
This study performed barcoded multiplex pyrosequencing with a 454 FLX instrument to compare the microbiota of dental root canal infections associated with acute (symptomatic) or chronic (asymptomatic) apical periodontitis. Analysis of samples from 9 acute abscesses and 8 chronic infections yielded partial 16S rRNA gene sequences that were taxonomically classified into 916 bacterial species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (at 3% divergence) belonging to 67 genera and 13 phyla. The most abundant phyla in acute infections were Firmicutes (52%), Fusobacteria (17%) and Bacteroidetes (13%), while in chronic infections the dominant were Firmicutes (59%), Bacteroidetes (14%) and Actinobacteria (10%). Members of Fusobacteria were much more prevalent in acute (89%) than in chronic cases (50%). The most abundant/prevalent genera in acute infections were Fusobacterium and Parvimonas. Twenty genera were exclusively detected in acute infections and 18 in chronic infections. Only 18% (n = 165) of the OTUs at 3% divergence were shared by acute and chronic infections. Diversity and richness estimators revealed that acute infections were significantly more diverse than chronic infections. Although a high interindividual variation in bacterial communities was observed, many samples tended to group together according to the type of infection (acute or chronic). This study is one of the most comprehensive in-deep comparisons of the microbiota associated with acute and chronic dental root canal infections and highlights the role of diverse polymicrobial communities as the unit of pathogenicity in acute infections. The overall diversity of endodontic infections as revealed by the pyrosequencing technique was much higher than previously reported for endodontic infections.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028088
PMCID: PMC3221700  PMID: 22132218
17.  Prevalence of apical periodontitis and quality of root canal treatment in an adult Palestinian sub-population 
The Saudi Dental Journal  2012;24(3-4):149-155.
Purpose
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of apical periodontitis and the technical quality of root canal fillings in a Palestinian sub-population.
Methods
The panoramic radiographs of 258 patients (142 females, 116 males) attending dental clinics in 2010 were examined to identify the presence of apical lesions associated with any remaining teeth, excluding third molars. The technical quality of root canal fillings was also evaluated by assessing apical extension from the radiographic apex. The panoramic radiographs were taken by a well-trained radiology assistant and evaluated by a radiologist and an endodontist. Statistical analysis was performed with the chi-square test with a significant level set at P < 0.05%.
Results
Of 6482 teeth examined radiographically, 978 (15.1%) had radiographic signs of apical periodontitis (AP). The prevalence of AP was 8.3% in teeth without filled roots and 59.5% (509/855) in root canal-treated teeth. The prevalence of AP and endodontic treatment increased with age and differed significantly (p < 0.05) between males and females. The majority (74.5%) of root canal fillings was performed inadequately, and most (77.2%) inadequate fillings were >2 mm short of the radiographic apex. The presence of AP was correlated significantly with poorly executed root canal fillings (p < 0.05).
Conclusions
The present study found a high prevalence and incidence of AP in association with root-filled teeth. The technical quality of many root canal treatments was unacceptable.
doi:10.1016/j.sdentj.2012.02.001
PMCID: PMC3729275  PMID: 23960544
Apical periodontitis; Epidemiology; Radiographic evaluation; Root canal treatment
18.  Quantitative and qualitative analysis of microorganisms in root-filled teeth with persistent infection: Monitoring of the endodontic retreatment 
European Journal of Dentistry  2013;7(3):302-309.
Objective:
The aim of this study was to investigate in vivo microorganisms detected in root-filled teeth with post-treatment apical periodontitis and quantify colony-forming units (CFU) during endodontic retreatment.
Materials and Methods:
Fifteen root-filled teeth had their previous gutta-percha removed and were randomly instrumented before being divided into three groups and medicated with either [Ca(OH)2 + 2% CHX gel], [Ca(OH)2 + 0.9% NaCl] or 2% CHX gel. Samples were taken after removal of gutta-percha (S1), after chemomechanical preparation using 2% CHX gel (S2), and after inter-appointment dressing (S3) for 7 or 14 days later. Cultivable bacteria recovered from infected root canals at the three stages were counted and identified by means of culture and PCR assay (16S rDNA). Quantitative data were statistically analyzed by using Mann-Whitney test in which pairs of groups were compared (P < 0.05).
Results:
CFU counts decreased significantly from S1 to S2 (P < 0.05). No significant difference was found between S2 and S3 (P = 0.3093) for all three experimental groups. Chemomechanical preparation and intra-canal dressing promoted significant median reductions of 99.61% and 99.57%, respectively, in the number of bacteria compared to S1 samples. A total of 110 cultivable isolates were recovered by culture technique from 32 different species and 7 different genera. Out of the 13 target species-specific primer of bacteria analyzed, 11 were detected during endodontic retreatment.
Conclusion:
The great majority of taxa found in post-treatment samples were Gram-positive bacteria, although Gram-negative bacteria were found by molecular methods. Moreover, our results showed that gutta-percha removal and chemomechanical preparation are effective for root canal disinfection, whereas additional intra-canal dressing did not improve disinfection.
doi:10.4103/1305-7456.115414
PMCID: PMC4053619  PMID: 24926210
Endodontic failure; endodontic outcome; intra-canal dressing; nonsurgical retreatment; root canal infection
19.  Treponema diversity in root canals with endodontic failure 
European Journal of Dentistry  2013;7(1):61-68.
Objective:
This study sought to investigate the prevalence of eight oral Treponemas (Treponema denticola, T. amylovorum, T. maltophilum, T. medium, T. pectinovorum, T. socranskii, T. vicentii and T. lecithinolyticum) in teeth with endodontic treatment failure and periapical lesion.
Methods:
Samples were taken from 40 root canals presenting endodontic failure and periapical lesion. DNA extraction was performed and Nested-PCR technique was used for the detection of Treponema species using specific primers.
Results:
Treponemas was detected in 56.5% of the samples analyzed (22/39). Individual root canals yielded a maximum of 6 target Treponema species. T. denticola (30.8%) and T. maltophilum (30.8%) were the most frequently detected species followed by T. medium (20.5%), T. socranskii (20.5%), T. pectinovorum (17.9%) and T. vicentii (17.9%). Positive association was verified between T. denticola and T. maltophilum such as T. medium (P<.05). T. lecithinolyticum was positively associated with intraradicular post (P<.05).
Conclusion:
The present study revealed that a wide variety of Treponema species plays a role in persistent/secondary infection turning the root canal microbiota even more complex than previously described by endodontic literature.
PMCID: PMC3571511  PMID: 23408792
Endodontic failure; microbiology; nested-PCR; bacteria; root canal
20.  Periapical Status and Quality of Root canal Fillings and Coronal Restorations in Iranian Population 
Iranian Endodontic Journal  2010;5(2):74-82.
INTRODUCTION
This cross-sectional survey determined the dental prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP) in selected Iranian population, and evaluated the influence of the quality of root canal treatment (RCT) and their coronal restorations (CR) on the periapical status.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A total of 1064 panoramic radiographies were evaluated by two observers during 2009. The quality of RCT i.e. length/density of root fillings and CR in addition to periapical status of endodontically treated teeth were recorded. Their interrelationship was analyzed by Chi-squared, logistic regression and Spearman's rho statistics. Hosmer and Lemeshow tests were used for assessing fitness of logistic regression model and one sample k-s test was used for evaluating of normality of the data.
RESULTS
Our results showed that 527 teeth (52%) of the endodontically treated teeth presented with AP radiographically. The percentages of teeth which fulfilled the criteria of an acceptable RCT or CR radiographically were 42.3 and 62.5 respectively. Incidence of AP among teeth with acceptable RCT (29.1%) was significantly lower than those suffering from unacceptable RCT (68.8%) (P<0.001). Moreover, adequate CR demonstrated a significantly better periapical status (58.6%) compared to teeth with inadequate CR (30.3%) (P<0.001). The incidence of AP ranged from 25.6% (good qualities) to 79.5% (bad qualities) (P<0.001). Cases with both unacceptable RCT/CR were 11 times more likely to have AP than cases with acceptable RCT/CR. The quality of RCT and CR were found to impact the periapical health of endodontically treated teeth.
CONCLUSION
There are a significant high number of technically unacceptable endodontic and restorative treatments in Iran; therefore considerable efforts are needed to improve the standards of endodontic and restorative treatments.
PMCID: PMC3487502  PMID: 23130031
Apical Periodontitis; Coronal Restoration; Endodontic Outcomes; Epidemiology; Root Fillings
21.  Copper Ion as a New Leakage Tracer 
Journal of Dentistry  2013;14(4):155-159.
Statement of Problem: Most failures of root canal treatments are caused by bacteria. Studies showed that the most common cause of endodontic failures were the incomplete obturation of the root canal and the lack of adequate apical seal. Some in-vitro methods are used to estimate sealing quality, generally by measuring microleakage that allows the tracer agent to penetrate the filled canal.
Purpose: Conventional methods of evaluating the seal of endodontically treated teeth are complicated and have some drawbacks. We used copper ion diffusion method to assess the leakage and the results were compared to dye penetration method.
Materials and Method: The crowns of 21 extracted teeth were cut off at the CEJ level. After preparing the canals, the teeth were placed in tubes containing saline. They were divided randomly into 15 experimental cases; 3 positive and 3 negative controls. Positive controls were filled by single cone without sealer while the experimental and the negative control groups were filled by lateral technique. The coronal portion of gutta was removed and 9mm was left. The external surface of each tooth was coated with nail polish. Two millimeters of apical portion was immersed into 9ml of distilled water and 0.3ml of CuSO4 solution was injected into the coronal portion. After 2 days, copper sulfate was measured by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The teeth were then immersed in 2% methylene blue for 24 hours, sectioned and the extent of dye penetration was measured by a stereomicroscope.
Results: The maximum and minimum recorded copper ion concentrations for the experimental group were 18.37 and 2.87ppm respectively. The maximum and minimum recorded dye penetrations for the experimental group were 8.5 and 3.5mm respectively. The statistical analysis, adopting paired samples test, showed poor correlation between average recorded results of two methods.
Conclusion: Based on our results, there was no significant correlation between the dye penetration and the copper ion diffusion methods.
PMCID: PMC3977513  PMID: 24724138
Apical Leakage; Copper Diffusion; Dye Penetration; Methylene Blue
22.  Evaluation of Pain in Single and Multi Rooted Teeth Treated in Single Visit Endodontic Therapy 
Background: The incidence of post-operative pain was compared following single-visit canal treatment in single- and multi-rooted teeth, with and without periapical radiolucency. The article also reviews the issues of postoperative pain and healing, following single-visit and multi-visit endodontic therapy. Single-visit endodontic therapy (SVE) was performed in 50 single-rooted teeth and 60 multiple-rooted teeth.
Materials & Methods: Single-visit endodontic therapy (SVE) was performed in 50 single-rooted teeth and 60 multiple-rooted teeth. The subjects were divided as follows: Group I -Single-rooted teeth with periapical radiolucency (n=25); Group II–Single-rooted teeth without periapical radiolucency (n=25); Group III–Multiple-rooted teeth with periapical radiolucency (n=30); and Group IV-Multiple-rooted teeth without periapical radiolucency (n=30). Assessment of postoperative pain was done at 24hrs, 3 days and 1 week using a self report questionnaire. The data was analyzed using non-parametric Kruskal -Wallis test.
Results: No statistically significant difference was observed in postoperative pain following SVE between the single-rooted and multiple-rooted teeth groups at 24hrs, 3 days and 1 week. The presence or absence of periapical radiolucency had no significant influence on the incidence of reported postoperative pain following SVE.
Conclusion: There was no difference in incidence of pain in single rooted teeth and multi-rooted teeth with and without periapical radiolucencies following SVE. Thus, incidence of post-operative pain does not seem to be a valid comparison criterion between single- and multiple-visit endodontic therapies. Also, the literature suggests similar success rates with single-visit and multiple-visit root canal treatment.
How to cite the article: Raju TB, Seshadri A, Vamsipavani B, Abhilash K, Subhash AV, Kumari KV. Evaluation of Pain in Single and Multi Rooted Teeth Treated in Single Visit Endodontic Therapy. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):27-32.
PMCID: PMC3959133  PMID: 24653599
Evidence based practice; multi-rooted teeth; periapical radiolucency; post-operative pain; single-visit root canal treatment
23.  Comparison of Endodontic Treatment Results Yielded from Using Normal Saline with IKI Final Rinse or NaOCl Irrigation: A 30-Month Follow-up Study 
Iranian Endodontic Journal  2013;8(4):171-176.
Introduction
The aim of this clinical trial was to evaluate and compare the endodontic treatment results of teeth with apical periodontitis after thirty-month recall with two different irrigation regimen: normal saline followed by Iodine Potassium Iodide (IKI) or sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) irrigation alone.
Materials and Methods
Twenty seven patients (30 teeth) who had been included in the first part of our antimicrobial survey were recalled. In previous stage, root canal treatments were performed using either normal saline with IKI final rinse (n = 15) or NaOCl (n = 15) as irrigating solutions. Bacterial samples were taken before and after instrumentation. In this stage, three patients (6 teeth) were excluded from the follow-up schedule since they did not respond to the recall requests. The remaining 24 subjects (12 teeth in each NaOCl and IKI group) were examined clinically and radiologically. Post-operative and follow-up images were coded, blindly evaluated and given a periapical score according to PAI scoring system. The outcome was assessed in two ways; first, the changes in PAI score from base line to the follow-up evaluation in each group were assessed by wilcoxon signed rank test. In addition, Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the differences between the post-operative and follow-up images of treatment groups. Second, the dichotomous variables as “healed” or “not healed” were compared.
Results
The Median (Min, Max) PAI scores for NaOCl group and IKI group were both 5 (3, 5) for immediate post-operative radiographs and declined to 1 (1, 2) and 2 (1, 2), respectively. A statistically significant decrease in PAI score from the base line to the follow-up evaluation was seen in both groups (P = 0.002). The decrease in NaOCl group was higher significantly in comparison to IKI group (P = 0.036). One hundred percent of the teeth were healed in both groups (PAI ≤ 2) and no teeth showed any abnormal clinical findings.
Conclusion
Root canal irrigation with NaOCl resulted in a significant higher decrease in PAI scores in comparison to irrigation with normal saline followed by IKI final rinse. Although, according to results of 30-months recall, complete bone formation was observed in all samples in both groups and no teeth showed any abnormal clinical findings. These findings depict the weight of all important clinical and biological factors which together impact the results of a successful endodontic treatment.
PMCID: PMC3808676  PMID: 24171024
Apical Periodontitis; Healing; Iodine Potassium Iodide; Sodium Hypochlorite
24.  Uncultivated Phylotypes and Newly Named Species Associated with Primary and Persistent Endodontic Infections 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2005;43(7):3314-3319.
Endodontic infections have been traditionally studied by culture methods, but recent reports showing that over 50% of the oral microbiota is still uncultivable (B. J. Paster et al., J. Bacteriol. 183:3770-3783, 2001) raise the possibility that many endodontic pathogens remain unknown. This study intended to investigate the prevalence of several uncultivated oral phylotypes, as well as newly named species in primary or persistent endodontic infections associated with chronic periradicular diseases. Samples were taken from the root canals of 21 untreated teeth and 22 root-filled teeth, all of them with radiographic evidence of periradicular bone destruction. Genomic DNA was isolated directly from each sample, and 16S rRNA gene-based nested or heminested PCR assays were used to determine the presence of 13 species or phylotypes of bacteria. Species-specific primers had already been validated in the literature or were developed by aligning closely related 16S rRNA gene sequences. Species specificity for each primer pair was confirmed by running PCRs against a panel of several oral bacteria and by sequencing DNA from representative positive samples. All species or phylotypes were detected in at least one case of primary infections. The most prevalent species or phylotypes found in primary infections were Dialister invisus (81%), Synergistes oral clone BA121 (33%), and Olsenella uli (33%). Of the target bacteria, only these three species were detected in persistent infections. Detection of uncultivated phylotypes and newly named species in infected root canals suggests that there are previously unrecognized bacteria that may play a role in the pathogenesis of periradicular diseases.
doi:10.1128/JCM.43.7.3314-3319.2005
PMCID: PMC1169097  PMID: 16000454
25.  The Number of Roots and Canals in the Maxillary Second Premolars in a Group of Jordanian Population 
Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate the number of roots and root canals in the maxillary second premolar in a group of Jordanian population. Materials and Methods. A total of 217 patients, 100 female (46%) and 117 male (54%), received root canal treatment of maxillary second premolar from January 2012 to January 2014. The mean age of the patients was 32.7, ranging from 18 to 60 years. The teeth included in the study were examined clinically and radiographically for the number of roots and root canals using magnifying loupes. Results. Out of the total of 217 maxillary second premolars, 120 teeth had one root (55.3%), 96 teeth had two roots (44.2%), and one tooth had three roots (0.46%). Regarding root canal configuration, 30 teeth (13.8%) had one canal, 54 teeth (24.9%) had two canals shared in one apical foramen, 132 teeth (60.8%) had two canals with two separate apical foramina, and one tooth (0.46%) had three canals with separate apical foramina. Conclusion. The incidence of two canals (either with shared or separate apical foramina) is very high in the maxillary second premolars in Jordanian population; therefore inspection should be done for the presence of second canal whenever endodontic treatment is planned for this tooth.
doi:10.1155/2014/797692
PMCID: PMC4235517  PMID: 25530761

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