We studied the involvement of interferon-regulated, PKR on 2-ME–mediated actions in human osteosarcoma cells. Our results show that PKR is activated by 2-ME treatment and is necessary for 2-ME–mediated induction of osteosarcoma cell death.
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor and most frequently develops during adolescence. 2-Methoxyestradiol (2-ME), a metabolite of 17β-estradiol, induces interferon gene expression and apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells. In this report, we studied the role of interferon-regulated double-stranded (ds)RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) protein on 2-ME–mediated cell death in human osteosarcoma cells.
Materials and Methods
Western blot analyses were used to measure PKR protein and phosphorylation levels. Cell survival and apoptosis assays were measured using trypan blue exclusion and Hoechst dye methods, respectively. A transient transfection protocol was used to express the dominant negative PKR mutants.
Results and Conclusions
PKR was increased in 2-ME–treated MG63 cells, whereas 17β-estradiol, 4-hydroxyestradiol, and 16α-hydroxyestradiol, which do not induce cell death, had no effect on PKR protein levels. Also, 2-ME treatment induced PKR kinase activity as indicated by increased autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of the endogenous substrate, eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)-2α. dsRNA poly (I).poly (C), an activator of PKR protein, increased cell death when osteosarcoma cells were treated with a submaximal concentration of 2-ME. In contrast, a serine-threonine kinase inhibitor SB203580 and a specific PKR inhibitor 2-aminopurine (2-AP) blocked the 2-ME–induced cell death in MG63 cells. A dominant negative PKR mutant protein conferred resistance to 2-ME–induced cell death to MG63 osteosarcoma and 2-ME–mediated PKR regulation did not require interferon gene expression. PKR protein is activated in cell free extracts by 2-ME treatment, resulting in autophosphorylation and in the phosphorylation of the substrate eIF-2α. We conclude from these results that PKR is regulated by 2-ME independently of interferon and is essential for 2-ME–mediated cell death in MG63 osteosarcoma cells.
estrogen metabolite; MG63 cells; interferon; protein kinase; double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase
High-grade osteosarcoma has a poor prognosis with an overall survival rate of about 60 percent. The recently closed European and American Osteosarcoma Study Group (EURAMOS)-1 trial investigates the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy with or without interferon-α. It is however unknown whether the interferon-signaling pathways in immune cells of osteosarcoma patients are functional. We studied the molecular and functional effects of interferon treatment on peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes of osteosarcoma patients, both in vivo and ex vivo. In contrast to other tumor types, in osteosarcoma, interferon signaling as determined by the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1 at residue 701 was intact in immune cell subsets of 33 osteosarcoma patients as compared to 19 healthy controls. Also, cytolytic activity of interferon-α stimulated natural killer cells against allogeneic (n = 7 patients) and autologous target cells (n = 3 patients) was not impaired. Longitudinal monitoring of three osteosarcoma patients on interferon-α monotherapy revealed a relative increase in the CD16-positive subpopulation of monocytes during treatment. Since interferon signaling is intact in immune cells of osteosarcoma patients, there is a potential for indirect immunological effects of interferon-α treatment in osteosarcoma.
Osteosarcoma; Tumor immunology; Interferon-α; NK cell
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Recent studies have shown that extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN/CD147) promotes adhesion, invasion and metastasis of malignant tumor cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of EMMPRIN/CD147 expression on prognosis and its correlation with clinicopathological characteristics in patients with osteosarcoma. The expression of EMMPRIN/CD147 in 55 surgical specimens from patients with osteosarcoma at stage IIA or above, 15 non-tumor rib bone tissues, three human osteosarcoma cell lines (Saos-2, U-2OS and MG-63), the human osteoblast cell line HOB and the malignant melanoma cell line A375 were examined by immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis and ELISA, respectively. The potential association of the levels of EMMPRIN/CD147 expression in osteosarcoma specimens with the overall survival of patients was statistically analyzed. We found that the EMMPRIN/CD147 was expressed in 45 out of 55 osteosarcomas, with immunoreactivity primarily within the membrane and cytoplasm of tumor cells, but not in the non-tumor bone tissues. We also observed that EMMPRIN/CD147 was expressed in Saos-2, U-2OS, MG-63 and A375, but not in HOB cells. The levels of EMMPRIN/CD147 expression correlated positively with the pathological degree of osteosarcoma and negatively with the survival period of patients with osteosarcoma. The expression of EMMPRIN/CD147 is a potential factor in the development and prognosis of osteosarcoma and may be a novel therapeutic target of human osteosarcoma.
extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer; osteosarcoma; prognosis; overall survival
Osteosarcoma often develops micrometastases in the lung prior to diagnosis, causing a fatal outcome. Therefore, the prevention of pulmonary metastases is critical for the improvement of the prognosis of patients with osteosarcoma. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether troglitazone (TGZ) is considered as possible therapeutics in the treatment of growth and metastasis of osteosarcoma.
LM8 cells were treated for 3 days with various concentrations of TGZ. The effect of TGZ on cell proliferation was determined by DNA measurement in the cultures and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation study. The assay of cell invasion and motility was performed using either the Matrigel-coated cell culture inserts or the uncoated cell culture inserts in the invasion chambers. The effect of TGZ on Akt signaling was assessed by Western blot analysis of Akt and p-Akt. The effects of oral administration of either TGZ (TGZ group) or ethanol (control group) on the growth of primary tumor and the development of pulmonary metastasis were examined in nude mice implanted with LM8 cells on their backs. The expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) within the tumor were determined by immunohistochemistry and zymography. The microvessel density (MVD) within the tumor was determined by immunohistochemistry for CD34.
TGZ dose-dependently inhibits cell proliferation. TGZ-treated cells were less invasive and less motile than untreated cells. The activity of MMP-2 secreted by TGZ-treated cells was lower than that secreted by untreated cells. TGZ decreased the level of p-Akt. The primary tumor mass was smaller in the TGZ group than in the control group. The TGZ group had less metastatic tumors in the lung compared with the control group. The expression and activity of MMP-2 within the tumor of the TGZ group were lower than those of the control group. The MVD within the tumor of the TGZ group was lower than that of the control group.
Inhibition of Akt signaling by TGZ may decrease the secretion of MMP-2, resulting in the decrease of invasiveness and motility in LM8 cells. Treatment of tumor-bearing mice with TGZ decreases the expression and activity of MMP-2 within the tumor, and inhibits primary tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis development. TGZ may offer a new approach in chemotherapy for osteosarcoma.
2-Methoxyestradiol (2-ME), a naturally occurring mammalian metabolite of 17β-Estradiol (E2), induces cell death in osteosarcoma cells. To further understand the molecular mechanisms of action, we have investigated cell cycle progression in 2-ME-treated human osteosarcoma (MG63, SaOS-2 and LM8) cells. At 5 μM, 2-ME induced growth arrest by inducing a block in cell cycle; 2-ME-treatment resulted in 2-fold increases in G1 phase cells and a decrease in S phase cells in MG63 and SaOS-2 osteosarcoma cell lines, compared to the appropriate vehicle controls. 2-ME-treatment induced a 3-fold increase in the G2 phase in LM8 osteosarcoma cells. The results demonstrated steroid specificity, as the tumorigenic metabolite, 16α-hydroxyestradiol (16-OHE), did not have any effect on cell cycle progression in osteosarcoma cells. The cell cycle arrest coincided with an increase in expression of the cell cycle markers p21, p27 and p53 proteins in 2-ME-treated osteosarcoma cells. Also, MG63 cells, transiently transfected with cDNA for a ‘loss of function mutant” RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) protein, were resistant to 2-ME-induced cell cycle arrest. These results suggest that 2-ME works in concert with factors regulating cell cycle progression, and cell cycle arrest precedes cell death in 2-ME-treated osteosarcoma cells.
estrogen metabolite; MG63 cells; cell cycle arrest; PKR
Osteosarcoma is the most common type of primary bone tumor. The use of aggressive chemotherapy has drastically improved the prognosis of the patients with non-metastatic osteosarcomas, however the prognosis of the patients with metastasis is still very poor. Then, new and more effective treatments for curing osteosarcoma, such as immunotherapy are needed. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) have been involved in the control of tumor development and already assessed with success for the treatment of several cancers including melanoma. While TIL represent a fascinating therapeutic approach in numerous malignant pathologies, there is few report concerning adult bone-associated tumors including osteosarcoma.
Human TIL were isolated and characterized (phenotype, lytic activity) from twenty-seven patients with bone-associated tumors (osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, giant cell tumor, chondrosarcoma, plasmocytoma and bone metastases). Similar experiments were performed using rat osteosarcoma model.
While TIL with a main CD4+ profile were easily isolated from most of the tumor samples, only TIL extracted from osteosarcoma were cytotoxic against allogeneic tumor cells. In all cases, TIL lytic activity was significantly higher compared to autologous peripheral blood leukocytes. Similar data were observed in rat osteosarcoma model where TIL were characterized by a main CD4+ profile and high lytic activity against allogeneic and autologous tumor cells. Moreover, rat TIL expansion was not accompanied by refractoriness to further activation stimulus mainly by tumor antigens.
These results demonstrated that TIL therapy could be a very efficient strategy for the treatment of adult osteosarcoma.
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone with poorly characterized molecular pathways important in its pathogenesis. Increasing evidence indicates that elevated lipid biosynthesis is a characteristic feature of cancer. We sought to investigate the role of lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase β (LPAATβ, aka, AGPAT2) in regulating the proliferation and growth of human osteosarcoma cells. LPAATβ can generate phosphatidic acid, which plays a key role in lipid biosynthesis as well as in cell proliferation and survival. Although elevated expression of LPAATβ has been reported in several types of human tumors, the role of LPAATβ in osteosarcoma progression has yet to be elucidated.
Endogenous expression of LPAATβ in osteosarcoma cell lines is analyzed by using semi-quantitative PCR and immunohistochemical staining. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of LPAATβ and silencing LPAATβ expression is employed to determine the effect of LPAATβ on osteosarcoma cell proliferation and migration in vitro and osteosarcoma tumor growth in vivo. We have found that expression of LPAATβ is readily detected in 8 of the 10 analyzed human osteosarcoma lines. Exogenous expression of LPAATβ promotes osteosarcoma cell proliferation and migration, while silencing LPAATβ expression inhibits these cellular characteristics. We further demonstrate that exogenous expression of LPAATβ effectively promotes tumor growth, while knockdown of LPAATβ expression inhibits tumor growth in an orthotopic xenograft model of human osteosarcoma.
Our results strongly suggest that LPAATβ expression may be associated with the aggressive phenotypes of human osteosarcoma and that LPAATβ may play an important role in regulating osteosarcoma cell proliferation and tumor growth. Thus, targeting LPAATβ may be exploited as a novel therapeutic strategy for the clinical management of osteosarcoma. This is especially attractive given the availability of selective pharmacological inhibitors.
Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor in children. Despite the advent of chemotherapy, the survival of osteosarcoma patients has not been significantly improved recently. Chemokines are a group of signaling molecules that have been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis.
We used an antibody microarray to identify chemokines that were elevated in the plasma samples of osteosarcoma patients. The results were validated using ELISAs on an independent set of samples. The tumor expressions of three chemokines were examined in two sets of osteosarcoma tissue arrays. We also evaluated the proliferative effect of the chemokines in four osteosarcoma cell lines.
We found that the plasma levels of CXCL4, CXCL6 and CXCL12 in the osteosarcoma patients were significantly higher than the controls, and the results were validated by an independent osteosarcoma cohort (p < 0.05). However, only CXCL4 (100%) and CXCL6 (91%) were frequently expressed in osteosarcoma, whereas CXCL12 was only expressed in 4%. Survival analysis further showed that higher circulating levels of CXCL4 and CXCL6, but not CXCL12, were associated with a poorer outcome of osteosarcoma patients. Addition of exogenous chemokines significantly promoted the growth of different osteosarcoma cells (p < 0.05).
Our results demonstrate that CXCL4 and CXCL6 are frequently expressed in osteosarcoma and the plasma levels of these two chemokines are associated with patient outcomes. Further study of these circulating chemokines may provide a promising approach for prognostication of osteosarcoma. Targeting these chemokines or their receptors may also lead to a novel therapeutic invention.
osteosarcoma; CXC chemokines; biomarkers; antibody microarray; cell proliferation
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor, accounting for approximately 20% of all primary sarcomas in bone. Although treatment modalities have been improved over the past decades, it is still a tumor with a high mortality rate in children and young adults. Based on histological considerations, osteosarcoma arises from impaired differentiation of these immature cells into more mature types and that correction of this impairment may reduce malignancy and increase the efficiency of chemotherapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of specific inhibitors of MAPK extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK) and p38 on the differentiation of human osteosarcoma cell line SaOS-2 cells. We found that PD98059, a specific inhibitor of MEK, inhibited the serum-stimulated proliferation of SaOS-2 cells; whereas SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, had little effect on it. SB203580 suppressed ALPase activity, gene expression of type I collagen, and expression of ALP and BMP-2 mRNAs; whereas PD98059 upregulated them dose dependently. In addition, immunoblot and immunostaining analysis revealed that phosphorylation of ERK was increased by treatment with SB203580; whereas PD98059 increased the phosphorylation of p38, which implies a seesaw-like balance between ERK and p38 phosphorylation. We suggest that osteosarcoma cell differentiation is regulated by the balance between the activities of the ERK and p38 pathways and that the MEK/ERK pathway negatively regulates osteosarcoma cell differentiation, whereas the p38 pathway does so positively. MEK inhibitor may thus be a good candidate for altering the expression of the osteosarcoma malignant phenotype.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase; Extracellular signal-regulated kinase; Differentiaton
Phenylacetate has potent antiproliferative effects in many malignant tumors. However, the exact mechanism as to how phenylacetate induces cell growth arrest remains unclear and very little is known about its effects on human osteosarcoma cells. In this study, we investigated whether phenylacetate is effective against two osteosarcoma cell lines (HOS and U-2 OS) in vitro.
Materials and Methods
The viability of phenylacetate-treated cell lines was assessed by trypan blue exclusion assay, and the cell cycle distribution was measured by flow cytometry. To measure cell apoptosis, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage assay and flow cytometry were employed. The expressions of cell cycle-regulatory proteins and the apoptosis-related genes were evaluated by western blot analysis.
Phenylacetate was found to inhibit the growth of osteosarcoma cells, induce cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase, and induce apoptosis. A significant decrease in Bcl-2 expression and a mild up-regulation of Bax were also observed in both phenylacetate-treated cell lines. Reduced phosphorylation of the pRb and the increased expression of p21Cip1 were observed subsequent to treatment with phenylacetate.
These findings support the idea that phenylacetate may be an effective chemotherapeutic agent to be employed in the future against osteosarcoma, because phenylacetate acts to inhibit the growth of osteosarcoma cells through cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.
Phenylacetate; Osteosarcoma; Cell cycle; Apoptosis
The study shows constitutive activation of the Notch pathway in various types of malignancies. However, it remains unclear how the Notch pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma. We investigated the expression of the Notch pathway molecules in osteosarcoma biopsy specimens and examined the effect of Notch pathway inhibition. Real-time PCR revealed overexpression of Notch2, Jagged1, HEY1, and HEY2. On the other hand, Notch1 and DLL1 were downregulated in biopsy specimens. Notch pathway inhibition using γ-secretase inhibitor and CBF1 siRNA slowed the growth of osteosarcomas in vitro. In addition, γ-secretase inhibitor-treated xenograft models exhibited significantly slower osteosarcoma growth. Cell cycle analysis revealed that γ-secretase inhibitor promoted G1 arrest. Real-time PCR and western blot revealed that γ-secretase inhibitor reduced the expression of accelerators of the cell cycle, including cyclin D1, cyclin E1, E2, and SKP2. On the other hand, p21cip1 protein, a cell cycle suppressor, was upregulated by γ-secretase inhibitor treatment. These findings suggest that inhibition of Notch pathway suppresses osteosarcoma growth by regulation of cell cycle regulator expression and that the inactivation of the Notch pathway may be a useful approach to the treatment of patients with osteosarcoma.
osteosarcoma; Notch; cell cycle; γ-secretase inhibitor; CBF1
Approximately 30% to 40% of all patients with osteosarcomas ultimately experience recurrence. The study investigated the hypothesis that the resistance of osteosarcoma to chemotherapy may be related to the expression of a pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR) variant protein and its role as the major inducer of P450 3A4 in these tumors.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analysis were used to determine PXR mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Real-time PCR and CYP3A catalytic activity using 7-benzyl-trifluoromethyl coumarin (BFC) as the probe substrate were used to measure the induction of P450 3A4 or MDR1. siRNA transfections were performed for PXR and cytotoxicity determined by a colorimetric based assay or Annexin v-Fitc staining.
Differences were observed in the molecular size of the PXR protein expressed in sarcoma cell lines when compared with the wildtype PXR expressed in normal liver, kidney, or small intestine. A polyclonal PXR antibody raised against the N-terminus of the wildtype PXR did not detect PXR expressed in these sarcoma cell lines. In the osteosarcoma cell lines, etoposide and doxorubicin were better inducers of P450 3A4 and MDR1 than rifampin. siRNA against PXR down-regulated P450 3A4 expression only in the osteosarcoma cell line. Cytotoxicity assays showed that the resistance of the osteosarcoma cell lines to etoposide correlated with PXR protein expression levels and activation of P450 3A4 and could be prevented by ketoconazole.
The results suggest that PXR plays a critical role in the regulation of P450 3A4 expression in osteosarcoma and that its expression and activation in these tumors may influence the effect of chemotherapeutic agents on the induction of target genes implicated in drug resistance.
PXR; P450 3A4; MDR1; osteosarcoma; drug resistance
The molecular mechanisms that are involved in the growth and invasiveness of osteosarcoma, an aggressive and invasive primary bone tumor, are not fully understood. The transcriptional co-factor FHL2 (four and a half LIM domains protein 2) acts as an oncoprotein or as a tumor suppressor depending on the tissue context. In this study, we investigated the role of FHL2 in tumorigenesis in osteosarcoma model.
Western blot analyses showed that FHL2 is expressed above normal in most human and murine osteosarcoma cells. Tissue microarray analysis revealed that FHL2 protein expression is high in human osteosarcoma and correlates with osteosarcoma aggressiveness. In murine osteosarcoma cells, FHL2 silencing using shRNA decreased canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling and reduced the expression of Wnt responsive genes as well as of the key Wnt molecules Wnt5a and Wnt10b. This effect resulted in inhibition of osteosarcoma cell proliferation, invasion and migration in vitro. Using xenograft experiments, we showed that FHL2 silencing markedly reduced tumor growth and lung metastasis occurence in mice. The anti-oncogenic effect of FHL2 silencing in vivo was associated with reduced cell proliferation and decreased Wnt signaling in the tumors.
Our findings demonstrate that FHL2 acts as an oncogene in osteosarcoma cells and contributes to tumorigenesis through Wnt signaling. More importantly, FHL2 depletion greatly reduces tumor cell growth and metastasis, which raises the potential therapeutic interest of targeting FHL2 to efficiently impact primary bone tumors.
The exact effect of hypoxia on cancer development is controversial. The present study investigates the ability of osteosarcoma to form tumors in the hypoxic microenvironment induced by CoCl2. MG63 human osteosarcoma cells were cultured with different concentrations (0, 150 and 300 μM) of CoCl2 for 24 h to simulate hypoxia in vitro. The expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α was analyzed by western blotting. The proliferation and drug resistance of MG63 cells were examined using the CCK-8 assay, the apoptosis rate was detected by flow cytometry, the ability to form spheroids was assessed by a sarcosphere culture system and invasiveness was determined by a vertical invasion assay. A transplantation assay was used to evaluate the ability to form tumors in vivo. Our results showed that the proliferation of MG63 cells was inhibited by treatment with CoCl2, while no effect on drug toxicity was observed. The apoptotic rate was increased in a dose-dependent manner, the ability to form sarcospheroids was suppressed, the invasiveness was inhibited and the expression of HIF-1α was upregulated following CoCl2 treatment. We also found that the ability to form tumors in vivo was inhibited. In conclusion, we provide strong evidence that CoCl2 has the ability to inhibit osteosarcoma development; the mechanism may be related to the hypoxic microenvironment and HIF-1α may be a critical regulatory factor.
hypoxia; CoCl2; osteosarcoma; HIF-1α
It has been reported that the progression of osteosarcoma was closely associated with aberrant activation of canonical Wnt signaling. Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (WIF-1) is a secreted Wnt inhibitor whose role in human osteosarcoma remains unknown. In this study, WIF-1 expression in normal human osteoblast and osteosarcoma cell lines was determined by real-time RT-PCR, methylation-specific PCR (MSP), and Western blotting analysis. In addition, tissue array from patient samples was examined for WIF-1 expression by immunohistochemistry. Compared to normal human osteoblasts, WIF-1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly down-regulated in several osteosarcoma cell lines. The downregulation of WIF-1 mRNA expression is associated with its promoter hypermethylation in these tested cell lines. Importantly, WIF-1 expression was also downregulated in 76% of examined osteosarcoma cases. These results suggest that the downregulation of WIF-1 expression plays a role in osteosarcoma progression. To further study the potential tumor suppressor function of WIF-1 in osteosarcoma, we established stable 143B cell lines overexpressing WIF-1. WIF-1 overexpression significantly decreased tumor growth rate in nude mice as examined by subcutaneous injection of 143B cells stably transfected with WIF-1 and vector control. WIF-1 overexpression also markedly reduced the number of lung metastasis in vivo in an orthotopic mouse model of osteosarcoma. Together, these data suggest that WIF-1 exerts potent anti-osteosarcoma effect in vivo in mouse models. Therefore, re-expression of WIF-1 in WIF-1 deficient osteosarcoma represents a potential novel treatment and preventive strategy.
osteosarcoma; Wnt; WIF-1; tumor growth; metastasis
Anticancer research resulted in the discovery of a promising antimitotic metabolite, 2-methoxyestradiol. 2-Methoxyestradiol-bis-sulphamate, a bis-sulphamoylated analogue exerts antiproliferative- and antimitotic activity. Investigating the anticancer potential of 2-methoxyestradiol-bis-sulphamate requires demonstrating the influence of 2-methoxyestradiol-bis-sulphamate on non-tumorigenic cells. This project focused on the in vitro effects of 2-methoxyestradiol-bis-sulphamate on the non-tumorigenic MCF-12A breast epithelial cell line.
The in vitro influence of 2-methoxyestradiol-bis-sulphamate was investigated on cell cycle progression, possible induction of apoptosis and autophagy and reactive oxygen species generation. Cell cycle progression was done using flow cytometry in conjunction with ethanol fixation and propidium iodide staining. Displaying effects on the mitochondrial membrane potential was achieved utilizing flow cytometry and the MitoCapture TM Mitochondrial apoptosis detection kit. Autophagy detection was done by means of flow cytometry and anti-LC3B conjugated to DyLight 488. Reactive oxygen species generation was conducted employing flow cytometry and 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate and hydroethidine.
This study demonstrated that 2-methoxyestradiol-bis-sulphamate did not affect cell cycle progression or reactive oxygen species in a statistically significant manner in the non-tumorigenic MCF-12A cell line. In addition, 2-methoxyestradiol-bis-sulphamate did not statistically significantly induce apoptosis or autophagy.
Reports indicate that 2-methoxyestradiol-bis-sulphamate induces apoptosis and autophagy in several tumorigenic cell lines. The anticancer ability of 2-methoxyestradiol-bis-sulphamate is due to its antimitotic activity. However, this study demonstrates the promising notion that 2-methoxyestradiol-bis-sulphamate does not affect the non-tumorigenic MCF-12A cells. This project contributes to the embedded scientific knowledge regarding the differential death mechanisms used by 2-methoxyestradiol-bis-sulphamate on tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cell lines.
Apoptosis; Autophagy; Non-tumorigenic; Reactive oxygen species
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor in childhood and adolescence. The use of combination chemotherapy and surgery enables long-term survival in approximately 60-70% of cases. However, the necessity for surgery, the poor prognosis of patients with metastatic or recurrent disease (long-term survival in only about 20% of cases), and the lack of establishment of second-line chemotherapy suggest that improvements in chemotherapy are desperately needed. Currently, in an effort to extend the protocol with the chemotherapy drugs that already exist, high-dose chemotherapy with/without autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, and tumor-targeted drug delivery systems are under investigation. Future drug developments will no doubt lie in the direction of immunotherapy and anti-angiogenic therapy, as well as the use of cytotoxic drugs. Identifying the genes and signal transduction pathways responsible for the development of osteosarcoma or for the occurrence of malignancy in cases of osteosarcoma will undoubtedly lead to the identification of pathway-specific agents, or possible gene therapy. Furthermore, as increased light is shed on the character of osetoblastic differentiation in osteosarcoma, this will certainly give rise to new treatments utilizing differentiation therapy. This article reviews the current status and perspectives regarding the treatment of osteosarcoma in terms of chemotherapy.
Recent evidence demonstrates that the efficacy of conventional anticancer therapies including chemotherapy requires a functional immune system. Here, we addressed the possibility that the antitumor effect of a selective Smoothened antagonist and Hedgehog (Hh) pathway inhibitor (LDE225), a promising anticancer drug, might at least partially depend on the immune system. To this aim, we used tumor cell lines derived from a murine model of radiation-induced osteosarcoma. In vitro treatment of osteosarcoma cells with LDE225 resulted in a decreased ability of tumor cells to proliferate, but had no effect on their viability. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that LDE225-treatment did not detectably modulate the immunogenicity of tumor cells. Moreover, LDE225 did not display any pro-apoptotic properties on osteosarcoma cells, highlighting that its antitumor profile mainly derives from a cytostatic effect. Furthermore, calreticulin exposure, a key feature of immunogenic cell death, was not provoked by LDE225, neither alone nor combined with recognized immunogenic drugs. Finally, the oral administration of LDE225 to osteosarcoma-bearing mice did significantly delay the tumor growth even in an immunocompromised setting. These data suggest that inhibiting Hh signaling can control osteosarcoma cell proliferation but does not modulate the immunogenic profile of these cells.
apoptosis; Hedgehog signaling pathway; immune response; immunogenicity; mouse; osteosarcoma; proliferation
Osteosarcoma (OS) affects over 8000 dogs/year in the United States. The disease usually arises in the appendicular skeleton and metastasizes to the lung. Dogs with localized appendicular disease benefit from limb amputation and chemotherapy but most die within 6–12 months despite these treatments. Taurolidine, a derivative of taurine, has anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic effects against a variety of cancers. The following in vitro studies tested taurolidine as a candidate for adjuvant therapy for canine OS. Tests for p53 protein status and caspase activity were used to elucidate mechanisms of taurolidine-induced cell death.
Taurolidine was cytotoxic to osteosarcoma cells and increased the toxicity of doxorubicin and carboplatin in vitro. Apoptosis was greatly induced in cells exposed to 125 μM taurolidine and less so in cells exposed to 250 μM taurolidine. Taurolidine cytotoxicity appeared caspase-dependent in one cell line; with apparent mutant p53 protein. This cell line was the most sensitive to single agent taurolidine treatment and had a taurolidine-dependent reduction in accumulated p53 protein suggesting taurolidine’s effects may depend on the functional status of p53 in canine OS.
Taurolidine’s cytotoxic effect appears dependent on cell specific factors which may be explained, in part, by the functional status of p53. Taurolidine initiates apoptosis in canine OS cells and this occurs to a greater extent at lower concentrations. Mechanisms of cell death induced by higher concentrations were not elucidated here. Taurolidine combined with doxorubicin or carboplatin can increase the toxicity of these chemotherapy drugs and warrants further investigation in dogs with osteosarcoma.
Taurolidine; Osteosarcoma; In vitro; Apoptosis; Doxorubicin; Carboplatin
Autocrine motility factor (AMF) plays an important role in the development of metastasis by regulating tumor cell motility. The expression of AMF is associated with metastasis in malignant musculoskeletal tumors including osteosarcoma. Recent studies indicated that hyperthermia contributes to the improvement of the prognosis of patients with soft tissue sarcomas; however, few reports have evaluated the impact of hyperthermia on tumor cell motility, which is an important factor of metastasis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hyperthermia with or without heat shock protein (HSP) inhibitors on the motility and AMF expression in an osteosarcoma cell line. Hyperthermia was carried out at 41°C for 24 h. According to microarray results, HSP90, HSP70 and HSP27 expression was upregulated in osteosarcoma cells under hyperthermia. The intracellular, secreted AMF, mRNA of AMF and cell motility were evaluated by western blotting, ELISA, RT-PCR, wound healing and phagokinetic track assays, respectively. The protein secretion and mRNA levels of AMF and tumor cell motility were significantly decreased by hyperthermia. Of note, the downregulated AMF expression and motility were recovered by the addition of an HSP27 inhibitor. By contrast, the HSP90 and HSP70/72/105 inhibitors had no effect on AMF expression and motility downregulated by hyperthermia. In conclusion, hyperthermia reduced AMF expression and tumor cell motility via HSP27 and may therefore be applied as osteosarcoma treatment.
autocrine motility factor; heat shock protein; hyperthermia; metastasis; motility; osteosarcoma
Osteosarcoma is a very aggressive tumor with a propensity to metastasize and invade surrounding tissue. Identification of the molecular determinants of invasion and metastatic potential may guide the development of a rational strategy for devising specific therapies that target the pathways leading to osteosarcoma.
In this study, we used pathway-focused low density expression cDNA arrays to screen for candidate genes related to tumor progression. Expression patterns of the selected genes were validated by real time PCR on osteosarcoma patient tumor samples and correlated with clinical and pathological data.
THBS3, SPARC and SPP1 were identified as genes differentially expressed in osteosarcoma. In particular, THBS3 was expressed at significantly high levels (p = 0.0001) in biopsies from patients with metastasis at diagnosis, which is a predictor of worse overall survival, event-free survival and relapse free survival at diagnosis. After chemotherapy, patients with tumors over-expressing THBS3 have worse relapse free survival. High SPARC expression was found in 51/55 (96.3%) osteosarcoma samples derived from 43 patients, and correlated with the worst event-free survival (p = 0.03) and relapse free survival (p = 0.07). Overexpression of SPP1 was found in 47 of 53 (89%) osteosarcomas correlating with better overall survival, event-free survival and relapse free survival at diagnosis.
In this study three genes were identified with pattern of differential gene expression associated with a phenotypic role in metastasis and invasion. Interestingly all encode for proteins involved in extracellular remodeling suggesting potential roles in osteosarcoma progression. This is the first report on the THBS3 gene working as a stimulator of tumor progression. Higher levels of THBS3 maintain the capacity of angiogenesis. High levels of SPARC are not required for tumor progression but are necessary for tumor growth and maintenance. SPP1 is not necessary for tumor progression in osteosarcoma and may be associated with inflammatory response and bone remodeling, functioning as a good biomarker.
Bufalin is the primary component of the traditional Chinese herb “Chan Su”. Evidence suggests that this compound possesses potent anti-tumor activities, although the exact molecular mechanism(s) is unknown. Our previous study showed that bufalin inhibited growth of human osteosarcoma cell lines U2OS and U2OS/MTX300 in culture. Therefore, this study aims to further clarify the in vitro and in vivo anti-osteosarcoma effects of bufalin and its molecular mechanism of action. We found bufalin inhibited both methotrexate (MTX) sensitive and resistant human osteosarcoma cell growth and induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis. Using a comparative proteomics approach, 24 differentially expressed proteins following bufalin treatment were identified. In particular, the level of an anti-apoptotic protein, heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27), decreased remarkably. The down-regulation of Hsp27 and alterations of its partner signaling molecules (the decrease in p-Akt, nuclear NF-κB p65, and co-immunoprecipitated cytochrome c/Hsp27) were validated. Hsp27 over-expression protected against bufalin-induced apoptosis, reversed the dephosphorylation of Akt and preserved the level of nuclear NF-κB p65 and co-immunoprecipitated Hsp27/cytochrome c. Moreover, bufalin inhibited MTX-resistant osteosarcoma xenograft growth, and a down-regulation of Hsp27 in vivo was observed. Taken together, bufalin exerted potent anti-osteosarcoma effects in vitro and in vivo, even in MTX resistant osteosarcoma cells. The down-regulation of Hsp27 played a critical role in bufalin-induced apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells. Bufalin may have merit to be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for osteosarcoma, particularly in MTX-resistant groups.
One of the problems associated with osteosarcoma is the frequent formation of micrometastases in the lung prior to diagnosis because the development of metastatic lesions often causes a fatal outcome. Therefore, the prevention of pulmonary metastases during the early stage of tumor development is critical for the improvement of the prognosis of osteosarcoma patients. In Japan, soy is consumed in a wide variety of forms, such as miso soup and soy sauce. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of genistein, an isoflavone found in soy, on the invasive and motile potential of osteosarcoma cells.
LM8 cells were treated for 3 days with various concentrations of genistein. The effect of genistein on cell proliferation was determined by DNA measurement in the cultures and 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation study. The assays of cell invasion and motility were performed using the cell culture inserts with either matrigel-coated membranes or uncoated membranes in the invasion chambers. The expression and secretion of MMP-2 were determined by immunohistochemistry and gelatin zymography. The subcellular localization and cellular level of β-catenin were determined by immunofluorescence and Western blot. For examining cell morphology, the ethanol-fixed cells were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E). The expression of osteocalcin mRNA was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Genistein dose-dependently inhibits cell proliferation. Genistein-treated cells were less invasive and less motile than untreated cells. The expression and secretion of MMP-2 were lower in the genistein-treated cultures than in the untreated cultures. β-Catenin in untreated cells was located in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus, while in genistein-treated cells it was translocated near to the plasma membrane. The level of β-catenin was higher in genistein-treated cells than in untreated cells. Treatment of LM8 cells with genistein induced morphological changes, markedly decreased the formation of multilayer masses of cells, and markedly increased the expression of osteocalcin mRNA.
Genistein decreased invasive and motile potential by inducing cell differentiation in LM8 cells. Genistein may be useful as an anti-metastatic drug for osteosarcoma through its differentiation-inducing effects.
Genistein; LM8; Cell invasion; Matrix metalloproteinase-2; β-catenin; Cell differentiation
Osteosarcoma is the most common nonhematologic malignancy of bone in children and adults. The peak incidence occurs in the second decade of life, with a smaller peak after age 50. Osteosarcoma typically arises around the growth plate of long bones. Most osteosarcoma tumors are of high grade and tend to develop pulmonary metastases. Despite clinical improvements, patients with metastatic or recurrent diseases have a poor prognosis. Here, we reviewed the current understanding of human osteosarcoma, with an emphasis on potential links between defective osteogenic differentiation and bone tumorigenesis. Existing data indicate osteosarcoma tumors display a broad range of genetic and molecular alterations, including the gains, losses, or arrangements of chromosomal regions, inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, and the deregulation of major signaling pathways. However, except for p53 and/or RB mutations, most alterations are not constantly detected in the majority of osteosarcoma tumors. With a rapid expansion of our knowledge about stem cell biology, emerging evidence suggests osteosarcoma should be regarded as a differentiation disease caused by genetic and epigenetic changes that interrupt osteoblast differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells. Understanding the molecular pathogenesis of human osteosarcoma could ultimately lead to the development of diagnostic and prognostic markers, as well as targeted therapeutics for osteosarcoma patients.
The purpose of this study is to investigate whether Fas-associated death domain interleukin-1 converting enzyme like inhibitory protein (FLIP) inhibition is a therapeutic target associated 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME2) mediated tumor regression.
Expression and levels of FLIP was analyzed using (i) Real-Time PCR and immunoblot analysis in androgen independent PC-3 cells treated with the newly formulated 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME2) and (ii) immunohistochemistry in different Gleason pattern human prostate tumors. Transient transfections and Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were used to identify the transcription factors that regulate FLIP. Involvement of FLIP in 2-ME2 -induced tumor regression was evaluated in transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice.
High Gleason pattern (5+5) human prostate tumors exhibit significant increase in FLIP compared to low Gleason pattern 3+3 (p=<0.04). 2-ME2 reduced the levels and promoter activity of FLIP (p=0.001) in PC-3 cells. Transient expression assays show sequences between −503/+242 being sufficient for 2-ME2 induced inhibition of FLIP promoter activity. Co-transfection experiments show that overexpression of Sp1 activated, while Sp3 inhibited Sp1 transactivation of FLIP promoter activity (p=0.0001). 2-ME2 treatment reduced binding of Sp1 to the FLIP promoter as evidenced by ChIP. Further, levels of FLIP associated with Fas or FADD decreased, while cleavage of caspase-8, levels of Bid and apoptosis increased in response to 2-ME2 treatment in PC-3 cells. Administration of 2-ME2 regressed established prostate tumors in TRAMP mice that was associated with reduced expression of FLIP and Sp1.
Targeting Sp1 mediated FLIP signaling pathway may provide a novel approach for prostate cancer management.
FLIP promoter; apoptosis; 2-methoxyestradiol; Fas-FADD interaction; Sp1; Sp3