A gastric carcinoma with the endoscopic features resembling submucosal tumor (SMT) is rare, and reportedly account for only 0.1% to 0.63% of all resected gastric carcinomas. The preoperative diagnosis of SMT-like gastric carcinoma is challenging, and thus, diagnosis is usually made intraoperatively or postoperatively. Furthermore, mucinous adenocarcinoma is an uncommon histologic subtype of gastric carcinoma characterized as an elevated lesion resembling SMT due to abundant mucin pools in submucosa. Here, we report two cases in which a gastric mucinous adenocarcinoma was mistaken as a SMT.
Submucosal tumor; Gastric neoplasms; Adenocarcinoma; Mucinous
Gastric submucosal tumors (SMTs) are a rather frequent finding, occurring in about 0.36% of routine upper GI-endoscopies. EUS has emerged as a reliable investigative procedure for evaluation of these lesions. Diagnostic Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has the ability to differentiate intramural tumors from extraluminal compressions and can also show the layer of origin of gastric SMTs. Tumors can be further characterized by their layer of origin, echo pattern and margin. EUS-risk criteria of their malignant potential are presented, although the emergence of EUS-guided fne needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has opened new indications for transmural tissue diagnosis and expanded the possibilities of EUS in SMTs of the stomach. Tissue diagnosis should address whether the SMT is a Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) or another tumor type and evaluate the malignant potential of a given GIST. However, there seems to be a lack of data on the optimal strategy in SMTs suspected to be GISTs with a negative EUS-FNA tissue diagnosis. The current management strategies, as well as open questions regarding their treatment are also presented.
Endoscopic ultrasound; Gastric submucosal tumors; EUS-guided fne needle aspiration; Gastrointestinal stromal tumours
Concern about detecting gastric carcinoma in its early stages has increased the incidence of detecting multiple synchronous gastric carcinomas. Although gastric carcinomas may present with various gross features, those showing the features of submucosal tumor (SMT) are rare. We report on a case of synchronous gastric carcinomas comprising one lesion with typical features of superficial early gastric carcinoma and the other with atypical features that mimicked SMT. Even though synchronous gastric carcinoma is rare, it may be worthwhile to make a pathological diagnosis of coexisting SMT using endoscopic-ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration or endoscopic mucosal resection.
Synchronous cancer; Early gastric carcinoma; Submucosal tumor
AIM: To assess the feasibility, safety, and advantages of minimally invasive laparoscopic-endoscopic cooperative surgery (LECS) for gastric submucosal tumors (SMT).
METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 101 consecutive patients, who had undergone partial, proximal, or distal gastrectomy using LECS for gastric SMT at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from June 2006 to April 2013. All patients were followed up by visit or telephone. Clinical data, surgical approach, pathological features such as the size, location, and pathological type of each tumor; and follow-up results were analyzed. The feasibility, safety and effectiveness of LECS for gastric SMT were evaluated, especially for patients with tumors located near the cardia or pylorus.
RESULTS: The 101 patients included 43 (42.6%) men and 58 (57.4%) women, with mean age of 51.2 ± 13.1 years (range, 14-76 years). The most common symptom was belching. Almost all (n = 97) patients underwent surgery with preservation of the cardia and pylorus, with the other four patients undergoing proximal or distal gastrectomy. The mean distance from the lesion to the cardia or pylorus was 3.4 ± 1.3 cm, and the minimum distance from the tumor edge to the cardia was 1.5 cm. Tumor pathology included gastrointestinal stromal tumor in 78 patients, leiomyoma in 13, carcinoid tumors in three, ectopic pancreas in three, lipoma in two, glomus tumor in one, and inflammatory pseudotumor in one. Tumor size ranged from 1 to 8.2 cm, with 65 (64.4%) lesions < 2 cm, 32 (31.7%) > 2 cm, and four > 5 cm. Sixty-six lesions (65.3%) were located in the fundus, 21 (20.8%) in the body, 10 (9.9%) in the antrum, three (3.0%) in the cardia, and one (1.0%) in the pylorus. During a median follow-up of 28 mo (range, 1-69 mo), none of these patients experienced recurrence or metastasis. The three patients who underwent proximal gastrectomy experienced symptoms of regurgitation and belching.
CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic-endoscopic cooperative surgery is feasible and safe for patients with gastric submucosal tumor. Endoscopic intraoperative localization and support can help preserve the cardia and pylorus during surgery.
Laparoscopic-endoscopic cooperative surgery; Gastric submucosal tumor; Minimally invasive surgery; Laparoscopy; Endoscopy
A 57-year-old man presented with intermittent dull abdominal pain after a period of 1 year. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) was performed. Except for the endoscopy, the work-up for possible medical causes remained inconclusive. An open-abdomen, partial surgical excision of the stomach was performed after the unsuccessful endoscopic resection. The pathology report revealed a glomus tumor of the stomach. Importantly, glomus tumors of the stomach are rare and are almost always benign. Therefore, the most important current role of imaging associated with the diagnostic approach and therapeutic plan for a glomus tumor is to differentiate it from other gastric submucosal tumors (SMTs). We report this case with representative radiologic findings, including CT and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) reports, and also correlate them with clinical and pathologic presentations that can help in the early detection and differentiation of gastric SMTs from other SMTs. As such, the purpose of this report is to provide a better understanding of relevant CT and EUS features. Alternative treatments should be considered carefully according to the imaging results.
Glomus tumor; Stomach; Diagnosis; Therapy
Xanthogranuloma of the stomach is an extremely rare disease, and this lesion has only been found to coexist with early gastric cancer in 2 cases in the literature.
We report a case of xanthogranuloma of the stomach combined with early gastric cancer that mimicked an advanced stage tumor. A 65-year-old female was referred to our hospital because of epigastralgia. During a physical examination, a defined abdominal mass was palpable in the region of the left hypochondrium. Imaging studies revealed an advanced gastric cancer, which was suspected of having infiltrated the abdominal wall. Total gastrectomy and resection of the regional lymph node and abdominal wall were performed. Histopathologic examination of the resected specimen demonstrated xanthogranuloma combined with early gastric cancer.
Xanthogranuloma presenting as a form of SMT (submucosal tumor) of the stomach is an extremely rare disease, and diagnosing it preoperatively is difficult. Further accumulation and investigation of this entity is necessary.
xanthogranuloma; early gastric cancer
The World Health Organization describes calcifying fibrous tumors (CFTs) as rare, benign lesions characterized by hypocellular, densely hyalinized collagenization with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. These tumors rarely involve the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. A routine endoscopic upper gastrointestinal screen detected a 10-mm submucosal tumor (SMT) in the lesser curvature of the lower corpus of the stomach of an apparently healthy, 37-year-old woman with no history of Helicobacter pylori infection. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) localized the internally isoechoic, homogeneous SMT mainly within the submucosa. Malignancy was ruled out using endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). A pathological examination confirmed complete resection of the SMT, and defined a hypocellular, spindle-cell tumor with a densely hyalinized, collagenous matrix, scattered lymphoplasmacytic aggregates as well as a few psammomatous, dystrophic calcified foci. The mass was immunohistochemically positive for vimentin and negative for CD117 (c-kit protein), CD34, desmin, smooth muscle actin (SMA) and S100. Therefore, the histological findings were characteristic of a CFT. To date, CFT resection by ESD has not been described. This is the first case report of a gastric calcifying fibrous tumor being completely resected by ESD after endoscopic ultrasonography.
Calcifying fibrous tumor; Endoscopic submucosal dissection; Submucosal tumor; Endoscopic ultrasonography
A gastric neuroendocrine tumor (NET) is generated from deep within the tissue mucosal layers. In many cases, NETs are discovered as submucosal tumor (SMT)-like structures by forming a tumor mass. This case has a clear mucosal demarcation line and developed like a polyp. A dilated blood vessel was found on the surface. The mass lacked the yellow color characteristic of NETs, and a SMT-like form was evident. Therefore, a nonspecific epithelial lesion was suspected and we performed endoscopy with magnifying narrow-band imaging (M-NBI). However, this approach did not lead to the diagnosis, as we diagnosed the lesion as a NET by biopsy examination. The lesion was excised by endoscopic submucosal dissection. The histopathological examination proved that the lesion was a polypoid lesion although it was also a NET because the tumor cells extended upward through the normal gland ducts scatteredly. To our knowledge, there is no previous report of NET G1 with such unique histopathological growth progress and macroscopic appearance shown by detailed examination using endoscopy with M-NBI.
Neuroendocrine tumor G1; Demarcation line; Polypoid growth; Magnifying narrow-band imaging; Submucosal tumor
The purpose of this study was to identify the histopathology, location, and latency interval for the development of second malignant tumors (SMT) after successful treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Of 55 patients, four developed SMT after successful treatment of NPC in a single institutional series for an incidence of 7%. An additional 31 patients with SMT after treatment for NPC were identified from the literature. At minimum, all patients were treated with radiotherapy to the primary site. The histopathology of SMT included sarcoma (69%), squamous cell carcinoma (17%), adenocarcinoma (6%), meningioma (6%), and lymphoma (3%). SMT occurred at various sites in the head and neck, but most (51%) arose in the sinonasal cavity. For the entire group, the mean latency interval between treatment for NPC and the development of SMT was 11.8 years. These findings indicate that the development of SMT in patients achieving long-term survival after treatment for NPC may be radiation induced. Long-term follow-up for these patients is important to assess for this potentially late complication.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma; second malignant tumors
A case of invasive ductal carcinoma of an ectopic pancreas in the stomach in a 74-year-old woman is presented. A 4.0 cm gastric submucosal tumor (SMT) was resected surgically. Histologically, the tumor showed cystic tissue consisting of an ectopic pancreas with foci of a moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma. In this tumor, small pancreatic tissues, acini, Langerhans islets, and ductular cells were detected in the gastric SMT. The patient has experienced long-term survival. The incidence of pancreatic cancer of an ectopic pancreas is rare, and the etiology of this disease is discussed in the literature.
Ectopic pancreas; Pancreas cancer; Gastric wall
Aims. Our aim was to identify the factors that made the specimens inadequate and nondiagnostic in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) biopsy of suspected submucosal tumors (SMTs). Methods. From August 2001 to October 2009, 47 consecutive patients with subepithelial hypoechoic tumors originating in the fourth sonographic layer of the gastric wall suspected as GIST by standard EUS in Chiba University hospital underwent EUS-FNA for histologic diagnosis. We evaluated patient age, sex, location of lesion, size, pattern of growth in a stomach, and pattern of echography retrospectively. We defined a case of gaining no material or an insufficient material for immunohistological diagnosis as nondiagnostic. Results. The diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA for the diagnosis of gastric SMTs was 74.5%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that age of under 60 years (compared with patients older than 60 years: odds ratio [OR] = 11.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.761–80.48) and location of SMT at lower third area (compared with upper or middle third area: OR = 10.62, 95% CI = 1.290–87.42) were the predictive factors for inadequate tissue yield in EUS-FNA. Conclusions. The factors associated with inadequate tissue yield in EUS-FNA were younger age and the location of lesion at lower third area in stomach.
We describe here a case of 51-year-old woman with a symptomatic hepatic cyst that was misdiagnosed as a gastric submucosal tumor (SMT) with endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and CT scan. The patient presented with an epigastric pain for two months. On endoscopy, a submucosal tumor was found on the cardia of the stomach. Based on EUS and abdominal CT scan, the lesion was diagnosed as a gastric duplication cyst or a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). The operative plan was laparoscopic wedge resection for the GIST of the gastric cardia. A cystic mass arising from the left lateral segment of the liver was found at the laparoscopic examination. There was no abnormal finding at the gastric cardia. She was treated by laparoscopic hepatic wedge resection including the hepatic cyst using an endoscopic linear stapler.
Hepatic cyst; Submucosal tumor; Stomach
The intermingling of two malignant neoplasms within the same cutaneous tumor is rare. No consensus has been reached for a clear definition and categorization. In the current study, we describe a cutaneous neoplasm; a squamomelanocytic tumor (SMT) with histological features combining those of a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and a malignant melanoma (MM). This is the second report of an oculocutaneous SMT, and concerns a subject with a 20-year history of solar lentigo coexisting with solar keratosis in the primary lesion. This type of tumor is quite rare, with a distinct cytological architecture and immunohistochemical features, and the differential diagnosis of SMT may be considered. However, the histogenesis, biological behavior and malignant potential of SMTs remain a matter of speculation. With regard to the treatment, complete surgical resection and close follow-up are recommended.
squamomelanocytic tumor; solar keratosis; solar lentigo; histogenesis
The classical somatic mutation theory (SMT) of carcinogenesis and metastasis postulates that malignant transformation occurs in cells that accumulate a sufficient amount of mutations in the appropriate oncogenes and/or tumor suppressor genes. These mutations result in cell-autonomous activation of the mutated cell and a growth advantage relative to neighboring cells. However, the SMT cannot completely explain many characteristics of carcinomas. Contrary to the cell-centered view of the SMT with respect to carcinogenesis, recent research has revealed evidence that the tumor microenvironment plays a role in carcinogenesis as well. In this review, we present a new model that accommodates the role of the tumor microenvironment in carcinogenesis and complements the classical SMT. Our “feedback” model emphasizes the role of an altered spatiotemporal communication between epithelial and stromal cells during carcinogenesis: a dysfunctional intracellular signaling in tumorigenic epithelial cells leads to inappropriate cellular responses to stimuli from associated stromal or inflammatory cells. Thus, a positive feedback loop of the information flow between parenchymal and stromal cells results. This constant communication between the stromal cells and the tumor cells causes a perpetually activated state of tumor cells analogous to resonance disaster.
The incidence of heterotopic gastric mucosa located in the submucosa in resected stomach specimens has been reported to be 3.0 to 20.1%. Heterotopic gastric mucosa is thought to be a benign disease, which rarely becomes malignant. Heterotopic gastric mucosa exists in the gastric submucosa, and gastric cancer rarely occurs in heterotopic gastric mucosa. Since tumors are located in the normal submucosa, they appear as submucosal tumors during endoscopy, and are diagnosed through endoscopic biopsies with some difficulty. For such reasons, heterotopic gastric mucosa is mistaken as gastric submucosal tumor. Recently, two cases of early gastric cancer arising from heterotopic gastric mucosa in the gastric submucosa were treated. Both cases were diagnosed as submucosal tumors based on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasound, and computed tomography findings, and in both cases, laparoscopic wedge resections were performed, the surgical findings of which also suggested submucosal tumors. However, pathologic assessment of the surgical specimens led to the diagnosis of well-differentiated intramucosal adenocarcinoma arising from heterotopic gastric mucosa in the gastric submucosa.
Early gastric cancer; Heterotopic gastric mucosa; Submucosal tumor
Intussusception is rare in adults. We describe a 47-year-old man with ileal schwannoma that led to ileocolic intussusception. Abdominal ultrasonography, abdominal CT scan and barium enema confirmed an ileal tumor. Colonoscopy revealed a peduncular submucosal tumor (SMT) 75 mm long with an ulcerated apex at the ascending colon. The provisional diagnosis was a gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the terminal ileum. Ileocecal resection was carried out and the tumor was histologically diagnosed as schwannoma. Abdominal pain resolved postoperatively. This case reminds us that ileal schwannoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of intussusception caused by an SMT in the intestine.
Ileal submucosal tumor; Invagination; Diagnostic imaging; S-100 protein
The clinical importance of preoperative tumor markers remain elusive in gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of AFP, CEA, CA19-9, and CA50 in T4a stage gastric cancer.
Two hundred and seventy-three T4a gastric cancer patients who underwent curative D2 gastrectomy between 1996 and 2005 were evaluated. The correlation between tumor markers and clinicopathologic characteristics and prognostic value of preoperative tumor markers were investigated.
Correlation analysis showed that AFP was associated with Borrmann type (P = 0.010); CEA with sex (P = 0.029), tumors site (P = 0.014), and N stage (P = 0.001); CA19-9 with age (P = 0.047), tumor site (P = 0.011), lymphovascular invasion (P = 0.004), and N stage (P = 0.000); CA50 with age (P = 0.017), tumor site (P = 0.004), tumor size (P = 0.014), and N stage (P = 0.000). Multivariate analysis showed that the positivity of preoperative CEA, CA19-9, and CA50 were major independent poor prognostic factors of patients with T4a stage gastric cancer.
Preoperative serum tumor marker might be a candidate for the staging system in addition to conventional factors.
Tumor markers; Gastric cancer; Prognosis
Schwannomas are generally slow growing asymptomatic neoplasms that rarely occur in the GI tract. However, if found, the most common site is the stomach. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, and 60–70% of them occur in the stomach. Owing to their typical presentation as submucosal neoplasms, gastric schwannomas and GISTs appear grossly similar. Accordingly, the differential diagnosis for a gastric submucosal mass should include gastric schwannomas. Furthermore, GI schwannomas are benign neoplasms with excellent prognosis after surgical resection, whereas 10–30% of GISTs have malignant behavior. Hence, it is important to distinguish gastric schwannomas from GISTs to make an accurate diagnosis to optimally guide treatment options. Nevertheless, owing to the paucity of gastric schwannomas, the index of suspicion for this diagnosis is low. We report a rare case of gastric schwannoma in 53-year-old woman who underwent laparoscopic partial gastrectomy under the suspicion of a GIST preoperatively but confirmed to have a gastric schwannoma postoperatively. This case underscores the importance of including gastric schwannomas in the differential diagnosis when preoperative imaging studies reveal a submucosal, exophytic gastric mass. For a gastric schwannoma, complete margin negative surgical resection is the curative treatment of choice.
A case of massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a 37-year-old female is presented showing a submucosal mass in the gastric body. At laparotomy a pedunculated submucosal mass was found located on the posterior wall at the junction of the body and antrum of the stomach, 8 cm from the pylorus. Pathology confirmed that it was a 4 cm benign gastric lipoma with a bleeding central ulcer. Gastric lipomas are rare, benign, typically submucosal tumors occurring in the gastric antrum. They are usually asymptomatic but can become symptomatic depending on size, location, and if there is ulceration of the lesion. These lesions may be mistaken as malignant tumors or present with upper GI bleeding or intussusception. The diagnosis can be made using a combination of upper endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasound, CT, and MRI with surgical excision being the definitive treatment of choice. We hope that this case highlights the fact that these lesions can present with massive upper GI haemorrhage and should be included in the diagnosis when appropriate.
Dome-type carcinoma (DC) is a distinct variant of colorectal adenocarcinoma and less than 10 cases have been described in the literature. Most of the previously reported cases were early lesions and no endoscopic observations have been described so far. We herein report a case of a DC invading the subserosal layer, including endoscopic findings.
A highly elevated lesion in the transverse colon was diagnosed by colonoscopy in a 77-year-old man. The tumor appeared to be similar to a submucosal tumor (SMT), however, a demarcated area of reddish and irregular mucosa was observed at the top of the tumor. There were no erosions or ulcers. Laparoscopic-assisted right hemicolectomy was performed and pathological examination revealed a well-circumscribed tumor invading the subserosal layer. The tumor was a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma associated with a dense lymphocytic infiltration and showed expansive growth. The overlying mucosal layer showed high-grade dysplasia.
The present lesion was diagnosed as a DC of the colon invading the subserosal layer. Because the association of mucosal dysplasia is common in DCs, the detection of dysplastic epithelium would be important to discriminate DCs from SMTs.
Colorectal carcinoma; Gut-associated lymphoid tissue; Dome-type carcinoma
The number of reported cases of smooth muscle tumor (SMT) arising in patients with AIDS has been increasing since the mid-1990s. The aim of this study is to characterize the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathologic features, prognosis and, management of Epstein-Barr virus-related SMT (EBV-SMT) in patients with AIDS. An English language literature search identified 53 articles including 64 reported cases of EBV-SMT. The majority of these reports involved patients who were young, severely immunosuppressed, and had multifocal tumors. The central nervous system was the most common site to be involved. Histologically, tumors had smooth muscle features and were immunoreactive for muscle markers and all but two tumors demonstrated the presence of EBV by either immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and/or PCR. While mitoses and/or necrosis were used to separate leiomyoma from leiomyosarcoma, these features did not correlate with clinical outcome. Treatment included primarily resection, and less often radiotherapy, chemotherapy and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Overall, EBV-SMTs appear to have variable aggressiveness and clinical outcome and may exhibit a more favorable prognosis compared to conventional leiomyosarcoma. Tumor-related death from EBV-SMT occurred in only 4 of 51 patients.
Intussusception is rare in adults. We describe a 62-year-old man with jejunal ectopic pancreas that led to jejunojejunal intussusception and ileus. The patient was admitted to our hospital because of intermittent abdominal pain. Plain abdominal radiography showed some intestinal gas and fluid levels. Abdominal CT scan demonstrated a target sign suggesting bowel intussusception. Jejunography using a naso-jejunal tube showed an oval-shaped mass about 15 mm in diameter with a smooth surface in the jejunum, which suggested a submucosal tumor (SMT), and edematous mucosa around the mass. Partial jejunal resection was carried out and the resected oval-shaped tumor, 14 mm × 11 mm in size, was found to be covered with normal jejunal mucosa. The tumor was histologically diagnosed as type III ectopic pancreas according to the classification proposed by Heinrich. Abdominal pain resolved postoperatively. This case reminds us that jejunal ectopic pancreas should be included in the differential diagnosis of intussusception caused by an SMT in the intestine.
Jejunal submucosal tumor; Small intestine; Invagination; Aberrant pancreas; Surgery
Gastric schwannomas are rare mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. They are usually misdiagnosed as other submucosal tumors preoperatively. Experience of the imaging features of gastric schwannomas is extremely limited. In this report, we summarize the features of a series of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) images of gastric schwannomas in an effort to improve the diagnosis and differential diagnosis rate. We retrospectively reviewed the endosonographic features of four patients with gastric schwannomas and their computed tomography imaging results. Gastric schwannomas had heterogeneous hypoechogenicity or isoechogenicity, and a well-demarcated margin. The tumors originated from the fourth layer. Cystic changes and calcification were uncommon. Marginal hypoechoic haloes were observed in two patients. The results described here were different from those of previous studies. In the EUS evaluation, the internal echogenicity of gastric schwannomas was heterogeneous and low, but slightly higher than that of muscularis propria. These features might help us differentiate gastric schwannomas from other submucosal tumors. Further investigation is needed to differentiate these mesenchymal tumors.
Schwannomas; Endosonography; Stomach; Radiological examination; Imaging
Gastric nonepithelial tumors of clinical significance are infrequently encountered. These tumors make up less than 3 percent of all gastric tumors and are predominantly composed of growths that derive from the gastric smooth muscle. The malignant nature of those leiomyomatous tumors encountered might be obvious by virtue of liver or peritoneal spread or organ invasion at the time of surgery. When this is not the case, a high frequency of mitotic figures and cell necrosis on histologic analysis, while not without exception, correlates best with malignant potential.
Hemorrhage, acute or chronic, features prominently as a presenting symptom. The upper gastrointestinal series often suggests the correct diagnosis. The tumors, unlike carcinomas, exhibit little tendency to lateral mucosal and submucosal spread and to lymph node metastasis; consequently, appropriately conservative gastric resectional procedures generally suffice for treatment. Currently, surgery appears to be the only useful modality for the treatment of primary, as well as recurrent, disease.
Rectal submucosal lesions encompass a wide variety of benign and malignant tumors involving the rectum. With optical colonoscopy, any mass-like protrusion covered by normal mucosa, whether the underlying process is intramural or extramural in origin, may be reported as a submucosal lesion. Whereas the assessment of submucosal lesions may be limited with performing optical colonoscopy, cross-sectional imaging such as CT, transrectal ultrasonography and MRI allows the evaluation of perirectal tissues and pelvic organs in addition to the entire thickness of the rectum, and so this is advantageous for the assessment of rectal submucosal tumors. Among these, MRI is the best investigative modality for soft tissue characterization. Therefore, knowledge of the MRI features of rectal submucosal tumors can help achieve accurate preoperative diagnoses and facilitate the appropriate management.
Rectal submucosal tumor; MRI; Rectal cancer