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1.  Evaluation of gastric submucosal tumors using endoscopically visualized features with submucosal endoscopy 
Oncology Letters  2014;8(1):161-168.
Although the macroscopic characteristics of submucosal tumors (SMTs), such as gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), have been characterized, the assessment of SMTs by their endoscopically visualized features (EVF; which are observed by endoscopic imaging under direct view) remains unevaluated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of endoscopic diagnostics for SMTs using EVF. The EVF of 26 gastric SMT cases, in which the final pathological diagnosis was obtained by core biopsy using the submucosal endoscopy with mucosal flap method, were retrospectively reviewed. Each type of SMT was classified according to the following five EVF: Color, clarity, shape, tumor coating and solidity. Additionally, the EVF of 13 low-risk GISTs and 13 benign submucosal tumors (BSTs) were comparatively evaluated for the five abovementioned EVF. Similar trends were identified between the low-risk GISTs, granular cell tumors and the schwannoma with regard to EVF. However, while these tumors exhibited cloudy EVF, the leiomyomas tended to exhibit clear EVF. Among SMTs of the heterotopic pancreas type, the EVF demonstrated particularly small nodules of the pancreatic tissue itself. Although the sample size included in the present study is small, a classification system for gastric SMTs was proposed according to the EVF. When compared with the BST group, the GIST group demonstrated a significantly higher frequency of tumors that exhibited a combination of three EVF (white, cloudy and rigid) that are consistent with all gastric GISTs (P<0.05). Gastric SMTs may be classified based on the EVF, which indicates that the EVF possess potential diagnostic value for the differentiation of GISTs from BSTs.
PMCID: PMC4063622  PMID: 24959238
differential diagnosis; submucosal tumor; gastrointestinal stromal tumors; diagnostic techniques; endoscopic imaging; submucosal endoscopy
2.  A Case of Early Gastric Cancer Arising from Gastritis Cystica Profunda Treated by Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2014;8(3):270-275.
Gastritis cystica profunda (GCP) consists of hyperplasia and cystic dilatation of the gastric glands extending into the submucosa. It occurs in the residual stomach post surgery and in the unoperated stomach. GCP is considered a benign lesion, but there is controversy about its malignant potential. We report a case of early gastric cancer arising from GCP treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in a 55-year-old unoperated man. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a 15-mm diameter submucosal tumor (SMT) in the upper corpus of the stomach. The surface had angiotelectasia and slight depression covered with normal mucosa. Neither ulceration nor erosion was seen. Narrow-band imaging endoscopy showed no abnormalities suggesting gastric cancer. Endoscopic ultrasonography visualized the internally low-echoic SMT, harboring tiny cystic lesions, mainly within the second and third layers of the gastric wall. The SMT was removed by ESD to avoid retention and allow for comprehensive diagnosis. It was diagnosed as GCP with partial well-differentiated adenocarcinoma without involvement of the lateral and deep margins, lymphatic invasion, vascular invasion and perineural invasion. The gastric epithelium comprised normal mucosa without dysplasia. ESD seems to be useful for the diagnosis of SMT, including GCP harboring gastric cancer, and avoids unnecessary surgical procedures.
PMCID: PMC4209264  PMID: 25408629
Endoscopic submucosal dissection; Endoscopic ultrasonography; Gastric cancer; Gastritis cystica profunda; Submucosal tumor
3.  Endoscopic ultrasonography for gastric submucosal lesions 
Gastric submucosal tumors (SMTs) are a rather frequent finding, occurring in about 0.36% of routine upper GI-endoscopies. EUS has emerged as a reliable investigative procedure for evaluation of these lesions. Diagnostic Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has the ability to differentiate intramural tumors from extraluminal compressions and can also show the layer of origin of gastric SMTs. Tumors can be further characterized by their layer of origin, echo pattern and margin. EUS-risk criteria of their malignant potential are presented, although the emergence of EUS-guided fne needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has opened new indications for transmural tissue diagnosis and expanded the possibilities of EUS in SMTs of the stomach. Tissue diagnosis should address whether the SMT is a Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) or another tumor type and evaluate the malignant potential of a given GIST. However, there seems to be a lack of data on the optimal strategy in SMTs suspected to be GISTs with a negative EUS-FNA tissue diagnosis. The current management strategies, as well as open questions regarding their treatment are also presented.
PMCID: PMC3139278  PMID: 21772939
Endoscopic ultrasound; Gastric submucosal tumors; EUS-guided fne needle aspiration; Gastrointestinal stromal tumours
4.  Endoscopic full-thickness resection for gastric submucosal tumors arising from the muscularis propria layer 
World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG  2014;20(38):13981-13986.
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy, safety and feasibility of endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFR) for the treatment of gastric submucosal tumors (SMTs) arising from the muscularis propria.
METHODS: A total of 35 gastric SMTs arising from the muscularis propria layer were resected by EFR between January 2010 and September 2013. EFR consists of five major steps: injecting normal saline into the submucosa; pre-cutting the mucosal and submucosal layers around the lesion; making a circumferential incision as deep as the muscularis propria around the lesion using endoscopic submucosal dissection and an incision into the serosal layer around the lesion with a Hook knife; a full-thickness resection of the tumor, including the serosal layer with a Hook or IT knife; and closing the gastric wall with metallic clips.
RESULTS: Of the 35 gastric SMTs, 14 were located at the fundus, and 21 at the corpus. EFR removed all of the SMTs successfully, and the complete resection rate was 100%. The mean operation time was 90 min (60-155 min), the mean hospitalization time was 6.0 d (4-10 d), and the mean tumor size was 2.8 cm (2.0-4.5 cm). Pathological examination confirmed the presence of gastric stromal tumors in 25 patients, leiomyomas in 7 and gastric autonomous nerve tumors in 2. No gastric bleeding, peritonitis or abdominal abscess occurred after EFR. Postoperative contrast roentgenography on the third day detected no contrast extravasation into the abdominal cavity. The mean follow-up period was 6 mo, with no lesion residue or recurrence noted.
CONCLUSION: EFR is efficacious, safe and minimally invasive for patients with gastric SMTs arising from the muscularis propria layer. This technique is able to resect deep gastric lesions while providing precise pathological information about the lesion. With the development of EFR, the indications of endoscopic resection might be extended.
PMCID: PMC4194582  PMID: 25320536
Submucosal tumor; Stomach; Endoscopic full-thickness resection; Muscularis propria layer; Excision
5.  Heading toward the Right Direction—Solution Package for Endoscopic Submucosal Tunneling Resection in the Stomach 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(3):e0119870.
The emerging submucosal tunneling and endoscopic resection (STER) technique provides definitive histological diagnosis as well as a therapeutic method for the gastric submucosal tumors (SMTs). We aim to present our experience and discuss key technical issues of STER.
45 patients with gastric SMTs arising from MP received STER. First, a mucosal incision was made 3cm proximal to the tumour, a submucosal tunnel was subsequently built from the incision to the tumor. The tumor was gradually exposed and dissected from surrounding tissue and retrieved from the tunnel. The initial mucosal incision was closed by metal clips. For SMTs in the gastric fundus near cardia, the submucosal tunnel was built from lower esophagus, through the angle of His, to the tumor for resection.
STER was successfully performed in 43 patients; the other two were converted to surgery. Mean operating time was 79.3min (range 45–150min). Mean tumor size was 1.4cm (range 0.5–5cm). Of the total 47 resected SMTs, 36 were GISTs, 10 were leiomyomas and 1 was schwannoma. Complete resection was achieved in all patients. Intra-procedural peumoperitoneum occurred in 3 cases because of iatrogenic perforation, no special treatment was given. 7 patients presented with mild abdominal pain/distention and fever were given antibotics. No severe post-operative complication happened. No tumor recurrence occurred in the median 11 month follow-up period.
Based on short-term follow-up observation, STER is a feasible, safe and minimally invasive method for the diagnosis and treatment of small (<3cm) SMTs in gastric body, antrum and proximal cardia.
PMCID: PMC4370817  PMID: 25799065
6.  Higher incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease after gastric wedge resections of gastric submucosal tumors located close to the gastroesophageal junction 
We hypothesized that gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) would be more prevalent after a gastric wedge resection of a submucosal tumor (SMT) located close to the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) than after a gastric wedge resection of an SMT at other locations because of the damage to the lower esophageal sphincter during surgery.
Fifty-eight patients with gastric SMT who underwent open or laparoscopic gastric wedge resection between January 2000 and August 2012 at the Department of Surgery, Incheon St. Mary's Hospital were enrolled into this study. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the location of the tumor, upper or lateral border of the tumor within 5 cm of the GEJ (GEJ ≤ 5 cm group) and upper or lateral border of the tumor greater than 5 cm distal to the GEJ (GEJ > 5 cm group). The surgical records, clinicopathologic findings, postoperative GERD symptoms, postoperative use of acid suppressive medications and preoperative and postoperative endoscopic findings were retrospectively reviewed and compared between the 2 groups.
There was no difference in the frequency of the preoperative GERD symptoms between the 2 groups, whereas postoperative GERD symptoms and postoperative use of acid suppressive medications were more frequent in the GEJ ≤ 5 cm group (P = 0.045 and P = 0.031). However, there were no differences in the follow-up endoscopic findings in terms of reflux esophagitis and Hill's grade between the 2 groups.
The incidence of GERD was higher after gastric wedge resection of SMTs located close to the GEJ. Hence, adequate care should be taken during the follow-up of these patients.
PMCID: PMC4062447  PMID: 24949319
Gastric wedge resection; Esophagogastric Junction; Gastroesophageal reflux
7.  Two cases of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the stomach mistaken as submucosal tumor 
A gastric carcinoma with the endoscopic features resembling submucosal tumor (SMT) is rare, and reportedly account for only 0.1% to 0.63% of all resected gastric carcinomas. The preoperative diagnosis of SMT-like gastric carcinoma is challenging, and thus, diagnosis is usually made intraoperatively or postoperatively. Furthermore, mucinous adenocarcinoma is an uncommon histologic subtype of gastric carcinoma characterized as an elevated lesion resembling SMT due to abundant mucin pools in submucosa. Here, we report two cases in which a gastric mucinous adenocarcinoma was mistaken as a SMT.
PMCID: PMC3566470  PMID: 23396274
Submucosal tumor; Gastric neoplasms; Adenocarcinoma; Mucinous
8.  Laparoscopic resection for 125 gastroduodenal submucosal tumors 
The present study aims to elucidate the treatment strategies of laparoscopic resection for gastroduodenal submucosal tumors (SMTs).
Data of 125 gastroduodenal STMs were collected retrospectively resected from August, 2004 to February, 2013. Surgical outcomes according to tumor locations, pathologic results and survival data for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) were collected and analyzed.
There were 55 male and 70 female patients with mean age 57.9 ± 12.7 years old. Mean tumor size of gastric SMTs was 2.7 ± 1.64 cm (range, 0.4-8.5 cm). GIST was the most common (n = 70, 56%). Regarding the tumor location, all the fundic lesions were GISTs and leiomyoma was occurred 58.8% of cardiac lesions. Ectopic pancreas and schwannomas were mostly located at body portion, 73% and 80%, respectively. SMTs located at duodenal bulb comprise 4 GISTs and 3 carcinoids. Surgical results comparing between lesions located at cardia, near-pylorus and else had no difference in operation time, hospital stay and complications. In terms of outcome of GIST, all patients underwent curative resection except one case of peritoneal sarcomatosis. There was one recurrence in a high risk group following resection. The cumulative 5-year disease free survival rate was 93.5% in all GISTs. There were two postoperative complications, one gastric outlet obstruction and one leakage following wedge resection.
Laparoscopic wedge resection is a safe and feasible procedure for the small to medium sized gastroduodenal SMTs even their locations are near cardia or pylorus.
PMCID: PMC3996721  PMID: 24783179
Stomach neoplasms; Gastrointestinal stromal tumor; Laparoscopy
9.  Laparoscopic-endoscopic cooperative surgery for gastric submucosal tumors 
AIM: To assess the feasibility, safety, and advantages of minimally invasive laparoscopic-endoscopic cooperative surgery (LECS) for gastric submucosal tumors (SMT).
METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 101 consecutive patients, who had undergone partial, proximal, or distal gastrectomy using LECS for gastric SMT at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from June 2006 to April 2013. All patients were followed up by visit or telephone. Clinical data, surgical approach, pathological features such as the size, location, and pathological type of each tumor; and follow-up results were analyzed. The feasibility, safety and effectiveness of LECS for gastric SMT were evaluated, especially for patients with tumors located near the cardia or pylorus.
RESULTS: The 101 patients included 43 (42.6%) men and 58 (57.4%) women, with mean age of 51.2 ± 13.1 years (range, 14-76 years). The most common symptom was belching. Almost all (n = 97) patients underwent surgery with preservation of the cardia and pylorus, with the other four patients undergoing proximal or distal gastrectomy. The mean distance from the lesion to the cardia or pylorus was 3.4 ± 1.3 cm, and the minimum distance from the tumor edge to the cardia was 1.5 cm. Tumor pathology included gastrointestinal stromal tumor in 78 patients, leiomyoma in 13, carcinoid tumors in three, ectopic pancreas in three, lipoma in two, glomus tumor in one, and inflammatory pseudotumor in one. Tumor size ranged from 1 to 8.2 cm, with 65 (64.4%) lesions < 2 cm, 32 (31.7%) > 2 cm, and four > 5 cm. Sixty-six lesions (65.3%) were located in the fundus, 21 (20.8%) in the body, 10 (9.9%) in the antrum, three (3.0%) in the cardia, and one (1.0%) in the pylorus. During a median follow-up of 28 mo (range, 1-69 mo), none of these patients experienced recurrence or metastasis. The three patients who underwent proximal gastrectomy experienced symptoms of regurgitation and belching.
CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic-endoscopic cooperative surgery is feasible and safe for patients with gastric submucosal tumor. Endoscopic intraoperative localization and support can help preserve the cardia and pylorus during surgery.
PMCID: PMC3769911  PMID: 24039367
Laparoscopic-endoscopic cooperative surgery; Gastric submucosal tumor; Minimally invasive surgery; Laparoscopy; Endoscopy
10.  Single-incision intragastric resection for upper and mid gastric submucosal tumors: a case-series study 
Laparoscopic gastric wedge resection is a standard treatment for removing gastric submucosal tumors (SMTs). So far, however, there have been few reports of single-incision laparoscopic intragastric wedge resection. Our aim was to describe this procedure and our experience with it.
From January 2010 to December 2013, a total of 21 consecutive patients with gastric SMTs underwent single-incision intragastric resection at our institution. Their clinicopathologic data were analyzed retrospectively.
The patients consisted of nine men and 12 women with a mean age of 51.9 ± 12.9 years (22-69 years). Their mean body mass index was 22.6 ± 2.0 kg/m2. Mean tumor size was 2.4 ± 0.7 cm, with the following anatomic distribution: esophagogastric junction in three patients, fundus in twelve, upper body in three, and lower body in two. Mean operating time was 68.6 ± 12.0 minutes. There were no conversions to open surgery and no major intraoperative complications. Time to resumption of water intake was 1.4 ± 0.5 days. Mean hospital stay was 4.9 ± 1.7 days. There were no recurrences or deaths during the mean 19-month follow-up.
Single-incision intragastric wedge resection is a feasible and safe procedure. It is especially efficient for treating small endophytic gastric SMTs located on the upper and mid portion of the stomach.
PMCID: PMC4255550  PMID: 25485238
Laparoscopy; Stomach neoplasm; Gastric mucosa; Gastrectomy; Gastrointestinal stromal tumors
11.  Gastric calcifying fibrous tumor removed by endoscopic submucosal dissection 
The World Health Organization describes calcifying fibrous tumors (CFTs) as rare, benign lesions characterized by hypocellular, densely hyalinized collagenization with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. These tumors rarely involve the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. A routine endoscopic upper gastrointestinal screen detected a 10-mm submucosal tumor (SMT) in the lesser curvature of the lower corpus of the stomach of an apparently healthy, 37-year-old woman with no history of Helicobacter pylori infection. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) localized the internally isoechoic, homogeneous SMT mainly within the submucosa. Malignancy was ruled out using endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). A pathological examination confirmed complete resection of the SMT, and defined a hypocellular, spindle-cell tumor with a densely hyalinized, collagenous matrix, scattered lymphoplasmacytic aggregates as well as a few psammomatous, dystrophic calcified foci. The mass was immunohistochemically positive for vimentin and negative for CD117 (c-kit protein), CD34, desmin, smooth muscle actin (SMA) and S100. Therefore, the histological findings were characteristic of a CFT. To date, CFT resection by ESD has not been described. This is the first case report of a gastric calcifying fibrous tumor being completely resected by ESD after endoscopic ultrasonography.
PMCID: PMC3773860  PMID: 24044047
Calcifying fibrous tumor; Endoscopic submucosal dissection; Submucosal tumor; Endoscopic ultrasonography
12.  Minimally invasive surgery for submucosal (subepithelial) tumors of the stomach 
World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG  2014;20(36):13035-13043.
Minimally invasive surgery has become common in the surgical resection of gastrointestinal submucosal tumors (SMTs). The purpose of this article is to review recent trends in minimally invasive surgery for gastric SMTs. Although laparoscopic resection has been main stream of minimally invasive surgery for gastrointestinal SMTs, recent advances in endoscopic procedures now provide various treatment modalities for gastric SMTs. Moreover, investigators have developed several hybrid techniques that include the advantages of both laparoscopic and endoscopic procedure. In addition, several types of reduced port surgeries, modification of conventional laparoscopic procedures, have been recently applied to the surgical resection of SMTs. Meanwhile, robotic surgery for SMTs requires further evidence and improvement.
PMCID: PMC4177482  PMID: 25278697
Minimally invasive; Surgery; Submucosal tumor; Gastrointestinal tract
13.  Second Malignant Tumors After Treatment of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma 
Skull Base  2002;12(2):87-91.
The purpose of this study was to identify the histopathology, location, and latency interval for the development of second malignant tumors (SMT) after successful treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Of 55 patients, four developed SMT after successful treatment of NPC in a single institutional series for an incidence of 7%. An additional 31 patients with SMT after treatment for NPC were identified from the literature. At minimum, all patients were treated with radiotherapy to the primary site. The histopathology of SMT included sarcoma (69%), squamous cell carcinoma (17%), adenocarcinoma (6%), meningioma (6%), and lymphoma (3%). SMT occurred at various sites in the head and neck, but most (51%) arose in the sinonasal cavity. For the entire group, the mean latency interval between treatment for NPC and the development of SMT was 11.8 years. These findings indicate that the development of SMT in patients achieving long-term survival after treatment for NPC may be radiation induced. Long-term follow-up for these patients is important to assess for this potentially late complication.
PMCID: PMC1656915  PMID: 17167655
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma; second malignant tumors
14.  Factors Associated with Inadequate Tissue Yield in EUS-FNA for Gastric SMT 
ISRN Gastroenterology  2011;2011:619128.
Aims. Our aim was to identify the factors that made the specimens inadequate and nondiagnostic in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) biopsy of suspected submucosal tumors (SMTs). Methods. From August 2001 to October 2009, 47 consecutive patients with subepithelial hypoechoic tumors originating in the fourth sonographic layer of the gastric wall suspected as GIST by standard EUS in Chiba University hospital underwent EUS-FNA for histologic diagnosis. We evaluated patient age, sex, location of lesion, size, pattern of growth in a stomach, and pattern of echography retrospectively. We defined a case of gaining no material or an insufficient material for immunohistological diagnosis as nondiagnostic. Results. The diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA for the diagnosis of gastric SMTs was 74.5%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that age of under 60 years (compared with patients older than 60 years: odds ratio [OR] = 11.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.761–80.48) and location of SMT at lower third area (compared with upper or middle third area: OR = 10.62, 95% CI = 1.290–87.42) were the predictive factors for inadequate tissue yield in EUS-FNA. Conclusions. The factors associated with inadequate tissue yield in EUS-FNA were younger age and the location of lesion at lower third area in stomach.
PMCID: PMC3168491  PMID: 21991522
15.  Changes in Pain Sensitivity following Spinal Manipulation: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis 
Spinal manipulation (SMT) is commonly used for treating individuals experiencing musculoskeletal pain. The mechanisms of SMT remain unclear; however, pain sensitivity testing may provide insight into these mechanisms. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine the literature on the hypoalgesic effects of SMT on pain sensitivity measures and to quantify these effects using meta-analysis. We performed a systematic search of articles using CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus from each databases’ inception until May 2011. We examined methodological quality of each study and generated pooled effect size estimates using meta-analysis software. Of 997 articles identified, 20 met inclusion criteria for this review. Pain sensitivity testing used in these studies included chemical, electrical, mechanical, and thermal stimuli applied to various anatomical locations. Meta-analysis was appropriate for studies examining the immediate effect of SMT on mechanical pressure pain threshold (PPT). SMT demonstrated a favorable effect over other interventions on increasing PPT. Subgroup analysis showed a significant effect of SMT on increasing PPT at the remote sites of stimulus application supporting a potential central nervous system mechanism. Future studies of SMT related hypoalgesia should include multiple experimental stimuli and test at multiple anatomical sites.
PMCID: PMC3349049  PMID: 22296867
Manual therapy; Spinal manipulation; Pain; Experimental pain
16.  Preoperative Diagnosis of Usual Leiomyoma, Atypical Leiomyoma, and Leiomyosarcoma 
Sarcoma  2014;2014:498682.
Uterine smooth muscle tumors (SMTs) are common pelvic tumors in women, and most of them are diagnosed as usual leiomyoma (UL). Exclusion of malignant disease is important in the management of SMTs. However, differentiation of SMTs remains difficult. In this study, we aimed to improve the preoperative diagnosis of SMTs. We examined 21 ULs, 7 atypical leiomyomas (ALs), and 6 leiomyosarcomas (LMSs), all of which were diagnosed by uterine tumor biopsy. Immunohistochemical findings (low-molecular-mass polypeptide 2 (LMP2) and Ki-67) and clinical features (serum lactate dehydrogenase level and menopause) were evaluated. Statistically significant differences in the expression of LMP2 and Ki-67 were observed between UL and AL and between UL and LMS. The combined LMP2 and Ki-67 score was significantly different between UL and AL, between UL and LMS, and between AL and LMS. The combined immunohistochemistry and clinical findings score (total score) was also significantly different between pathological types. The findings of this study suggest that the accuracy of the preoperative diagnosis of SMTs may be improved by using a combination of immunohistochemical and clinical findings.
PMCID: PMC4221903  PMID: 25400500
17.  Synchronous Early Gastric Cancer Resembling Submucosal Tumor at the Fundus 
Gut and Liver  2007;1(2):171-174.
Concern about detecting gastric carcinoma in its early stages has increased the incidence of detecting multiple synchronous gastric carcinomas. Although gastric carcinomas may present with various gross features, those showing the features of submucosal tumor (SMT) are rare. We report on a case of synchronous gastric carcinomas comprising one lesion with typical features of superficial early gastric carcinoma and the other with atypical features that mimicked SMT. Even though synchronous gastric carcinoma is rare, it may be worthwhile to make a pathological diagnosis of coexisting SMT using endoscopic-ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration or endoscopic mucosal resection.
PMCID: PMC2871622  PMID: 20485635
Synchronous cancer; Early gastric carcinoma; Submucosal tumor
18.  An uncommon malignant cutaneous squamomelanocytic tumor 
The intermingling of two malignant neoplasms within the same cutaneous tumor is rare. No consensus has been reached for a clear definition and categorization. In the current study, we describe a cutaneous neoplasm; a squamomelanocytic tumor (SMT) with histological features combining those of a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and a malignant melanoma (MM). This is the second report of an oculocutaneous SMT, and concerns a subject with a 20-year history of solar lentigo coexisting with solar keratosis in the primary lesion. This type of tumor is quite rare, with a distinct cytological architecture and immunohistochemical features, and the differential diagnosis of SMT may be considered. However, the histogenesis, biological behavior and malignant potential of SMTs remain a matter of speculation. With regard to the treatment, complete surgical resection and close follow-up are recommended.
PMCID: PMC3570222  PMID: 23407590
squamomelanocytic tumor; solar keratosis; solar lentigo; histogenesis
19.  False-Negative Results of Endoscopic Biopsy in the Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Kaposi's Sarcoma in HIV-Infected Patients 
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a rare endothelial neoplasm mainly involving the skin, but it is often associated with AIDS. Diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) tract KS, a common site of visceral involvement in AIDS, is important, but endoscopic biopsy carries a risk of false-negative results (FNRs) due to its submucosal appearance. This study sought to determine the rate and causes of FNR for endoscopic biopsy of GI-KS lesions. Endoscopic biopsy samples of 116 GI-KS lesions were reviewed retrospectively. All GI-KS lesions were confirmed to be resolved following KS therapy. FNRs were yielded for 41 of the lesions (35.3%). Among upper and lower GI sites, the esophagus was the only site significantly associated with FNRs (P < 0.01). Small size (<10 mm) and patches found on endoscopy were significantly associated with FNRs (P < 0.05). Findings of submucosal tumor (SMT) with ulceration were significantly associated with true-positive results (P < 0.05). In conclusion, FNRs were found in 35.3% of GI-KS lesions and were especially related to the site of the esophagus and endoscopic early stage (small size or patch appearance). An SMT with ulceration may be relatively easy to diagnose on endoscopic biopsy. Caution should be exercised when performing endoscopic biopsy of these lesions in AIDS patients and evaluating the histological features.
PMCID: PMC3513736  PMID: 23227427
20.  Glomus tumor in the stomach: Computed tomography and endoscopic ultrasound findings 
A 57-year-old man presented with intermittent dull abdominal pain after a period of 1 year. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) was performed. Except for the endoscopy, the work-up for possible medical causes remained inconclusive. An open-abdomen, partial surgical excision of the stomach was performed after the unsuccessful endoscopic resection. The pathology report revealed a glomus tumor of the stomach. Importantly, glomus tumors of the stomach are rare and are almost always benign. Therefore, the most important current role of imaging associated with the diagnostic approach and therapeutic plan for a glomus tumor is to differentiate it from other gastric submucosal tumors (SMTs). We report this case with representative radiologic findings, including CT and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) reports, and also correlate them with clinical and pathologic presentations that can help in the early detection and differentiation of gastric SMTs from other SMTs. As such, the purpose of this report is to provide a better understanding of relevant CT and EUS features. Alternative treatments should be considered carefully according to the imaging results.
PMCID: PMC3587493  PMID: 23482388
Glomus tumor; Stomach; Diagnosis; Therapy
21.  Magnetic Resonance Imaging Zygapophyseal Joint Space Changes (Gapping) in Low Back Pain Patients following Spinal Manipulation and Side Posture Positioning: A Randomized Controlled Mechanisms Trial with Blinding 
The purpose of this study was to quantify lumbar zygapophyseal (Z) joint space separation (gapping) in low back pain (LBP) subjects after spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) or side-posture positioning (SPP).
This was a controlled mechanisms trial with randomization and blinding. Acute LBP subjects (N=112, four n=28 MRI protocol groups) had 2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appointments (initial enrollment [M1] and following 2 weeks of chiropractic treatment [M2]; receiving 2 MRI scans of the L4/L5 and L5/S1 Z joints at each MRI appointment. After the first MRI scan of each appointment, subjects were randomized (M1 appointment) or assigned (M2 appointment) into SPP (non-manipulation), SMT (manipulation), or control MRI protocol groups. After SPP or SMT, a second MRI was taken. The central anterior-posterior (A-P) joint space was measured. Difference between most painful side A-P measurements taken post- and pre-intervention was the Z joint “gapping difference.” Gapping differences were compared (ANOVA) among protocol groups. Secondary measures of pain visual analog scale (VAS), verbal numeric pain rating scale (VNPRS), and function Bournemouth questionnaire (BQ) were assessed.
Gapping differences were significant at the first (adjusted, p=0.01; SPP=0.66 +0.48mm; SMT=0.23 +0.86; control=0.18 +0.71) and second (adjusted, p=0.0005; SPP=0.65 +0.92mm, SMT=0.89 +0.71; control=0.35 +0.32) MRI appointments. VNPRS differences were significant at first MRI appointment (p=0.04) with SMT showing the greatest improvement. VAS and BQ improved after two weeks of care in all groups (both p<0.0001).
SPP showed greatest gapping at baseline. After two weeks, SMT resulted in greatest gapping. SPP appeared to have additive therapeutic benefit to SMT.
PMCID: PMC3756802  PMID: 23648055
Manipulation; Spinal; Zygapophyseal Joint; Chiropractic; Low Back Pain; Lumbar vertebrae
22.  A rare case of xanthogranuloma of the stomach masquerading as an advanced stage tumor 
Xanthogranuloma of the stomach is an extremely rare disease, and this lesion has only been found to coexist with early gastric cancer in 2 cases in the literature.
Case presentation
We report a case of xanthogranuloma of the stomach combined with early gastric cancer that mimicked an advanced stage tumor. A 65-year-old female was referred to our hospital because of epigastralgia. During a physical examination, a defined abdominal mass was palpable in the region of the left hypochondrium. Imaging studies revealed an advanced gastric cancer, which was suspected of having infiltrated the abdominal wall. Total gastrectomy and resection of the regional lymph node and abdominal wall were performed. Histopathologic examination of the resected specimen demonstrated xanthogranuloma combined with early gastric cancer.
Xanthogranuloma presenting as a form of SMT (submucosal tumor) of the stomach is an extremely rare disease, and diagnosing it preoperatively is difficult. Further accumulation and investigation of this entity is necessary.
PMCID: PMC3142508  PMID: 21722385
xanthogranuloma; early gastric cancer
23.  Endoscopic submucosal dissection as a treatment for gastric subepithelial tumors that originate from the muscularis propria layer: a preliminary analysis of appropriate indications 
Surgical Endoscopy  2013;27(9):3271-3279.
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a well-established method for the treatment of gastrointestinal epithelial tumors. However, the treatment of gastric subepithelial tumors (SETs) that originate from the muscularis propria layer still depends primarily on surgical techniques. We evaluated the appropriate indications for ESD in the treatment of SETs that originate from the muscularis propria layer.
Thirty-five patients with gastric SETs that originate from the muscularis propria layer who underwent ESD were enrolled, and the charts were retrospectively reviewed to investigate the parameters predictive complete resection and complications.
The mean age of the patients was 54.15 ± 9.3 years, and the male/female ratio was 2:3. Twenty-eight of the 35 SETs (85.7 %) were movable, and 15 (45.7 %) had a positive rolling sign. The most frequent location of the SETs was high body (n = 14). The most common pathological diagnoses were leiomyoma (60 %) and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (28.6 %). The complete resection rate was 74.3 %. A positive rolling sign (p = 0.022) and small tumor size (≤20 mm; p = 0.038) were significantly associated with complete resection. Two patients (6.1 %) developed perforations that required surgical treatment; their SMTs were neurogenic tumors with fixed lesion. Tumor mobility was significantly associated with perforation (p = 0.017).
The ESD method appears to be relatively safe for use in the complete resection of SETs that originate from the muscularis propria layer. Small tumor size (≤20 mm) and a positive rolling sign are appropriate indications for ESD.
PMCID: PMC3751271  PMID: 23519491
Subepithelial tumor; Muscularis propria; Endoscopic submucosal dissection
24.  Moderators and predictors of response to cognitive-behavioral therapy augmentation of pharmacotherapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder 
Psychological medicine  2010;40(12):2013-2023.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) consisting of exposure and response prevention (EX/RP) is efficacious as a treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, about half of patients have a partial or poor response to EX/RP treatment. This study examined potential predictors and moderators of CBT augmentation of pharmacotherapy, to identify variables associated with a poorer response to OCD treatment.
Data were drawn from a large randomized-controlled trial that compared the augmenting effects of EX/RP to stress management training (SMT; an active CBT control) among 108 participants receiving a therapeutic dose of a serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI). Stepwise regression was used to determine the model specification.
Pre-treatment OCD severity and gender were significant moderators of outcome: severity affected SMT (but not EX/RP) outcome; and gender affected EX/RP (but not SMT) outcome. Adjusting for treatment type and pre-treatment severity, significant predictors included greater comorbidity, number of past SRI trials, and lower quality of life. Significant moderators, including their main-effects, and predictors accounted for 37.2% of the total variance in outcome, comparable to the impact of treatment type alone (R2=30.5%). These findings were replicated in the sub-group analysis of EX/RP alone (R2=54.0%).
This is the first randomized-controlled study to examine moderators and predictors of CBT augmentation of SRI pharmacotherapy. Although effect sizes for individual predictors tended to be small, their combined effect was comparable to that of treatment. Thus, future research should examine whether monitoring for a combination of these risk factors and targeting them with multi-modular strategies can improve EX/RP outcome.
PMCID: PMC3953340  PMID: 20416137
25.  AIDS-Related EBV-Associated Smooth Muscle Tumors: A Review of 64 Published Cases 
The number of reported cases of smooth muscle tumor (SMT) arising in patients with AIDS has been increasing since the mid-1990s. The aim of this study is to characterize the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathologic features, prognosis and, management of Epstein-Barr virus-related SMT (EBV-SMT) in patients with AIDS. An English language literature search identified 53 articles including 64 reported cases of EBV-SMT. The majority of these reports involved patients who were young, severely immunosuppressed, and had multifocal tumors. The central nervous system was the most common site to be involved. Histologically, tumors had smooth muscle features and were immunoreactive for muscle markers and all but two tumors demonstrated the presence of EBV by either immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and/or PCR. While mitoses and/or necrosis were used to separate leiomyoma from leiomyosarcoma, these features did not correlate with clinical outcome. Treatment included primarily resection, and less often radiotherapy, chemotherapy and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Overall, EBV-SMTs appear to have variable aggressiveness and clinical outcome and may exhibit a more favorable prognosis compared to conventional leiomyosarcoma. Tumor-related death from EBV-SMT occurred in only 4 of 51 patients.
PMCID: PMC3062098  PMID: 21437186

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