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1.  Seborrheic inclusion cyst of the skin positive for cytoplasmic inclusion bodies and HPV antigen 
Seborrheic inclusion cyst (SIC) is a very rare variant of epidermal cyst of the skin. SIC shows seborrheic keratosis (SK)-like lesion in epidermal cyst. SIC is extremely rare; only 6 case reports have been published in the English literature. However, no immunohistochemical study of SIC has been reported. A 41-year-old Japanese man noticed a subcutaneous tumor in the neck. Physical examination showed slightly mobile tumor in the subcutaneous tissue, and total excision was performed. Grossly, the tumor (1 x 1 x 0.8 cm) was cyst containing atheromatous keratin. Microscopically, the lesion is a cyst containing keratins. About one half of the cyst showed features of epidermal cyst consisting of mature squamous epithelium with granular layers. The other one half showed SK-like epidermal proliferation. The SK-like area showed basaloid cell proliferation with pseudohorn cysts. No significant atypia was noted. Many eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion bodies were noted in the SK-like area. Immunohistochemically, the SK-like area was positive for pancytokeratin AE1/3, pancytokeratin CAM5.2, p63, and Ki-67 (labeling=8%) and HPV, but negative for p53. The pathological diagnosis was SIC.
PMCID: PMC3396058  PMID: 22808299
Seborrheic inclusion cyst; epidermal cyst; cutaneous pathology; immunohistochemistry; HPV
2.  Case report of complicated epidermoid cyst of the floor of the mouth: Radiology-histopathology correlation 
Qatar Medical Journal  2014;2014(1):12-16.
Epidermoid cysts, true dermoid cysts and teratoid cysts compose the spectrum of cystic teratomas, which are defined as neoplasms whose tissue are derivatives of more than one germ layer, foreign to that part of the body from which the tumor arises. Epidermoid cysts of the floor of the mouth are rare lesions and are much less common than dermoid cysts in the head and neck. This case reports a 43-year-old male patient who presented with a longstanding midline swelling in the submental region. Initial imaging was done using ultrasound followed by computed tomography (CT) scan. Biopsy was taken and revealed a cyst wall lined with epidermal squamous epithelium along with areas of focal ulceration suggesting chronic inflammatory changes of the wall of the epidermoid cyst.
There are characteristic and even pathognomonic imaging features of epidermoid cysts at the floor of the mouth in ultrasound and CT scan. Imaging has an important role in the surgical management plan according to the size and location of the cyst in relation to geniohyoid and mylohyoid muscles.
PMCID: PMC4197368  PMID: 25320687
Epidermoid cyst; cystic teratoma; floor of mouth
Six out of eight epidermal papillomas, induced with tar in mice of homogeneous strain, have grown after transfer to the subcutaneous tissue of sucklings and weanlings. Five of them have been thus maintained for nearly or quite a year and a half, and in seven to nine successive groups of mice. The tumor studied longest has been kept going in five parallel lines since its primary implantation. The papillomas have all grown progressively in most instances, and proved fatal. None has altered except through the occurrence of derivative cancers, but these have arisen so often as only to be excluded on transfer by a rigorous selection of grafts. Histologically the papillomas have been of a single, completely unaggressive kind, yet transfer has disclosed great differences in their abilities. The tumors they form are of unique sorts. The cells of some are able-bodied (Type A), capable of spreading along bare connective tissue and keratinizing like normal, reparative epidermis. They line graft pockets, differentiate into the free space these provide, and form cysts densely packed with keratin. The papilloma is thus turned outside in. The cysts become huge as keratin accumulates in them, and eventually they rupture with result either in subcutaneous dissecting cysts or keratinizing surface growths that are often prodigious in size and fantastic in shape, but sometimes are completely like the cutaneous papillomas ordinarily induced by carcinogens, and tend, when small, to regress or come away as these frequently do. One growth of Type A was placed in the peritoneal cavity or in the liver, spleen or lung, and at all these situations it formed introverted cysts resembling the subcutaneous. The cells of other papillomas are more or less crippled (Type C). In extreme instances they are unable to spread laterally, and produce relatively little keratin. They fail to line graft pockets, but their keratin inflames the exposed connective tissue, extravasation ensues, and a continually enlarging, fluid-filled cyst forms, with walls that are bare except where a stalked or cauliflower papilloma exists, projecting inwards. At last the cyst ruptures and a second dissecting cyst forms, also devoid of papilloma tissue; or else the overlying skin undergoes pressure necrosis, the cyst fluid escapes through a rent, and fatal infection ensues. All gradations exist between Type A and Type C. The cancers derivative from both exhibit a marked disability,—though invasive they are almost or quite unable to extend along bare connective tissue. The papillomas that are possessed of this faculty spread beyond them along the cyst wall, and kill the host through their unceasing activity. In collateral work a papilloma was transplanted that was found protruding from the external auditory canal of a mouse which had received an intramuscular injection of methylcholanthrene many months previously. The tumor is now in its 5th generation, after 15 months. The growths it forms are of Type A. All of the papillomas are functioning tumors, with their own cells as the functioning product. Their papilliferous shape, when on the skin, is due solely to inability of their cells to gain space in other ways. Intrinsically they are keratomas. The papillomas do well after transfer to deep situations because the growth of their cells is indirectly promoted, through favoring local conditions. No direct promotion takes place like that when the cells of prostatic and mammary tumors are stimulated to multiply by hormones. Doubtless many agents act in both ways, that is to say by dual promotion.
PMCID: PMC2136781  PMID: 13481256
4.  Eccrine Spiradenoma Arising in the Breast Misdiagnosed as an Epidermal Inclusion Cyst 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2011;12(2):256-260.
Eccrine spiradenomas are rare, benign, cutaneous tumors that originate in the sweat glands. Eccrine spiradenomas in the breast are very rare and only a few cases have been reported. We report here on the case of a 47-year-old woman with superficial masses in the breast and these masses had gradually increased in size during follow-up. They were confirmed to be an eccrine spiradenoma on pathologic examination. There have been a few reports about the radiologic findings of eccrine spiradenomas of the breast. This is the first case of an eccrine spiradenoma in the breast that was characterized by multiple imaging modalities, including mammography, ultrasonography and MRI. The lesion in our patient was first diagnosed as an epidermal inclusion cyst based on the imaging findings and the mass's superficial location. Although the mammographic and ultrasonographic imaging findings of eccrine spiradenomas and epidermal inclusion cysts are similar, the MRI findings are different between epidermal inclusion cysts and eccrine spiradenomas. Eccrine spiradenomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions of the breast.
PMCID: PMC3052619  PMID: 21430945
Eccrine spiradenoma; Breast; Mammography; Ultrasound (US); Magnetic resonance (MR)
5.  Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha and its downstream targets in fibroepithelial tumors of the breast 
Breast Cancer Research  2005;7(5):R808-R818.
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) alpha and its downstream targets carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are key factors in the survival of proliferating tumor cells in a hypoxic microenvironment. We studied the expression and prognostic relevance of HIF-1α and its downstream targets in phyllodes tumors and fibroadenomas of the breast.
The expression of HIF-1α, CAIX, VEGF and p53 was investigated by immunohistochemistry in a group of 37 primary phyllodes tumors and 30 fibroadenomas with known clinical follow-up. The tumor microvasculature was visualized by immunohistochemistry for CD31. Proliferation was assessed by Ki67 immunostaining and mitotic counts. Being biphasic tumors, immunoquantification was performed in the stroma and epithelium.
Only two fibroadenomas displayed low-level stromal HIF-1α reactivity in the absence of CAIX expression. Stromal HIF-1α expression was positively correlated with phyllodes tumor grade (P = 0.001), with proliferation as measured by Ki67 expression (P < 0.001) and number of mitoses (P < 0.001), with p53 accumulation (P = 0.003), and with global (P = 0.015) and hot-spot (P = 0.031) microvessel counts, but not with CAIX expression. Interestingly, concerted CAIX and HIF-1α expression was frequently found in morphologically normal epithelium of phyllodes tumors. The distance from the epithelium to the nearest microvessels was higher in phyllodes tumors as compared with in fibroadenomas. Microvessel counts as such did not differ between fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors, however. High expression of VEGF was regularly found in both tumors, with only a positive relation between stromal VEGF and grade in phyllodes tumors (P = 0.016). Stromal HIF-1α overexpression in phyllodes tumors was predictive of disease-free survival (P = 0.032).
These results indicate that HIF-1α expression is associated with diminished disease-free survival and may play an important role in stromal progression of breast phyllodes tumors. In view of the absence of stromal CAIX expression in phyllodes tumors, stromal upregulation of HIF-1α most probably arises from hypoxia-independent pathways, with p53 inactivation as one possible cause. In contrast, coexpression of HIF-1α and CAIX in the epithelium in phyllodes tumors points to epithelial hypoxia, most probably caused by relatively distant blood vessels. On the other hand, HIF-1α and CAIX seem to be of minor relevance in breast fibroadenomas.
PMCID: PMC1242154  PMID: 16168127
6.  A Case of Large Phyllodes Tumor Causing “Rupture” of the Breast: A Unique Presentation 
Introduction. Phyllodes tumors are rare fibroepithelial tumors which constitute less than 1% of all known breast neoplasms. The importance of recognizing these tumors lies in the need to differentiate them from fibroadenomas and other benign breast lesions to avoid inappropriate surgical management. We report a case of large phyllodes tumor which caused rupture of the breast and presented as an external fungating breast mass, a presentation which is exceedingly rare. Case Presentation. A 32-year-old female presented with a 1-year history of a mass in her right breast and eruption of the mass through the skin for the last 3 months. On physical examination, an ulcerated, irregular, and nodular mass measuring 9 × 8 cms was found hanging in the lower and outer quadrant of the right breast. Ultrasonography revealed an exophytic mass with heterogeneous echotexture and vascularity. Under general anesthesia, the tumor was excised. The resected specimen was 9.5 × 8.5 × 4.5 cm in size and the tumor was not invasive to the surrounding tissues. Histological examination confirmed a benign case of Phyllodes tumor. Conclusion. Clinicians should be aware of the myriad ways in which Phyllodes can present. A rapidly growing breast mass in a female should raise strong suspicion for Phyllodes. It is necessary to differentiate it from fibroadenomas to avoid inappropriate surgical management which may lead to local recurrence.
PMCID: PMC3666329  PMID: 23762692
7.  Molecular pathogenesis of progression and recurrence in breast phyllodes tumors 
Breast phyllodes tumors are rare fibroepithelial neoplasms that need to be distinguished from the common morphologically similar fibroadenomas, because phyllodes tumors can recur and progress to malignancy. Their potentially recurring and metastasizing behavior is attributed to their stromal characteristics, for which categorization between benign, borderline and malignant tumors have not been universally established. Previous clonality studies revealing monoclonal stromal cells versus a polyclonal epithelial component theorized that phyllodes tumors are mainly stromal neoplasms, possibly arising from fibroadenomas. More recent chromosomal imbalances in both epithelium and stroma have challenged this theory to favor neoplasia of both epithelium and stroma, with initial interdependence between the two components. Inverse correlations between epithelial and stromal overexpression for various biological markers like estrogen receptor, p53, c-kit, Ki-67, endothelin-1, epidermal growth factor receptor, heparan sulfate, in addition to findings of epithelial Wnt signalling with stromal insulin growth factors and beta-catenin expression, suggest an initial epithelial-stromal interdependence at the benign phase. Upon progression to malignancy, the stroma is hypothesized to assume an autonomous growth overriding any epithelial influence. Frequent genetic alterations are chromosomal gains of 1q and losses at chromosome 13. Acquisition of new genetic imbalances within the tumor consistent with intratumoral heterogeneity, and subclones within histologically benign phyllodes tumors that recur or metastasize are the current theories explaining these tumors' unpredictable clinical behavior.
PMCID: PMC2776292  PMID: 19966935
Molecular pathogenesis; phyllodes tumors; epithelial-stromal interactions; biological markers; genetic alterations; subclones
8.  Giant epidermal cyst in the posterior neck developing over 40 years: A case report 
Conventional epidermal cysts are generally small, slow-growing, non-tender, dome-shaped lesions. An epidermal cyst is usually asymptomatic until it is infected or enlarged to the extent that it causes damage to adjacent anatomical structures. However, few cases of giant epidermal cysts in the neck have been reported. The present case reports a giant epidermal cyst in the posterior neck, which grew to an extremely large size for >40 years without inflammation or rupture, and was misdiagnosed as a large soft tissue neoplasm. The patient exhibited depression and developed social anxiety due to the negative cosmetic consequences of the large mass. The patient underwent excision of the mass. At the follow-up examination two years postoperatively, there were no local recurrence and the psychiatric symptoms of the patient were completely resolved. To the best of our knowledge, a giant epidermal cyst growing for >40 years has not previously been reported.
PMCID: PMC3861182  PMID: 24348807
giant epidermal cyst; posterior neck; psychiatric symptom; cosmetic problem
9.  Epidermal Cyst of the Breast Treated by Vacuum-Assisted Biopsy 
International Surgery  2013;98(1):65-69.
A 38-year-old woman presented for evaluation of a firm mass (measuring 20 × 20 mm) in the upper outer quadrant of her left breast. On the basis of the clinical and radiologic findings, we diagnosed a benign breast tumor and scheduled removal by a hand-held vacuum-assisted biopsy device (VABD) under ultrasonographic guidance. Because the first specimen removed from the tumor was white, flaky, and waxy material, we strongly suspected that the lesion was an epidermal cyst. We continued VABD treatment until the tumor was invisible on real-time ultrasonography. Histologic examination demonstrated that the tumor was composed of mature stratified squamous epithelium and laminated layers of keratin, findings consistent with a diagnosis of epidermal cyst. These cysts rarely occur in the breast and are sometimes difficult to distinguish from breast cancer. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an epidermal cyst treated by VABD.
PMCID: PMC3723168  PMID: 23438279
Epidermal cyst; Breast; Vacuum-assisted biopsy device (VABD)
10.  A Case of an Undifferentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising from an Epidermal Cyst 
An epidermal cyst is a common benign subcutaneous tumor and rarely develops malignancy. We report a case of an undifferentiated cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) that arose from an epidermal cyst on the left side of the neck. The epidermal cyst had rapidly increased in size and presented cauliflower-like tumor. Histological study revealed undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma that was arising from the epidermal cyst.
PMCID: PMC3582051  PMID: 23476821
11.  A subset of malignant phyllodes tumors harbors alterations in the Rb/p16 pathway 
Human pathology  2013;44(11):2494-2500.
Breast phyllodes tumors are fibroepithelial neoplasms with variable risk of aggressive local recurrence and distant metastasis, and the molecular pathogenesis is unclear. Here, we systematically study p16 and Rb expression in 34 phyllodes tumors in relation to proliferation. Tissue microarrays were constructed from 10 benign, 10 borderline, and 14 malignant phyllodes (5 cores/tumor) and from 10 fibroadenomas (2 cores/tumor). Tissue microarrays were labeled by immunohistochemistry for p16, Rb, and Ki-67 and by in situ hybridization for high-risk human papillomavirus. Cytoplasmic and nuclear p16 were scored by percentage labeling (0%-100%, diffuse >95%) and intensity. Nuclear Rb was scored by percentage labeling (0%-100%, diffuse >75%) and intensity. p16 and Rb labeling were repeated on whole sections of cases with Rb loss on the tissue microarray. Twenty-nine percent (4/14) malignant phyllodes showed diffuse strong p16 labeling with Rb loss in malignant cells (diffuse p16+/Rb−), whereas 21% (3/14) malignant phyllodes showed the reverse pattern of p16 loss with diffuse strong Rb (p16−/diffuse Rb+). Results were consistent between tissue microarrays and whole sections. No borderline phyllodes, benign phyllodes, or fibroadenoma showed diffuse p16+/Rb− or p16−/diffuse Rb+ phenotypes. No cases contained high-risk human papillomavirus. Average Ki-67 proliferation indices were 15% in malignant phyllodes, 1.7% in borderline phyllodes, 0.5% in benign phyllodes, and 0% in fibroadenoma. Ki-67 was highest in malignant phyllodes with diffuse p16+/Rb− labeling. In summary, 50% malignant phyllodes display evidence of Rb/p16 pathway alterations, likely reflecting p16 or Rb inactivation. These and other mechanisms may contribute to the increased proliferation in malignant phyllodes relative to other fibroepithelial neoplasms.
PMCID: PMC3998645  PMID: 23916291
p16; Rb; Phyllodes tumor; Breast; Fibroepithelial neoplasm
12.  Breast Lumps: A 21-Year Single-Center Clinical and Histological Analysis 
To review the presentation and histological diagnosis of breast lumps of patients seen in Trans Ekulu Hospital Enugu Southeastern Nigeria from 1993 to 2013 in a period of 21 years.
Materials and Methods:
This is a retrospective study covering a period of 21 years. Case notes of patients containing clinical information and their histology reports were studied.
Only 38% of the patients came within 3 months of finding lumps in their breast. One hundred and thirty-seven patients (83%) had benign disease, i.e., fibroadenoma, mammary dysplasia, cysts, adenomas, tuberculosis, phyllodes tumor, mastitis, and lipoma. Only 16.9% i.e., 28 patients had breast cancer, out of which two females were in their 20s, and three were males.
Benign breast diseases, i.e., fibroadenoma, fibroadenosis, cysts, adenomas, tuberculosis, phyllodes, mastitis, and lipoma are the commoner breast diseases in our locality.
PMCID: PMC3953633  PMID: 24665202
Breast lumps; biopsy; Enugu; single centre; Southeastern Nigeria
13.  Squamous cell carcinoma arising from an epidermal inclusion cyst: A case report 
Cutaneous epidermal cysts are common lesions, but fortunately, malignant transformation of their epithelium is rare. There are few case reports in the literature concerning malignant transformation of an epidermal cyst into squamous cell carcinoma. We present a case of squamous cell carcinoma arising from an epidermal inclusion cyst and describe the clinical and histopathologic findings.
Case Report:
A tumour measuring 1.5cm was surgically excised. Based on the histopathologic findings of the tumour, this case was diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma that arises in an epidermal cyst. Malignant change had not been suspected until histological examination revealed it. Nine months after tumour resection, the patient is free of disease.
malignant transformation of an epidermal inclusion cyst is rare; this case illustrates the importance of routine histology in excision of epidermal cysts.
PMCID: PMC3354388  PMID: 22624113
Epidermal cyst; carcinoma; histopathology
14.  Rapidly progressive multifocal phyllodes tumour of the breast: A case report and review of the literature☆ 
Malignant transformation of a phyllodes tumour is a rare form of breast cancer, accounting for just 0.5% of all breast cancer cases.1
We report a case of a 49 year old female with rapidly progressive, multifocal disease. She initially presented with two giant fibroadenomas which were excised. She represented eight months post surgery with two new lesions in the same breast, one suspicious, one suggestive of fibroadenoma. Biopsy was borderline. Surgery was therefore scheduled for wide local excision. At localisation two weeks later, at least eight lesions were seen on ultrasound scan. Three were removed as histology was at this point unknown to conserve the breast. Histology revealed intermediate grade DCIS, benign Phyllodes and borderline/malignant phyllodes. She was scheduled for mastectomy and immediate Strattice reconstruction. An MRI was performed pre-operatively to ascertain extent of disease. Two weeks post localisation, 13 lesions were identified. The right breast was entirely unaffected. Surgery interval was three weeks and final histology revealed 18 lesions, ranging from fibroadenoma through to borderline/malignant phyllodes with an incidental papilloma.
This is the first report of such rapid progression of disease, with 16 new lesions, of varied histology, developing in just an eight week period.
This case highlights the difficulty of forming a clear diagnostic and therapeutic pathway in this highly variable disease. Arguments for over and under treating these patients remain but those with any borderline/malignant potential have to be removed as recurrence is both common and aggressive, with a clear surgical margin the only proven protective factor.
PMCID: PMC3785922  PMID: 24013041
Breast; Phyllodes; Cancer; Surgery; Multifocal
15.  Multiple dermoid sinuses of type Vb and IIIb on the head of a Saint Bernard dog 
Dermoid sinus, a congenital malformation of neural tube development, has been reported in humans and several animal species including dogs. It is typically found in the dorsal midline and commonly occurs in the Rhodesian Ridgeback breed. A case of multiple dermoid sinuses in the fronto-occipital region is described. An 11-month-old, intact female Saint Bernard dog was presented with a 2 day history of discharge from a large irregular subcutaneous mass in the fronto-occipital region. The dog was otherwise healthy. The dog had two circular skin lesions (approximately 4 × 4 and 4 × 2 cm diameter) surrounded by multiple irregular elevated masses. The masses had multiple small openings on the skin surface with tufts of hair protruding from the apertures. The masses were surgically removed, and the diagnosis of multiple dermoid sinuses was confirmed by histological examination. Histopathological examination showed multiple, variably sized, spherical to tubular cysts expanding the dermis and subcutis. Cysts were filled with hair shafts and lamellar keratin and were lined by a stratified squamous epithelium. Sebaceous and apocrine gland adnexal structures were also observed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of multiple dermoid sinuses of two different types in the head of a Saint Bernard dog.
PMCID: PMC3846701  PMID: 24006855
Dermoid sinus; Fronto-occipital region; Saint Bernard dog
16.  Squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii in a Zebu cow 
Stratified keratinizing squamous epithelium in the ovary has been associated with the diagnosis of ovarian teratoma in cows. Recently, the diagnosis of “epidermoid cyst” has been proposed. A case of squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii in a Zebu cow is described in this report.
Case presentation
A crossbreed Zebu cow had both ovaries enlarged with multiple cysts. Most cysts were lined by well differentiated keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium and filled with keratinized lamellar material. Some cysts were lined by an epithelial layer that ranged from single cuboidal, double cuboidal epithelium, stratified non keratinized epithelium, and areas of keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium. Single or double layered cuboidal epithelia of the cysts expressed low molecular weight cytokeratin 7, whose expression was absent in the keratinizing stratified squamous epithelia of same cysts. Conversely, high molecular weight cytokeratins 1, 5, 10, and 14 were strongly expressed by the keratinizing stratified epithelium.
Squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii was diagnosed. Squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii, may account for some of the previously described squamous lesions in the ovary, which may have been misinterpreted as teratoma or epidermoid cysts.
PMCID: PMC3528438  PMID: 23217175
Ovary; Cow; Rete ovarii; Squamous metaplasia; Epidermoid cyst
17.  Lobular intraepithelial neoplasia arising within breast fibroadenoma 
BMC Research Notes  2013;6:267.
Fibroadenomas are the second most common breast pathology occurring in young women under the age of 35 years old. Fibroadenomas can be classified as simple or complex according to histological features. Complex fibroadenomas differ from simple fibroadenomas because of the presence of cysts (3 mm), sclerosing adenosis, epithelial calcifications, or papillary apocrine changes. Most fibroadenomas are clinically identifiable. In 25% of cases, fibroadenomas are non-palpable and are diagnosed with mammography and ultrasound. Differential diagnosis with well differentiated breast cancer is often necessary, particularly with medullary or mucinous tumors. Calcification findings within fibroadenomas by mammogram have to be investigated. The age of a lump is usually reflected by calcifications. Microcalcification can hide foci of carcinoma in situ when they are small, branching type, and heterogeneous. However, many morphological possibilities may not be reliable for deciding whether a certain calcification is the product of a malignant or a benign process. From a radiological point of view, fibroadenomas containing foci of carcinoma in situ can be indistinguishable from benign lesions, even if the incidence of carcinoma within fibroadenomas is estimated as 0.1–0.3%, and it could be a long-term risk factor for invasive breast cancer.
Case presentation
A 44-year-old woman presented with a 1.5-cm palpable, smooth, mobile lump in the lower-inner quadrant of her right breast. Standard mediolateral oblique and craniocaudal mammograms showed a cluster of eccentric popcorn-like calcifications within the fibroadenoma. After lumpectomy, a definitive histological examination confirmed the intra-operative diagnosis of a benign mass. However, lobular intraepithelial neoplasia foci were found, surrounded by atypical lobular hyperplasia.
The possibility of an old benign breast lump might be supported by fine needle aspiration biopsy or core biopsy before initiating follow-up. According to our experience, when patients are older than 40 years and have a familial history of breast cancer, we prefer to carry out lumpectomy with follow up to avoid the risk of underestimation in situ foci within the lump.
PMCID: PMC3716517  PMID: 23849288
Fibroadenoma; Lobular intraepithelial neoplasia; Popcorn-like calcifications
18.  Dermoid cyst in a domestic shorthair cat 
A 5-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat was presented for examination of a subcutaneous mass in his tail. The mass was firm, non-painful, oval, and approximately 2.5 × 3.5 cm. Surgical exploration revealed a well-circumscribed, encapsulated mass. The mass was removed and sectioned for histopathological examination. In gross section, it was filled with numerous dark hairs. Histologically the mass was consisted of haired skin with dermal cystic structures lined by stratified squamous epithelium. The cyst lumen contained squamous debris and filled with keratinous material. Numerous hair shafts were extended from the wall of the cyst. The sebaceous and apocrine gland adnexal structures were also observed which confirmed the diagnosis of dermoid cyst. No tumor recurrence was observed after surgery in fallowing checkups. Cutaneous or subcutaneous cysts of all types are considered rare in cats and to our knowledge this is the third reported case of cutaneous dermoid cyst of cats in veterinary literature which is different from the other cases because it occurred in dorsal midline in tail area whereas others occurred in flank area.
PMCID: PMC3609282  PMID: 23569907
Cutaneous dermoid cyst; Cat; Feline medicine; Shorthair cat; Dermoid cyst; Histopathology
19.  p16INK4A Immunohistochemical Staining May Be Helpful in Distinguishing Branchial Cleft Cysts From Cystic Squamous Cell Carcinomas Originating in the Oropharynx 
Cancer  2009;117(2):108-119.
We investigated p16INK4A expression in branchial cleft cysts and its utility in distinguishing branchial cleft cysts from metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNABs).
A study set comprising 41 resections (15 SCC and 26 branchial cleft cysts) and a test set of 15 FNABs (11 SCC and 4 branchial cleft cysts) were analyzed with p16INK4A immunohistochemistry and human papillomavirus (HPV) polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/pyrosequencing. Cases with discrepant p16INK4A and PCR/pyrosequencing results were further evaluated with HPV in situ hybridization (ISH). SCCs were divided into keratinizing SCC and nonkeratinizing SCC groups and site of origin.
Metastatic oropharyngeal nonkeratinizing SCC in the study set exhibited diffuse, strong p16INK4A (7 of 7) and HPV16 DNA positivity (6 of 6), while keratinizing SCC from the larynx and oral cavity was negative for p16INK4A. p16INK4A reactivity in the branchial cleft cyst study set was characterized by focal, strong staining (6 of 21) involving the superficial squamous epithelium. HPV DNA was identified in 7 of 19 branchial cleft cyst study set cases by PCR/pyrosequencing, but these cases were negative by HPV ISH. In the test set, oropharyngeal nonkeratinizing SCC exhibited diffuse, strong p16INK4A (3 of 3) and HPV16 DNA (2 of 2), while metastatic keratinizing SCC was negative for p16INK4A and HPV DNA. All 4 FNABs of branchial cleft cysts were negative for p16INK4A. Diffuse, strong p16INK4A correlated with oropharyngeal origin (P = .001) and nonkeratinizing morphology (P = .0001).
Branchial cleft cysts can exhibit focal strong reactivity limited to the superficial squamous epithelium and glandular epithelium. Although p16INK4A immunohistochemistry may be helpful in distinguishing oropharyngeal nonkeratinizing SCC from branchial cleft cysts in FNAB specimens, it is not helpful in cases of keratinizing SCC because these cases are typically negative for p16INK4A.
PMCID: PMC2933039  PMID: 19365840
p16INK4A; head and neck squamous cell carcinoma; human papillomavirus; oropharynx; fine-needle aspiration
20.  Abnormal regulation of the oestrogen receptor in benign breast lesions 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2000;53(10):778-783.
Background—In normal breast tissue the oestrogen receptor (ER) and the proliferation associated antigen Ki67 are negatively associated, indicating that ER+ cells are non-dividing, or that the receptor is downregulated as cells enter cycle. This relation is completely or partially lost in many ER+ breast cancers and in in situ proliferations associated with an increased cancer risk, where coexpression of the two markers is often found.
Aims—To determine whether similar changes can be identified in other risk associated breast lesions.
Patients/Methods—Paraffin wax blocks from 12 cases of lactational change, 21 apocrine metaplasias, 22 duct ectasias, 20 sclerosing adenosis, 20 fibroadenomas, 19 phyllodes tumours, 20 radial scars, 21 papillomas (15 solitary and six multiple), 15 gynaecomastias, and nine postmortem male breast tissues were retrieved. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of ER and dual labelling immunofluorescence was used to detect cells expressing both ER and Ki67.
Results—Increased numbers of ER+ cells were seen in sclerosing adenosis, radial scars, papillomas, fibroadenomas, and phyllodes tumours but not in apocrine cysts (where no ER+ cells were detected) or duct ectasia (where normal numbers were found). As in the normal breast, the proportion of ER+ cells increased with age in all lesions with the exception of fibroadenomas. Coexpression of ER and Ki67 was found in an increased proportion of cells of all risk associated lesions studied. ER+ cells were less likely to be dividing than ER- cells in all cases, although this was significant only for sclerosing adenosis. The data on sclerosing adenosis, radial scars, papillomas, and fibroadenomas are comparable with those reported previously in hyperplasia of usual type, whereas those in duct ectasia are similar to those of the normal breast. The findings in all lesions, however, differed from those in ductal carcinoma in situ, where proportions of ER+ and ER+/Ki67+ cells are higher and the relation between ER+ cell numbers and age is lost. Thus, the nature and degree of dysregulation of ER in benign breast lesions is broadly in accordance with the degree of risk of developing breast cancer with which they are associated. In gynaecomastia, the proportions of ER+ and ER+/Ki67+ cells were comparable with those seen in benign female breast lesions, but changes with age were not observed. However, the changes in gynaecomastia were similar to those seen in normal male breast.
Conclusion—These findings are in keeping with the contention that the dissociation of ER and Ki67 expression is a very early change in the pathway to many breast cancers. However, this change might only have preneoplastic importance in the hormonal milieu of the female breast.
Key Words: oestrogen receptor • proliferation • benign breast • precancerous breast
PMCID: PMC1731078  PMID: 11064673
21.  Follicular hybrid cyst: a combination of bullous pilomatricoma and epidermoid cyst 
The follicular hybrid is composed of more than two components of pilosebaceous unit. There are several studies of hybrid cyst, combination of trichilemmal and epidermoid cyst was the most frequently reported. In this paper, we reported one case of hybrid cyst composed of bullous pilomatricoma and epidermoid cyst. A 14-year-old girl was complaint of a solitary flesh-colored to erythematous nodule with flaccid appearance sized 3.2×1.8 cm in diameter on her right upper back for one year. The histologic findings showed there were edema and proliferation of capillaries in the superficial dermis, a cyst in the middle to deep dermis. There were laminated keratins in the cystic space. The cyst wall was composed of two different components, one was composed of epithelial cells containing of granular layer, and another consisted of basophilic cells, transient cells and shadow cells. The cyst not related with Gardner’s syndrome. Hybrid cyst such as trichilemmal cyst, epidermoid and pilomatricoma cysts maybe have same clinical features or mimicking each others, but we can distinguish them from histopathology evaluation.
PMCID: PMC3843288  PMID: 24294394
Hybrid cyst; bullous pilomatricoma; epidermoid cyst
22.  Two Cases of Giant Epidermal Cyst Occurring in the Neck 
Annals of Dermatology  2011;23(Suppl 1):S135-S138.
Epidermal cysts are the most common cysts of the skin. Aconventional epidermal cyst rarely reaches a size of more than 5 cm in diameter. We report on two cases of giant epidermal cyst occurring in the neck. One patient had a cyst measuring 12×9×9 cm and the other patient had a non-pulsatile, dome-shaped lesion in the neck, which measured 6×5×3 cm. The lesions were totally excised. Histopathologically, both were confirmed as giant epidermal cysts.
PMCID: PMC3199411  PMID: 22028561
Epidermal cyst; Neck
23.  Pigmented epidermal cyst with dense collection of melanin: A rare entity – Report of a case with review of the literature 
Epidermal cyst is a very common benign cystic lesion of the skin. It is usual to find ulceration of the lining epithelium, rupture of the cyst wall with chronic inflammation and foreign body giant cell reaction. But, it is very rare to see an epidermal cyst with marked accumulation of melanin pigment. Only a few cases of pigmented epidermal cyst with dense collection of melanin pigment have been published in the literature. Here, we are reporting a case of ruptured epidermal cyst with keratin granuloma formation and showing dense collection of melanin pigment.
PMCID: PMC3481872  PMID: 23130289
Foreign body giant cells; keratin granuloma; melanin; pigmented epidermal cyst; ruptured cyst
24.  Occurrence and Characteristics of Head Cysts in Children 
Eplasty  2010;10:e37.
Background: Lumps arising in the head and neck constitute an important diagnostic category in children. As malignancy in this age group is relatively rare, lumps that are not due to inflammatory or infective causes often prove to be cysts. Correct diagnoses of the different subcutaneous lumps are often missed because of the lack of recognition or uncertainty with management. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to review the characteristics of most common pediatric cysts appearing in the head. Methods: A retrospective study was designed to review all the children treated for a cyst in the head during the 12-year period from 1995 to 2007. Study patients had a preoperative diagnosis of a cyst in the head, were younger than 11 years at the time of the diagnosis, and had received a surgical treatment for the condition. The pathological specimens were revised with an expert dermatopathologist, and the clinical data were statistically analyzed. Results: Of the 90 cysts, 53 were dermoid cysts (58.88%), 16 were diagnosed as pilomatrixomas (17.77%), 5 cysts were diagnosed as branchial cysts (5.55%), and 12 were diagnosed as epidermal cyst (13.33%). Male gender and younger age were significantly associated with correct diagnosis of dermoid cysts (P <.05). Conclusions: Ninety-five percent of the cysts fell in 1 of the 4 following categories: dermoid cyst, pilomatrixoma, epidermal cyst, and branchial arch cyst. Dermoid cysts were the most common facial cysts (60%). Correct preoperative diagnosis was more accurate in cases of dermoid and branchial cysts.
PMCID: PMC2875748  PMID: 20505789
25.  Anal phyllodes tumor in a male patient: a unique case presentation and literature review 
Diagnostic Pathology  2013;8:49.
Lesions of anogenital mammary-like glands are rare, and only 44 female cases have been reported. Herein, we describe a particularly rare case of phyllodes tumor of anogenital mammary-like glands in a 41-year-old male presenting anal bleeding. Papillectomy was performed. The excised tumor was circumscribed in shape, and after it was sliced into sections, it was noted that there were leaf-like slits on the surface of cut side. Under the microscope, the tumor was found to be biphasic, with a bland glandular epithelium and low-to-intermediate cellular stroma, which together created the leaf-like slits. Gynecomastoid hyperplasia was evident at the periphery. The epithelium showed immuno-activity for ER, PR(focal), AR, and GCDFP-15. The stromal cells showed positive staining for CD34 and vimentin. The morphology and immunophenotype were similar to benign phyllodes tumors of breast. To the best of our knowledge, this case report represents the first case of phyllodes tumor of anogenital mammary-like glands with gynecomastoid hyperplasia at the periphery in a male patient. To make a diagnosis, we had to differentiate this lesion from hidradenoma papilliferum of skin appendage, phyllodes tumor of ectopic prostatic tissue, and other tumors of anogenital mammary-like glands analogous to the breast tumor (e.g., fibroadenoma phyllodes, periductal stromal sarcoma, and spindle cell carcinoma). While gynecomastia of male breast is usually a result of hormone imbalance, our patient’s tumor did not seem to be related to peripheral hormone status in the anogenital mammary-like glands. Nevertheless, because hormone imbalance has been strongly related to male breast cancer, hormone levels may need to be followed in male patients who have this rare malady.
Virtual slides
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:
PMCID: PMC3621362  PMID: 23531415
Anogenital mammary-like glands; Ectopic breast tissue; Fibroepithelial neoplasm; Phyllodes tumor; Gynecomastia

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