Cystic lesion of the omentum and mesentery are rare. The incidence of both cyst types has been variously reported to vary from 1/27,000-100,000 hospital admission. Omental cysts occur three to ten times less frequently than mesenteric cyst. Preoperative diagnosis is infrequently made because of lack of characteristic symptoms and signs.
We present our diagnostic and management challenges in a 43-year-old man with an unusually giant omental cyst confirmed as fibrosarcoma at histology. The cyst gave the abdomen an anteroposterior diameter of about 74 cm that could not be penetrated sufficiently by X-ray photons to produce diagnostic image even at maximum attainable output. Patient benefited from surgical excision. The removed cyst contained about 35 litres of fluid.
Neglected omental cysts as in this case may grow to enormous size, undergo malignant transformation and poses serious diagnostic and surgical challenges.
If a pediatric abdominal mass is not organomegaly or colonic stool, narrowing the diagnostic possibilities may be difficult, especially in resource-poor areas where ancillary tests and treatment options may be limited. A 2-year-old girl was brought to the rural Kintampo Municipal Hospital in Ghana with a freely moveable, non-tender abdominal mass. A huge mesenteric dermoid cyst was surgically removed. Mesenteric cysts are rare intra-abdominal lesions, most commonly occurring in children <10 years old. Making a preoperative diagnosis is difficult. Dermoid cysts (mature cystic teratoma) rarely occur in the mesentery. Poverty, family circumstances and the rural location led to general physicians doing surgery. As in this case, due to economic, social and transportation issues common throughout Africa, children with abdominal masses may need at least initial surgery in hospitals without dedicated pediatric surgery or even a trained surgeon.
Cyst; mesentery; dermoid; pediatrics; tumor
This case report describes a Mullerian serous adenocarcinoma arising within a multoloculated cyst lined by ciliated serous-type epithelium located in the sigmoid mesentery. Twenty years previously the patient underwent a hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and omentectomy. The ovaries contained bilateral serous cystadenofibromas, and multiple cysts lined by ciliated serous-type epithelium were present in the omentum. The resection specimen 20 years later contained a 14 cm multiloculated cyst located in the sigmoid mesentery. This was lined largely by benign ciliated serous-type epithelium but a focus of well differentiated serous adenocarcinoma projected into the lumen. Two further peritoneal cysts were present, both of which were lined by ciliated serous-type epithelium. There was a coincidental renal cell carcinoma. This is a unique case of multiple omental, peritoneal, and retroperitoneal cysts (classified as cystic endosalpingiosis), one of which developed a focus of serous adenocarcinoma. Although rarely serous adenocarcinomas, similar to those occurring within the ovary, arise in the retroperitoneum, this is the first reported occurrence in association with a pre-existing benign lesion.
ovary; mesentery; endosapingiosis; serous adenocarcinoma; secondary Mullerian system
Lymphangioma is an uncommon benign lesion that usually occurs during childhood. Its occurrence in adults is rare. Its presentation in the abdomen is even rare. This case report describes a case of omental lymphangioma presented as retroperitoneal lump. Subsequent imaging, operative, and histological findings revealed omental lymphangioma. Laparotomy done under general anesthesia, a 10 × 12 cm cystic swelling arising from omentum, identified complete excision of the cyst done and send the specimen for histopathological examination. Biopsy report came as omental lymphangioma. Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice. Prognosis is excellent and recurrence rate is very low if resection is complete. During two years of followup no recurrence was detected. Omental lymphangioma is very rare presentation among abdominal lymphangiomas specifically in adults. Complete excision is the treatment of choice. Long-term followup is required to detect recurrence.
This case report suggests that laparoscopic resection of omental leiomyoma with a large cystic component is feasible and safe.
Primary tumors of the omentum are uncommon, and leiomyomas arising in the omentum are exceedingly rare. We report on a patient who presented with a large abdominal cyst presumed to be an omental cyst. At laparoscopy, after aspiration, the cyst was found to be attached to a solid mass arising from the greater omentum. The entire tumor was successfully excised laparoscopically. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry revealed it to be an omental leiomyoma with a large degenerative cystic component. Treatment by a minimal access approach allowed the patient to recover rapidly with a short convalescence. Our case confirms the feasibility and safety of a minimal access surgical approach to a rare pathological entity.
Laparoscopy; Omental neoplasm; Leiomyoma; Cyst
Abdominal lymphangiomas are uncommon angiomatous tumor occurring mainly in childhood. This is a retrospective clinicopathologic study of 17 cases of abdominal lymphangioma. The patients included are five children and 12 adults, with a mean age at initial presentation of 30.7 years (age ranges 3-63). The locations of the tumors were mesentery (5), retroperitoneum (4), colon (3), omentum (3), mesocolon (1) and gallbladder (1). Infiltrative growth was more common pattern than entirely circumscribed pattern. Masses were mostly multilocular cysts and contained chyle or serous fluid. On immunohistochemical staining, 16 cases were reactive for either CD31 or factor VIII-related antigen. These fact would suggest that intra-abdominal lymphangiomas simulate the immunohistochemical features of collecting lymphatics. Follow up was possible in 12 cases for 3-50 months (mean 19 months) and only one patient showed local recurrence. Although abdominal lymphangiomas are rare in adulthood and correct preoperative diagnosis is difficult, awareness of such a possibility in adulthood will contribute to make a correct preoperative diagnosis.
Lymphangiomas are rare benign cystic tumors of the lymphatic system. Retroperitoneal lymphangiomas account for 1% of all lymphangiomas, and approximately 186 cases have been reported. They may clinically present as a palpable abdominal mass and can cause diagnostic dilemmas with other retroperitoneal cystic tumors, including those arising from the liver, kidney and pancreas. This report describes the rare case of a cystic retroperitoneal lymphangioma in a 54-year-old male patient. The lymphangioma had progressed to the point of inducing clinical symptoms of abdominal distention, abdominal pain, anorexia, fever, nausea and diarrhea. Radiological imaging revealed a large multiloculated cystic abdominal mass with enhancing septations involving the upper retroperitoneum and extending into the pelvis. Surgical removal of the cyst was accomplished without incident. A benign cystic retroperitoneal lymphangioma was diagnosed on histology and confirmed with immunohistochemical stains.
Retroperitoneum; Cystic; Lymphangioma
Mesenteric cysts are not uncommon in pediatric age group but giant lymphatic cysts of mesentery are reported infrequently. This is a report of six years old female who had vague abdominal pain with distension for two years. Investigations revealed a large cystic mass in abdomen. On exploration a giant lymphatic cyst in the mesentery of transverse colon found. More than 1500 ml of milky fluid was drained. The cyst was unilocular and appeared to be the collection of lymph (chyle) between two leaves of the mesentery of transverse colon. It is postulated that trauma to or malformation of lymphatics at the root of mesentery might have lead to this pathology.
Lymphatic cyst; Mesenteric cyst; Lymphatic malformation; Abdominal mass
Lymphangiomas are congenital malformations of the lymphatic system that account for about 5% of all benign tumors in infants and children.1 The most common sites are the neck and axilla, which account for 95% of cases.2 Abdominal cystic lymphangiomas are quite rare, and can arise from either the retroperitoneum, gastrointestinal tract, or the mesentery of the abdominal viscera.3 The presenting symptoms are painless abdominal distension, a palpable mass, or secondary complications in the abdomen such as intestinal obstruction, volvulus, intestinal infarction, or bleeding.4 Typically diagnosed during childhood, these tumors prompt surgical intervention. We describe an atypical case of an abdominal cystic lymphangioma, which did not manifest until adulthood, with atypical symptoms of a rapidly expanding and symptomatic mass.
cystic lymphangioma; mesenteric lymphangioma; retroperitoneal lymphangioma.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. More rarely neoplasms with histology and immunohistochemistry similar to GISTs may occur outside the gastrointestinal tract ( omentum, mesentery and retroperitoneum) and are so-called Extra-gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (EGISTs). EGISTs arising in the retroperitoneum are extremely rare: to date, only 58 cases have been reported in the literature.
We herein report a case of a primary EGIST of the retroperitoneum surgically treated. The pre-operative radiological evaluation showed a retroperitoneal mass, placed in left paravertebral region.
Morphological and immunohistochemical features led to a diagnosis of extra-gastrointestinal stromal tumor (intermediate-low risk form).
As a result of the rarity of reports of primary EGISTs of retroperitoneum we need to analyze the data of reported cases in order to gain a better understanding about the pathogenesis, prognosis and optimal treatment of this disease.
Extra-gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; retroperitoneum; CD117
Mesenteric chylous cysts are rare. This study suggests that even large mesenteric chylous cysts may be managed with minimally invasive means.
Mesenteric chylous cysts are rare pathologic entities that often present with unspecific symptoms. The preoperative diagnosis requires all the common abdominal imaging techniques, but usually the correct diagnosis may be made only at the operation stage or during the histological examination. The treatment of choice is the complete surgical excision that may be safely performed by laparoscopy. A 58-year-old man underwent laparoscopic excision of a huge mesenteric chylous cyst. The technique entails the perfect control of the major abdominal vessels running near the tumor and the complete sealing of the chylous and blood vessels to and from the cyst.
Chylous cyst; Mesenteric cyst; Laparoscopic enucleation
A peritoneal simple mesothelial cyst is a very rare mesenteric cyst of mesothelial origin. The size of this lesion usually ranges between a few centimeters and 10 cm. It is usually asymptomatic, but occasionally presents with various, non-specific symptoms, which makes correct pre-operative diagnosis difficult. We present a case of a giant peritoneal simple mesothelial cyst that was successfully managed by complete surgical excision which is the treatment of choice.
A 21-year-old Caucasian Moroccan woman with vague abdominal discomfort and associated distention, during the previous 2 years, without other symptoms, presented to our hospital. Her past medical history was unremarkable. On physical examination, a mobile, painless and relatively hard abdominal mass was palpated. The laboratory examination and abdominal radiograph were unremarkable. Abdominal radiologic imaging showed a cystic mass of 35 × 20 × 10 cm that occupied the entire anterior and right abdominal cavity. Radical excision of the cyst was performed by midline laparotomy without any damage to the adjacent abdominal organs. The histopathological diagnosis was simple mesothelial cyst. The postoperative course was uneventful with no recurrence.
A peritoneal simple mesothelial cyst is a quite rare abdominal tumor, that must always be considered in differential diagnosis of pelvic cystic lesions and other mesenteric cysts. The treatment of choice is the complete surgical excision of the cyst.
Primary isolated omental hydatid cysts are extremely rare. Usually, omental hydatid cysts are secondary, either resulting from spontaneous spread of cysts or occurring after operations involving hydatidosis in other regions. Here, we report a case of a primary isolated omental hydatid cyst treated with a laparoscopic approach.
We report a 16-year-old female who admitted to hospital with right upper quadrant pain. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) revealed a cyst located between the liver and right kidney. The cyst was enucleated from the omentum and removed with a laparoscopic approach. Histopathologic examination revealed a hydatid cyst. There was no recurrence during 3 years of follow-up. Primary isolated omental hydatid disease should be considered in patients in endemic regions with intra-abdominal cysts. Laparoscopic surgery seems to be effective and safe for hydatid cysts in accessible locations.
Laparoscopy; Omentum; Hydatid cyst
Mesenteric cysts are tumoural formations which are generally benign in character, originate from the intestinal mesentery, and rarely cause abdominal tumours. They are asymptomatic unless a complication occurs, and thus may be incidentally diagnosed. Symptomatic cases may show up with findings such as abdominal pain, abdominal mass, nausea, and vomiting, and sometimes patients present with an acute abdomen. Treatment includes total excision of the cyst. We present the case of a male patient admitted to our emergency department with acute abdominal symptoms, who was subsequently found to have a mesenteric cyst measuring 30×20×9 cm.
: Primary tumours of the omentum are quite uncommon, although it is a common site for for secondaries.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
: We report a case of leiomyoma of the greater omentum in a 31-year-old nulliparous woman who presented with a 2-year history of progressive abdominal distension with examination findings of massive ascites and a mobile ill-defined centrally located intra-abdominal mass. The preoperative diagnosis was equivocal. At surgery a pedunculated greater omental mass, which was histologically reported as a leiomyoma, was seen. She had an uneventful post-operative recovery. She has been followed up for twelve months with no evidence of recurrence or residual disease.
: Extra-uterine leiomyoma is rare. It is even rarer for it to originate from the omentum. Pre-operative diagnosis is challenging. To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case of leiomyoma of the omentum in Nigeria.
: The uncommon association of ascites with this tumour deserves further scrutiny. The patient is still being followed-up.
Greater omentum; Leiomyoma; Ascites
Liposarcomas are common soft tissue of the retroperitoneum and the limbs. They are rarely found in the greater omentum. Once in the peritoneum, these can become enormous and can be mistaken for ovarian mass. The authors report a case of giant omental liposarcoma revealed by an abdominal mass and genital prolapse due to the compression syndrome. A complete macroscopic resection of the omental tumour was performed. A post operative chemotherapy was also prescribed. A description of this clinical presentation in the preoperative assessment, the characteristics of this tumour, together with the use of adjuvant chemotherapy are discussed in this report.
Liposarcoma; Great omentum; Surgery; Chemotherapy
A 42-year-old patient presented with right-sided abdominal discomfort. Investigations revealed a 19 × 21 centimetres large cystic lesion occupying nearly the entire right side of the abdomen. It was situated between ascending colon and right kidney and extended from the liver to the pelvic inlet supero-inferiorly. Laparoscopic excision was planned. The cyst was aspirated completely and dissected from the surrounding structures. It was eventually found to be arising from the right free edge of the greater omentum. Due to its size and weight it was lodged behind the ascending colon. Post-operative course was uneventful. Histology revealed a mesothelial omental cyst. Omental cysts are rare abdominal tumours. Complete excision is the treatment advised to prevent recurrence. Laparoscopic excision can be safely performed taking care to ascertain diagnosis and not to damage any structures intra-operatively.
Omental cyst; laparoscopy; excision
Mesenteric cysts are rare intra-abdominal masses, presenting with various clinical signs and symptoms. Mesenteric cysts presenting with a sudden onset of urinary retention is extremely rare. There are no cases reported in the English literature. Here, we report a very rare case of urinary retention, due to mesenteric cyst in a 19-year-old man. The patient presented with abdominal distention with a sudden onset of urinary retention. Ultrasonography and computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed a huge cystic mass above the bladder that was completely separated from the kidney and bladder. The cyst was removed surgically. The patient experienced no urological difficulty after the surgery. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of a mesenteric cyst.
Acute urinary retention; abdominal mass; mesenteric cyst
Mesenteric cysts are rare abdominal tumours. They are found in the mesentery of small bowel (66%) and mesentery of large intestine (33%), usually in the right colon. Very few cases have been reported of tumours found in mesentery of descending colon, sigmoid or rectum. Mesenteric cysts do not show classical clinical findings and are detected incidentally during imaging due to absent or non-specific clinical presentation or during management of one of their complications. Ultrasonography (USG)/computed tomography (CT)/ magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used in diagnosing mesenteric cyst but they cannot determine the origin of cyst. Laparoscopy not only helps in diagnosing the site and origin of the mesenteric cyst but also has a therapeutic role. Laparoscopic treatment of mesenteric cyst is a safe, preferred method of treatment and is a less-invasive surgical technique. Here, we present an unusual case of mesenteric cyst arising from the sigmoid mesocolon treated by laparoscopic excision.
Benign; laparoscopy; mesenteric cyst; mesocolon; sigmoid
Gastric duplication cysts are rare variety of gastrointestinal duplications. Sometimes they may present with complications like hemorrhage, infection, perforation, volvulus, intussusception and rarely neoplastic changes in the gastric duplication cyst. We present one and half year old male child who developed sudden abdominal distension with pain and fever for two days. Ultrasound revealed a cystic mass in the hypochondrium and epigastric regions. On exploration an infected and perforated gastric duplication cyst was found. Surgical excision of most part of cyst wall with mucosal stripping of the rest was performed. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of gastric duplication cyst. Early surgical intervention can result in good outcome.
Gastric duplication cyst; Acute abdomen; Peritonitis
Background. Liposarcoma is the second most common soft tissue sarcoma affecting predominantly the retroperitoneal space and extremities. Mesenteric liposarcoma is uncommon and occurs in the small bowel mesentery. In this paper we report the case of a recurrent mesocolon myxoid liposarcoma manifesting 6 years from the initial right hemicolectomy for the primary tumour. Case Report. A 41-year-old female presented with a 4-day history of signs and symptoms indicative of small bowel obstruction, subsequently confirmed on plain abdominal X-ray. In 2006 she underwent a right hemicolectomy for a myxoid liposarcoma of the mesentery. The patient was initially managed conservatively; however she showed no signs of improvement and was taken to theatre for an exploratory laparotomy and division of adhesional bands. During this procedure an incidental finding of a dark purple, smooth pelvic mass was identified with similar macroscopic appearance to that of splenic tissue. Histological examination revealed a recurrent mesocolon myxoid liposarcoma. Conclusion. Mesocolon myxoid liposarcoma is a rare soft tissue neoplastic pathology and carries a high risk of recurrence. Therefore, a symptomatic patient with a previous history of primary liposarcoma excision should be treated with a high index of suspicion and a longer period of followup should be considered.
Chylolymphatic mesenteric cysts are rare entities with variable presentations and this has surgical implications in the pediatric age group.
We carried out a retrospective analysis of the clinical and histopathological records of pediatric patients diagnosed and treated for chylolymphatic mesenteric cysts at our institute from 1998 to 2008. Eight patients met the histopathological criteria of chylolymphatic mesenteric cyst. These patients were in the age range 18 months to 10 years with a mean age of 4.5 years. Of these eight patients, four presented with an abdominal lump, and two each with abdominal pain and acute intestinal obstruction. On clinical examination, five out of the eight patients had a palpable abdominal mass. Laparotomy and complete excision of the cyst along with the involved gut was performed in all patients. There were no postoperative complications or any recurrence during the follow-up period which ranged from 4 months to 8 years.
Although very rare, chylolymphatic mesenteric cyst should be kept in mind as one of the differential diagnoses of cystic masses of the abdomen including cystic lymphangioma. Ultrasonography and computed tomography suggest the diagnosis but histopathological examination is required for confirmation. Complete excision of the cyst yields excellent results.
Mesenteric cysts are rare intra-abdominal tumors. Mesenteric cysts are usually asymptomatic and are incidentally detected during physical or radiological examination. Although uncommon, complications such as infection, bleeding, torsion, rupture and intestinal obstruction cause an acute abdomen. Spontaneous infection is a very rare complication. We present a case of infected mesenteric cysts in the ascending colon, which caused an acute abdomen. A 26-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with acute abdominal pain. She had a painful mass in the right abdomen on physical examination. Abdominal computed tomography showed a hypodense cystic mass with septation at the mesenteric region of the ascending colon. A laparotomy revealed two cystic tumors at the mesenteric region of the ascending colon. She underwent a right hemicolectomy. The two cysts were filled with a yellowish turbid fluid. The walls of both two cysts were lined with a thin fibrotic membrane without any epithelial cell. They were diagnosed as psuedocysts with E. coli infection. Mesenferic cysts may cause life-threatening complications. Mesenteric cyst, even if it is asymptomatic and was diagnosed incidentally, should be removed completely.
Mesenteric cyst; Infection; Abdomen, acute
Mucinous cystic neoplasms arise in the ovary and various extra-ovarian sites. While their pathogenesis remains conjectural, their similarities suggest a common pathway of development. There have been rare reports involving the mesentery as a primary tumour site.
A cystic mass of uncertain origin was demonstrated radiologically in a 22 year old female with chronic abdominal pain. At laparotomy, the mass was fixed within the colonic mesentery. Histology demonstrated a benign mucinous cystadenoma.
Methods and results
We review the literature on mucinous cystic neoplasms of the mesentery and report on the pathogenesis, biologic behavior, diagnosis and treatment of similar extra-ovarian tumors. We propose an updated classification of mesenteric cysts and cystic tumors.
Mucinous cystic neoplasms of the mesentery present almost exclusively in women and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of mesenteric tumors. Only full histological examination of a mucinous cystic neoplasm can exclude a borderline or malignant component. An updated classification of mesenteric cysts and cystic tumors is proposed.
Omental torsion is an unusual and infrequently encountered cause of acute abdominal pain in adults. Computed tomography (CT) is a useful adjunct to clinical history and examination in establishing the diagnosis; however, definitive diagnosis is frequently established at the time of exploratory surgery. Treatment may be conservative or operative, with laparoscopic resection the surgical approach of choice. We report the case of a 60-year-old man who presented with a 3-day history of severe right-sided abdominal pain. Abdominal CT scan revealed a right upper quadrant mass with a whirl-like appearance, suspicious for omental infarction. Diagnostic laparoscopy was undertaken, the diagnosis confirmed and the diseased omentum resected. The patient was discharged the following day and made an uncomplicated recovery.
Omentum; Torsion; Infarction; Laparoscopy; Computed tomography