Esophageal cancer incident cases and deaths in 2009 were retrieved from national database of population based cancer registry to describe esophageal cancer burden in registration areas.
In 2012, 104 population-based cancer registries reported cancer incidence and mortality data of 2009 to Chinese National Central Cancer Registry. Total 72 registries’ data met the national criteria to be pooled and analyzed. The crude incidence and mortality rates of esophageal cancer were calculated by age, gender and area. China sensus in 1982 and Segi’s world population were applied for age standardized rates.
The crude incidence of esophageal cancer ranked fifth in all cancer sites with rate of 22.14/100,000 (30.44/100,000 for male and 13.64/100,000 for female, 14.21/100,000 in urban and 38.44/100,000 in rural). Age-standardized rates by China population (CASR) and World population (WASR) for incidence were 10.88/100,000 and 14.81/100,000 respectively. The crude mortality of esophageal cancer ranked fourth in all cancer sites with rate of 16.77/100,000 (23.29/100,000 for male and 10.11/100,000 for female, 10.59/100,000 in urban and 29.47/100,000 in rural). The CASR and WASR for mortality were 7.75/100,000 and 10.76/100,000 respectively. For both of incidence and mortality, the rates of esophageal cancer were much higher in males than in females, in rural areas than in urban areas. The overall age-specific incidence and mortality rates showed that both rates were relatively low before 45 years old, and then gradually increased, reaching peak in age group of 80-84.
The burden of esophageal cancer remained high in China, especially for males in rural areas. Effective prevention and control action, such as health education, nutrition intervention and screening should be enhanced in the future.
Esophageal cancer; incidence; mortality; cancer registry; China
Cancer constitutes a serious burden of disease worldwide and has become the second leading cause of death in China. Alcohol consumption is causally associated with the increased risk of certain cancers. Due to the current lack of data and the imperative need to guide policymakers on issues of cancer prevention and control, we aim to estimate the role of alcohol on the cancer burden in China in 2005.
We calculated the proportion of cancers attributable to alcohol use to estimate the burden of alcohol-related cancer. The population attributable fraction was calculated based on the assumption of no alcohol drinking. Data on alcohol drinking prevalence were from two large-scale national surveys of representative samples of the Chinese population. Data on relative risk were obtained from meta-analyses and large-scale studies.
We found that a total of 78,881 cancer deaths were attributable to alcohol drinking in China in 2005, representing 4.40% of all cancers (6.69% in men, 0.42% in women). The corresponding figure for cancer incidence was 93,596 cases (3.63% of all cancer cases). Liver cancer was the main alcohol-related cancer, contributing more than 60% of alcohol-related cancers.
Particular attention needs to be paid to the harm of alcohol as well as its potential benefits when making public health recommendations on alcohol drinking.
Prospective data on environmental exposures, especially with respect to alcohol, tobacco and diet, in relation to the risk of esophageal cancer in high risk populations are sparse. We analyzed data from a population-based cohort of 18 244 middle-aged and older men in Shanghai to identify risk factors for esophageal cancer in this high-risk population. The cohort was followed through 2006 and 101 incident esophageal cancer cases were identified. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between exposures and esophageal cancer risk. With adjustment for tobacco use and other potential confounders, regular drinkers versus nondrinkers of alcoholic beverages had a 2-fold risk of developing esophageal cancer (HR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.31–3.12). With adjustment for alcohol and other potential confounders, long-term smokers (40+ years) versus nonsmokers of cigarettes showed a 2-fold risk of developing esophageal cancer (HR=2.06, 95% CI=1.11–3.82). Increased consumption of fruits (including oranges/tangerines), seafood and milk were found to be protective against the development of esophageal cancer; HRs were decreased by 40%–60% for high versus low consumers after adjustment for cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and other confounders.
alcohol; tobacco; diet; esophageal cancer; Chinese
The goal of this study is to assess the interactions among alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) / alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratios on esophageal cancer.
Materials and Methods
Alcohol and the risk of incidence and death from esophageal cancer were examined in a 14-year prospective cohort study of 782,632 Korean men, 30 to 93 years of age, who received health insurance from the National Health Insurance Corporation and had a medical evaluation from 1992 to 1995.
Smoking, alcohol intake, and AST/ALT ratios were associated with the increased risk of esophageal cancer in a dose-dependent manner independent of each other. Smoking was associated with an increased risk of incidence [Hazard ratio (HR) = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.8 to 2.5] and mortality (HR = 2.5, 2.0 to 3.1). Combined HR of incidence for alcohol consumption (> 25 g/day) and smoking was 4.5 (3.8-5.5); for alcohol (> 25 g/day) and the AST/ALT ratio (≥ 2.0), it was 5.8 (4.6-7.2); for smoking and the AST/ALT ratio (≥ 2.0), it was 6.3 (5.1-7.5). Similar results were seen for mortality from esophageal cancer. Subjects who drank ≥ 25 g/day with an AST/ALT ratio ≥ 2 had a higher risk of esophageal cancer incidence (HR = 6.5, 4.8 to 8.7) compared with those who drank ≥ 25 g/day with an AST/ALT ratio < 2 (HR = 2.2, 1.9 to 2.6).
Alcohol, smoking, and the AST/ALT ratio are independently associated with increased risk of esophageal cancer but did not interact synergistically. The combination of the AST/ALT ratio with a questionnaire for alcohol consumption may increase the effectiveness for determining the risk of esophageal cancer.
Alcohol; smoking; alanine transaminase; aspartate aminotransferases; esophageal neoplasms
The aim of this study is to describe the role of endoscopy in detection and treatment of neoplastic lesions of the digestive mucosa in asymptomatic persons. Esophageal squamous cell cancer occurs in relation to nutritional deficiency and alcohol or tobacco consumption. Esophageal adenocarcinoma develops in Barrett’s esophagus, and stomach cancer in chronic gastric atrophy with Helicobacter pylori infection. Colorectal cancer is favoured by a high intake in calories, excess weight, low physical activity. In opportunistic or individual screening endoscopy is the primary detection procedure offered to an asymptomatic individual. In organized or mass screening proposed by National Health Authorities to a population, endoscopy is performed only in persons found positive to a filter selection test. The indications of primary upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy in opportunistic screening are increasingly developing over the world. Organized screening trials are proposed in some regions of China at high risk for esophageal cancer; the selection test is cytology of a balloon or sponge scrapping; they are proposed in Japan for stomach cancer with photofluorography as a selection test; and in Europe, America and Japan; for colorectal cancer with the fecal occult blood test as a selection test. Organized screening trials in a country require an evaluation: the benefit of the intervention assessed by its impact on incidence and on the 5 year survival for the concerned tumor site; in addition a number of bias interfering with the evaluation have to be controlled. Drawbacks of screening are in the morbidity of the diagnostic and treatment procedures and in overdetection of none clinically relevant lesions. The strategy of endoscopic screening applies to early cancer and to benign adenomatous precursors of adenocarcinoma. Diagnostic endoscopy is conducted in 2 steps: at first detection of an abnormal area through changes in relief, in color or in the course of superficial capillaries; then characterization of the morphology of the lesion according to the Paris classification and prediction of the risk of malignancy and depth of invasion, with the help of chromoscopy, magnification and image processing with neutrophil bactericidal index or FICE. Then treatment decision offers 3 options according to histologic prediction: abstention, endoscopic resection, surgery. The rigorous quality control of endoscopy will reduce the miss rate of lesions and the occurrence of interval cancer.
Esophagus; Stomach; Colon; Adenoma; Adenocarcinoma; Endoscopy; Screening
Esophageal cancer is a frequently fatal malignancy, and is described in certain regions in Northeast India with an incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is many fold higher than the rest of the population. The population in Northeast India is at higher risk due to poor nutritional status, consumption of fermented betel quid and other oral tobacco products besides smoking and alcohol intake. Cytokeratins are the major constituents of the esophageal epithelium and may show gain or loss of cytokeratins as the cancer progresses from normal epithelium to invasive phenotype. In the present study we studied the immunohistochemical expression of five cytokeratins (CK4, CK5, CK8, CK14, and CK17) in the normal esophageal epithelium and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma from both the general population and the high-risk population of Assam in Northeast India. The cytokeratin expression profile was similar to other published data in general. Further analysis demonstrated differences in cytokeratin expression between the general and the high-risk tumor samples. CK5 and CK 8 expression altered in the high-risk population. The significance of these differences is unclear, but suggests a connection to the etiological factors.
Cytokeratins; esophageal cancer; high-risk; immunohistochemistry; squamous cell carcinoma; tissue microarray
To provide an evidence-based and consistent assessment of the burden of cancer attributable to inadequate fruit and vegetable intake in China in 2005.
The proportions of cancers attributable to low consumption of vegetable and fruit were calculated separately to estimate the burden of related cancers for the year 2005 in China. Data on the prevalence of exposure were derived from a Chinese nutrition and health survey. Data on relative risks were mainly derived from meta-analysis. Attributable fractions were calculated based on the counterfactual scenario which was a shift in the exposure distribution.
The total cancer burden attributable to inadequate consumption of fruit was up to 233,000 deaths (13.0% of all cancers) and 300,000 cases (11.6% of all cancers) in 2005. Increasing consumption of vegetable to the highest quintile could avoid total cancer deaths and cases by 3.6% (64,000 persons) and 3.4% (88,000 persons). The contributions to cancer burden were higher in rural areas than in urban areas. They have greater influence on men than on women. The largest proportions of cancer burden attributable to low fruit and vegetable intake were for oral and pharyngeal cancers.
This study showed that inadequate intake of fruit and vegetable makes a significant contribution to the cancer burden. Increasing consumption of fruit and vegetable could prevent many cancer deaths and save many lives. Promoting the consumption of fruit and vegetable is an important component in diet-based strategies for preventing cancer.
Fruit; Vegetable; Cancer; Population attributable fraction; China
BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer rate disparities are pronounced for blacks and whites. This study presents black-white esophageal cancer incidence, mortality, relative survival rates, histology and trends for two five-year time periods--1991-1995 and 1996-2000--and for the time period 1991-2000. METHODS: The study used data from the National Cancer Institute's population-based Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) program with submission dates 1991-2000. Age-adjusted incidence, mortality, relative survival rates and histology for esophageal carcinoma were calculated for nine SEER cancer registries for 1991-2000. Rates were analyzed by race and gender for changes over specified time periods. RESULTS: Esophageal cancer age-adjusted incidence of blacks was about twice that of whites (8.63 vs. 4.39/100,000, p < 0.05). Age-adjusted mortality for blacks, although showing a declining trend, was nearly twice that of whites (7.79 vs. 3.96, p < 0.05). Although survival was poor for all groups, it was significantly poorer in blacks than in whites. Squamous cell carcinoma was more commonly diagnosed in blacks and white females, whereas adenocarcinoma was more common among white males (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Racial disparities in esophageal cancer incidence, mortality, survival and histology exist. Survival rates from this disease have not significantly improved over the decade. These data support the need for advances in prevention, early detection biomarker research and research on new, more effective treatment modalities for this disease.
Incidence rates for adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and gastric cardia have been increasing rapidly, while rates for non-cardia gastric adenocarcinoma and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma have declined. We examined food group intake as a risk factor for subtypes of esophageal and gastric cancers in a multi-center, population-based case-control study in Connecticut, New Jersey, and western Washington state. Associations between food groups and risk were estimated using adjusted odds ratios (OR), based on increasing intake of one serving per day. Total vegetable intake was associated with decreased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.75, 0.96). Conversely, total meat intake was associated with increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.83), gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.73), and non-cardia gastric adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.12, 1.71), with red meat most strongly associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma risk (OR = 2.49, 95% CI = 1.39, 4.46). Poultry was most strongly associated with gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.15, 3.11) and non-cardia gastric adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.19, 3.03). High-fat dairy was associated with increased risk of both esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma. Higher intake of meats, particularly red meats, and lower intake of vegetables were associated with an increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma, while higher intake of meats, particularly poultry, and high-fat dairy was associated with increased risk of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma.
Esophageal neoplasms; gastric neoplasms; food groups; case-control
Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and ischaemic heart disease. The objective of this study was to estimate the number of deaths caused by exposure to ETS among non‐smokers in Spain during the year 2002
Prevalence of ETS exposure among never smokers was gathered from three region based health interview surveys. The relative risks of lung cancer and ichaemic heart diseases were selected from three meta‐analyses. Population attributable risk (PAR) was computed using a range of prevalences (minimum‐maximum). The number of deaths attributable to ETS was calculated by applying PARs to mortality not attributable to active smoking in 2002. The analyses were stratified by sex, age and source of exposure (home, workplace and both combined). In addition, a sensitivity analysis was performed for different scenarios.
Among men, deaths attributable to ETS ranged from 408 to 1703. From 247 to 1434 of these deaths would be caused by the exposure only at home, 136–196 by exposure only in the workplace and 25–73 by exposure at both home and the workplace. Among women, the number of attributable deaths ranged from 820 to 1534. Between 807 and 1477 of these deaths would be caused by exposure only at home, 9–32 by exposure only in the workplace and 4–25 by exposure both at home and in the workplace.
Exposure to ETS at home and at work in Spain could be responsible for 1228–3237 of deaths from lung cancer and ischaemic heart disease. These data confirm that passive smoking is an important public health problem in Spain that needs urgent attention.
environmental tobacco smoke; cancer; Spain
The primary aim was to examine whether increasing workplace smoking restrictions have led to an increase in smokeless tobacco use among US workers. Smokeless tobacco exposure increases the risk of oral cavity, esophageal, and pancreatic cancers, and stroke. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use decreased from 1987-2000, except among men 25-44. While smokeless tobacco use has declined in the general population, it may be that the prevalence of smokeless tobacco use has increased among workers due to workplace smoking restrictions, which have been shown to have increased over the years. Using the most current nationally representative National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data, we examined whether increasing workplace smoking restrictions have led to an increase in smokeless tobacco use among US workers (n = 125,838). There were no significant changes in smokeless tobacco use prevalence from 1987-2005 (pooled prevalence = 3.53%); rates also were lower in smoke free workplaces. Worker groups with high rates of smokeless tobacco use included farm workers (10.51%) and blue collar workers (7.26%). Results indicate that smokeless tobacco prevention strategies targeting particular worker groups are warranted.
Prioritising control measures for occupationally related cancers should be evidence based. We estimated the current burden of cancer in Britain attributable to past occupational exposures for International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) group 1 (established) and 2A (probable) carcinogens.
We calculated attributable fractions and numbers for cancer mortality and incidence using risk estimates from the literature and national data sources to estimate proportions exposed.
5.3% (8019) cancer deaths were attributable to occupation in 2005 (men, 8.2% (6362); women, 2.3% (1657)). Attributable incidence estimates are 13 679 (4.0%) cancer registrations (men, 10 063 (5.7%); women, 3616 (2.2%)). Occupational attributable fractions are over 2% for mesothelioma, sinonasal, lung, nasopharynx, breast, non-melanoma skin cancer, bladder, oesophagus, soft tissue sarcoma, larynx and stomach cancers. Asbestos, shift work, mineral oils, solar radiation, silica, diesel engine exhaust, coal tars and pitches, occupation as a painter or welder, dioxins, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic and strong inorganic mists each contribute 100 or more registrations. Industries and occupations with high cancer registrations include construction, metal working, personal and household services, mining, land transport, printing/publishing, retail/hotels/restaurants, public administration/defence, farming and several manufacturing sectors. 56% of cancer registrations in men are attributable to work in the construction industry (mainly mesotheliomas, lung, stomach, bladder and non-melanoma skin cancers) and 54% of cancer registrations in women are attributable to shift work (breast cancer).
This project is the first to quantify in detail the burden of cancer and mortality due to occupation specifically for Britain. It highlights the impact of occupational exposures, together with the occupational circumstances and industrial areas where exposures to carcinogenic agents occurred in the past, on population cancer morbidity and mortality; this can be compared with the impact of other causes of cancer. Risk reduction strategies should focus on those workplaces where such exposures are still occurring.
occupation; cancer burden; attributable fraction; industry sector; carcinogen
The oral health status of rural residents in the People's Republic of China has not been extensively studied and the relationship between poor oral health and esophageal cancer (EC) is unclear. We aim to report the oral health status of adults participating in an EC screening study conducted in a rural high-risk EC area of China and to explore the relationship between oral health and esophageal dysplasia.
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) oral health examination procedures and the Modified Gingival Index (MGI) were used in a clinical study designed to examine risk factors for esophageal cancer and to test a new esophageal cytology sampling device. This study was conducted in three rural villages in China with high rates of EC in 2002 and was a collaborative effort involving investigators from the National Institutes of Health and the Cancer Institute of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences.
Nearly 17% of the study participants aged 40–67 years old were edentulous. Overall, the mean number of adjusted missing teeth (including third molars and retained dental roots) was 13.8 and 35% had 7 contacts or less. Women were more likely to experience greater tooth loss than men. The average age at the time of first tooth loss for those with no posterior functional contacts was approximately 41 years for men and 36 years for women. The mean DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled teeth) score for the study population was 8.5. Older persons, females, and individuals having lower educational attainment had higher DMFT scores. The prevalence of periodontal disease (defined as at least one site with 3 mm of attachment loss and 4 mm of pocket depth) was 44.7%, and 36.7% of the study participants had at least one site with 6 mm or more of attachment loss. Results from a parsimonious multivariate model indicate that participants with poor oral health wemore likely to have esophageal dysplasia (OR = 1.59; 95% CI 1.06, 2.39).
This report describes the first use of NHANES oral health protocols employed in a clinical study conducted outside of the United States. The extent and severity of poor oral health in this Chinese study group may be an important health problem and contributing factor to the prevalence of EC.
Coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality rates have been decreasing in Iceland since the 1980s. We examined how much of the decrease between 1981 and 2006 could be attributed to medical and surgical treatments and how much to changes in cardiovascular risk factors.
The previously validated IMPACT CHD mortality model was applied to the Icelandic population. The data sources were official statistics, national quality registers, published trials and meta-analyses, clinical audits and a series of national population surveys.
Between 1981 and 2006, CHD mortality rates in Iceland decreased by 80% in men and women aged 25 to 74 years, which resulted in 295 fewer deaths in 2006 than if the 1981 rates had persisted. Incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) decreased by 66% and resulted in some 500 fewer incident MI cases per year, which is a major determinant of possible deaths from MI. Based on the IMPACT model approximately 73% (lower and upper bound estimates: 54%–93%) of the mortality decrease was attributable to risk factor reductions: cholesterol 32%; smoking 22%; systolic blood pressure 22%, and physical inactivity 5% with adverse trends for diabetes (−5%), and obesity (−4%). Approximately 25% (lower and upper bound estimates: 8%–40%) of the mortality decrease was attributable to treatments in individuals: secondary prevention 8%; heart failure treatments 6%; acute coronary syndrome treatments 5%; revascularisation 3%; hypertension treatments 2%, and statins 0.5%.
Almost three quarters of the large CHD mortality decrease in Iceland between 1981 and 2006 was attributable to reductions in major cardiovascular risk factors in the population. These findings emphasize the value of a comprehensive prevention strategy that promotes tobacco control and a healthier diet to reduce incidence of MI and highlights the potential importance of effective, evidence based medical treatments.
The US has experienced an alarming and unexplained increase in the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) since the 1970s. A concurrent increase in obesity has led some to suggest a relationship between the two trends. We explore the extent of this relationship.
Using a previously validated disease simulation model of white males in the US, we estimated esophageal adenocarcinoma incidence 1973–2005 given constant obesity prevalence and low population progression rates consistent with the early 1970s. Introducing only the observed, rising obesity prevalence we calculated the incremental incidence caused by obesity. We compared these to esophageal adenocarcinoma incidence data from the National Cancer Institute’s SEER registry to determine obesity's contribution to the rise therein. Incidences were converted to absolute numbers of cases using US population data.
Using constant obesity prevalence we projected a total of 30,555 EAC cases cumulatively over 1973–2005 and 1,151 in 2005 alone. Incorporating the observed obesity trend resulted in 35,767 cumulative EACs and 1,608 in 2005. Estimates derived from SEER data showed 111,223 cumulative and 7,173 cases in 2005. We conclude that the rise in obesity accounted for 6.5% of the increase in EAC cases that occurred from 1973–2005 and 7.6% in the year 2005.
Using published odds ratios for EAC among obese individuals, we found that only a small percentage of the rise in EAC incidence is attributable to secular trends in obesity.
Other factors, alone and in combination, should be explored as causes of the EAC epidemic.
Esophageal Adenocarcinoma; Obesity; SEER; Disease Model; Simulation Modeling
Esophageal adenocarcinoma is rapidly increasing in incidence. Body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor, but its distribution does not reflect the demographic distribution of the cancer (which is highest among White men). Abdominal obesity patterns may explain this discordance, but no studies exist to date.
Nested case-control study within 206,974 members of the Kaiser Permanente multiphasic health checkup cohort; subjects received detailed questionnaires, a standardized examination including BMI and anthropometric measurements, and follow-up of esophageal and cardia cancers using registry data.
101 incident esophageal adenocarcinomas, 105 cardia adenocarcinomas, and 144 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas were detected (BMI data available for all cases; abdominal measurements for a subset). Increasing abdominal diameter was strongly associated with an increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma [odds ratio (OR), 3.47; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.29–9.33; abdominal diameter, ≥25 versus <20 cm]. Adjustment for BMI did not diminish this association (BMI-adjusted OR, 4.78; 95% CI, 1.14–20.11). The association was also not diminished by adjustment for gastroesophageal reflux-type symptoms, although reflux-type symptoms were separately associated with both abdominal diameter and cancer risk. Abdominal diameter was not associated with the risk of cardia adenocarcinomas (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.38–4.25; diameter, ≥25 versus <20 cm) or esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.32–1.92).
Increasing abdominal diameter was associated with an increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma, independent of BMI. Cancer risk was not substantially mediated through gastroesophageal reflux-type symptoms, although symptoms may imperfectly measure reflux severity. Given abdominal obesity is more common among males, these findings suggest that increases in obesity may disproportionately increase the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma in males.
Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer worldwide, and especially in some areas of China is the fourth most common cause of death and is of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) histology in >90% of cases. Surgery alone was the mainstay of therapeutic intervention in the past, but high rates of local and systemic failure have prompted investigation into multidisciplinary management. In this review, we discuss the key issues raised by the recent availability of esophageal SCC treatment with the addition of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and chemoradiotherapy to the surgical management of resectable disease and discuss how clinical trials and meta-analysis inform current clinical practice. None of the randomized trials that compared neoadjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy with surgery alone in esophageal SCC has demonstrated an increase in overall survival in those patients treated with neoadjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy has been accepted recently for esophageal cancer because such a regimen offers great opportunity for margin negative resection, improved loco-regional control and increased survival. The majority of the available evidence currently reveals that only selected locally advanced esophageal SCC are more likely to benefit from the adjuvant therapy. The focus of future trials should be on identification of the optimum regimen and should aim to minimize treatment toxicities and effect on quality of life, as well as attempt to identify and select those patients most likely to benefit from specific treatment options.
Esophageal cancer; Squamous cell carcinoma; Neoadjuvant therapy; Adjuvant therapy; Chemotherapy; Radiotherapy; Chemoradiotherapy
Purpose of review
Hypertension and chronic kidney disease have become major public health challenges in China.
It is estimated that approximately 153 million Chinese adults had hypertension in 2002. It is also estimated that 2.33 million total cardiovascular deaths and 1.27 million premature cardiovascular deaths were attributable to increased blood pressure in 2005 in China. Approximately 39% of Chinese adult populations are highly sensitive to dietary sodium intake, a risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease varied greatly among studies due to differences in study populations and definitions of chronic kidney disease. A large prospective cohort study estimates that incidence and mortality of end-stage renal disease was 30.7 and 20.9 per 100,000 person-years among Chinese adults aged 40 years and older. Hypertension and the metabolic syndrome have been documented as risk factors for chronic kidney disease. In addition, a J-shaped association between body weight and incidence of end-stage renal disease and an inverse association between alcohol consumption and risk of end-stage renal disease were documented.
These results underscore the urgent need to develop national strategies for the prevention, detection, and treatment of hypertension and chronic kidney disease.
Hypertension; Chronic kidney disease; China
Background and Objectives
Incidence of Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is prevalent in Asian populations, especially in the ones from the “Asian esophageal cancer belt” along the Silk Road and the ones from East Asia (including Japan). Silk Road and Eastern Asia population genetics are relevant to the ancient population migration from central China. The Arg47His (rs1229984) polymorphism of ADH1B is the highest in East Asians, and ancient migrations along the Silk Road were thought to be contributive to a frequent ADH1B*47His allele in Central Asians. This polymorphism was identified as responsible for susceptibility in the first large-scale genome-wide association study of ESCC and that's explained by its modulation of alcohol oxidization capability. To investigate the association of ADH1B Arg47His with ESCC in Asian populations under a common ancestry scenario of the susceptibility loci, we combined all available studies into a meta-analysis.
A dataset composed of 4,220 cases and 8,946 controls from twelve studies of Asian populations was analyzed for ADH1B Arg47His association with ESCC and its interactions with alcohol drinking and ALDH2 Glu504Lys. Heterogeneity among studies and their publication bias were also tested.
The ADH1B*47Arg allele was found to be associated to increased risk of ESCC, with the odds ratios (OR) being 1.62 (95% CI: 1.49–1.76) and 3.86 (2.96–5.03) for the His/Arg and the Arg/Arg genotypes, respectively. When compared with the His/His genotype of non-drinkers, the Arg/Arg genotype can interact with alcohol drinking and greatly increase the risk of ESCC (OR = 20.69, 95%CI: 5.09–84.13). Statistical tests also showed gene-gene interaction of ADH1B Arg+ with ALDH2 Lys+ can bring more risk to ESCC (OR = 13.46, 95% CI: 2.32–78.07).
Revealed by this meta-analysis, ADH1B*47Arg as a common ancestral allele can significantly increase the risk of ESCC in Asians, especially when coupled with alcohol drinking or the ALDH2*504Lys allele.
Smoking-attributable risks for lung, esophageal, and head and neck (H/N) cancers range from 54% to 90%. Identifying areas with higher than average cancer risk and smoking rates, then targeting those areas for intervention, is one approach to more rapidly lower the overall tobacco disease burden in a given state. Our research team used spatial modeling techniques to identify areas in Florida with higher than expected tobacco-associated cancer incidence clusters.
Materials and Methods:
Geocoded tobacco-associated incident cancer data from 1998 to 2002 from the Florida Cancer Data System were used. Tobacco-associated cancers included lung, esophageal, and H/N cancers. SaTScan was used to identify geographic areas that had statistically significant (P<0.10) excess age-adjusted rates of tobacco-associated cancers. The Poisson-based spatial scan statistic was used. Phi correlation coefficients were computed to examine associations among block groups with/without overlapping cancer clusters. The logistic regression was used to assess associations between county-level smoking prevalence rates and being diagnosed within versus outside a cancer cluster. Community-level smoking rates were obtained from the 2002 Florida Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Analyses were repeated using 2007 BRFSS to examine the consistency of associations.
Lung cancer clusters were geographically larger for both squamous cell and adenocarcinoma cases in Florida from 1998 to 2002, than esophageal or H/N clusters. There were very few squamous cell and adenocarcinoma esophageal cancer clusters. H/N cancer mapping showed some squamous cell and a very small amount of adenocarcinoma cancer clusters. Phi correlations were generally weak to moderate in strength. The odds of having an invasive lung cancer cluster increased by 12% per increase in the county-level smoking rate. Results were inconsistent for esophageal and H/N cancers, with some inverse associations. 2007 BRFSS data also showed a similar results pattern.
Spatial analysis identified many nonoverlapping areas of high risk across both cancer and histological subtypes. Attempts to correlate county-level smoking rates with cancer cluster membership yielded consistent results only for lung cancer. However, spatial analyses may be most useful when examining incident clusters where several tobacco-associated cancer clusters overlap. Focusing on overlapping cancer clusters may help investigators identify priority areas for further screening, detailed assessments of tobacco use, and/or prevention and cessation interventions to decrease risk.
Cancer cluster; cancer; spatial analysis; tobacco use
This study was conducted to estimate the socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity in a sample of Korean adults aged 20 yr and older in 2005. The socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity include direct costs (inpatient care, outpatient care and medication) and indirect costs (loss of productivity due to premature deaths and inpatient care, time costs, traffic costs and nursing fees). Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, ischemic heart disease, stroke, colon cancer and osteoarthritis were selected as obesity-related diseases. The population attributable fraction (PAF) of obesity was calculated from national representative data of Korea such as the National Health Insurance Corporation (NHIC) cohort data and the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data. Direct costs of overweight and obesity were estimated at approximately U$1,081 million equivalent (men: U$497 million, women: U$584 million) and indirect costs were estimated at approximately U$706 million (men: U$527 million, women: U$178 million). The estimated total socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity were approximately U$1,787 million (men: U$1,081 million, women: U$706 million). These total costs represented about 0.22% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and 3.7% of the national health care expenditures in 2005. We found the socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity in Korean adults aged 20 yr and older are substantial. In order to control the socioeconomic burden attributable to overweight and obesity, effective national strategies for prevention and management of obesity should be established and implemented.
Obesity; Overweight; Socioeconomic costs; Direct costs; Indirect costs
N′-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) are tobacco-specific nitrosamines. NNN and NNK can induce cancers of the esophagus and lung, respectively, in laboratory animals, but data on human esophageal cancer are lacking. The association between levels of NNN and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), an NNK metabolite, in urine samples collected before diagnosis and risk of esophageal cancer was examined in 77 patients with esophageal cancer and 223 individually matched controls, all current smokers, from a cohort of 18244 Chinese men in Shanghai, China, followed from 1986 to 2008. Urinary total NNN (free NNN plus NNN-N-glucuronide) was significantly higher, whereas the percentage of its detoxification product NNN-N-glucuronide was significantly lower in cases than controls. Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of esophageal cancer for the second and third tertiles of total NNN were 3.99 (1.25–12.7) and 17.0 (3.99–72.8), respectively, compared with the first tertile after adjustment for urinary total NNAL and total cotinine and smoking intensity and duration (Ptrend < 0.001). The corresponding figures for the percentage of NNN-N-glucuronides were 0.37 (0.17–0.80) and 0.27 (0.11–0.62) (Ptrend = 0.001). Urinary total NNN and the percentage of NNN-N-glucuronides almost completely accounted for the observed association for urinary total NNAL (free NNAL plus its glucuronides), urinary total cotinine and smoking intensity with esophageal cancer risk. These findings along with results of previous studies in laboratory animals support a significant and unique role of NNN in esophageal carcinogenesis in humans.
The American Cancer Society, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) collaborate annually to provide updated information on cancer occurrence and trends in the United States. This year’s report includes trends in lung cancer incidence and death rates, tobacco use, and tobacco control by state of residence.
Information on invasive cancers was obtained from the NCI, CDC, and NAACCR and information on mortality from the CDC's National Center for Health Statistics. Annual percentage changes in the age-standardized incidence and death rates (2000 US population standard) for all cancers combined and for the top 15 cancers were estimated by joinpoint analysis of long-term (1975–2005) trends and by least squares linear regression of short-term (1996–2005) trends. All statistical tests were two-sided.
Both incidence and death rates from all cancers combined decreased statistically significantly (P < .05) in men and women overall and in most racial and ethnic populations. These decreases were driven largely by declines in both incidence and death rates for the three most common cancers in men (lung, colorectum, and prostate) and for two of the three leading cancers in women (breast and colorectum), combined with a leveling off of lung cancer death rates in women. Although the national trend in female lung cancer death rates has stabilized since 2003, after increasing for several decades, there is prominent state and regional variation. Lung cancer incidence and/or death rates among women increased in 18 states, 16 of them in the South or Midwest, where, on average, the prevalence of smoking was higher and the annual percentage decrease in current smoking among adult women was lower than in the West and Northeast. California was the only state with decreasing lung cancer incidence and death rates in women.
Although the decrease in overall cancer incidence and death rates is encouraging, large state and regional differences in lung cancer trends among women underscore the need to maintain and strengthen many state tobacco control programs.
Background. Population of elder Chinese has been increasing, but the pattern and trend of cancer in that population was rarely reported. Methods. Mortality rates for cancer of all sites and of the site specific of the overall and elderly Chinese from 2004 to 2005 were estimated. The age structure of world population was used to observe the changes in the age-standardized mortality rates from 1975 to 2005 using the data from the national death surveys, Disease Surveillance Points, and cancer registries in China. Results. The mortalities among the elderly Chinese were 782.12 per 100,000, substantially higher than those of the people less than 60 years old. The mortalities for cancers of lung, stomach, liver, and esophagus in elderly population showed great increase compared to younger ages. Stomach cancer ranked as the second most common cancer following lung cancer in the elderly, and those two malignancies had similar mortality rates in male elderly, while in female, it ranked as first, surpassed lung cancer. Consistent decreased trends of M/I ratios of cancer were observed in all age groups. Conclusion. Strategies in cancer prevention and cost-effective preventive intervention should be highly considered and strongly implemented among the elderly Chinese.
Although gastric cancer incidence is declining in China, trends may differ from historical patterns in developed countries. Our aim was to (1) retrospectively estimate the effects of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and smoking on past gastric cancer incidence and (2) project how interventions on these two risk factors can reduce future incidence.
We used a population-based model of intestinal-type gastric cancer to estimate gastric cancer incidence between 1985 and 2050. Disease and risk factor data in the model were from community-based epidemiological studies and national prevalence surveys.
Between 1985 and 2005, age-standardized gastric cancer incidence among Chinese men declined from 30.8 to 27.2 per 100,000 (12%); trends in H. pylori and smoking prevalences accounted for >30% of overall decline. If past risk factor trends continue, gastric cancer incidence will decline an additional 30% by 2050. Yet, annual cases will increase from 116,000 to 201,000 due to population growth and aging. Assuming that H. pylori prevention/treatment and tobacco control are implemented in 2010, the decline in gastric cancer incidence is projected to increase to 33% with universal H. pylori treatment for 20-year-olds, 42% for a hypothetical childhood H. pylori vaccine, and 34% for aggressive tobacco control.
The decline in gastric cancer incidence has been slower than in developed countries and will be offset by population growth and aging. Public health interventions should be implemented to reduce the total number of cases.
Gastric cancer; Helicobacter pylori; Smoking; Cancer prevention; China