Staphylococcus aureus, particularly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), is an important cause of pyogenic skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). The aim of present study is to investigate the molecular characteristic of Staphylococcus aureus isolates isolated from the pus samples from the patients with purulent skin and soft tissue infections in Wenzhou, China.
Between December 2002 and June 2008, a total of 111 nonduplicate S. aureus isolates were collected from the pus samples of the patients with SSTIs in a teaching hospital in Wenzhou, China. All the tested isolates were confirmed as S. aureus using a Staph SPA agglutination kit, Gram's stain and a Vitek-60 microbiology analyzer. The homology among the tested isolates was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to determine the sequence types (STs) of the selected isolates. The genotypes of SCCmec were determined by a multiplex PCR in the MRSA isolates. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes and mecA were also determined by another multiplex PCR.
Among the 111 S. aureus isolates, 48 and 63 isolates were community-acquired and hospital-acquired respectively. Sixty isolates were confirmed as MRSA harboring mecA detected by PCR. A total of 32 PFGE clonal types were obtained by PFGE, with 10 predominant patterns (types A to J). Twenty-five different STs including ST398 and three novel STs were found among 51 selected isolates. The main STs were ST239, ST1018, ST59, ST7 and ST88. Of 60 MRSA isolates, SCCmec II, III, IV and SCCmec V were found in three, 50, three and two isolates, respectively. The positive rates of PVL genes in overall isolates, HA-isolates, CA-isolates, MRSA isolates and MSSA isolates were 23.4% (26/111), 20.6% (13/63), 27.1% (13/48), 21.7% (13/60) and 25.5% (13/51), respectively. Eight (33.3%, 8/24) of 24 CA-MRSA isolates and 5 (13.9%, 5/36) of 36 HA-MRSA isolates were positive for PVL genes. ST239-MRSA-SCCmecIII and ST1018-MRSA-SCCmecIII clones were found to be main clones and spread between community and hospital.
S. aureus isolates causing SSTIs showed considerable molecular heterogeneity and harbored high prevalence of PVL genes. Clonal spread was responsible for the dissemination of the isolates of S. aureus associated with SSTIs.
Livestock-Associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) belonging to ST398 lineage, common among pigs and other animals, emerged in Central and Northern Europe, becoming a new risk factor for MRSA among farm workers. Strains belonging to ST398 can be responsible for human colonization and infection, mainly in areas with high livestock-farming. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) human colonization and infections in an area of the Lombardy Region (Italy), the Italian region with the highest density of pig farming.
In the period March-April 2010, 879 nasal swabs were taken from subjects at admission to a local hospital serving an area of the Lombardy Region devoted to agriculture and farming. In the period March 2010-February 2011, all MRSA strains from community-acquired infection (CAI) observed in the same hospital, were collected. Molecular characterization of the isolates included SCCmec typing, spa typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST).
Out of 879 nasal swabs examined, 9 (1%) yielded MRSA. Five strains were assigned to sequence type (ST)398 (spa t899, 3 isolates; t108 and t2922, 1 isolate each) and were therefore categorized as LA-MRSA. The other 4 isolates were likely of hospital origin. No strains were positive for Panton-Valentine Leukocidin genes. Twenty MRSA isolates were detected from CAI, 17 were from skin and soft-tissue infections and 3 from other infections. An MRSA isolate from otitis externa was t899/ST398 and PVL-negative, hence categorized as LA-MRSA. Four isolates were assigned to t127/ST1. Eight strains were PVL-positive community acquired (CA)-MRSA and belonged to different clones, the most frequent being ST8.
In an area of Italy with high density of pig farming, LA-MRSA is able to colonize the population and rarely to produce infections. Typical CA-MRSA is more common than LA-MRSA among CAI.
Livestock-associated (LA)-MRSA; Colonization, Community-acquired infections; Pigs; ST398
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST398, associated with livestock animals, was described in 2003 as a new lineage infecting or colonizing humans. We evaluated the prevalence and molecular characteristics of MRSA ST398 isolated in the Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge from January 2000 to June 2011. Tetracycline resistant (Tet-R) MRSA isolates from single patients (pts) were screened by SmaI-pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Nontypable MRSA strains by SmaI (NTSmaI)-MRSA were further analysed by ApaI-PFGE, spa, SCCmec, agr, MLST typing, and by DNA microarray hybridization. Among 164 pts harboring Tet-R MRSA, NTSmaI-MRSA ST398-agrI was found in 33 pts (20%). Although the first pt was detected in 2003, 22/33 pts (67%) were registered in the 2010–2011 period. Ten pts (30%) were infected and cancer was the most frequent underlying disease. In one case, death was due to MRSA-ST398-related infection. Five pulsotypes (A–E) were detected using ApaI-PFGE, with type A accounting for 76% of the strains. The majority of the studied isolates presented spa type t011 (70%) and SCCmec type V (88%). One strain was spa negative both by PCR and microarray analysis. Forty-nine percent of the studied isolates showed resistance to 3 or more antibiotic classes, in addition to beta-lactams. Ciprofloxacin resistance was 67%. Tet-R was mediated by tet(M) and tet(K) in 26 isolates. All isolates lacked Panton-Valentine Leukocidin production, as well as other significant toxins. This study displays the molecular features of MRSA-ST398 clone and shows the increase in tetracycline resistance together with arise in MRSA-ST398 isolates infecting or colonizing patients in our clinical setting.
Background: European studies suggest that living near high-density livestock production increases the risk of sequence type (ST) 398 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization. To our knowledge, no studies have evaluated associations between livestock production and human infection by other strain types.
Objectives: We evaluated associations between MRSA molecular subgroups and high-density livestock production.
Methods: We conducted a yearlong 2012 prospective study on a stratified random sample of patients with culture-confirmed MRSA infection; we oversampled patients from the Geisinger Health System with exposure to high-density livestock production in Pennsylvania. Isolates were characterized using S. aureus protein A (spa) typing and detection of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and scn genes. We compared patients with one of two specific MRSA strains with patients with all other strains of MRSA isolates, using logistic regression that accounted for the sampling design, for two different exposure models: one based on the location of the animals (livestock model) and the other on crop field application of manure (crop field model).
Results: Of 196 MRSA isolates, we identified 30 spa types, 47 PVL-negative and 15 scn-negative isolates, and no ST398 MRSA. Compared with quartiles 1–3 combined, the highest quartiles of swine livestock and dairy/veal crop field exposures were positively associated with community-onset-PVL-negative MRSA (CO-PVL-negative MRSA vs. all other MRSA), with adjusted odds ratios of 4.24 (95% CI: 1.60, 11.25) and 4.88 (95% CI: 1.40, 17.00), respectively. The association with CO-PVL-negative MRSA infection increased across quartiles of dairy/veal livestock exposure (trend p = 0.05).
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that other MRSA strains, beyond ST398, may be involved in livestock-associated MRSA infection in the United States.
Citation: Casey JA, Shopsin B, Cosgrove SE, Nachman KE, Curriero FC, Rose HR, Schwartz BS. 2014. High-density livestock production and molecularly characterized MRSA infections in Pennsylvania. Environ Health Perspect 122:464–470; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307370
Clonal complex 59 (CC59) community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strains were characterized using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, spa typing, multilocus sequence typing, diagnostic DNA microarrays, and PCRs targeting staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). Six distinct groups within CC59 were characterized. At least seven different variants of SCCmec elements were identified (IVa [2B], IVb [2B], IVd [2B], IV variant [2B], IVa [2B&5], V variant [5C2], and V [5C2&5]). (The structural type is indicated by a Roman numeral, with a lowercase letter indicating the subtype, and the ccr complex and the mec complex are indicated by an Arabic numeral and an uppercase letter, respectively. Where there is an extra ccr element, this is indicated by “&” and an Arabic numeral designating the ccr type.) The first group is similar to the American sequence type 59 (ST59) MRSA-IV CA-MRSA strain USA1000. The second group includes a PVL-negative ST87 strain with an SCCmec element of subtype IVb (2B). The third group comprises PVL-variable ST59 MRSA-IV strains harboring multiple SCCmec IV subtypes. PVL-negative ST59 MRSA strains with multiple or composite SCCmec elements (IVa [2B&5]) form the fourth group. Group 5 corresponds to the internationally known “Taiwan clone,” a PVL-positive strain with a variant SCCmec element (V [5C2&5]). This strain proved to be the most common CC59 MRSA strain isolated in Western Australia. Finally, group 6 encompasses the ST59 MRSA-V variant (5C2). The differentiation of CC59 into groups and strains indicates a rapid evolution and spread of SCCmec elements. Observed differences between groups of strains as well as intrastrain variability within a group facilitate the tracing of their spread.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are commonly classified as hospital-acquired (HA) or community-acquired (CA). Typical HA-MRSA isolates are characterized by multidrug resistance and the SCCmec type II cassette, while CA-MRSA isolates are generally susceptible to more drug classes, are often of SCCmec type IV, and frequently carry the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes. This study determined the presence of traits characteristic for CA and HA strains in ocular MRSA isolates.
Materials and Methods:
Fifty-six recent ocular isolates, consisting of 40 MRSA and 16 methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) comparator strains, were characterized. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing was done according to current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Detection of the PVL encoding genes and determination of the SCCmec type was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), while spa typing and cluster analysis was performed following DNA sequencing.
Of the 38 typeable MRSA isolates, 22 were of SCCmec type II and 16 were of SCCmec type IV. All SCCmec type II isolates were multidrug-resistant, lacked the PVL genes, and were of spa type t002 or closely related spa types. In contrast, the SCCmec type IV isolates were resistant to fewer classes of antimicrobial agents, often possessed the PVL genes (75.0%), and were of spa type t008 or closely related spa types.
While the majority of ocular MRSA strains in this study fit the classical profile of HA-and CA-MRSA, some CA-MRSA isolates exhibited higher levels of antimicrobial resistance, which should be of particular concern to eye-care professionals. Furthermore, the apparent association of spa types and SCCmec types observed here warrants further investigation and suggests that spa typing may be useful in future HA- and CA-MRSA characterization studies.
Bacterial infection; Community-acquired MRSA; Multi-drug resistance; spa typing; Staphylococcal virulence factors
Clonal replacement of predominant nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains has occurred several times in Ireland during the last 4 decades. However, little is known about sporadically occurring MRSA in Irish hospitals or in other countries. Eighty-eight representative pvl-negative sporadic MRSA isolates recovered in Irish hospitals between 2000 and 2012 were investigated. These yielded unusual pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and antibiogram-resistogram typing patterns distinct from those of the predominant nosocomial MRSA clone, ST22-MRSA-IV, during the study period. Isolates were characterized by spa typing and DNA microarray profiling for multilocus sequence type (MLST) clonal complex (CC) and/or sequence type (ST) and SCCmec type assignment, as well as for detection of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes. Conventional PCR-based SCCmec subtyping was undertaken when necessary. Extensive diversity was detected, including 38 spa types, 13 MLST-CCs (including 18 STs among 62 isolates assigned to STs), and 25 SCCmec types (including 2 possible novel SCCmec elements and 7 possible novel SCCmec subtypes). Fifty-four MLST-spa-SCCmec type combinations were identified. Overall, 68.5% of isolates were assigned to nosocomial lineages, with ST8-t190-MRSA-IID/IIE ± SCCM1 predominating (17.4%), followed by CC779/ST779-t878-MRSA-ψSCCmec-SCC-SCCCRISPR (7.6%) and CC22/ST22-t032-MRSA-IVh (5.4%). Community-associated clones, including CC1-t127/t386/t2279-MRSA-IV, CC59-t216-MRSA-V, CC8-t008-MRSA-IVa, and CC5-t002/t242-MRSA-IV/V, and putative animal-associated clones, including CC130-t12399-MRSA-XI, ST8-t064-MRSA-IVa, ST398-t011-MRSA-IVa, and CC6-t701-MRSA-V, were also identified. In total, 53.3% and 47.8% of isolates harbored genes for resistance to two or more classes of antimicrobial agents and two or more mobile genetic element-encoded virulence-associated factors, respectively. Effective ongoing surveillance of sporadic nosocomial MRSA is warranted for early detection of emerging clones and reservoirs of virulence, resistance, and SCCmec genes.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains from different geographic areas have different genetic backgrounds, suggesting independent clonal evolutions. To better understand the virulence of MRSA strains and the relationship to their clonal and geographic origins, we undertook an analysis of epidemiologic, molecular, and virulence characteristics of a large number of MRSA isolates from geographically diverse origins, in a Caenorhabditis elegans infection model. A total of 99 MRSA isolates collected between 1993 and 2010 at the Geneva University Hospitals from diverse global origins were characterized with Panton–Valentine leukocidin (PVL), toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST), accessory gene regulator (agr) group, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), S. aureus protein A (spa), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing. Epidemiologic data were provided from clinical records. The bacterial virulence was tested in a C. elegans host model. The inter-relationships of epidemiological/molecular characteristics in association with nematocidal activities were analyzed with univariate and two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA). Community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains were more virulent than hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA), with higher nematocidal activities in CA-MRSA strains (0.776 vs. 0.506, p = 0.0005). All molecular characteristics (PVL, TSST, spa, SCCmec, MLST, and PFGE types) showed a significant association with nematocidal activities on univariate analysis (p < 0.005). PVL was not a significant predictor after adjusting for genomic backgrounds using spa, MLST, or PFGE typing. The dominant CA-MRSA strains in North America showed higher nematocidal activities than strains from other regions (p < 0.0001). Strains with global origins containing distinct genetic backgrounds have different virulence in the C. elegans model. Nematocidal activities were most highly correlated with SCCmec, spa, MLST, and PFGE typing, suggesting that genomic background rather than a single exotoxin characteristic was the most discriminating predictor of virulence.
A total of 434 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) baseline isolates were collected from subjects enrolled in a prospective, double-blind randomized trial comparing linezolid versus vancomycin for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia. Isolates were susceptibility tested by broth microdilution, examined for inducible clindamycin resistance by D-test, and screened for heterogeneous resistance to vancomycin (hVISA) by the Etest macromethod. All strains were subjected to Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) screening, and SCCmec, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and spa typing. Selected strains were evaluated by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Clonal complexes (CCs) were assigned based on the spa and/or MLST results. Most strains were CC5 (56.0%), which originated from North America (United States) (CC5-MRSA-SCCmec II/IV; 70.0%), Asia (CC5-MRSA-II; 14.0%) and Latin America (CC5-MRSA-I/II; 12.3%). The second- and third-most-prevalent clones were CC8-MRSA-IV (23.3%) and CC239-MRSA-III (11.3%), respectively. Furthermore, the CC5-MRSA-I/II clone predominated in Asia (50.7% within this region) and Latin America (66.7%), followed by CC239-MRSA-III (32.8% and 28.9%, respectively). The European strains were CC8-MRSA-IV (34.5%), CC22-MRSA-IV (18.2%), or CC5-MRSA-I/II/IV (16.4%), while the U.S. MRSA isolates were CC5-MRSA-II/IV (64.4%) or CC8-MRSA-IV (28.8%). Among the U.S. CC8-MRSA-II/IV strains, 73.7% (56/76 [21.2% of all U.S. MRSA strains]) clustered within USA300. One strain from the United States (USA800) was intermediate to vancomycin (MIC, 4 μg/ml). All remaining strains were susceptible to linezolid, daptomycin, vancomycin, and teicoplanin. hVISA strains (14.5%) were predominantly CC5-MRSA-II, from South Korea, and belonged to a single PFGE type. Overall, each region had two predominant clones. The USA300 rate corroborates previous reports describing increased prevalence of USA300 strains causing invasive infections. The prevalence of hVISA was elevated in Asia, and these strains were associated with CC5.
Staphylococcus aureus is a common bacterium usually found on skin and mucous membranes of warm blooded animals. Resistance in S. aureus has been increasingly reported though depending on the clonal lineage. Indeed, while hospital acquired (HA)-methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) are typically multi-resistant, community associated (CA)-MRSA are by large more susceptible to many antibiotics. Although S. aureus isolated from animals are often susceptible to most antibiotics, multi-resistant livestock associated (LA)-MRSA have been recovered from bovine mastitis.
In this study, we investigated the prevalence and types of MRSA present in the nose of healthy bovines of different age groups and rearing practices. Since no validated methods for MRSA isolation from nasal swabs were available, we compared two isolation methods. Molecular characterization was performed by means of spa-typing, MLST, SCCmec typing and microarray analysis for the detection of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes.
MRSA between herd prevalence in bovines was estimated at 19.8%. There was a marked difference between rearing practices with 9.9%, 10.2% and 46.1% of the dairy, beef and veal calve farms respectively being MRSA positive. No significant difference was observed between both isolation methods tested. Most isolates were ST398 spa type t011 or closely related spa types. Few ST239 spa type t037 and t388 and ST8 spa type t121 were also found. SCCmec types carried by these strains were mainly type IV(2B), IV(2B&5) and type V. Type III and non-typeable SCCmec were recovered to a lesser extent. All isolates were multi-resistant to at least two antimicrobials in addition to the expected cefoxitin and penicillin resistance, with an average of resistance to 9.5 different antimicrobials. Isolates selected for microarray analysis carried a broad range of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes.
MRSA were mainly present in veal farms, compared to the lower prevalence in dairy or beef farms. Multi-resistance in these strains was high. Though mainly CC398 spa t011 was found, the genetic diversity was higher than what was found for pigs in Belgium. CC8 strains, a typically human lineage but also recently found also in association with bovines, has been retrieved here also.
Nasal carriage; Bovine; Epidemiology; Molecular characterization; Antimicrobial resistance
Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-(CA-MRSA) strains have emerged in Argentina. We investigated the clinical and molecular evolution of community-onset MRSA infections (CO-MRSA) in children of Córdoba, Argentina, 2005–2008. Additionally, data from 2007 were compared with the epidemiology of these infections in other regions of the country.
Two datasets were used: i) lab-based prospective surveillance of CA-MRSA isolates from 3 Córdoba pediatric hospitals-(CBAH1-H3) in 2007–2008 (compared to previously published data of 2005) and ii) a sampling of CO-MRSA from a study involving both, healthcare-associated community-onset-(HACO) infections in children with risk-factors for healthcare-associated infections-(HRFs), and CA-MRSA infections in patients without HRFs detected in multiple centers of Argentina in 2007. Molecular typing was performed on the CA-MRSA-(n: 99) isolates from the CBAH1-H3-dataset and on the HACO-MRSA-(n: 51) and CA-MRSA-(n: 213) isolates from other regions. Between 2005–2008, the annual proportion of CA-MRSA/CA-S. aureus in Córdoba hospitals increased from 25% to 49%, P<0.01. Total CA-MRSA infections increased 3.6 fold-(5.1 to 18.6 cases/100,000 annual-visits, P<0.0001), associated with an important increase of invasive CA-MRSA infections-(8.5 fold). In all regions analyzed, a single genotype prevailed in both CA-MRSA (82%) and HACO-MRSA(57%), which showed pulsed-field-gel electrophoresis-(PFGE)-type-“I”, sequence-type-5-(ST5), SCCmec-type-IVa, spa-t311, and was positive for PVL. The second clone, pulsotype-N/ST30/CC30/SCCmecIVc/t019/PVL+, accounted for 11.5% of total CA-MRSA infections. Importantly, the first 4 isolates of Argentina belonging to South American-USA300 clone-(USA300/ST8/CC8/SCCmecIVc/t008/PVL+/ACME−) were detected. We also demonstrated that a HA-MRSA clone-(pulsotype-C/ST100/CC5) caused 2% and 10% of CA-MRSA and HACO-MRSA infections respectively and was associated with a SCCmec type closely related to SCCmecIV(2B&5).
The dissemination of epidemic MRSA clone, ST5-IV-PVL+ was the main cause of increasing staphylococcal community-onset infections in Argentinean children (2003–2008), conversely to other countries. The predominance of this clone, which has capacity to express the h-VISA phenotype, in healthcare-associated community-onset cases suggests that it has infiltrated into hospital-settings.
Recently, a new livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type 398 (ST398) isolate has emerged worldwide. Although there have been reports of invasive disease in humans, MRSA ST398 colonization is much more common in livestock and demonstrates especially high prevalence rates in pigs and calves. The aim of this study was to compare the genome sequence of an ST398 MRSA isolate with other S. aureus genomes in order to identify genetic traits that may explain the success of this particular lineage. Therefore, we determined the whole genome sequence of S0385, an MRSA ST398 isolate from a human case of endocarditis.
The entire genome sequence of S0385 demonstrated considerable accessory genome content differences relative to other S. aureus genomes. Several mobile genetic elements that confer antibiotic resistance were identified, including a novel composite of an type V (5C2&5) Staphylococcal Chromosome Cassette mec (SCCmec) with distinct joining (J) regions. The presence of multiple integrative conjugative elements combined with the absence of a type I restriction and modification system on one of the two νSa islands, could enhance horizontal gene transfer in this strain. The ST398 MRSA isolate carries a unique pathogenicity island which encodes homologues of two excreted virulence factors; staphylococcal complement inhibitor (SCIN) and von Willebrand factor-binding protein (vWbp). However, several virulence factors such as enterotoxins and phage encoded toxins, including Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), were not identified in this isolate.
Until now MRSA ST398 isolates did not cause frequent invasive disease in humans, which may be due to the absence of several common virulence factors. However, the proposed enhanced ability of these isolates to acquire mobile elements may lead to the rapid acquisition of determinants which contribute to virulence in human infections.
Sporadic cases of CA-MRSA in persons without risk-factors for MRSA carriage are increasing.
We report a MRSA cluster among family members of a pig-farmer, his co-workers and his pigs. Initially a young mother was seen with mastitis due to MRSA. Six months later her baby daughter was admitted to the hospital with pneumococcal otitis. After staying five days in hospital, the baby was found to be MRSA positive. At that point it was decided to look for a possible source, such as other family members and house-hold animals, including pigs on the farm, since those were reported as a possible source of MRSA earlier.
Swabs were taken from the throat and nares of family members and co-workers. A veterinarian obtained swabs from the nares, throat and perineum of 10 pigs. Swabs were cultured following a national protocol to detect MRSA that included the use of an enrichment broth. Animal and human strains were characterized by PFGE, spa-typing, MLST analysis, SSCmec, AGR typing, and the detection for PVL, LukM, and TSST toxin genes.
Three family members, three co-workers, and 8 of the 10 pigs were MRSA positive. With the exception of the initial case (the mother) all persons were solely colonized, with no signs of clinical infections.
After digestion with SmaI, none of the strains showed any bands using PFGE. All isolates belonged to spa type t108 and ST398.
1. This report clearly shows clonal spread and transmission between humans and pigs in the Netherlands. 2. MLST sequence type 398 might be of international importance as pig-MRSA, since this type was shown earlier to be present in epidemiologically unrelated French pigs and pig-farmers. 3. Research is needed to evaluate whether this is a local problem or a new source of MRSA, that puts the until now successful Search and Destroy policy of the Netherlands at risk.
In a point-prevalence study performed in 145 Spanish hospitals in 2006, we collected 463 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus in a single day. Of these, 135 (29.2%) were methicillin (meticillin)-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates. Susceptibility testing was performed by a microdilution method, and mecA was detected by PCR. The isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after SmaI digestion, staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing, agr typing, spa typing with BURP (based-upon-repeat-pattern) analysis, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The 135 MRSA isolates showed resistance to ciprofloxacin (93.3%), tobramycin (72.6%), gentamicin (20.0%), erythromycin (66.7%), and clindamycin (39.3%). Among the isolates resistant to erythromycin, 27.4% showed the M phenotype. All of the isolates were susceptible to glycopeptides. Twelve resistance patterns were found, of which four accounted for 65% of the isolates. PFGE revealed 36 different patterns, with 13 major clones (including 2 predominant clones with various antibiotypes that accounted for 52.5% of the MRSA isolates) and 23 sporadic profiles. Two genotypes were observed for the first time in Spain. SCCmec type IV accounted for 6.7% of the isolates (70.1% were type IVa, 23.9% were type IVc, 0.9% were type IVd, and 5.1% were type IVh), and SCCmec type I and SCCmec type II accounted for 7.4% and 5.2% of the isolates, respectively. One isolate was nontypeable. Only one of the isolates produced the Panton-Valentine leukocidin. The isolates presented agr type 2 (82.2%), type 1 (14.8%), and type 3 (3.0%). spa typing revealed 32 different types, the predominant ones being t067 (48.9%) and t002 (14.8%), as well as clonal complex 067 (78%) by BURP analysis. The MRSA clone of sequence type 125 and SCCmec type IV was the most prevalent throughout Spain. In our experience, PFGE, spa typing, SCCmec typing, and MLST presented good correlations for the majority of the MRSA strains; we suggest the use of spa typing and PFGE typing for epidemiological surveillance, since this combination is useful for both long-term and short-term studies.
The genetic background and the presence of several virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from intensive care unit (ICU) patients from 14 hospitals in The Netherlands isolated from 1996 until 2006 were investigated. In total, 936 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and 7 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates were collected. The genetic background was determined by spa typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The virulence determinants Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), and collagen adhesion (CNA) were detected with real-time PCR assays. On the MRSA isolates, mobile resistance staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing was performed. Among the MSSA isolates, 313 different spa types were observed. A genetic background common to MRSA clones, e.g., MLST clonal complex 1 (CC1), CC5, CC8, CC22, CC30, and CC45, was observed among 62% of the isolates. The remaining isolates were associated with MSSA-related MLST CCs. MLST CC1, CC25, and CC30 were continuously present, and other MLST CCs fluctuated over time. Two percent of the MSSA isolates harbored PVL, 21% had TSST-1, and 46% were positive for CNA. There were no changes in the prevalence of the virulence factors over time. Four MRSA isolates were typed as ST8-MRSA-IV (where ST is the MLST sequence type and IV is the SCCmec type), two were ST5-MRSA-II, and one was ST228-MRSA-I. All MRSA isolates were PVL, CNA, and TSST-1 negative except for the two ST5-MRSA-II isolates, which were TSST-1 positive. No changes in the S. aureus genetic background and the prevalence of the virulence factors PVL, CNA, and TSST-1 were observed in ICU patients in The Netherlands over time.
In order to obtain insights into the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) population structure in the Azores archipelago, 106 MRSA isolates were collected from patients attending an Azorean central hospital between January 2007 and February 2008. Antimicrobial resistance was determined for all isolates. Molecular typing was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) typing and the presence of Panton–Valentine leukocidin (PVL). The majority of the isolates (87%, n = 92) belonged to the EMRSA-15 clone (ST22, SCCmec-IVh), followed by the Pediatric clone (ST5-VI/IVc) (11%, n = 12). The Berlin clone (ST45-IVa) and a new clone (spa type t1839, ST1339 and SCCmec V variant) were represented by single isolates. All of the isolates carried SCCmec types IV, V or VI and a non-multiresistant antibiotic profile, resembling the currently emerging community MRSA. Moreover, PVL was described for the first time to be associated with the Pediatric clone carrying SCCmec type VI. We provided the first description of the population structure of MRSA in the Azores islands, which seems to be shaped by genetic events occurring locally, as well as by the regular population exchange between the islands, continental Portugal, the United Kingdom and the United States.
Staphylococcus aureus is a main cause of bovine mastitis and a major pathogen affecting human health. The emergence and spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a significant concern for both animal health and public health. This study investigated the incidence of MRSA in milk samples collected from dairy cows with clinical mastitis and characterized the MRSA isolates using antimicrobial susceptibility tests and genetic typing methods. In total, 103 S. aureus isolates were obtained from dairy farms in 4 different provinces in China, including Gansu, Shanghai, Sichuan, and Guizhou. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of these isolates revealed that the resistance rates to penicillin and sulfamethoxazole were high, while the resistance rates to ciprofloxacin and vancomycin were low. Among the 103 isolates, 49 (47.6%) were found to be mecA-positive, indicating the high incidence of MRSA. However, 37 of the 49 mecA-positive isolates were susceptible to oxacillin as determined by antimicrobial susceptibility assays and were thus classified as oxacillin-susceptible mecA-positive S. aureus (OS-MRSA). These isolates could be misclassified as methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) if genetic detection of mecA was not performed. Molecular characterization of selected mecA-positive isolates showed that they were all negative with Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), but belonged to different spa types and SCCmec types. These results indicate that OS-MRSA is common in bovine mastitis in China and underscore the need for genetic methods (in addition to phenotypic tests) to accurately identify MRSA.
The USA300 strain of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) can cause severe infection and is increasingly recognized as a cause of community outbreaks. In 2004, an outbreak was identified in the Calgary Health Region (CHR).
MRSA isolates were identified with standard methods at a central regional laboratory and typed via pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates were tested by PCR for mecA, Panton–Valentine leukocidin (PVL), SCCmec, and spa genes. Cases were defined as such if a clinical isolate of the USA300 strain was noted between January 1 and September 30, 2004, and the patient had lived or traveled in CHR within 2 years before symptom onset. Demographic, clinical and risk data on all such cases were collected from several sources for statistical analysis. A case was defined as high-risk if the patient had a history of drug use, homelessness or incarceration.
Of 40 isolates with the USA300 PFGE pattern, all tested positive for PVL, SCCmec type IVa and spa type 008. Almost all infections (39/40, 98%) involved skin and soft tissues, except for 1 death from necrotizing hemorrhagic pneumonia; a notable proportion (38%) required hospital admission or intravenous antimicrobial therapy. The outbreak centred on the high-risk population in CHR (70%; risk ratio 169.4, 95% confidence interval 86.1–333.0).
People with histories of illicit drug use, homelessness or recent incarceration were at highest risk for infection with CA-MRSA. The emergence and spread of this virulent strain has important implications for treatment and public health in Canada.
The main goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), particularly livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) in pigs and pork. The genotypic relatedness of isolates on the farm, at slaughter, and at the retail level was assessed. Paired nasal and perianal swab samples were collected from 10 cohorts of market-age pigs (24 pigs per cohort) and carcasses at slaughterhouse, and pork samples were collected at retail. Staphylococci were isolated using selective enrichment method. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance by broth microdilution. Duplex PCR was used to confirm MRSA using species-specific (nuc) and methicillin resistance (mecA) genes. The clonal relatedness of isolates was determined using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), Staphylococcus protein A (spa) typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element (SCCmec) typing. MRSA was detected in 5 of the 10 cohorts (50%), with the prevalence ranging from 0% to 12.5% per cohort. Of all the pigs sampled on the farm before they went to market, 3% (7/240) were MRSA positive. A higher prevalence of MRSA was detected at holding pens at the slaughterhouse (11% [27/240]). MRSA was also detected in 2% (4/235) of the carcasses and 4% (5/135) of the retail pork. While the isolates appear predominantly to be highly clonal, PFGE had a relatively higher discriminatory power (discriminatory index [DI] = 0.624). Four genotypic clusters were identified by PFGE; of the four clusters, clonal type B was predominant across the farm-to-retail continuum. MLST findings revealed that sequence type 5 (ST5) was the most predominant subtype (32/50). The livestock-associated MRSA (clonal complex 398 [CC398] or sequence type 398 [ST398]) was the second common type (12/50) and was detected at all stages from farm to retail. Nine of the 50 (18%) MRSA isolates belonged to spa type 539/t034 that were of ST398 based on MLST. The results of this study confirm that MRSA, including LA-MRSA, is common in herds of swine in Ohio and hereby shown to persist in the farm to processing and retail continuum.
New strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) which frequently carry the Panton–Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes have been recognized to cause invasive infections in otherwise healthy children and adults. However, the epidemiology of PVL-positive MRSA infections has not been described in children or adults with cancer.
The epidemiology of MRSA infections in patients with cancer was retrospectively studied from 2000 to 2007. Molecular typing was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of the PVL genes. Staphylococcus cassette chromosome (SCC) mec and spa typing was performed on all PVL-positive isolates.
A total of 88 MRSA isolates from clinically distinct infectious episodes were collected from 88 patients with cancer during the 8-year study period. Infections were predominant in the skin and soft tissues (SSTI; P =0.0003). PVL-positive isolates, bearing the type IV SCCmec element, encoding the gene for methicillin resistance, increased significantly during this period (P =0.043) and comprised 35 of 88 (40%) MRSA isolates. Of these 35 isolates, 32 belonged to spa type 8 and were USA300 genotype. Patients infected with PVL-positive strains did not have more SSTI (P =0.166) or bacteremia (P =0.510) as compared to patients with PVL-negative strains. A greater percentage of PVL-positive isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin (P =0.006).
PVL-positive MRSA infections are not associated with a higher morbidity as compared to PVL-negative MRSA infections in children with cancer.
cancer; children; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Panton-Valentine leukocidin
The evolving epidemiology of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is characterized by the emergence of infections caused by non multiresistant MRSA carrying staphylococcal chromosomal cassette (SCC)mec IV or V in the healthcare settings. A molecular epidemiological analysis of non multiresistant MRSA isolates from four acute general hospitals was performed in Palermo, Italy, during a one year period.
For the purpose of the study, MRSA isolates were defined as non multiresistant when they were susceptible to at least three classes of non β-lactam antibiotics. Seventy-five isolates were submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for SCCmec, accessory gene regulator (agr) groups, arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) and Panton Valentine leukocidin (PVL) toxin genes. For epidemiological typing, Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Fingerprinting (MLVF) was performed on all isolates and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) on ST8 isolates.
Non multiresistant MRSA isolates were isolated from all hospitals. Resistances to ciprofloxacin, macrolides and tetracycline were the most prevalent. MLST attributed 46 isolates with ST22, 13 with ST8, eight with ST1, three with ST50 and three with ST398. SCCmec type IV was found in all isolates. PVL was detected in one ST22 isolate. All isolates tested negative for the ACME element. MLVF identified 31 different patterns, some subtype clusters ranging in size between two and 22 isolates. The closely related PFGE patterns of the ST8 isolates differed from USA300.
A polyclonal circulation of non multiresistant MRSA along with blurring of boundaries between healthcare associated (HA)-MRSA and community associated (CA)-MRSA appear to be occurring in our epidemiological setting. A better understanding of spread of MRSA with the support of molecular typing can provide invaluable information in the epidemiological, microbiological and clinical fields.
Community-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CO-MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) are associated with SCCmec IV and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes. CO-MRSA epidemiologic studies suggest that genotypic variation exists within one geographic region. We compared MRSA genotypes and demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with CO-MRSA SSTI between two regional medical centers. We also examined factors associated with SCCmec IV and PVL carriage. A total of 279 MRSA SSTI isolates from 2000 to 2002 at San Francisco General Hospital (SFGH) and Stanford University Hospital (SUH) were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and PCR for SCCmec and PVL genes. Medical records were reviewed for clinical characteristics. Ninety-three percent and 69% of MRSA SSTI were caused by CO-MRSA at SFGH and SUH, respectively. Patients with CO-MRSA SSTI at SFGH were more likely to be nonwhite, younger, homeless, and have no previous exposure to health care (P < 0.01). SFGH CO-MRSA strains were more likely to carry SCCmec type IV and PVL genes (90% and 55%, respectively) than SUH strains (29% and 16%, respectively). In multivariate analyses, nonwhite ethnicity was associated with both SCCmec type IV and PVL carriage (odds ratio [OR] of 2.65 and 95% confidence interval [CI] of 1.19 to 5.95 and OR of 1.94 and 95% CI of 1.03 to 3.65, respectively). ST8:USA300:IV became the dominant clone at SFGH, but not at SUH, by 2002. Despite geographic proximity, CO-MRSA SSTI exhibited differing SCCmec types, PVL carriage, and clonal dynamics. CO-MRSA SSTI at SUH were more likely to represent feral isolates of nosocomial origin. Clinicians should assess for nosocomial and community risk factors, realizing that different populations with CO-MRSA SSTI may require separate antimicrobial strategies.
Methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a serious problem worldwide. To investigate the molecular epidemiology of MRSA isolates in China, a total of 702 MRSA isolates collected from 18 teaching hospitals in 14 cities between 2005 and 2006 were characterized by antibiogram analysis, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, and spa typing; and 102 isolates were selected for multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Overall, SCCmec type III was the most popular type and was found in 541 isolates (77.1%), followed by SCCmec type II (109/702; 15.5%). Twenty-four PFGE types were obtained among 395 isolates collected in 2005, and 18 spa types were obtained among 702 isolates. spa type t030, which corresponded to PFEG types A to E, constituted 52.0% (365/702) of all isolates, and isolates of this type were present in all 14 cities; spa type t037, which corresponded to PFGE types F and G, accounted for 25.5% (179/702) of all isolates, and isolates of this type were identified in 12 cities. The two spa genotypes belonged to sequence type 239 (ST239) and carried SCCmec type III. spa type t002, which included isolates of PFGE types L to T, made up 16.0% (112/702) of the isolates that belonged to ST5 and SCCmec type II, and isolates of this type were distributed in 12 cities. The distribution of spa types varied among the regions. spa type t002 was the most common in Dalian (53.4%) and Shenyang (44.4%); spa type t037 was predominant in Shanghai (74.8%), whereas spa type t030 was the most common in the other cities. Two isolates from Guangzhou that harbored SCCmec type IVa with ST59 and ST88 were identified as community-associated MRSA. The prevalence of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene was 2.3%. The data documented two major epidemic MRSA clones, ST239-MRSA-SCCmec type III and ST5-MRSA-SCCmec type II, with unique geographic distributions across China.
Several studies have addressed the epidemiology of community-associated
Staphylococcus aureus (CA-SA) in Europe; nonetheless, a
comprehensive perspective remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to
describe the population structure of CA-SA and to shed light on the origin
of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in this
Methods and Findings
A total of 568 colonization and infection isolates, comprising both MRSA and
methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), were recovered in
16 European countries, from community and community-onset infections. The
genetic background of isolates was characterized by molecular typing
techniques (spa typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis
and multilocus sequence typing) and the presence of PVL and ACME was tested
by PCR. MRSA were further characterized by SCCmec typing.
We found that 59% of all isolates were associated with
community-associated clones. Most MRSA were related with USA300 (ST8-IVa and
variants) (40%), followed by the European clone (ST80-IVc and
derivatives) (28%) and the Taiwan clone (ST59-IVa and related clonal
types) (15%). A total of 83% of MRSA carried Panton-Valentine
leukocidin (PVL) and 14% carried the arginine catabolic mobile
element (ACME). Surprisingly, we found a high genetic diversity among MRSA
clonal types (ST-SCCmec), Simpson’s index of
diversity = 0.852 (0.788–0.916). Specifically,
about half of the isolates carried novel associations between genetic
background and SCCmec. Analysis by BURP showed that some
CA-MSSA and CA-MRSA isolates were highly related, suggesting a probable
local acquisition/loss of SCCmec.
Our results imply that CA-MRSA origin, epidemiology and population structure
in Europe is very dissimilar from that of USA.
The incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been increasing yearly at Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH). In order to understand the molecular evolution of MRSA at PUMCH, a total of 466 nonduplicate S. aureus isolates, including 302 MRSA and 164 methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) isolates recovered from 1994 to 2008 were characterized by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, spa typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The 302 MRSA isolates were classified into 12 spa types and 9 sequence types (STs). During the years from 1994 to 2000, the most predominant MRSA clone was ST239-MRSA-III-spa t037. Since 2000, ST239-MRSA-III-spa t030 has rapidly replaced t037 and become the major clone. Another clone, ST5-MRSA-II-spa t002 emerged in 2002 and constantly existed at a low prevalence rate. The 164 MSSA isolates were classified into 62 spa types and 40 STs. ST398 was the most common MLST type for MSSA, followed by ST59, ST7, ST15, and ST1. Several MSSA genotypes, including ST398, ST1, ST121, and ST59, were identical to well-known epidemic community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) isolates. MLST eBURST analysis revealed that the ST5, ST59, and ST965 clones coexisted in both MRSA and MSSA, which suggested that these MRSA clones might have evolved from MSSA by the acquisition of SCCmec. Two pvl-positive ST59-MRSA-IV isolates were identified as CA-MRSA according to the clinical data. Overall, our data showed that the ST239-MRSA-III-spa t037 clone was replaced by the emerging ST239-MRSA-III-spa t030 clone, indicating a rapid change of MRSA at a tertiary care hospital in China over a 15-year period.