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1.  Complications, Reoperations, and Nutrient Deficiencies Two Years after Sleeve Gastrectomy 
Journal of Obesity  2012;2012:828737.
Background. The aim of this study was to investigate patient outcomes and nutritional deficiencies following sleeve gastrectomy (SG) during a follow-up of two years. Methods. Over a period of 56 months, all consecutive patients who underwent SG were documented in this prospective, single-center, observational study. The study endpoints included operative time, complication rates, nutritional deficiencies and percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL). Results. From September 26, 2005 to May 28, 2009, 82 patients (female : male = 48 : 34) with a mean age of 43.3 years (range: 22–64) and a preoperative BMI of 52.5 kg/m² (range: 36.8–77.0) underwent SG. Major complications were observed in 9.8% of the patients, with 1 death. During follow up 51.2% of patients were supplemented with iron, 36.6% with zinc, 37.8% with calcium, 26.8% with vitamin D, 46.3% with vitamin B12 and 41.5% with folic acid. %EWL was 54.3, 65.3 and 62.6% after 6, 12 and 24 months. Conclusion. SG as a single step procedure is an effective bariatric intervention. Nutritional deficiencies after SG can be detected by routine nutritional screening. Our results show that Vitamin B12 supplementation should suggest routinely after SG.
doi:10.1155/2012/828737
PMCID: PMC3364598  PMID: 22685635
2.  Prospective randomized clinical trial of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy versus open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for the management of patients with morbid obesity 
Introduction
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is considered the gold standard bariatric procedure with documented safety and effectiveness. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a newer procedure being done with increasing frequency. Randomized comparisons of LSG and other bariatric procedures are limited. We present the results of the first prospective randomized trial comparing LSG and RYGB in the Polish population.
Aim
To assess the efficacy and safety of LSG versus RYGB in the treatment of morbid obesity and obesity-related comorbidities.
Material and methods
Seventy-two morbidly obese patients were randomized to RYGB (36 patients) or LSG (36 patients). Both groups were comparable regarding age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and comorbidities. The follow-up period was at least 12 months. Baseline and 6 and 12 month outcomes were analyzed including assessment of percent excess weight lost (%EWL), reduction in BMI, morbidity (minor, major, early and late complications), mortality, reoperations, comorbidities and nutritional deficiencies.
Results
There was no 30-day mortality and no significant difference in major complication rate (0% after RYGB and 8.3% after LSG, p > 0.05) or minor complication rate (16.6% after RYGB and 10.1% after LSG, p > 0.05). There were no early reoperations after RYGB and 2 after LSG (5.5%) (p > 0.05). Weight loss was significant after RYGB and LSG but there was no difference between both groups at 6 and 12 months of follow-up. At 12 months %EWL in RYGB and LSG groups reached 64.2% and 67.6% respectively (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the overall prevalence of comorbidities and nutritional deficiencies.
Conclusions
Both LSG and RYGB produce significant weight loss at 6 and 12 months after surgery. The procedures are equally effective with regard to %EWL, reduction in BMI and amelioration of comorbidities at 6 and 12 months of follow-up. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and RYGB are comparably safe techniques with no significant differences in minor and major complication rates at 6 and 12 months.
doi:10.5114/wiitm.2012.32384
PMCID: PMC3557743  PMID: 23362420
bariatric surgery; morbid obesity; gastric bypass; sleeve gastrectomy; randomized trial
3.  Laparoscopic Gastric Sleeve and Micronutrients Supplementation: Our Experience 
Journal of Obesity  2012;2012:672162.
Background. Laparoscopic gastric sleeve (LGS) has been recently introduced as a stand-alone, restrictive bariatric surgery. Theoretically, LGS attenuates micronutrients deficiencies and associated complications that were typically observed following malabsorptive procedures. The aim of this study was to assess some micronutrients and mineral deficiencies in patients undergoing LGS. Methods. In the period between July 2008 and April 2010, 138 obese patients (110 females and 28 males) with mean BMI 44.4 kg/m2 ± 6.5, mean age 43.9 ± 10.9 years were enrolled and underwent LGS. Patients were followed up with routine laboratory tests and anthropometric measurements and assessed for nutritional status, as regards vitamin B12, folic acid, iron, hemoglobin, calcium, and vitamin D, every three months throughout 12 months. Results. 12 months after sleeve, patients did not show iron deficiency and/or anemia; plasma calcium levels were in the normal range without supplementation from the sixth month after the operation. Vitamin B12 and folic acid were adequately supplemented for all the follow-up period. Vitamin D was in suboptimal levels, despite daily multivitamin supplementation. Conclusion. In this study, we showed that LGS is an effective surgery for the management of morbid obesity. An adequate supplementation is important to avoid micronutrients deficiencies and greater weight loss does not require higher dosage of multivitamins.
doi:10.1155/2012/672162
PMCID: PMC3321468  PMID: 22545207
4.  Laparoscopic re-sleeve gastrectomy as a treatment of weight regain after sleeve gastrectomy 
AIM: To evaluate laparoscopic re-sleeve gastrectomy as a treatment of weight regain after Sleeve.
METHODS: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is a common bariatric procedure. Weight regain after long-term follow-up is reported. Patients were considered for laparoscopic re-sleeve gastrectomy when we observed progressive weight regain and persistence of comorbidities associated with evidence of dilated gastric fundus and/or antrum on upper gastro-intestinal series. Follow-up visits were scheduled at 1, 3, 6 and 12 mo after surgery and every 6 mo thereafter. Measures of change from baseline at different times were analyzed with the paired samples t test.
RESULTS: We observed progressive weight regain after sleeve in 11 of the 201 patients (5.4%) who had a mean follow-up of 21.1 ± 9.7 mo (range 6-57 mo). Three patients started to regain weight after 6 mo following Sleeve, 5 patients after 12 mo, 3 patients after 18 m. Re-sleeve gastrectomy was always performed by laparoscopy. The mean time of intervention was 55.8 ± 29.1 min. In all cases, neither intra-operative nor post-operative complications occurred. After 1 year follow-up we observed a significant (P < 0.05) mean body mass index reduction (-6.6 ± 2.7 kg/m2) and mean % excess weight loss (%EWL) increase (+31.0% ± 15.8%). An important reduction of antihypertensive drugs and hypoglycemic agents was observed after re-sleeve in those patients affected by hypertension and diabetes. Joint problems and sleep apnea syndrome improved in all 11 patients.
CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic re-sleeve gastrectomy is a feasible and effective intervention to correct weight regain after sleeve.
doi:10.4240/wjgs.v6.i6.101
PMCID: PMC4073220  PMID: 24976903
Obesity; Bariatric surgery; Laparoscopic surgery; Stomach stapling; Gastrectomy; Surgery; Repeat
5.  Can Diabetes Be Surgically Cured? 
Annals of surgery  2013;258(4):628-637.
Objective
Evaluate the long-term effects of bariatric surgery on type 2 diabetes (T2DM) remission and metabolic risk factors.
Background
Although the impressive antidiabetic effects of bariatric surgery have been shown in short- and medium-term studies, the durability of these effects is uncertain. Specifically, long-term remission rates following bariatric surgery are largely unknown.
Methods
Clinical outcomes of 217 patients with T2DM who underwent bariatric surgery between 2004 and 2007 and had at least 5-year follow-up were assessed. Complete remission was defined as glycated hemoglobin (A1C) less than 6% and fasting blood glucose (FBG) less than 100 mg/dL off diabetic medications. Changes in other metabolic comorbidities, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetic nephropathy, were assessed.
Results
At a median follow-up of 6 years (range: 5–9) after surgery (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, n = 162; gastric banding, n = 32; sleeve gastrectomy, n = 23), a mean excess weight loss (EWL) of 55% was associated with mean reductions in A1C from 7.5% ± 1.5% to 6.5% ± 1.2% (P < 0.001) and FBG from 155.9 ± 59.5 mg/dL to 114.8 ± 40.2 mg/dL (P < 0.001). Long-term complete and partial remission rates were 24% and 26%, respectively, whereas 34% improved (>1% decrease in A1C without remission) from baseline and 16% remained unchanged. Shorter duration of T2DM (P < 0.001) and higher long-term EWL (P = 0.006) predicted long-term remission. Recurrence of T2DM after initial remission occurred in 19% and was associated with longer duration of T2DM (P = 0.03), less EWL (P = 0.02), and weight regain (P = 0.015). Long-term control rates of low high-density lipoprotein, high low-density lipoprotein, high triglyceridemia, and hypertension were 73%, 72%, 80%, and 62%, respectively. Diabetic nephropathy regressed (53%) or stabilized (47%).
Conclusions
Bariatric surgery can induce a significant and sustainable remission and improvement of T2DM and other metabolic risk factors in severely obese patients. Surgical intervention within 5 years of diagnosis is associated with a high rate of long-term remission.
doi:10.1097/SLA.0b013e3182a5034b
PMCID: PMC4110959  PMID: 24018646
bariatric; diabetes; gastric banding; gastric bypass; LAGB; long term; metabolic; nephropathy; RYGB; sleeve gastrectomy
6.  Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy without over-sewing of the staple line is effective and safe 
Introduction
Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a bariatric procedure with very good long-term weight-reducing and metabolic effects.
Aim
Here we report 6 years’ experience with LSG performed in morbidly obese patients by one surgical team focusing on the impact of the degree of sleeve restriction and safety of the procedure without over-sewing the staple line.
Material and methods
From 2006 to 2012, 207 morbid obese patients with average age of 43.4 years and average body mass index 44.9 kg/m2 underwent LSG without over-sewing the staple line. The complete 5- and 3-year follow-up is recorded in 59 and 117 patients with prospective data collection at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 42 and 60 months after LSG. Group 1 patients operated in 2006–2008 had smaller sleeve restriction. Group 2 patients operated in 2009–2012 had major sleeve restriction. All procedures were performed without over-sewing of the staple line.
Results
The average %EBMIL (excess body mass index loss) in group 1 patients with minor sleeve restriction reached 54.1% and average %EWL (excess weight loss) was 50.8% while in group 2 with major sleeve restriction the average %EBMIL reached 69.7% and average %EWL was 66.8%. Final weight reduction was significantly higher in group 2 patients compared to group 1 patients with smaller sleeve restriction. Out of 49 patients with preoperatively diagnosed T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus) was completely resolved in 70.8%. Pre-operatively diagnosed hypertension normalized in 64.2%, improved in 23.2%, and remained unchanged in 12.6% of patients.
Conclusions
Carefully performed LSG without over-sewing the staple line is feasible and safe. A better weight-reducing effect was present in patients with major sleeve restriction.
doi:10.5114/wiitm.2014.40387
PMCID: PMC3983549  PMID: 24729809
morbid obesity; laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy; diabetes; staple line
7.  Clinical Experience of Weight Loss Surgery in Morbidly Obese Korean Adolescents 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2014;55(5):1366-1372.
Purpose
Comprehensive multidisciplinary weight management programs encompassing various conservative measures have shown only modest weight loss results in obese children and adolescents; therefore, bariatric surgery for this population has become a matter of discussion. This study aimed to present our experience with and outcomes for laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) in morbidly obese Korean adolescents.
Materials and Methods
The prospectively established database of all patients undergoing bariatric surgery at Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Korea between January 2011 and January 2013 was retrospectively reviewed. Adolescents aged 14 to 20 years were included in the present analyses.
Results
Twenty-two adolescents underwent bariatric surgery during the study period; 14 underwent LSG and 8, LRYGB. Of these, 17 were female and 5 were male. The mean age was 19 years. Their mean body weight and body mass index (BMI) before surgery were 115 kg and 40.1 kg/m2. The only postoperative complication was intraluminal bleeding in 1 patient, which was managed conservatively. The mean BMI decreased to 29.1 kg/m2 after a mean follow-up of 10 months. The percent excess weight loss (%EWL) at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively were 19.6, 39.9, 52.6, and 74.2%, respectively. Only 1 patient showed %EWL less than 30% at 12 months after surgery. All patients with diabetes and sleep apnea were cured of their disease, and other comorbidities also improved or resolved after surgery.
Conclusion
Bariatric surgery leads to significant short-term weight loss along with resolution of obesity-related comorbidities in obese children and adolescents.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2014.55.5.1366
PMCID: PMC4108825  PMID: 25048498
Morbid obesity; adolescent obesity; bariatric surgery; gastric bypass
8.  Preliminary Outcomes 1 Year after Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy Based on Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcome System (BAROS) 
Obesity Surgery  2011;21(12):1843-1848.
Background
The aim of this study was to assess outcomes of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) as a stand-alone bariatric operation according to the Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcome System (BAROS).
Methods
Out of 112 patients included and operated on initially, 84 patients (F/M, 63:21) were followed up for 14–56 months (mean 22 ± 6.75). Patients lost to follow-up did not attend scheduled follow-up visits or they have withdrawn their consent. Mean age was 39 years (range 17–67; SD ± 12.09) with mean initial BMI 44.62 kg/m2 (range 29.39–82.8; SD ± 8.17). Statistical significance was established at the p < 0.05 level.
Results
Mean operative time was 61 min (30–140 min) with mean hospital stay of 1.37 days (0–4; SD ± 0.77). Excellent global BAROS outcome was achieved in 13% of patients, very good in 30%, good in 34.5%, fair 9.5% and failure in 13% patients 12 months after surgery. Females achieved significantly better outcomes than males with the mean 46.5% of excess weight loss (EWL) versus 35.3% of EWL at 12 months (p = 0.02). The mean percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL) was 43.6% at 12 months and 46.6% at 24 months. Major surgical complication rate was 7.1%; minor surgical complication rate 8.3%. There was one conversion (1.2%) due to the massive bleeding. Comorbidities improved or resolved in numerous patients: arterial hypertension in 62%, diabetes mellitus in 68.3%, respectively.
Conclusions
Presented LSG series shows that the LSG as a stand-alone procedure provides acceptable %EWL and good global BAROS outcomes. It significantly improves comorbidities as well.
doi:10.1007/s11695-011-0403-4
PMCID: PMC3217142  PMID: 21491136
Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy; LSG; Treatment outcomes; Bariatric analysis and reporting outcome system; BAROS; Excess weight loss
9.  Long-Term Results of Bariatric Restrictive Procedures: A Prospective Study 
Obesity Surgery  2010;20(12):1617-1626.
Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) and vertical-banded gastroplasty (VBG) are surgical treatment modalities for morbid obesity. This prospective study describes the long-term results of LAGB and VBG. One hundred patients were included in the study. Fifty patients underwent LAGB and 50 patients, open VBG. Study parameters were weight loss, changes in obesity-related comorbidities, long-term complications, re-operations including conversions to other bariatric procedures and laboratory parameters including vitamin status. From 91 patients (91%), data were obtained with a mean follow-up duration of 84 months (7 years). Weight loss [percent excess weight loss (EWL)] was significantly more after VBG compared with LAGB, 66% versus 54%, respectively. All comorbidities significantly decreased in both groups. Long-term complications after VBG were mainly staple line disruption (54%) and incisional hernia (27%). After LAGB, the most frequent complications were pouch dilatation (21%) and anterior slippage (17%). Major re-operations after VBG were performed in 60% of patients. All re-operations following were conversions to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). In the LAGB group, 33% of patients had a refixation or replacement of the band, and 11% underwent conversion to another bariatric procedure. There were no significant differences in weight loss between patients with or without re-interventions. No vitamin deficiencies were present after 7 years, although supplement usage was inconsistent. This long-term follow-up study confirms the high occurrence of late complications after restrictive bariatric surgery. The failure rate of 65% after VBG is too high, and this procedure is not performed anymore in our institution. The re-operation rate after LAGB is decreasing as a result of new techniques and materials. Results of the re-operations are good with sustained weight loss and reduction in comorbidities. However, in order to achieve these results, a durable and complete follow-up after restrictive procedures is imperative.
doi:10.1007/s11695-010-0211-2
PMCID: PMC2996534  PMID: 20563663
Restrictive procedures; VBG; LAGB; Long-term results; Re-operations
10.  Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy is a Safe and Effective Bariatric Procedure for the Lower BMI (35.0–43.0 kg/m2) Population 
Obesity Surgery  2010;21(8):1168-1171.
Background
The laparoscopic vertical sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is derived from the biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch operation (Marceau et al., Obes Surg 3:29–35, 1993; Hess and Hess, Obes Surg 8:267–82, 1998; Chu et al., Surg Endosc 16:S069, 2002). Later, LSG was advocated as the first step of a two-stage procedure for super-obese patients (Regan et al., Obes Surg 13:861–4, 2003; Cottam et al., Surg Endosc 20:859–63, 2006). However, recent support is mounting that continues to establish LSG as the definitive procedure for surgical treatment of morbid obesity. We will report our experience with the LSG as a primary bariatric procedure and evaluate if this operation is suitable as a stand-alone procedure.
Methods
The study is a nonrandomized retrospective analysis of 204 patients from a single surgeon operated between July 2006 and April 2010. The study comprises of 155 women and 49 men with a mean age of 45 years (range, 19–70 years), a mean preoperative weight of 126.6 kg, and body mass index (BMI) of 45.7 kg/m2.
Results
The mean percent excess weight loss (%EWL) was 49.9% (n = 159), 64.2% (n = 138), 67.9% (n = 77), 62.4% (n = 34), and 62.2% (n = 9) at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively. For patients with BMI ≤43.0, the mean postoperative %EWL was 58.9% (n = 72), 74.1% (n = 67), 75.8% (n = 39), 72.1% (n = 17), and 78.7% (n = 5) at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively. Operative complications include leak (0.0%), abscess (0.5%), hemorrhage (1.0%), sleeve stricture (1.0%), and severe gastroesphogeal reflux disease with need to convert to laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (0.5%).
Conclusions
LSG yields excellent outcomes with low complication rates for morbidly obese patients. We advocate LSG as a safe and effective stand-alone procedure, especially with the lower BMI population (BMI 35.0–43.0 kg/m2).
doi:10.1007/s11695-010-0332-7
PMCID: PMC3148435  PMID: 21128003
Bariatric surgery; Morbid obesity; Sleeve gastrectomy; Gastric bypass; Lower BMI population
11.  Pylorus preserving loop duodeno-enterostomy with sleeve gastrectomy - preliminary results 
BMC Surgery  2014;14:20.
Background
Bariatric operations mostly combine a restrictive gastric component with a rerouting of the intestinal passage. The pylorus can thereby be alternatively preserved or excluded. With the aim of performing a “pylorus-preserving gastric bypass”, we present early results of a proximal postpyloric loop duodeno-jejunostomy associated with a sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) compared to results of a parallel, but distal LSG with a loop duodeno-ileostomy as a two-step procedure.
Methods
16 patients underwent either a two-step LSG with a distal loop duodeno-ileostomy (DIOS) as revisional bariatric surgery or a combined single step operation with a proximal duodeno-jejunostomy (DJOS). Total small intestinal length was determined to account for inter-individual differences.
Results
Mean operative time for the second-step of the DIOS operation was 121 min and 147 min for the combined DJOS operation. The overall intestinal length was 750.8 cm (range 600-900 cm) with a bypassed limb length of 235.7 cm in DJOS patients. The mean length of the common channel in DIOS patients measured 245.6 cm. Overall excess weight loss (%EWL) of the two-step DIOS procedure came to 38.31% and 49.60%, DJOS patients experienced an %EWL of 19.75% and 46.53% at 1 and 6 months, resp. No complication related to the duodeno-enterostomy occurred.
Conclusions
Loop duodeno-enterosomies with sleeve gastrectomy can be safely performed and may open new alternatives in bariatric surgery with the possibility for inter-individual adaptation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-14-20
PMCID: PMC3994519  PMID: 24725654
12.  Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy as a Primary Operation for Morbid Obesity: Experience with 200 Patients 
Introduction. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) represents a valid option for morbid obesity, either as a primary or as a staged procedure. The aim of this paper is to report the experience of a single surgeon with LSG as a standalone operation for morbid obesity. Methods. From April 2006 to April 2011, 200 patients underwent LSG for morbid obesity. Each patient record was registered and prospectively collected. In July 2011, a retrospective analysis was conducted. Results. Patients were 128 females and 72 males with a median age of 40.0 years. Median pre-operative BMI was 49.4 kg/m2. Median follow-up was 27.2 months. Median post-operative BMI was 30.4 kg/m2. Median %excess weight loss (%EWL) was 63.6%. Median post-operative hospital stay was 4.0 days in the first 84 cases and 3.0 days in the last 116 cases. Six major post-operative complications occurred (3%): two gastric stump leaks (1%), three major bleedings (1.5%) and 1 (0.5%) bowel obstruction. One case of mortality was registered (0.5%). To date only 4 patients are still in the range of morbid obesity (BMI > 35 kg/m2). Conclusions. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is a formidable operation in the short-term period. Median %EWL in this series was 63.6% at 27.2 months follow-up.
doi:10.1155/2012/801325
PMCID: PMC3371683  PMID: 22701478
13.  Sleeve Gastrectomy as a Stand-alone Bariatric Operation for Severe, Morbid, and Super Obesity 
Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy was found to be a safe and effective stand-alone procedure for severe, morbid, and super obese patients in a high-risk veteran population.
Background:
The laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is emerging as an effective bariatric operation and is especially attractive in high-risk populations. In this study we examine the efficacy of LSG as a stand-alone operation in the veteran population.
Methods:
This is a retrospective review of consecutive patients who underwent LSG as a stand-alone procedure at the Palo Alto Veterans Affairs medical center with a minimum 12-month follow-up.
Results:
Of 205 patients undergoing bariatric surgery, 71 patients had a sleeve gastrectomy, 40 of whom had the operation performed at least 12 months previously. Thirty-six (90%) were available for 1-year follow-up, with a mean follow-up duration of 22 months (range: 12–42), a mean body mass index of 48.3 kg/m2, and an 83% male population. Mean percent excess weight loss was 61% at an average of 22 months, with no significant difference between severely obese, morbidly obese, and super obese cohorts. Diabetes remission was seen in 56% of patients, hypertension remission in 51.6%, and obstructive sleep apnea remission in 46.4%, and gastroesophageal reflux disease improved or did not change in 83%. Medication use significantly decreased after surgery.
Conclusion:
LSG is safe and effective as a stand-alone bariatric operation in the high-risk veteran population. It is effective in severely obese, morbidly obese, and super obese patients. LSG induces remission or improvement in comorbidities of nearly all patients, translating to a decrease in medication use.
doi:10.4293/108680812X13517013317077
PMCID: PMC3662747  PMID: 23743373
Obesity; Sleeve gastrectomy; Bariatric surgery; Veterans; Diabetes; Hypertension; Obstructive sleep apnea; Gastroesphageal reflux
14.  Weight Loss after Bariatric Surgery in Morbidly Obese Adolescents with MC4R mutations 
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)  2013;22(1):225-231.
Objective
To determine the frequency of Melanocortin4 Receptor (MC4R) mutations in morbidly obese adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery and compare weight loss outcomes in patients with and without mutations.
Design and Methods
In this prospective cohort study, 135 adolescent patients evaluated for bariatric surgery were screened for MC4R mutations; 56 had 12 month postoperative data available for analysis.
Results
MC4R mutations were detected in five of the 135 patients (3.7%); four underwent restrictive bariatric surgery. For the three patients with gastric banding, percent excess weight loss (%EWL) postoperatively was 36.0% at 5 years in one, 47% at 4 years in the second, and 85% at 1 year in the third. For the patient with gastric sleeve resection, %EWL of 96% was attained at 1 year postoperatively. The four MC4R cases had a higher, although non-significant, %EWL compared to 52 non-matched controls at 12 months postoperatively (48.6% vs. 23.4%; p<0.37). When matched by age, sex, and race to 14 controls, there was no significant difference in %EWL (p < 0.31), BMI change (p< 0.27), or absolute weight loss (p <0.20).
Conclusion
The frequency of MC4R mutations is similar to prior studies, with affected patients showing beneficial weight loss outcomes.
doi:10.1002/oby.20511
PMCID: PMC3880391  PMID: 23740648
MC4R; Obesity; Adolescents; Bariatric surgery
15.  Single-Incision Sleeve Gastrectomy Using a Novel Technique for Liver Retraction 
Single incision laparoscopic access appears to be a safe, feasible technique for performing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.
Introduction:
Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy has rapidly gained popularity in the field of bariatric surgery, mainly due to its low morbidity and mortality. Traditionally, 4 to 6 trocars are used. Single-access surgery has emerged as an attempt to decrease incisional morbidity and enhance cosmetic benefits. We present our initial 7 patients undergoing single-incision laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy using a novel technique for liver retraction.
Methods:
Patients who underwent single-incision laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy between March 2009 and May 2009 were analyzed. A 4-cm left paramedian incision was used. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy was performed in a standard fashion using a 40 French bougie.
Results:
Seven patients underwent single-incision sleeve gastrectomy at the University of Illinois at Chicago. They were all female with a mean age of 34 years. Preoperative BMI was 49kg/m2 (range, 39 to 64). There were no intraoperative complications. Mean operative time was 103 minutes. Estimated blood loss was minimal. All 7 patients were discharged on postoperative day 2 and were doing well without any complications at 3.1±0.7 months after surgery.
Conclusion:
Single-incision laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is safe and feasible and can be performed without changing the existing principles of the procedure. Our technique for internal liver retraction provides adequate exposure and is reproducible. Development of improved standard instrumentation is required for this technique to become popular.
doi:10.4293/108680810X12785289144278
PMCID: PMC3043573  PMID: 20932374
Bariatric surgery; Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy; Single-incision laparoscopic surgery; Liver retraction
16.  Weight Loss after Sleeve Gastrectomy in Super Superobesity 
Journal of Obesity  2012;2012:959260.
Objective. This prospective study evaluated laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for its safety and efficiency in excess weight loss (%EWL) in super superobese patients (BMI >60 Kg/m2). Results. Thirty patients (33 women and 7 men) were included, with mean age of 35 years (range 18 to 59). Mean preoperative BMI was 66 Kg/m2 (range 60 to 85). The study included one patient with complete situs inversus and 4 (14%) with previous restrictive gastric banding. The mean operative time was 120 minutes (range 80 to 220 min) and the mean hospital stay was 7.5 days (4 to 28 days). There was no postoperative mortality or need for a laparotomy conversion. Two subphrenic hematomas, one gastric fistula, and one pulmonary embolism, were the major complications. After 18 months 17 (77%) had sufficient weight loss and six had insufficient results, leading to either re-sleeve gastrectomy (3), or gastric bypass (2). Three years after the initial laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, the mean EWL was 51% (range 21 to 82). Conclusion. The laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is a safe and efficient operating procedure for treating super superobesity. In the case of insufficient weight loss, a second-stage operation like resleeve gastrectomy or gastric bypass can be proposed.
doi:10.1155/2012/959260
PMCID: PMC3409558  PMID: 22888410
17.  Robot-Assisted Sleeve Gastrectomy in Morbidly Obese Versus Super Obese Patients 
Background and Objectives:
This study evaluates our technique for robot-assisted sleeve gastrectomy for morbidly obese and super obese patients and our outcomes.
Methods:
A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent robot-assisted sleeve gastrectomy at a single center was performed. The procedure was performed with the da Vinci Si HD Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, California). The staple line was imbricated with No. 2-0 polydioxanone in all cases. The super obese (body mass index ≥50 kg/m2) subset of patients was compared with the morbidly obese group in terms of demographic characteristics, comorbidities, operative times, perioperative complications, and excess body weight loss.
Results:
A total of 35 patients (15 female and 20 male patients) with a mean body mass index of 48.17 ± 11.7 kg/m2 underwent robot-assisted sleeve gastrectomy. Of these patients, 11 were super obese and 24 were morbidly obese. The mean operative time was 116.3 ± 24.7 minutes, and the mean docking time was 8.9 ± 5.4 minutes. Mean blood loss was 19.36 ± 4.62 mL, and there were no complications, conversions, or perioperative deaths. When compared with the morbidly obese patients, the super obese patients showed no significant difference in operative time, blood loss, and length of hospital stay. There was a steep decline in operating room times after 10 cases of robot-assisted sleeve gastrectomy.
Conclusion:
This study shows the feasibility and safety of robot-assisted sleeve gastrectomy. Robotic assistance might help overcome the operative difficulties encountered in super obese patients. It shows a rapid reduction in operative times with the growing experience of the entire operative team. Robot-assisted sleeve gastrectomy can be a good procedure by which to introduce robotics in a bariatric surgery center before going on to perform Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and revision procedures.
doi:10.4293/JSLS.2014.00099
PMCID: PMC4208899  PMID: 25392663
Sleeve gastrectomy; Robot-assisted bariatric surgery; Super obese; Robotic surgery; Laparoscopic bariatric; Robotic sleeve
18.  Bariatric Surgery versus Intensive Medical Therapy in Obese Patients with Diabetes 
The New England Journal of Medicine  2012;366(17):1567-1576.
BACKGROUND
Observational studies have shown improvement in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus after bariatric surgery.
METHODS
In this randomized, nonblinded, single-center trial, we evaluated the efficacy of intensive medical therapy alone versus medical therapy plus Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy in 150 obese patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes. The mean (±SD) age of the patients was 49 ± 8 years, and 66% were women. The average glycated hemoglobin level was 9.2 ± 1.5%. The primary end point was the proportion of patients with a glycated hemoglobin level of 6.0% or less 12 months after treatment.
RESULTS
Of the 150 patients, 93% completed 12 months of follow-up. The proportion of patients with the primary end point was 12% (5 of 41 patients) in the medical-therapy group versus 42% (21 of 50 patients) in the gastric-bypass group (P = 0.002) and 37% (18 of 49 patients) in the sleeve-gastrectomy group (P = 0.008). Glycemic control improved in all three groups, with a mean glycated hemoglobin level of 7.5 ± 1.8% in the medical-therapy group, 6.4 ± 0.9% in the gastric-bypass group (P<0.001), and 6.6 ± 1.0% in the sleeve-gastrectomy group (P = 0.003). Weight loss was greater in the gastric-bypass group and sleeve-gastrectomy group (−29.4 ± 9.0 kg and −25.1 ± 8.5 kg, respectively) than in the medical-therapy group (−5.4 ± 8.0 kg) (P<0.001 for both comparisons). The use of drugs to lower glucose, lipid, and blood-pressure levels decreased significantly after both surgical procedures but increased in patients receiving medical therapy only. The index for homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) improved significantly after bariatric surgery. Four patients underwent reoperation. There were no deaths or life-threatening complications.
CONCLUSIONS
In obese patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes, 12 months of medical therapy plus bariatric surgery achieved glycemic control in significantly more patients than medical therapy alone. Further study will be necessary to assess the durability of these results. (Funded by Ethicon Endo-Surgery and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00432809.)
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1200225
PMCID: PMC3372918  PMID: 22449319
19.  Early Results of the Swiss Multicentre Bypass or Sleeve Study (SM-BOSS) 
Annals of Surgery  2013;258(5):690-695.
We performed a randomized clinical trial assessing the effectiveness and safety of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB). A total of 107 patients underwent LSG and 110 patients underwent LRYGB. The operative time was less for LSG than for LRYGB (87 ± 52.3 minutes vs 108 ± 42.3 minutes; P = 0.003). We observed a trend toward more early complications in LRYGB than in LSG (17.2% vs 8.4%; P = 0.067). Excessive body mass index loss 1 year after the operation was similar (72.3% ± 22% for LSG and 76.6% ± 21% for LRYGB). The comorbidities and quality of life were significantly improved by both procedures.
Objective:
Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has been proposed as an effective alternative to the current standard procedure, laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB). Prospective data comparing both procedures are rare. Therefore, we performed a randomized clinical trial assessing the effectiveness and safety of these 2 operative techniques.
Methods:
Two hundred seventeen patients were randomized at 4 bariatric centers in Switzerland. One hundred seven patients underwent LSG using a 35-F bougie with suturing of the stapler line, and 110 patients underwent LRYGB with a 150-cm antecolic alimentary and a 50-cm biliopancreatic limb. The mean body mass index of all patients was 44 ± 11.1 kg/m2, the mean age was 43 ± 5.3 years, and 72% were female.
Results:
The 2 groups were similar in terms of body mass index, age, sex, comorbidities, and eating behavior. The mean operative time was less for LSG than for LRYGB (87 ± 52.3 minutes vs 108 ± 42.3 minutes; P = 0.003). The conversion rate was 0.9% in both groups. Complications (<30 days) occurred more often in LRYGB than in LSG (17.2% vs 8.4%; P = 0.067). However, the difference in severe complications did not reach statistical significance (4.5% for LRYGB vs 1% for LSG; P = 0.21). Excessive body mass index loss 1 year after the operation was similar between the 2 groups (72.3% ± 22% for LSG and 76.6% ± 21% for LRYGB; P = 0.2). Except for gastroesophageal reflux disease, which showed a higher resolution rate after LRYGB, the comorbidities and quality of life were significantly improved after both procedures.
Conclusions:
LSG was associated with shorter operation time and a trend toward fewer complications than with LRYGB. Both procedures were almost equally efficient regarding weight loss, improvement of comorbidities, and quality of life 1 year after surgery. Long-term follow-up data are needed to confirm these facts.
doi:10.1097/SLA.0b013e3182a67426
PMCID: PMC3888472  PMID: 23989054
comorbidities; gastric bypass; perioperative complications; randomized clinical trial; sleeve gastrectomy
20.  Bariatric Surgery Significantly Improves Body Proportion 
The Ochsner Journal  2012;12(1):42-44.
Background
It is well known that bariatric surgery provides excellent weight loss and resolution of comorbid conditions. We propose an additional benefit: Because body proportion is an independent predictor of diabetes and cardiovascular risk, we hypothesize that bariatric surgery results in improved body proportion and may thus improve health risk independent of overall weight loss and resolution of comorbid conditions.
Methods
A total of 168 patients underwent laparoscopic bariatric surgery at our institution from December 2006 to September 2009. Prospective data gathered preoperatively and at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively included body mass index (BMI); excess weight loss (EWL); waist-hip ratio (WHR); and discontinuation of hypertensive, hyperlipidemic, and diabetic medications.
Results
Of the 168 patients, 122 underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, 40 gastric band, and 6 gastric sleeve procedures. Mean preoperative BMI was 48.6 kg/m2 (SD  =  7.8 kg/m2). Mean EWL was 33.7 lbs (SD  =  11.9 lbs) at 3 months, 46.35 lbs (SD  =  15.58 lbs) at 6 months, and 52.48 lbs (SD  =  24.19 lbs) at 1 year. Mean WHR was 0.91 (SD  =  0.1) preoperatively, 0.87 (SD  =  0.1) at 3 months (P < .0001), 0.87 (SD  =  0.09) at 6 months (P < .0001), and 0.86 (SD  =  0.1) at 1 year (P  =  .0006). At 1-year follow-up, 52% of patients had discontinued hypertensive medications, 64% had discontinued diabetic medications, and 56% had discontinued hyperlipidemic medications.
Conclusions
Along with well-known improvements in overall weight and comorbid conditions, bariatric surgery significantly improves body proportion, which may decrease health risk. Continued follow-up will determine if this change is long term or if patients will revert to preoperative WHRs. Future studies with sufficient power to study individual bariatric procedures will determine which procedures, if any, provide patients with the greatest improvement in WHR and if inferior WHR results are associated with cardiovascular events.
PMCID: PMC3307505  PMID: 22438781
Bariatric surgery; body mass index; waist-hip ratio
21.  Twelve year experience of laparoscopic gastric plication in morbid obesity: development of the technique and patient outcomes 
Background
Laparoscopic Gastric Plication (LGP) is a new restrictive bariatric surgery, previously introduced by the author. The aim of this study is to explain the modifications and to present the 12-year experience, regarding early and long term results, complications and cost.
Methods
We used LGP for morbid obesity during the past 12 years. Anterior plication (10 cases), one-row bilateral plication while right gastroepiploic artery included (42 cases), and excluded from the plication (104 cases) and two-row plication (644 cases). The gastric greater curvature was plicated using 2/0 prolen from fundus at the level of diaphragm preserving the His angle to just proximal to the pylorus. The anatomic and functional volume of stomach was 50cc and 25cc respectively in two-row method. Ordered postop visits also included evaluation of weight loss, complications, change of diet and control of exercise.
Results
LGP was performed in 800 cases (mean age: 27.5, range: 12 to 65 years, nine under 18). Female to male ratio was 81% to 19% and average BMI was 42.1 (35-59). The mean excess weight loss (EWL) was 70% (40% to 100%) after 24 months and 55% (28% to 100%) after 5 years following surgery. 134 cases (16.7%) did not completed long term follow-up. The average time of follow up was 5 years (1 month to 12 years). 5.5% and 31% of cases complained from weight regain respectively during 4 and 12 years after LGP. The mean time of operation was 72 (49–152) minutes and average hospitalization time was 72 hours (24 hours to 45 days). The cost of operation was 2000 $ less than gastric banding or sleeve and 2500 $ less than gastric bypass. Eight patients out of 800 cases (1%) required reoperation due to complications like: micro perforation, obstruction and vomiting following adhesion of His angle. Other complications included hepatitis pneumonia, self-limiting intra-abdominal bleeding and hypocalcaemia.
Conclusion
The percentage of EWL in this technique is comparable to other restrictive methods. The technique is safe with 1.6% complication (1% reoperated), and 31% regain during 12 years. The cost of operation is less than the other methods.
doi:10.1186/1750-1164-6-7
PMCID: PMC3444326  PMID: 22913751
Morbid obesity; Laparoscopy; Gastric plication; Restriction
22.  Nutritional optic neuropathy following bariatric surgery 
Bariatric procedures, associated with gastrointestinal malabsorption of vitamins and microelements, may constitute a risk factor for nutritional optic neuropathy (NON). We present a case of a 34-year-old female patient who developed bilateral NON after sleeve gastrectomy. Despite postoperative ophthalmological supervision, 10 months after the procedure the woman presented with a bilateral decrease in visual acuity down to 0.8, bilateral visual field loss and abnormal visual evoked potential recordings. Laboratory abnormalities included decreased serum concentration of vitamin B12 (161 pg/ml). Treatment was based on intramuscular injections of vitamin B12 (1000 units per day). After 1 week of the treatment, we observed more than a three-fold increase in the serum concentration of vitamin B12 and resolution of the bilateral symptoms of NON. The incidence of NON is likely to increase due to the growing number of these bariatric procedures performed worldwide. Therefore, all persons subjected to such surgery should receive long-term ophthalmological follow-up and supplementation with vitamins and microelements.
doi:10.5114/wiitm.2014.47262
PMCID: PMC4280430  PMID: 25562012
nutritional optic neuropathy; sleeve gastrectomy; vitamin B12 deficiency
23.  Impact of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy on body mass index, ghrelin, insulin and lipid levels in 100 obese patients 
Introduction
A high percentage of patients benefit from bariatric procedures in terms of metabolic effect and substantial body mass reduction. These procedures improve glucose metabolism leading to the amelioration or complete resolution of type 2 diabetes, reduction of insulin resistance and alleviation of metabolic syndrome effects.
Aim
To assess the impact of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) on the plasma levels of ghrelin, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) fractions as well as aspartate and alanine transaminases in patients with obesity.
Material and methods
One hundred patients who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in our centre between 2005 and 2009 were included in the study. Among them were 48 males with an average age of 47.93 ±9.24 years and 52 females with an average age of 44.19 ±9.33 years. Percentage excess weight loss (%EWL), percentage excess body mass index (BMI) loss (%EBL), ghrelin, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, alanine transferase (ALT), and asparagine transferase (AST) were measured preoperatively and on the 7th day then 1, 3 and 6 months after the surgery.
Results
Statistically significant reduction in postoperative BMI, plasma levels of glucose and insulin as well as the homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA IR) score was noted in comparison to the preoperative values. The ghrelin levels decreased. Lipid profile, AST and ALT levels varied depending on the particular time points.
Conclusions
Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy reduces body mass and leads to the decrease of concentration of ghrelin in plasma as well as to the improvement of metabolism of insulin, glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides. The above changes alleviated symptoms of metabolic syndrome and obesity related co-morbidities.
doi:10.5114/wiitm.2011.28979
PMCID: PMC3557740  PMID: 23362424
obesity; sleeve gastrectomy; ghrelin; insulin; glucose and lipid homeostasis; metabolic syndrome
24.  The Gastric Sleeve: Losing Weight as Fast as Micronutrients? 
Obesity Surgery  2010;21(2):207-211.
Background
Recently, the laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has become popular as a single-stage procedure for the treatment of morbid obesity and its co-morbidities. However, the incidence of micronutrient deficiencies after LSG have hardly been researched.
Methods
From January 2005 to October 2008, 60 patients underwent LSG. All patients were instructed to take daily vitamin supplements. Patients were tested for micronutrient deficiencies 6 and 12 months after surgery.
Results
Anemia was diagnosed in 14 (26%) patients. Iron, folic acid, and vitamin B12 deficiency was found in 23 (43%), eight (15%), and five (9%) patients, respectively. Vitamin D and albumin deficiency was diagnosed in 21 (39%) and eight (15%) patients. Hypervitaminosis A, B1, and B6 were diagnosed in 26 (48%), 17 (31%), and 13 (30%) patients, respectively.
Conclusions
Due to inadequate intake and uptake of micronutrients, patients who underwent LSG are at serious risk for developing micronutrient deficiencies. Moreover, some vitamins seem to increase to chronic elevated levels with possible complications in the long-term. Multivitamins and calcium tablets should be regarded only as a minimum and supplements especially for iron, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and calcium should be added to this regimen based on regular blood testing.
doi:10.1007/s11695-010-0316-7
PMCID: PMC3021197  PMID: 21088925
Gastric sleeve; LSG; Anemia; Micronutrients; Deficiency; Hypervitaminosis; Iron; Calcium; Folate; Vitamin A; Vitamin B1; Vitamin B6; Vitamin B12; Vitamin D
25.  Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy Versus Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding for the Treatment Severe Obesity in High Risk Patients 
Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy was found to improve short-term total weight loss; however, it was associated with prolonged operative time, blood loss, and hospital stay compared with laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding.
Background:
Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has emerged as an alternative restrictive bariatric procedure to the most popular laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). We analyze and compare the clinical and weight loss outcomes of LSG versus LAGB for the treatment of severe obesity in high-risk patients.
Methods:
Forty severely obese veterans (20/group) received either LSG or LAGB and were followed prospectively for 2 years. Outcome measures included operating room (OR) time, estimated blood loss (EBL), length of hospital stay (LOS), morbidity, mortality, reoperations, readmission rates, and weight loss over time.
Results:
The cohort primarily comprised high-risk and older male veterans. Patient's baseline demographics were similar between groups. LSG was associated with prolonged OR time (116±31 vs. 94±28min), higher EBL (34±28 vs. 17±19mL), and LOS (2±.9 vs. 1±.4days) when compared with LAGB. Minor morbidity and readmissions were similar between groups, while no major morbidity, reoperations, or mortality occurred. Total weight and BMI decreased significantly after surgery in both groups (LSG: 302±52 to 237lbs and 45±5 to 36±5kg/m2 vs. LAGB: 280±36 to 231±29lbs and 43±5 to 36±5kg/m2, respectively). Total weight loss was superior in the LSG vs. LAGB group at 2 years (TWL=65±24 vs. 49±28 lbs (P=.03); %EWL=51±20 vs. 46±23%; %EBMI loss=48±22 vs. 45±23%, and %BWL = 21±8 vs. 17±9%, respectively).
Conclusion:
In severely obese and high-risk patients, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy provides superior total weight loss at 2 years.
doi:10.4293/108680811X13176
PMCID: PMC3340957  PMID: 22643503
Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy; Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding; Severe obesity; Outcomes; Weight loss

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