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1.  How do we manage post-OLT redundant bile duct? 
AIM: To address endoscopic outcomes of post-Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) patients diagnosed with a “redundant bile duct” (RBD).
METHODS: Medical records of patients who underwent OLT at the Liver Transplant Center, University Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio Texas were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with suspected biliary tract complications (BTC) underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). All ERCP were performed by experienced biliary endoscopist. RBD was defined as a looped, sigmoid-shaped bile duct on cholangiogram with associated cholestatic liver biomarkers. Patients with biliary T-tube placement, biliary anastomotic strictures, bile leaks, bile-duct stones-sludge and suspected sphincter of oddi dysfunction were excluded. Therapy included single or multiple biliary stents with or without sphincterotomy. The incidence of RBD, the number of ERCP corrective sessions, and the type of endoscopic interventions were recorded. Successful response to endoscopic therapy was defined as resolution of RBD with normalization of associated cholestasis. Laboratory data and pertinent radiographic imaging noted included the pre-ERCP period and a follow up period of 6-12 mo after the last ERCP intervention.
RESULTS: One thousand two hundred and eighty-two patient records who received OLT from 1992 through 2011 were reviewed. Two hundred and twenty-four patients underwent ERCP for suspected BTC. RBD was reported in each of the initial cholangiograms. Twenty-one out of 1282 (1.6%) were identified as having RBD. There were 12 men and 9 women, average age of 59.6 years. Primary indication for ERCP was cholestatic pattern of liver associated biomarkers. Nineteen out of 21 patients underwent endoscopic therapy and 2/21 required immediate surgical intervention. In the endoscopically managed group: 65 ERCP procedures were performed with an average of 3.4 per patient and 1.1 stent per session. Fifteen out of 19 (78.9%) patients were successfully managed with biliary stenting. All stents were plastic. Selection of stent size and length were based upon endoscopist preference. Stent size ranged from 7 to 11.5 Fr (average stent size 10 Fr); Stent length ranged from 6 to 15 cm (average length 9 cm). Concurrent biliary sphincterotomy was performed in 10/19 patients. Single ERCP session was sufficient in 6/15 (40.0%) patients, whereas 4/15 (26.7%) patients needed two ERCP sessions and 5/15 (33.3%) patients required more than two (average of 5.4 ERCP procedures). Single biliary stent was sufficient in 5 patients; the remaining patients required an average of 4.9 stents. Four out of 19 (21.1%) patients failed endotherapy (lack of resolution of RBD and recurrent cholestasis in the absence of biliary stent) and required either choledocojejunostomy (2/4) or percutaneous biliary drainage (2/4). Endoscopic complications included: 2/65 (3%) post-ERCP pancreatitis and 2/10 (20%) non-complicated post-sphincterotomy bleeding. No endoscopic related mortality was found. The medical records of the 15 successful endoscopically managed patients were reviewed for a period of one year after removal of all biliary stents. Eleven patients had continued resolution of cholestatic biomarkers (73%). One patient had recurrent hepatitis C, 2 patients suffered septic shock which was not associated with ERCP and 1 patient was transferred care to an outside provider and records were not available for our review.
CONCLUSION: Although surgical biliary reconstruction techniques have improved, RBD represents a post-OLT complication. This entity is rare however, endoscopic management of RBD represents a reasonable initial approach.
PMCID: PMC3646140  PMID: 23674851
Redundant bile duct; Orthotopic liver transplantation; Biliary complications; Biliary stent; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
2.  Biliary Stricture after Adult Right-Lobe Living-Donor Liver Transplantation with Duct-to-Duct Anastomosis: Long-Term Outcome and Its Related Factors after Endoscopic Treatment 
Gut and Liver  2010;4(2):226-233.
Biliary stricture is the most common and important complication after right-lobe living-donor liver transplantation (RL-LDLT) with duct-to-duct biliary anastomosis. This study evaluated the efficacy and long-term outcome of endoscopic treatment for biliary stricture after LDLT, with the aim of identifying the factors that influence the outcome.
Three hundred and thirty-nine adults received RL-LDLTs with duct-to-duct biliary anastomosis between January 2000 and May 2008 at Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) was performed in 113 patients who had biliary stricture after LDLT. We evaluated the incidence of post-LDLT biliary stricture and the long-term outcome of endoscopic treatment for biliary stricture. The factors related to the outcome were analyzed.
Biliary strictures developed in 121 (35.7%) patients, 95 (78.5%) of them within 1 year of surgery. The mean number of ERCs performed per patient was 3.2 (range, 1 to 11). The serum biochemical markers decreased significantly after ERC (p<0.001). Stent insertion or stricture dilatation during ERC was successful in 90 (79.6%) patients. After a median follow-up period of 33 months from the first successful treatment with ERC, 48 (42.5%) patients achieved treatment success and 12 (10.6%) patients remained under treatment. The factors related to the outcome of endoscopic treatment were nonanastomotic stricture and stenosis of the hepatic artery (p=0.016).
Endoscopic treatment is efficacious and has an acceptable long-term outcome in the management of biliary strictures related to RL-LDLT with duct-to-duct biliary anastomosis. Nonanastomotic stricture and stenosis of the hepatic artery are correlated with a worse outcome of endoscopic treatment.
PMCID: PMC2886928  PMID: 20559526
Biliary stenting; Biliary stricture; Duct-to-duct biliary anastomosis; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography; Liver transplantation
3.  The Heineke-Mikulicz Principle for Hepaticojejunostomy Stricture 
Case Reports in Surgery  2012;2012:454975.
Benign anastomotic stricture after hepaticojejunostomy is one of the serious complications of biliary surgery. If left untreated, jaundice, cholangitis, or cirrhosis may develop. A 58-year-old male patient was admitted with benign hepaticojejunostomy stricture. The patient initially underwent an endoscopic retrograde cholangiography using double-balloon enteroscope, which was unsuccessful due to the sharp angle between the jejunal limb and the biliary tree. It was decided to perform surgery. During the operation, we performed Heineke-Mikulicz strictureplasty to the narrowed anastomosis. Patient's postoperative course was uneventful. At the end of followup, for 18 months, his liver enzymes were within normal ranges, and the ultrasound examination showed a patent hepaticojejunostomy anastomosis. The simplicity of the technique and the promising result support the applicability of the Heineke-Mikulicz principle in suitable cases as an alternative treatment approach for hepaticojejunostomy strictures.
PMCID: PMC3420084  PMID: 22919532
4.  Postoperative biliary adverse events following orthotopic liver transplantation: Assessment with magnetic resonance cholangiography 
World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG  2014;20(32):11080-11094.
Biliary adverse events following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) are relatively common and continue to be serious causes of morbidity, mortality, and transplant dysfunction or failure. The development of these adverse events is heavily influenced by the type of anastomosis during surgery. The low specificity of clinical and biologic findings makes the diagnosis challenging. Moreover, direct cholangiographic procedures such as endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography present an inadmissible rate of adverse events to be utilized in clinically low suspected patients. Magnetic resonance (MR) maging with MR cholangiopancreatography is crucial in assessing abnormalities in the biliary system after liver surgery, including liver transplant. MR cholangiopancreatography is a safe, rapid, non-invasive, and effective diagnostic procedure for the evaluation of biliary adverse events after liver transplantation, since it plays an increasingly important role in the diagnosis and management of these events. On the basis of a recent systematic review of the literature the summary estimates of sensitivity and specificity of MR cholangiopancreatography for diagnosis of biliary adverse events following OLT were 0.95 and 0.92, respectively. It can provide a non-invasive method of imaging surgical reconstruction of the biliary anastomoses as well as adverse events including anastomotic and non-anastomotic strictures, biliary lithiasis and sphincter of Oddi dysfunction in liver transplant recipients. Nevertheless, conventional T2-weighted MR cholangiography can be implemented with T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MR cholangiography using hepatobiliary contrast agents (in particular using Gd-EOB-DTPA) in order to improve the diagnostic accuracy in the adverse events’ detection such as bile leakage and strictures, especially in selected patients with biliary-enteric anastomosis.
PMCID: PMC4145751  PMID: 25170197
Liver transplantation; Bile ducts; Biliary adverse events; Magnetic resonance cholangiography; Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography
5.  Biliary cysts: Etiology, diagnosis and management 
Biliary cysts (BC) are rare dilatations of different parts of a biliary tract. They account for approximately 1% of all benign biliary diseases. BC occur the most frequently in Asian and female populations. They are an important problem for pediatricians, gastroenterologists, radiologists and surgeons. Clinical presentation and management depend on the BC type. Cholangiocarcinoma is the most serious and dangerous BC complication. The other complications associated with BC involve cholelithiasis and hepatolithiasis, cholangitis, acute and chronic pancreatitis, portal hypertension, liver fibrosis and secondary liver cirrhosis and spontaneous cyst perforation. Different BC classifications have been described in the literature. Todani classification dividing BC into five types is the most useful in clinical practice. The early diagnosis and proper treatment are very important, because BC are associated with a risk of carcinogenesis. A malignancy risk increases with the age. Radiological investigations (ultrasonography, computed tomography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography) play an important role in BC diagnostics. Currently, prenatal diagnosis using ultrasonography is possible. It allows to differentiate biliary disorders in fetals and to perform the early surgical treatment that improves results. In most patients, total cyst excision with Roux-Y hepaticojejunostomy is the treatment of choice. Surgical treatment of BC is associated with high success rate and low morbidity and mortality. The early treatment is associated with a lower number of complications. Patients following BC surgery require permanent and careful postoperative observation using laboratory and imaging investigations because of possibility of biliary anastomosis stricture and biliary cancer in tissue remnant.
PMCID: PMC3447264  PMID: 23002354
Biliary cysts; Biliary drainage; Hepaticojejunostomy
6.  Temporary Placement of Stent Grafts in Postsurgical Benign Biliary Strictures: a Single Center Experience 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2011;12(6):708-713.
To evaluate the effect of temporary stent graft placement in the treatment of benign anastomotic biliary strictures.
Materials and Methods
Nine patients, five women and four men, 22-64 years old (mean, 47.5 years), with chronic benign biliary anastomotic strictures, refractory to repeated balloon dilations, were treated by prolonged, temporary placement of stent-grafts. Four patients had strictures following a liver transplantation; three of them in bilio-enteric anastomoses and one in a choledocho-choledochostomy. Four of the other five patients had strictures at bilio-enteric anastomoses, which developed after complications following laparoscopic cholecystectomies and in one after a Whipple procedure for duodenal carcinoma. In eight patients, balloon-expandable stent-grafts were placed and one patient was treated by insertion of a self-expanding stent-graft.
In the transplant group, treatment of patients with bilio-enteric anastomoses was unsuccessful (mean stent duration, 30 days). The patient treated for stenosis in the choledocho-choledochostomy responded well to consecutive self-expanding stent-graft placement (total placement duration, 112 days). All patients with bilio-enteric anastomoses in the non-transplant group were treated successfully with stent-grafts (mean placement duration, 37 days).
Treatment of benign biliary strictures with temporary placement of stent-grafts has a positive effect, but is less successful in patients with strictures developed following a liver transplant.
PMCID: PMC3194775  PMID: 22043153
Biliary anastomotic stricture; Benign stricture; Liver transplant
7.  Endoscopic management of biliary strictures after liver transplantation 
Bile duct strictures remain a major source of morbidity after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Biliary strictures are classified as anastomotic or non-anastomotic strictures according to location and are defined by distinct clinical behaviors. Anastomotic strictures are localized and short. The outcome of endoscopic treatment for anastomotic strictures is excellent. Non-anastomotic strictures often result from ischemic and immunological events, occur earlier and are usually multiple and longer. They are characterized by a far less favorable response to endoscopic management, higher recurrence rates, graft loss and need for retransplantation. Living donor OLT patients present a unique set of challenges arising from technical factors, and stricture risk for both recipients and donors. Endoscopic treatment of living donor OLT patients is less promising. Current endoscopic strategies for biliary strictures after OLT include repeated balloon dilations and placement of multiple side-by-side plastic stents. Lifelong surveillance is required in all types of strictures. Despite improvements in incidence and long term outcomes with endoscopic management, and a reduced need for surgical treatment, the impact of strictures on patients after OLT is significant. Future considerations include new endoscopic technologies and improved stents, which could potentially allow for a decreased number of interventions, increased intervals before retreatment, and decreased reliance on percutaneous and surgical modalities. This review focuses on the role of endoscopy in biliary strictures, one of the most common biliary complications after OLT.
PMCID: PMC2726449  PMID: 19673012
Anastomotic strictures; Bile duct diseases; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Orthotopic liver transplantation; Surgical anastomosis
8.  Percutaneous Transhepatic Balloon Dilation of Biliary-Enteric Anastomotic Strictures after Surgical Repair of Iatrogenic Bile Duct Injuries 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(10):e46478.
To evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous balloon dilation of biliary-enteric anastomotic strictures resulting from surgical repair of laparoscopic cholecystectomy-related bile duct injuries.
Material and Methods
A total of 61 patients were referred to our institution from 1995 to 2010 for treatment of obstruction at the biliary-enteric anastomosis following surgical repair of laparoscopic cholecystectomy-related bile duct injuries. Of these 61 patients, 27 underwent surgical revision upon stricture diagnosis, and 34 patients were managed using balloon dilation. Of these 34 patients, 2 were lost to follow up, leaving 32 patients for analysis. The primary study objective was to determine the clinical success rate of balloon dilation of biliary-enteric anastomotic strictures. Secondary study objectives included determining anastomosis patency, rates of stricture recurrence following treatment, and morbidity.
Balloon dilation of biliary-enteric anastomotic strictures was clinically successful in 21 of 32 patients (66%). Anastomotic stricture recurred in one of 21 patients (5%) after an average of 13.1 years of follow-up. Patients who were unsuccessfully managed with balloon dilation required significantly more invasive procedures (6.8 v. 3.4; p = 0.02) and were left with an indwelling biliary catheter for a significantly longer period of time (8.8 v. 2.0 months; p = 0.02) than patients whose strictures could be resolved by balloon dilation. No significant differences in the number of balloon dilations performed (p = 0.17) or in the maximum balloon diameter used (p = 0.99) were demonstrated for patients with successful or unsuccessful balloon dilation outcomes.
Percutaneous balloon dilation of anastomotic biliary strictures following surgical repair of laparoscopic cholecystectomy-related injuries may result in lasting patency of the biliary-enteric anastomosis.
PMCID: PMC3482176  PMID: 23110053
9.  Endoscopic management of biliary complications following liver transplantation after donation from cardiac death donors 
Previous studies have shown a higher incidence of biliary complications following donation after cardiac death (DCD) liver transplantation compared with donation after brain death (DBD) liver transplantation. The endoscopic management of ischemic type biliary strictures in patients who have undergone DCD liver transplants needs to be characterized further.
A retrospective institutional review of all patients who underwent DCD liver transplant from January 2006 to September 2011 was performed. These patients were compared with all patients who underwent DBD liver transplantation in the same time period. A descriptive analysis of all DCD patients who developed biliary complications and their subsequent endoscopic management was also performed.
Of the 36 patients who received DCD liver transplants, 25% developed biliary complications compared with 13% of patients who received DBD liver transplants (P=0.062). All DCD allograft recipients who developed biliary complications became symptomatic within three months of transplantation. Ischemic type biliary strictures in DCD allograft recipients included disseminated biliary strictures in two patients, biliary strictures of the hepatic duct bifurcation in three patients and biliary strictures of the donor common hepatic duct in three patients.
There was a trend toward increasing incidence of total biliary complications in recipients of DCD liver allografts compared with those receiving DBD livers, and the rate of diffuse ischemic cholangiopathy was significantly higher. Focal ischemic type biliary strictures can be treated effectively in DCD liver transplant recipients with favourable results. Diffuse ischemic type biliary strictures in DCD liver transplant recipients ultimately requires retransplantation.
PMCID: PMC3441167  PMID: 22993731
Donation after cardiac death; ERCP; Ischemic cholangiopathy; Ischemic type biliary strictures; Stenting; Warm ischemia time
10.  End-to-end ductal anastomosis in biliary reconstruction: indications and limitations 
Canadian Journal of Surgery  2014;57(4):271-277.
End-to-end ductal anastomosis is a physiologic biliary reconstruction that is commonly used in liver transplantation and less frequently in the surgical treatment of iatrogenic bile duct injuries. Currently, end-to-end ductal anastomosis is the biliary reconstruction of choice for liver transplantation in most adult patients. In recent years, it has also been performed for liver transplantation in children and in select patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. The procedure is also performed in some patients with iatrogenic bile duct injuries, as it establishes physiologic bile flow. Proper digestion and absorption as well as postoperative endoscopic access are possible in patients who undergo end-to-end ductal anastomosis. It allows endoscopic diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in patients following surgery. This anastomosis is technically simple and associated with fewer early postoperative complications than the Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy; however, end-to-end ductal anastomosis is not possible to perform in all patients. This review discusses the indications for and limitations of this biliary reconstruction, the technique used in liver transplantation and surgical repair of injured bile ducts, suture types and use of a T-tube.
PMCID: PMC4119121  PMID: 25078933
11.  Endoscopic and retrograde cholangiographic appearance of hepaticojejunostomy strictures: A practical classification 
AIM: To study the endoscopic and radiological characteristics of patients with hepaticojejunostomy (HJ) and propose a practical HJ stricture classification.
METHODS: In a retrospective observational study, a balloon-assisted enteroscopy (BAE)-endoscopic retrograde cholangiography was performed 44 times in 32 patients with surgically-altered gastrointestinal (GI) anatomy. BAE-endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography (ERCP) was performed 23 times in 18 patients with HJ. The HJ was carefully studied with the endoscope and using cholangiography.
RESULTS: The authors observed that the hepaticojejunostomies have characteristics that may allow these to be classified based on endoscopic and cholangiographic appearances: the HJ orifice aspect may appear as small (type A) or large (type B) and the stricture may be short (type 1), long (type 2) and type 3, intrahepatic biliary strictures not associated with anastomotic stenosis. In total, 7 patients had type A1, 4 patients A2, one patient had B1, one patient had B (large orifice without stenosis) and one patient had type B3.
CONCLUSION: This practical classification allows for an accurate initial assessment of the HJ, thus potentially allowing for adequate therapeutic planning, as the shape, length and complexity of the HJ and biliary tree choice may mandate the type of diagnostic and therapeutic accessories to be used. Of additional importance, a standardized classification may allow for better comparison of studies of patients undergoing BAE-ERCP in the setting of altered upper GI anatomy.
PMCID: PMC3221953  PMID: 22110837
Endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography; Roux en Y anastomosis; Hepaticojejunostomy; Biliary strictures; Bile duct strictures; Double balloon enteroscopy
12.  Biliary Strictures after Liver Transplantation 
Gut and Liver  2011;5(2):133-142.
Biliary strictures are one of the most common complications following liver transplantation, representing an important cause of morbidity and mortality in transplant recipients. The reported incidence of biliary stricture is 5% to 15% following deceased donor liver transplantations and 28% to 32% following living donor liver transplantations. Bile duct strictures following liver transplantation are easily and conveniently classified as anastomotic strictures (AS) or non-anastomotic strictures (NAS). NAS are characterized by a far less favorable response to endoscopic management, higher recurrence rates, graft loss and the need for retransplantation. Current endoscopic strategies to correct biliary strictures following liver transplantation include repeated balloon dilatations and the placement of multiple side-by-side plastic stents. Endoscopic balloon dilatation with stent placement is successful in the majority of AS patients. In patients for whom gaining biliary access is technically difficult, a combined endoscopic and percutaneous/surgical approach proves quite useful. Future directions, including novel endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography techniques, advanced endoscopy, and improved stents could allow for a decreased number of interventions, increased intervals before retreatment, and decreased reliance on percutaneous and surgical modalities. The aim of this review is to detail the present status of endoscopy in the diagnosis, treatment, outcome, and future directions of biliary strictures related to orthotopic liver transplantation from the viewpoint of a clinical gastroenterologists.
PMCID: PMC3140656  PMID: 21814591
Liver transplantation; Anastomotic strictures; Bile duct diseases; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
13.  ‘Short’ double-balloon enteroscope for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with a surgically altered upper gastrointestinal tract 
The use of endoscopic instruments other than the standard duodenoscope to access anatomical landmarks of the small bowel for certain procedures such as endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography have met with limited success. The double-balloon enteroscope (DBE), however, has revolutionized the ability to access the small bowel, with indications for its use expanding. The DBE has been shown to be safe, effective and less invasive in patients with surgically altered upper gastrointestinal tracts compared with percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography or surgery. This article describes a retrospective review of 20 patients with previous small bowel reconstruction who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography using a ‘short’ DBE at a major health sciences centre in Toronto, Ontario.
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) remains a challenge for endoscopists in patients with surgically altered anatomy of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Double-balloon enteroscopes (DBEs) have revolutionized the ability to access the small bowel. The indication for its therapeutic use is expanding to include ERCP for patients who have undergone small bowel reconstruction. Most of the published experiences in DBE-assisted ERCP have used conventional double-balloon enteroscopes that are 200 cm in length, which do not permit use of the standard ERCP accessories. The authors report their experience with DBE-assisted ERCP using a ‘short’ DBE in patients with surgically altered anatomy.
A retrospective review of patients with previous small bowel reconstruction who underwent ERCP with a ‘short’ DBE at the Centre for Therapeutic Endoscopy and Endoscopic Oncology (Toronto, Ontario) between February 2007 and November 2008 was performed.
A total of 20 patients (10 men) with a mean age of 57.9 years (range 26 to 85 years) underwent 29 sessions of ERCP with a DBE. Six patients underwent Billroth II gastroenterostomy, seven patients Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy, five patients Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy, one patient Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy and one patient a Whipple’s operation with choledochojejunostomy. Some patients (n=12 [60%]) underwent previous attempts at ERCP in which the papilla of Vater or bilioenteric anastomosis could not be reached with either a duodenoscope or pediatric colonoscope. All procedures were performed with a commercially available DBE (working length 152 cm, distal end diameter 9.4 mm, channel diameter 2.8 mm). The procedures were performed under conscious sedation with intravenous midazolam, fentanyl and diazepam, except in one patient in whom general anesthesia was administered. Either the papilla of Vater or bilioenteric anastomosis was reached in 25 of 29 cases (86.2%) in a mean duration of 20.8 min (range 5 min to 82 min). Bile duct cannulation was successful in 24 of 25 cases in which the papilla or bilioenteric anastomosis was reached. Therapeutic interventions were successful in 15 patients (24 procedures) including sphincterotomy (n=7), stone extraction (n=9), biliary dilation (n=8), stent placement (n=9) and stent removal (n=8). The mean total duration of the procedures was 70.7 min (range 30 min to 117 min). There were no procedure-related complications.
DBEs enable successful diagnostic and therapeutic ERCP in patients with a surgically altered anatomy of the upper gastrointestinal tract. It is a safe, feasible and less invasive therapeutic option in this group of patients. Standard ‘long’ DBEs have limitations of long working length and the need for modified ERCP accessories. ‘Short’ DBEs are equally as effective in reaching the target limb as standard ‘long’ DBEs, and overcomes some limitations of long DBEs to result in high success rates for endoscopic therapy.
PMCID: PMC3222771  PMID: 22059169
Double-balloon enteroscope; ERCP; Surgically altered upper gastrointestinal tract
14.  Surgical Treatment of Coledochal Cyst Associated with an Aberrant Posterior Hepatic Duct: Report of a Case and Brief Literature Review 
Choledochal cysts (CCs) are rare congenital cystic or fusiform dilatations of the biliary tree that can involve the extrahepatic and/or intrahepatic biliary tree. We report a case of huge type I CC associated with an aberrant posterior hepatic duct. A 52-year-old man presented with a 3-week history of upper right abdominal pain and jaundice and serologic sign of obstructive jaundice. Ultrasonography (US), magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography were performed with the diagnosis of CC type I according to the classification of Alonso-Lej and Todani-Watanabe. The indication for surgical resection was posed. The cyst was completely resected and the biliary tract was reconstructed with a double hepatico-jejunostomy using the same Roux limb, since during the surgical dissection a before unrecognized anatomical variation of the right biliary tree (aberrant posterior hepatic duct at VI–VII segment) was identified. The diagnosis of CC is often difficult and US and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography are necessary to definite biliary dilatation. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography should be the most definitive and reliable procedure for the diagnosis and treatment of bilio-pancreatic disorders. Gold standard treatment is surgery (bilio-jejunostomy) and frozen-section histology should be performed to rule out the presence of cancer. In conclusion, surgery is the gold standard for the treatment of CC type I and does not depend on the age of patients, based on a substantial lifetime risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma. Preoperative study is mandatory to assess the biliary tree morphology and to research any anatomical variation.
PMCID: PMC3082482  PMID: 21537364
Choledochal cyst; Surgery; Bilio-jejunostomy
15.  Choledochal cyst: A review of 79 cases and the role of hepaticodochoduodenostomy 
To analyze our experience of choledochal cysts. The results of complete excision of cyst and hepaticodochoduodenostomy have been analyzed in particular.
Material and Methods:
Period of study: January 1993 to August 2010. Apart from basic investigations, we did ultrasonography (USG) of abdomen, contrast-enhanced computerized axial tomography scan (CECT), endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), operative cholangiogram, hepatic isotope scan (HIDA), magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatogram (MRCP) and choledochoscopy. The patients were divided into six groups according to the management done and the results analyzed.
The total number of cases was 79 (Male : Female = 26 : 53). The mean age of presentationwas 5.18 years. The most common mode of presentation was abdominal pain in 86% cases. Types of cysts - Type I: 63; Type IV: 12; Forme fruste: 1; Caroli's disease: 1; Cyst with atresia in the lower end of common bile duct: 2. Two patients of group A (cyst excision and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy) had recurrent pain and cholangitis. One patient required revision for stricture. In group E (n=53) (excision of cyst and hepaticodochoduodenostomy), three patients developed occasional epigastric pain and they responded to omeprazole. One patient developed anastomotic stricture and was lost to follow up. One patient of cyst with biliary atresia with biliary cirrhosis died.
In choledochal cyst, complete excision of cyst and good bilioenteric anastomosis with wide stoma should be done. Hepaticodochoduodenostomy with wide stoma is a simple, quick procedure with preservation of normal anatomy and physiology and minimum complications. It also avoids multiple intestinal anastomoses and so should be the preferred approach.
PMCID: PMC3119937  PMID: 21731232
Bilioenteric anastomosis; choledochal cyst; choledochoscopy; hepaticodochoduodenostomy; Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy
16.  The use of double balloon enteroscopy for diagnosis and treatment of strictures of hepaticojejunal anastomoses after primary correction of bile duct injuries 
Development of strictures of hepaticojejunal anastomoses (HJA) is observed in 6–30% of patients and mortality after repeated reconstructive interventions ranges from 13% to 25%. Double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) allows one to visualize the zone of Roux-en-Y anastomosis after reconstructive operations on the bile ducts for differentiation between stricture of HJA and recurrent cholangitis.
Report on the first experience of DBE of jejunal loop studies after reconstructive operations on the biliary tract.
Material and methods
During the period 2002–2012 we performed in our centre 86 hepaticojejunostomies after iatrogenic bile duct injuries. Mean age was 51 ±6 years. Patients with Roux-en-Y HJA and jejunum loop with Braun's bypass anastomosis who underwent DBE with endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (DBE-RChG) in our unit between February 2009 and December 2012 were enrolled in this study. A total of 33 procedures were performed during this period. All of them involved examination of HJA through a jejunum loop by DBE with capture of bile for bacteriology, Roux loop wall for biopsy and miniinvasive procedures.
The DBE-RChG after visualization of the HJA zone was performed in 21 cases: 3 of them had the jejunum loop to Braun's bypass, 18 – HJA on the Roux loop. In 13 cases stricture of HJA was confirmed: at 6 reoperations were performed, in 7 – miniinvasive procedures (3 – laser vaporizations, 2 – stone extraction, 1 – lithotripsy, 1 – at the first stage stone extraction was carried out, then laser vaporization). The DBE-RChG was performed in 13 (61.9%) patients. The overall diagnostic success with Braun's bypass was 100%, after Roux-en-Y reconstruction in 10 of 13 cases (55.6%). In connection with accumulation of experience, in 2012 diagnostic success in DBE-RChG of HJA on Roux loop increased to 81.3%.
The MRI-ChG in our series frequently (10.3%) shows a false-positive result in favor of HJA strictures. The DBE examination of HJA with additional cholangiography is a modern and precise method of detection of HJA strictures. Their DBE-balloon dilation and argon-laser vaporization or DBE lithoextraction are new ways of miniinvasive treatment.
PMCID: PMC4105680  PMID: 25097690
double balloon enteroscopy; stricture; hepaticojejunal anastomosis
17.  Iatrogenic Biliary Strictures: Surgical Experience with 39 Patients 
HPB Surgery  1997;10(4):221-227.
The authors report their experience with surgical treatment of 39 patients with biliary strictures of iatrogenic origin. Patients were grouped according to the level of obstruction as described by Bismuth, and the type of repair was based on this classification. A total of 45 operations were performed, including those for recurrent strictures: 22 hepaticojejunostomies, 10 Hepp and Couinad's operations, 6 choledochojejunostomies, 3 separate right and left hepaticojejunostomies, 1 hepaticojejunostomy with mucosal graft (Smith's technique), 1 intrahepatic cholangiojejunostomy (Longmire's technique), 1 choledochoduodenostomy and 1 choledochoplasty. Results were considered good if the patient was free of symptoms, jaundice or episodes of cholangitis, with serum alkaline phosphatase less than two-times the normal value. Minimum follow-up period of two years (obtained in 35 patients) was required to evaluate the results. Good results were obtained in 26 of those 30 patients (87%) who underwent only one biliary reconstruction, and in 3 of those 5 (60%) with more than one repair. Overall, 29 patients (83% of those 35) presented good results. The complexity of the surgical treatment of biliary strictures imposes the adoption of measures to prevent lesions to the bile duct. Factors related to the prognosis that must be emphasized are surgeonsa' individual experience and skills, location of the stricture and diameter of the anastomosis.
PMCID: PMC2423871  PMID: 9184875
18.  Short and long-term outcomes of endoscopic balloon dilatation for Crohn’s disease strictures 
AIM: To investigate the short and long-term outcomes of endoscopic balloon dilatation (EBD) for Crohn’s disease (CD) strictures.
METHODS: Between January 1995 and December 2011, 47 EBD procedures were performed in 30 patients (8 females and 22 males) with CD. All patients had strictures through which an endoscope could not pass, and symptoms of these strictures included abdominal pain, abdominal fullness, nausea, and/or vomiting. The 47 strictures included 17 anastomotic and 30 de novo strictures. Endoscopy and dilatation were performed under conscious sedation with intravenous diazepam or flunitrazepam. The dilatations were all performed using through-the-scope balloons with diameters from 8 mm to 20 mm on inflation and lengths of 30-80 mm. Each dilatation session consisted of two to four, 3-min multistep inflations of the balloon, repeated at intervals of 1 wk until adequate dilatation (up to 15-20 mm in diameter) was achieved. The follow-up data were collected from medical records and analyzed retrospectively. Primary success was defined as passage of the scope through the stricture after EBD. Long-term outcomes were analyzed focusing on intervention-free survival and surgery-free survival demonstrated by the Kaplan-Meier method. (Intervention-free meant cases in which neither endoscopic balloon re-dilatation nor surgery was needed after the first dilatation during the observation period). The log rank test was used to evaluate the difference in long-term outcomes between anastomotic and de novo stricture cases.
RESULTS: Primary success was achieved in 44 of the 47 strictures (93.6%). Balloon dilatations failed in 3 cases (6.4%). In 1 case, EBD was a technical failure because the guide-wire could not be passed through the stricture which showed severe adhesion and was a flexural lesion of the intestine. In 2 cases, unexpected perforations occurred immediately after balloon dilatation. Of the 47 treatments, complications occurred in 5 (10.6%). All 5 patients had de novo strictures. One suffered bleeding, two high fever and there were colorectal perforations. One of the patients with a colorectal perforation was treated surgically, the other was managed conservatively. These 2 cases correspond to the two aforementioned EBD failures. Long-term outcomes were evaluated for the 44 successfully-treated strictures after a median follow-up of 26 mo (range, 2-172 mo). During the observation period, re-strictures after EBDs occurred in 26 cases (60.5%). Fourteen of these 26 re-stricture cases underwent EBD again, but in two EBD failed and surgery was ultimately performed in both cases. Twelve of the 26 re-stricture cases were initially treated surgically when the re-strictures occurred. Finally, 30 of the 47 strictures (63.8%) were successfully managed with EBD, allowing surgery to be avoided. Intervention-free survival evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier method was 75% at 12 mo, 58% at 24 mo, and 43% at 36 mo. There was no significant difference between the anastomotic strictures (n = 16) and de novo strictures (n = 28) in the intervention-free survival as evaluated by the log-rank test. Surgery-free survival evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier method was 90% at 12 mo, 75% at 24 mo, and 53% at 36 mo. The 16 anastomotic strictures were associated with significantly better surgery-free survivals than the 28 de novo strictures (log-rank test: P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Anastomotic strictures were associated with better long-term outcomes than de novo strictures, indicating that stricture type might be useful for predicting the long-term outcomes of EBD.
PMCID: PMC3542755  PMID: 23326167
Crohn’s disease; Endoscopic balloon dilatation; Stricture; Anastomotic; De novo; Outcome
19.  Performance characteristics of magnetic resonance cholangiography in the staging of malignant hilar strictures 
Gut  2000;46(1):103-106.
BACKGROUND—Magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) is currently under investigation for non-invasive biliary tract imaging.
AIM—To compare MRC with endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) for pretreatment evaluation of malignant hilar obstruction.
METHODS—Twenty patients (11 men, nine women; median age 74 years) referred for endoscopic palliation of a hilar obstruction were included. The cause of the hilar obstruction was a cholangiocarcinoma in 15 patients and a hilar compression in five (one hepatocarcinoma, one metastatic breast cancer, one metastatic leiomyoblastoma, two metastatic colon cancers). MRC (T2 turbo spin echo sequences; Siemens Magnetomvision 1.5 T) was performed within 12 hours before ERC, which is considered to be the ideal imaging technique. Tumour location, extension, and type according to Bismuth's classification were determined by the radiologist and endoscopist.
RESULTS—MRC was of diagnostic quality in all but two patients (90%). At ERC, four patients (20%) had type I, seven (35%) had type II, seven (35%) had type III, and two (10%) had type IV strictures. MRC correctly classified 14/18 (78%) patients and underestimated tumour extension in four (22%). Successful endoscopic biliary drainage was achieved in 11/17 attempted stentings (65%), one of which was a combined procedure (endoscopic + percutaneous). One patient had a percutaneous external drain, one had a surgical bypass, and in a third a curative resection was attempted. Effective drainage was not achieved in six patients (30%). If management options had been based only on MRC, treatment choices would have been modified in a more appropriate way in 5/18 (28%) patients with satisfactory MRC.
CONCLUSION—MRC should be considered for planning treatment of malignant hilar strictures. Accurate depiction of high grade strictures for which endoscopic drainage is not the option of choice can preclude unnecessary invasive imaging.

Keywords: hilar tumours; endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; magnetic resonance cholangiography; stenting
PMCID: PMC1727781  PMID: 10601064
20.  Hepaticocholecystoenterostomy as an alternative to hepaticojejunostomy for biliary bypass 
Hepaticojejunostomy is the standard biliary bypass technique for periampullary cancer when trial dissection reveals unresectable disease or endoscopic stent placement is not possible. This anastomosis can be technically demanding and potentially difficult. The simpler technique of hepaticocholecystoenterostomy (HCE) has only previously been reported in very limited numbers and without outcome data.
All patients undergoing HCE for the management of periampullary cancer were identified from a prospectively maintained computerised database of a single surgeon and were reviewed retrospectively. The HCE technique achieves a biliary bypass by two anastomoses, using the gallbladder as a conduit. It involves an anastomosis of the infundibulum of the gallbladder to the common hepatic duct followed by a second anastomosis of the gallbladder fundus to the proximal small bowel.
From 1996 to 2010, 30 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma required a biliary bypass after a failed trial of Whipple procedure (80%) or failed endoscopic stenting (20%). There were 19 men and 11 women with a mean age of 64.5 years. The mean operative time for HCE alone was 92 minutes. The mean length of hospital stay was nine days. There was a single grade 2 complication (readmission with gastric emptying delay) and a single grade 3 complication (bile leak requiring reoperation). Thirty-day mortality was zero and the mean survival was 12 months (with one patient still alive at the time of writing). There were no readmissions with recurrent biliary obstruction or cholangitis. One patient had developed an incisional hernia by the 24 month follow-up appointment.
HCE in periampullary cancer is safe and effective in selected patients. It involves two simple anastomoses with good access rather than one more demanding anastomosis. Morbidity, patency and overall survival are comparable with contemporary published series of hepaticojejunostomy.
PMCID: PMC3954240  PMID: 23031763
Pancreatic Cancer; Bile duct; Biliopancreatic diversion; General surgery
21.  Advanced therapeutic endoscopist and inflammatory bowel disease: Dawn of a new role 
Endoscopy plays a key role in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Colonoscopy has been traditionally used in the diagnosis of IBD and helps in determination of an important end point in patient management, “mucosal healing”. However, the involvement of an advanced endoscopist has expanded with innovations in therapeutic and newer imaging techniques. Endoscopists are increasingly being involved in the management of anastomotic and small bowel strictures in these patients. The advent of balloon enteroscopy has helped us access areas not deemed possible in the past for dilations. An advanced endoscopist also plays an integral part in managing ileal pouch-anal anastomosis complications including management of pouch strictures and sinuses. The use of rectal endoscopic ultrasound has been expanded for imaging of perianal fistulae in patients with Crohn’s disease and appears much more sensitive than magnetic resonance imaging and exam under anesthesia. Advanced endoscopists also play an integral part in detection of dysplasia by employing advanced imaging techniques. In fact the paradigm for neoplasia surveillance in IBD is rapidly evolving with advancements in endoscopic imaging technology with pancolonic chromoendoscopy becoming the main imaging modality for neoplasia surveillance in IBD patients in most institutions. Advanced endoscopists are also called upon to diagnose primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and also offer options for endoscopic management of strictures through endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). In addition, PSC patients are at increased risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma with a 20% lifetime risk. Brush cytology obtained during ERCP and use of fluorescence in situ hybridization which assesses the presence of chromosomal aneuploidy (abnormality in chromosome number) are established initial diagnostic techniques in the investigation of patients with biliary strictures. Thus advanced endoscopists play an integral part in the management of IBD patients and our article aims to summarize the current evidence which supports this role and calls for developing and training a new breed of interventionalists who specialize in the management of IBD patients and complications specific to those patients.
PMCID: PMC3974515  PMID: 24707131
Inflammatory bowel disease; Endoscopy; Therapeutic endoscopy; Primary sclerosing cholangitis
22.  Cytogenomic mapping and bioinformatic mining reveal interacting brain expressed genes for intellectual disability 
Microarray analysis has been used as the first-tier genetic testing to detect chromosomal imbalances and copy number variants (CNVs) for pediatric patients with intellectual and developmental disabilities (ID/DD). To further investigate the candidate genes and underlying dosage-sensitive mechanisms related to ID, cytogenomic mapping of critical regions and bioinformatic mining of candidate brain-expressed genes (BEGs) and their functional interactions were performed. Critical regions of chromosomal imbalances and pathogenic CNVs were mapped by subtracting known benign CNVs from the Databases of Genomic Variants (DGV) and extracting smallest overlap regions with cases from DatabasE of Chromosomal Imbalance and Phenotype in Humans using Ensembl Resources (DECIPHER). BEGs from these critical regions were revealed by functional annotation using Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and by tissue expression pattern from Uniprot. Cross-region interrelations and functional networks of the BEGs were analyzed using Gene Relationships Across Implicated Loci (GRAIL) and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA).
Of the 1,354 patients analyzed by oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), pathogenic abnormalities were detected in 176 patients including genomic disorders in 66 patients (37.5%), subtelomeric rearrangements in 45 patients (25.6%), interstitial imbalances in 33 patients (18.8%), chromosomal structural rearrangements in 17 patients (9.7%) and aneuploidies in 15 patients (8.5%). Subtractive and extractive mapping defined 82 disjointed critical regions from the detected abnormalities. A total of 461 BEGs was generated from 73 disjointed critical regions. Enrichment of central nervous system specific genes in these regions was noted. The number of BEGs increased with the size of the regions. A list of 108 candidate BEGs with significant cross region interrelation was identified by GRAIL and five significant gene networks involving cell cycle, cell-to-cell signaling, cellular assembly, cell morphology, and gene expression regulations were denoted by IPA.
These results characterized ID related cross-region interrelations and multiple networks of candidate BEGs from the detected genomic imbalances. Further experimental study of these BEGs and their interactions will lead to a better understanding of dosage-sensitive mechanisms and modifying effects of human mental development.
PMCID: PMC3905969  PMID: 24410907
Intellectual disability; Critical regions; Brain expressed genes; Cross-region gene interrelation; Functional network
23.  Usefulness of the Rendezvous Technique for Biliary Stricture after Adult Right-Lobe Living-Donor Liver Transplantation with Duct-To-Duct Anastomosis 
Gut and Liver  2010;4(1):68-75.
Replacement of a percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) catheter with inside stents using endoscopic retrograde cholangiography is difficult in patients with angulated or twisted biliary anastomotic stricture after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). We evaluated the usefulness and safety of the rendezvous technique for the management of biliary stricture after LDLT.
Twenty patients with PTBD because of biliary stricture after LDLT with duct-to-duct anastomosis underwent the placement of inside stents using the rendezvous technique.
Inside stents were successfully placed in the 20 patients using the rendezvous technique. The median procedure time was 29.6 (range, 7.5-71.8) minutes. The number of inside stents placed was one in 12 patients and two in eight patients. One mild acute pancreatitis and one acute cholangitis occurred, which improved within a few days. Inside stent related sludge or stone was identified in 12 patients during follow-up. Thirteen patients achieved stent-free status for a median of 281 (range, 70-1,351) days after removal of the inside stents.
The rendezvous technique is a useful and safe method for the replacement of PTBD catheter with inside stent in patients with biliary stricture after LDLT with duct-to-duct anastomosis. The rendezvous technique could be recommended to patients with angulated or twisted strictures.
PMCID: PMC2871614  PMID: 20479915
Rendezvous; Biliary stricture; Liver transplantation; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography; Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage
24.  Prospective evaluation of biliary reconstruction with duct-to-duct continuous suture in adult live donor liver transplantation 
Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery  2010;396(2):209-215.
Biliary reconstruction remains the Achilles’ heel of adult live donor liver transplantation (LDLT). The study aims to investigate the feasibility of duct-to-duct hepaticocholedochostomy in LDLT.
Perioperative data from 30 consecutive LDLT aiming at duct-to-duct reconstruction of the biliary tract using a continuous suture technique were prospectively collected. Nineteen recipients (63.3%) had one graft bile duct. Eleven recipients (36.7%) had two or three graft bile ducts. The median follow-up was 50 months.
The overall biliary complication rate was 23.3%. Two recipients developed biliary stricture (6.7%), and two recipients (6.7%) presented with biliary leakage in early posttransplant phase (<90 days). One recipient suffered from bilioma (3.3%), and two recipients (6.7%) presented with biliary stricture in later posttransplant phase (>90 days). No correlation was found between the number of graft bile ducts and the incidence of biliary complications. No biliary complication-associated necessity for re-transplantation or mortality was observed. On multivariate analysis, no single risk factor associated with biliary complication could be identified. All biliary complications were successfully treated with Roux-en-hepaticojejunostomy and/or with endoscopic interventions.
Duct-to-duct hepaticocholedochostomy with continues suture represents a safe and feasible procedure for biliary reconstruction in LDLT. Recipients may benefit from aggressive management of biliary complications with Roux-en-hepaticojejunostomy as compared with repeated endoscopic interventions in early posttransplant phase.
PMCID: PMC3026930  PMID: 21058040
Live donor liver transplantation; Biliary reconstruction; Duct-to-duct continues suture; Biliary complication
25.  Improved techniques for double-balloon-enteroscopy-assisted endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography 
AIM: To investigate the clinical outcome of double balloon enteroscopy (DBE)-assisted endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (DB-ERCP) in patients with altered gastrointestinal anatomy.
METHODS: Between September 2006 and April 2011, 47 procedures of DB-ERCP were performed in 28 patients with a Roux-en-Y total gastrectomy (n = 11), Billroth II gastrectomy (n = 15), or Roux-en-Y anastomosis with hepaticojejunostomy (n = 2). DB-ERCP was performed using a short-type DBE combined with several technical innovations such as using an endoscope attachment, marking by submucosal tattooing, selectively applying contrast medium, and CO2 insufflations.
RESULTS: The papilla of Vater or hepaticojejunostomy site was reached in its entirety with a 96% success rate (45/47 procedures). There were no significant differences in the success rate of reaching the blind end with a DBE among Roux-en-Y total gastrectomy (96%), Billroth II reconstruction (94%), or pancreatoduodenectomy (100%), respectively (P = 0.91). The total successful rate of cannulation and contrast enhancement of the target bile duct in patients whom the blind end was reached with a DBE was 40/45 procedures (89%). Again, there were no significant differences in the success rate of cannulation and contrast enhancement of the target bile duct with a DBE among Roux-en-Y total gastrectomy (88 %), Billroth II reconstruction (89%), or pancreatoduodenectomy (100%), respectively (P = 0.67). Treatment was achieved in all 40 procedures (100%) in patients whom the contrast enhancement of the bile duct was successful. Common endoscopic treatments were endoscopic biliary drainage (24 procedures) and extraction of stones (14 procedures). Biliary drainage was done by placement of plastic stents. Stones extraction was done by lithotomy with the mechanical lithotripter followed by extraction with a basket or by the balloon pull-through method. Endoscopic sphincterotomy was performed in 14 procedures with a needle precutting knife using a guidewire. The mean total duration of the procedure was 93.6 ± 6.8 min and the mean time required to reach the papilla was 30.5 ± 3.7 min. The mean time required to reach the papilla tended to be shorter in Billroth II reconstruction (20.9 ± 5.8 min) than that in Roux-en-Y total gastrectomy (37.1 ± 4.9 min) but there was no significant difference (P = 0.09). A major complication occurred in one patient (3.5%); perforation of the long limb in a patient with Billroth II anastomosis.
CONCLUSION: Short-type DBE combined with several technical innovations enabled us to perform ERCP in most patients with altered gastrointestinal anatomy.
PMCID: PMC3520174  PMID: 23239923
Double-balloon enteroscopy; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Pathological anatomy; Pancreatobiliary disease

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