Benign anastomotic stricture after hepaticojejunostomy is one of the serious complications of biliary surgery. If left untreated, jaundice, cholangitis, or cirrhosis may develop. A 58-year-old male patient was admitted with benign hepaticojejunostomy stricture. The patient initially underwent an endoscopic retrograde cholangiography using double-balloon enteroscope, which was unsuccessful due to the sharp angle between the jejunal limb and the biliary tree. It was decided to perform surgery. During the operation, we performed Heineke-Mikulicz strictureplasty to the narrowed anastomosis. Patient's postoperative course was uneventful. At the end of followup, for 18 months, his liver enzymes were within normal ranges, and the ultrasound examination showed a patent hepaticojejunostomy anastomosis. The simplicity of the technique and the promising result support the applicability of the Heineke-Mikulicz principle in suitable cases as an alternative treatment approach for hepaticojejunostomy strictures.
AIM: To study the endoscopic and radiological characteristics of patients with hepaticojejunostomy (HJ) and propose a practical HJ stricture classification.
METHODS: In a retrospective observational study, a balloon-assisted enteroscopy (BAE)-endoscopic retrograde cholangiography was performed 44 times in 32 patients with surgically-altered gastrointestinal (GI) anatomy. BAE-endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography (ERCP) was performed 23 times in 18 patients with HJ. The HJ was carefully studied with the endoscope and using cholangiography.
RESULTS: The authors observed that the hepaticojejunostomies have characteristics that may allow these to be classified based on endoscopic and cholangiographic appearances: the HJ orifice aspect may appear as small (type A) or large (type B) and the stricture may be short (type 1), long (type 2) and type 3, intrahepatic biliary strictures not associated with anastomotic stenosis. In total, 7 patients had type A1, 4 patients A2, one patient had B1, one patient had B (large orifice without stenosis) and one patient had type B3.
CONCLUSION: This practical classification allows for an accurate initial assessment of the HJ, thus potentially allowing for adequate therapeutic planning, as the shape, length and complexity of the HJ and biliary tree choice may mandate the type of diagnostic and therapeutic accessories to be used. Of additional importance, a standardized classification may allow for better comparison of studies of patients undergoing BAE-ERCP in the setting of altered upper GI anatomy.
Endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography; Roux en Y anastomosis; Hepaticojejunostomy; Biliary strictures; Bile duct strictures; Double balloon enteroscopy
To evaluate the effect of temporary stent graft placement in the treatment of benign anastomotic biliary strictures.
Materials and Methods
Nine patients, five women and four men, 22-64 years old (mean, 47.5 years), with chronic benign biliary anastomotic strictures, refractory to repeated balloon dilations, were treated by prolonged, temporary placement of stent-grafts. Four patients had strictures following a liver transplantation; three of them in bilio-enteric anastomoses and one in a choledocho-choledochostomy. Four of the other five patients had strictures at bilio-enteric anastomoses, which developed after complications following laparoscopic cholecystectomies and in one after a Whipple procedure for duodenal carcinoma. In eight patients, balloon-expandable stent-grafts were placed and one patient was treated by insertion of a self-expanding stent-graft.
In the transplant group, treatment of patients with bilio-enteric anastomoses was unsuccessful (mean stent duration, 30 days). The patient treated for stenosis in the choledocho-choledochostomy responded well to consecutive self-expanding stent-graft placement (total placement duration, 112 days). All patients with bilio-enteric anastomoses in the non-transplant group were treated successfully with stent-grafts (mean placement duration, 37 days).
Treatment of benign biliary strictures with temporary placement of stent-grafts has a positive effect, but is less successful in patients with strictures developed following a liver transplant.
Biliary anastomotic stricture; Benign stricture; Liver transplant
AIM: To compare the efficacy of double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) and single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE) in therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) in patients with Roux-en-Y entero-enteric anastomosis.
METHODS: Retrospective analysis of our patient cohort revealed 4 patients with enterobiliary anastomosis and Roux-en-Y entero-enteric anastomosis who underwent repeated ERC with DBE and SBE because of recurrent cholangitis.
RESULTS: A total of 38 endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedures were performed in 25 patients with Roux-en-Y entero-enteric anastomosis. DBE was used in 29 procedures and SBE in 9. The 4 patients who underwent repeated ERC with DBE and SBE suffered from recurrent cholangitis due to stenosis of the enterobiliary anastomosis. ERC was performed repeatedly to achieve balloon dilation with/without biliary stone extraction and multiple stent placement at the level of the enterobiliary anastomosis. In all 4 patients DBE and SBE were equally successful. Compared to DBE, SBE was equally effective in passing the Roux-en-Y entero-enteric anastomosis, reaching the enterobiliary anastomosis and performing therapeutic ERC.
CONCLUSION: This retrospective comparison shows that DBE and SBE are equally successful in the performance of therapeutic ERC at the level of the enterobiliary anastomosis after Roux-en-Y entero-enteric anastomosis.
Roux-en-Y; Double-balloon enteroscope; Single-balloon enteroscope; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
Biliary stricture is the most common and important complication after right-lobe living-donor liver transplantation (RL-LDLT) with duct-to-duct biliary anastomosis. This study evaluated the efficacy and long-term outcome of endoscopic treatment for biliary stricture after LDLT, with the aim of identifying the factors that influence the outcome.
Three hundred and thirty-nine adults received RL-LDLTs with duct-to-duct biliary anastomosis between January 2000 and May 2008 at Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) was performed in 113 patients who had biliary stricture after LDLT. We evaluated the incidence of post-LDLT biliary stricture and the long-term outcome of endoscopic treatment for biliary stricture. The factors related to the outcome were analyzed.
Biliary strictures developed in 121 (35.7%) patients, 95 (78.5%) of them within 1 year of surgery. The mean number of ERCs performed per patient was 3.2 (range, 1 to 11). The serum biochemical markers decreased significantly after ERC (p<0.001). Stent insertion or stricture dilatation during ERC was successful in 90 (79.6%) patients. After a median follow-up period of 33 months from the first successful treatment with ERC, 48 (42.5%) patients achieved treatment success and 12 (10.6%) patients remained under treatment. The factors related to the outcome of endoscopic treatment were nonanastomotic stricture and stenosis of the hepatic artery (p=0.016).
Endoscopic treatment is efficacious and has an acceptable long-term outcome in the management of biliary strictures related to RL-LDLT with duct-to-duct biliary anastomosis. Nonanastomotic stricture and stenosis of the hepatic artery are correlated with a worse outcome of endoscopic treatment.
Biliary stenting; Biliary stricture; Duct-to-duct biliary anastomosis; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography; Liver transplantation
Biliary ductal changes are a common radiological finding in patients with portal hypertension, however only a small percentage of patients (5%-30%) develop symptomatic bile duct obstruction. The exact pathogenesis is not clear, but an involvement of factors such as bile duct compression by venous collaterals, ischemia, and infection is accepted by most authors. Although endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was used to define and diagnose this condition, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography is currently the investigation of choice for diagnosing this condition. Treatment is indicated only for symptomatic cases. Portosystemic shunts are the treatment of choice for symptomatic portal biliopathy. In the majority of patients, the changes caused by biliopathy resolve after shunt surgery, however, 15%-20% patients require a subsequent bilio-enteric bypass or endoscopic management for persistent biliopathy. There is a role for endoscopic therapy in patients with bile duct stones, cholangitis or when portosystemic shunt surgery is not feasible.
Pseudosclerosing cholangitis; Non cirrhotic portal fibrosis; Extrahepatic portal venous obstruction; Proximal lienorenal shunt; Biliary obstruction; Portal cavernoma
Replacement of a percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) catheter with inside stents using endoscopic retrograde cholangiography is difficult in patients with angulated or twisted biliary anastomotic stricture after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). We evaluated the usefulness and safety of the rendezvous technique for the management of biliary stricture after LDLT.
Twenty patients with PTBD because of biliary stricture after LDLT with duct-to-duct anastomosis underwent the placement of inside stents using the rendezvous technique.
Inside stents were successfully placed in the 20 patients using the rendezvous technique. The median procedure time was 29.6 (range, 7.5-71.8) minutes. The number of inside stents placed was one in 12 patients and two in eight patients. One mild acute pancreatitis and one acute cholangitis occurred, which improved within a few days. Inside stent related sludge or stone was identified in 12 patients during follow-up. Thirteen patients achieved stent-free status for a median of 281 (range, 70-1,351) days after removal of the inside stents.
The rendezvous technique is a useful and safe method for the replacement of PTBD catheter with inside stent in patients with biliary stricture after LDLT with duct-to-duct anastomosis. The rendezvous technique could be recommended to patients with angulated or twisted strictures.
Rendezvous; Biliary stricture; Liver transplantation; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography; Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage
Biliary strictures are one of the most common complications following liver transplantation, representing an important cause of morbidity and mortality in transplant recipients. The reported incidence of biliary stricture is 5% to 15% following deceased donor liver transplantations and 28% to 32% following living donor liver transplantations. Bile duct strictures following liver transplantation are easily and conveniently classified as anastomotic strictures (AS) or non-anastomotic strictures (NAS). NAS are characterized by a far less favorable response to endoscopic management, higher recurrence rates, graft loss and the need for retransplantation. Current endoscopic strategies to correct biliary strictures following liver transplantation include repeated balloon dilatations and the placement of multiple side-by-side plastic stents. Endoscopic balloon dilatation with stent placement is successful in the majority of AS patients. In patients for whom gaining biliary access is technically difficult, a combined endoscopic and percutaneous/surgical approach proves quite useful. Future directions, including novel endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography techniques, advanced endoscopy, and improved stents could allow for a decreased number of interventions, increased intervals before retreatment, and decreased reliance on percutaneous and surgical modalities. The aim of this review is to detail the present status of endoscopy in the diagnosis, treatment, outcome, and future directions of biliary strictures related to orthotopic liver transplantation from the viewpoint of a clinical gastroenterologists.
Liver transplantation; Anastomotic strictures; Bile duct diseases; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
Benign biliary postoperative stenoses and biliary leaks and fistulas usually occur due to injury after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, gastric or hepatic resection, bilio-enteric anastomoses and after liver transplantation. In most of the cases a new surgical intervention is not possible and the percutaneous trans-hepatic approach is of paramount importance in the diagnosis and treatment of the problem. This review aims to highlight the spectrum of percutaneous cholangiographic findings and methods of treatment of postoperative benign biliary stenoses and biliary leaks and fistulas. In the case of stenosis, dilation of the narrow tract is the usually the first approach, whereas in the case of leaks and fistulas bile diversion with drainage is usually attempted in order to seal the fistulous tract. However, a great variety of combination of materials and techniques may be used on a “case-by case” approach
A selection of cases of benign biliary postoperative stenoses and biliary leaks and fistulas that were managed percutaneously are presented and the most common lines of approach are discussed.
The imaging spectrum of percutaneous treatment of benign biliary postoperative stenoses and biliary leaks and fistulas is presented in order to aid interpretation and management with image guided procedures.
• Treatment of benign biliary stenosis is performed with cholangioplasty and stents.
• The main goal of fistula treatment is to divert the bile away from the site of bile wall defect.
• Drain collection and tract embolisation are the other options for bile leak percutaneous treatment.
Biliary tract disease; Postoperative biliary injury; Benign biliary strictures; Bile leaks and fistula; Biliary drainage
BACKGROUND: Portal hypertension develops in 15-20% of patients with benign bile duct stricture. Hepaticojejunostomy in such patients is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Preliminary portosystemic shunting has been suggested to reduce intra-operative bleeding. We present our experience without preliminary shunting in such patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fourteen consecutive cases of biliary stricture with portal hypertension over a 13-year period (1989-2001) were retrospectively analysed. RESULTS: Thirteen patients were operated upon. One patient had a preliminary portosystemic shunt. In another patient, shunt was attempted. One stage hepaticojejunostomy was possible in 11 patients. There were no intra-operative deaths. Nine of the 13 survived and were available for follow-up. One patient had cholangitis. Another had jaundice related both to chronic liver disease and a strictured hepaticojejunostomy. The remaining 7 patients are asymptomatic and anicteric although alkaline phosphatase levels remain elevated in 5 of them. CONCLUSIONS: Hepaticojejunostomy without preliminary portosystemic shunting is possible in patients with portal hypertension and benign biliary stricture with acceptable morbidity and mortality rates.
Biliary-enteric anastomosis especially Roux-en Y hepaticojejunostomy is frequently used for biliary diversion in benign biliary strictures. In this study, we present the results of hepaticojejunostomy with external metallic circle.
Hepaticojejunostomy with external metallic circle were performed in eight male Sprague-Dawley rats. At the end of the third month, anastomoses were analysed for patency and stability of external circles.
Relaparotomy revealed that all the anastomoses were patent and circles were in original places.
To provide the patency of narrow hepaticojejunostomy anastomoses, external metallic circle can be a good alternative to use of internal stents in suitable cases.
The paper studies the combined radiologic and endoscopic approach (rendez vous technique) to the treatment of the biliary complications following liver transplant. The “rendez-vous” technique was used with an electrokinetic lithotripter, in the treatment of a biliary anastomotic stricture with multiple biliary stones in a patient who underwent orthotopic liver transplant. In this patient, endoscopic or percutaneous transhepatic management of the biliary complication failed. The combined approach, percutaneous transhepatic and endoscopic treatment (rendez-vous technique) with the use of an electrokinetic lithotritor, was used to solve the biliary stenosis and to remove the stones. Technical success, defined as disappearance of the biliary stenosis and stone removal, was obtained in just one session, which definitively solved the complications. The combined approach of percutaneous transhepatic and endoscopic (rendez-vous technique) treatment, in association with an electrokinetic lithotritor, is a safe and feasible alternative treatment, especially after the failure of endoscopic and/or percutaneous trans-hepatic isolated procedures.
Biliary complications; Liver transplant; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography; Percutaneous lithotripsy
A 43-year old woman was admitted 11 days after open cholecystectomy with a iatrogenic bile
duct injury. On admission the patient showed an uncontrolled biliary fistula through an external
drain placed at an emergency laparotomy for biliary peritonitis with fever and jaundice. PTC
showed a biliary stricture type II (Bismuth). A percutaneous drainage was performed to
decompress the biliary system. Three weeks later, percutaneous balloon dilatation of the
stricture was performed. However, bile leakage persisted. In a combined transhepatic/
endoscopic procedure, the percutaneous biliary drainage was replaced by a nasobiliary tube.
One week later, no stricture was found and the biliary leak was sealed. The patient could be
discharged without symptoms or signs of cholestasis. The multidisciplinary management of
post-operative biliary fistula is presented, comparing the role of interventional radiology,
endoscopy and surgery.
To assess outcomes of percutaneous transjejunal biliary intervention (PTJBI) in terms of success and effectiveness in patients with a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy for benign biliary strictures and stones.
Clinical and radiographic records of 63 patients with a Roux-en-Y choledochojejunostomy or hepaticojejunostomy for benign disease who underwent at least one PTJBI between 1986 and 2007 were reviewed. Effectiveness was determined by successful access rate, rates of stricture dilatation and/or stone extraction, morbidity, complications and hospitalisation.
PTJBI was attempted 494 times. Successful access to the Roux-en-Y was accomplished in 93% of interventions. After access to the Roux-en-Y was granted, all strictures were effectively dilated. Ninety-seven percent of extraction attempts of intrahepatic calculi were successful. The median number of interventions per patient was five. The median interval between interventions was 51.5 weeks (range 2.7–1,279.6 weeks). The early complication rate was 3%. Morbidity, measured in terms of cholangitis episodes was 14%, in 25 out of 63 patients. Mean hospitalisation was 4.1 nights per year.
PTJBI is safe and effective in treating benign biliary strictures and/or calculi. High success rates and short hospitalisation periods, together with few complications make it a well-accepted and integral part of managing complex biliary problems.
Roux-en-Y hepatojejunostomy; Dilatation; Stricture; Calculi; Cholangiography
This study describes the value of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in patients with bile duct injury after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Twelve consecutive patients were studied over a one year period. In all patients the biliary tree was visualised during ERCP. Four patients had complete bile duct obstruction, seven patients had a stricture (two with concomitant leakage), and one patient had leakage from a hepatic branch. Three patients with complete obstruction, presented with a relatively prolonged symptom free, 'silent' period before diagnosis. In all four patients with complete transection, a proximal hepaticojejunostomy was performed. In one patient with a tough fibrous stricture, secondary to incorrect clip placement, passage of the guidewire was impossible, leaving surgical reconstruction as the only therapeutic option. All remaining seven patients with leakage or strictures, or both were successfully treated by endoscopic sphincterotomy only (n = 1) or sphincterotomy and subsequent stent placement (n = 6). When patients do not recover uneventfully after laparoscopic cholecystectomy even without cholestasis or jaundice, early ERCP is recommended as a safe and valuable method to detect bile duct injury and to suggest treatment. Subsequently, more than half of such patients can be treated endoscopically. Extended follow up is needed to evaluate the longterm results.
Postoperative biliary strictures are the most common cause of benign biliary stricture in Western countries, secondary to either operative injury or bile duct anastomotic stricture following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Surgery or endoscopic interventions are the mainstay of treatment for benign biliary strictures. We aim to report the outcome of 2 patients with refractory anastomotic biliary stricture post-OLT, who had successful temporary placement of a prototype removable covered self-expandable metal stent (RCSEMS). These 2 patients (both men, aged 44 and 53 years) were given temporary placement of a prototype RCSEMS (8.5 Fr gauge delivery system, 8 mm × 40 mm stent dimensions) in the common bile duct across the biliary stricture. There was no morbidity associated with stent placement and removal in these 2 cases. Clinical parameters improved after the RCSEMS placement. Long-term biliary patency was achieved in both the patients. No further biliary intervention was required within 14 and 18 mo follow-up after stent removal.
Anastomosis; Biliary stent; Biliary stricture; Orthotopic liver transplantation; Niti-S stent
AIM: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) in detecting biliary strictures in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) patients.
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 104 adult LDLT recipients of the right hepatic lobe with duct-to-duct anastomosis, who underwent HBS and cholangiography. The HBS results were categorized as normal, parenchymal dysfunction, biliary obstruction, or bile leakage without re-interpretation. The presence of biliary strictures was determined by percutaneous cholangiography or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).
RESULTS: In 89 patients with biliary strictures, HBS showed biliary obstruction in 50 and no obstruction in 39, for a sensitivity of 56.2%. Of 15 patients with no biliary strictures, HBS showed no obstruction in 11, for a specificity of 73.3%. The positive predictive value (PPV) was 92.6% (50/54) and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 22% (11/50). We also analyzed the diagnostic accuracy of the change in bile duct size. The sensitivity, NPV, specificity, and PPV were 65.2%, 27.9%, 80% and 95%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The absence of biliary obstruction on HBS is not reliable. Thus, when post-LDLT biliary strictures are suspected, early ERCP may be considered.
Living donor liver transplantation; Tc99m mebrofenin; Radionucleotide imaging; Hepatobiliary scintigraphy; Biliary stricture
Bile duct strictures remain a major source of morbidity after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Biliary strictures are classified as anastomotic or non-anastomotic strictures according to location and are defined by distinct clinical behaviors. Anastomotic strictures are localized and short. The outcome of endoscopic treatment for anastomotic strictures is excellent. Non-anastomotic strictures often result from ischemic and immunological events, occur earlier and are usually multiple and longer. They are characterized by a far less favorable response to endoscopic management, higher recurrence rates, graft loss and need for retransplantation. Living donor OLT patients present a unique set of challenges arising from technical factors, and stricture risk for both recipients and donors. Endoscopic treatment of living donor OLT patients is less promising. Current endoscopic strategies for biliary strictures after OLT include repeated balloon dilations and placement of multiple side-by-side plastic stents. Lifelong surveillance is required in all types of strictures. Despite improvements in incidence and long term outcomes with endoscopic management, and a reduced need for surgical treatment, the impact of strictures on patients after OLT is significant. Future considerations include new endoscopic technologies and improved stents, which could potentially allow for a decreased number of interventions, increased intervals before retreatment, and decreased reliance on percutaneous and surgical modalities. This review focuses on the role of endoscopy in biliary strictures, one of the most common biliary complications after OLT.
Anastomotic strictures; Bile duct diseases; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Orthotopic liver transplantation; Surgical anastomosis
The choledocho-choledochostomy stricture is one of the most frequent complications occurring after liver transplantation. Today endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography may be considered one of the most common methodologic approaches for the diagnosis; at the same time it provides an effective treatment of the stenosis, avoiding more invasive surgery. Biliary flow through a strictured anastomosis definitely improves after endoscopic stenting which, in most cases, resolves the biliary obstruction syndrome; moreover, the stent could allow restoration of the anatomical and functional integrity of the common bile duct. We have successfully treated eight liver transplanted patients with biliary anastomotic stenosis by endoscopic stenting of the common bile duct or by balloon dilation (one patient). The stents were replaced every 3 to 4 months and then removed after 1 year of follow-up. We observed one patient with acute cholangitis due to the clogging of the prosthetic device.
Two patients with stricture of the extrahepatic biliary tree are described. Both patients presented with a
clinical picture of obstructive jaundice one to two years following radiotherapy for a malignant
condition. As no recurrent tumour was detected in either of the patients the strictures were considered
to be the result of radiation therapy. Bilio-enteric decompression was performed in both patients who
are well at follow up one and ten years after the procedure.
Iatrogenic bile duct injuries (IBDI) remain an important problem in gastrointestinal surgery. They are most frequently caused by laparoscopic cholecystectomy which is one of the commonest surgical procedures in the world. The early and proper diagnosis of IBDI is very important for surgeons and gastroenterologists, because unrecognized IBDI lead to serious complications such as biliary cirrhosis, hepatic failure and death. Laboratory and radiological investigations play an important role in the diagnosis of biliary injuries. There are many classifications of IBDI. The most popular and simple classification of IBDI is the Bismuth scale. Endoscopic techniques are recommended for initial treatment of IBDI. When endoscopic treatment is not effective, surgical management is considered. Different surgical reconstructions are performed in patients with IBDI. According to the literature, Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy is the most frequent surgical reconstruction and recommended by most authors. In the opinion of some authors, a more physiological and equally effective type of reconstruction is end-to-end ductal anastomosis. Long term results are the most important in the assessment of the effectiveness of IBDI treatment. There are a few classifications for the long term results in patients treated for IBDI; the Terblanche scale, based on clinical biliary symptoms, is regarded as the most useful classification. Proper diagnosis and treatment of IBDI may avoid many serious complications and improve quality of life.
Iatrogenic disease; Biliary drainage; Bile ducts; Cholecystectomy; Roux-en-Y anastomosis; Surgical injuries; Surgical anastomosis
Iatrogenic bile duct injuries (IBDI) are still a challenge for surgeons. The most frequently, they are caused by laparoscopic cholecystectomy which is one of the commonest surgical procedure in the world. Endoscopic techniques are recommended as initial treatment of IBDI. When endoscopic treatment is not effective, surgery is considered. Different surgical biliary reconstructions are performed in most patients in IBDI. Roux-Y hepaticojejunostomy is the commonest biliary reconstruction for IBDI. In some patients with complex IBDI, hepatectomy is required. Recently, Li et al analyzed the factors that had led to hepatectomy for patients with IBDI after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Authors concluded that hepatectomy might be necessary to manage early or late complications after LC. The study showed that proximal IBDI (involving hepatic confluence) and IBDI associated with vascular injuries were the two independent risk factors of hepatectomy in this series. Authors distinguished two main groups of patients that require liver resection in IBDI: those with an injury-induced liver necrosis necessitating early intervention, and those in whom liver resection is indicated for treatment of liver atrophy following long-term cholangitis. In this commentary, indications for hepatectomy in patients with IBDI are discussed. Complex biliovascular injuries as indications for hepatectomy are presented. Short- and long-term results in patients following liver resection for IBDI are also discussed. Hepatectomy is not a standard procedure in surgical treatment of IBDI, but in some complex injuries it should be considered.
Hepatectomy; Bile duct injury; Cholecystectomy; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy
56 patients with large CBD or intrahepatic stones underwent endoscopic and/or percutaneous treatment followed by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Percutaneous access to the biliary tract was chosen when an endoscopic approach was not possible (hepaticojejunostomy in 5 patients, 1 juxtapapillary diverticulum and I inflammatory bile duct stricture). Visualization of stones was achieved radiologically in 32 patients and by ultrasound in 24. The procedure was successful in 47 of 56 treated patients (83.9%). Clearance of the biliary tract was obtained in 25 cases (53%), whereas in 22 cases (47%) complete clearing of biliary tract was obtained only after endoscopic extraction of fragments (17 cases) or percutaneous (5 cases). The median number of shock waves in each session was 1725 (range 300–3166), which were applied during one (n=30), two (n=22) or three sessions (n=4). The only complications were 1
case of symptomatic hyperamylasemia and 3 cases of macrohematuria. In conclusion, extracorporeal lithotripsy combined with endoscopic and/or percutaneous treatment is a real alternative to surgery for difficult stones.
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the standard approach for the management of biliary complications in liver transplant patients; however, its safety and efficacy have not been established in this setting. This study was performed to evaluate the safety and long-term efficacy of ERCP in transplant patients.
The case reports of 1,500 liver transplant patients were reviewed. Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) patients were matched 1:2 with non-OLT patients and followed-up for long-term outcome (median, 7.4 years).
Of the 1,500 liver transplant patients, 94 (6.3%) underwent 150 ERCPs after OLT. Anastomotic strictures were present in 45 patients, biliary stones in 24, biliary leaks in 7, papillary stenosis in 2, and primary sclerosing cholangitis in 1. An ERCP success rate of 90.7% was achieved; biliary stenting led to resolution of the bile leak in 7/7 (100%) patients, and biliary stones were removed in 21/24 (87.5%) patients. In addition, 34 of 45 patients with anastomotic stricture underwent endoscopic dilation. We obtained complete resolution in 22/34 (64.7%) patients. OLT patients did not show a higher probability of complications (odds ratio [OR], 1.04), of pancreatitis (OR, 0.80) or of bleeding (OR, 1.34).
ERCP is safe and effective for the treatment of post-OLT biliary complications, has a low rate of pancreatitis and results in a durable effect.
Biliary complications; Liver transplant; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Pancreatitis
As the literature on afferent loop obstruction (ALO) after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is very limited, standardized rules for its management do not exist. Herein, we report the case of a 65-year-old male patient with chronic ALO who had undergone PD with single Roux-en-Y limb reconstruction and adjuvant chemoradiation therapy for pancreatic head adenocarcinoma 2 years earlier. The patient was brought to the operating room with the diagnosis of radiation enteritis of the afferent loop with segmental involvement and concurrent hepaticojejunostomy (HJ) and pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ) stricture. Complete mobilization of the afferent loop, removal of the affected segment and reconstruction were performed. Reconstruction of the afferent loop was a one-way option for the surgeons because the Roux-en-Y reconstruction limited endoscopic access to the afferent loop, and the segmental radiation injury of the afferent loop ruled out bypass surgery. However, mobilization of the affected segment through a field of dense adhesions and revision of the HJ and PJ were technically demanding.
Pancreaticoduodenectomy; Roux-en-Y reconstruction; Radiation enteritis; Afferent loop obstruction; Surgery