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1.  Effect of irrigation fluid temperature on core temperature and hemodynamic changes in transurethral resection of prostate under spinal anesthesia 
Hypothermia is a frequent observation in elderly males undergoing transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) under spinal anesthesia. The use of irrigating fluids at room temperature results in a decrease body temperature. Warmed irrigating solutions have shown to reduce heat loss and the resultant shivering. Such investigation was not much tried in low resource settings.
To compare the resultant change in core temperature and hemodynamic changes among patients undergoing TURP surgery under spinal anesthesia using warm and room temperature irrigation fluids.
Settings and Design:
Randomized prospective study at a tertiary care center.
This study was conducted on 40 male patients aged 50-85 years undergoing TURP under spinal anesthesia. Of which, 20 patients received irrigation fluid at room temperature 21°C and 20 patients received irrigation fluid at 37°C after random allocation. Core temperatures and hemodynamic parameters were assessed in all patients at preoperative, intra-operative, and postoperative periods. Intra-operative shivering was also noted in both groups.
Statistical Analysis:
Unpaired and Paired Student's t-test.
For patients who underwent irrigation with fluid at room temperature Core temperature drop from 36.97°C in preoperative to 34.54°C in postoperative period with an effective difference of 2.38°C. Among patients who received warmed irrigation fluid at 37°C had core temperature drop from 36.97°C to 36.17°C and the effect of fall was 0.8°C. This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Shivering of Grades 1 and 2 was observed in nine patients, of Group 1 while only three patients had Grades 1 and 2 shivering in Group 2. The hemodynamic parameters were similar in the two groups and did not reach significant difference.
Use of warm irrigation fluid during TURP reduces the risk of perioperative hypothermia and shivering.
PMCID: PMC4173604
Core temperature; hypothermia; irrigating fluid; spinal anesthesia; transurethral resection of prostate
2.  Effect of warm intravenous and irrigating fluids on body temperature during transurethral resection of the prostate gland 
BMC Urology  2007;7:15.
Transurethral resection of the prostate gland with irrigation fluid at room temperature leads to perioperative hypothermia which could give rise to adverse cardiovascular events in the perioperative period. The use of isothermic irrigation fluid reduces but does not eliminate this risk. Routine use of warm intravenous fluids along with isothermic irrigation had not been documented. This study set out to investigate the effect of the use of warm intravenous fluid together with isothermic irrigation fluid on the body temperature in patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate gland.
One hundred and twenty consented patients with obstructing benign prostatic hyperplasia were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups. Group 1 received irrigation and intravenous fluids at room temperature, group 2 received warmed irrigation fluid at 38°C along with intravenous fluid at room temperature while group 3 patients received warmed irrigation fluid and warmed intravenous fluids at 38°C. Their perioperative body temperature changes were monitored, analyzed and compared.
The mean decrease in body temperature at the end of the procedure was significantly greater in group 1 (0.98 ± 0.56°C) than in group 2 (0.42 ± .21°C) (p < 0.001). Significantly more patients in group 1 also experienced shivering. However, in group 3, there was no significant change in the mean body temperature (p > 0.05) and none of them felt cold or shivered.
It is concluded that the use of isothermic irrigation fluid together with warm intravenous fluids during TURP prevents the occurrence of perioperative hypothermia.
Trial registration number
PMCID: PMC2034579  PMID: 17877827
3.  The effect of active warming in prehospital trauma care during road and air ambulance transportation - a clinical randomized trial 
Prevention and treatment of hypothermia by active warming in prehospital trauma care is recommended but scientifical evidence of its effectiveness in a clinical setting is scarce. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of additional active warming during road or air ambulance transportation of trauma patients.
Patients were assigned to either passive warming with blankets or passive warming with blankets with the addition of an active warming intervention using a large chemical heat pad applied to the upper torso. Ear canal temperature, subjective sensation of cold discomfort and vital signs were monitored.
Mean core temperatures increased from 35.1°C (95% CI; 34.7-35.5°C) to 36.0°C (95% CI; 35.7-36.3°C) (p < 0.05) in patients assigned to passive warming only (n = 22) and from 35.6°C (95% CI; 35.2-36.0°C) to 36.4°C (95% CI; 36.1-36.7°C) (p < 0.05) in patients assigned to additional active warming (n = 26) with no significant differences between the groups. Cold discomfort decreased in 2/3 of patients assigned to passive warming only and in all patients assigned to additional active warming, the difference in cold discomfort change being statistically significant (p < 0.05). Patients assigned to additional active warming also presented a statistically significant decrease in heart rate and respiratory frequency (p < 0.05).
In mildly hypothermic trauma patients, with preserved shivering capacity, adequate passive warming is an effective treatment to establish a slow rewarming rate and to reduce cold discomfort during prehospital transportation. However, the addition of active warming using a chemical heat pad applied to the torso will significantly improve thermal comfort even further and might also reduce the cold induced stress response.
Trial Registration NCT01400152
PMCID: PMC3214151  PMID: 22017799
hypothermia; body temperature regulation; thermal comfort; active warming; passive warming; prehospital trauma care; emergency medical services (EMS)
4.  The efficacy of pre-warming on reducing intraprocedural hypothermia in endovascular coiling of cerebral aneurysms 
BMC Anesthesiology  2015;15(1):8.
The anesthetic management of patients undergoing endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms in the interventional neuroradiology suite can be challenged by hypothermia because of low ambient temperature for operating and maintaining its equipments. We evaluated the efficacy of skin surface warming prior to induction of anesthesia to prevent the decrease in core temperature and reduce the incidence of hypothermia.
Seventy-two patients were randomized to pre-warmed and control group. The patients in pre-warmed group were warmed 30 minutes before induction with a forced-air warming blanket set at 38°C. Pre-induction tympanic temperature (Tpre) was measured using an infrared tympanic thermometer and core temperature was measured at the esophagus immediately after intubation (T0) and recorded at 20 minutes intervals (T20, T40, T60, T80, T100, and T120). The number of patients who became hypothermic at each time was recorded.
Tpre in the control and pre-warmed group were 36.4 ± 0.4°C and 36.6 ± 0.3°C, whereas T0 were 36.5 ± 0.4°C and 36.6 ± 0.2°C. Core temperatures in the pre-warmed group were significantly higher than the control group at T20, T40, T60, T80, T100, and T120 (P < 0.001). Compared to T0, core temperatures at each time were significantly lower in both two groups (P = 0.007 at T20 in pre-warmed group, P < 0.001 at the other times in both groups). The incidence of hypothermia was significantly lower in the pre-warmed group than the control group from T20 to T120 (P = 0.002 at T20, P < 0.001 at the other times).
Pre-warming for 30 minutes at 38°C did not modify the trends of the temperature decrease seen in the INR suite. It just slightly elevated the beginning post intubation base temperature. The rate of decrease was similar from T20 to T120. However, pre-warming considerably reduced the risk of intraprocedural hypothermia.
Trial registration
Clinical Research Information Service (CRiS) Identifier: KCT0001320. Registered December 19th, 2014.
PMCID: PMC4322559  PMID: 25670919
Cerebral aneurysm; Hypothermia; Interventional neuroradiology; Pre-warming
5.  Effect of preoperative warming during cesarean section under spinal anesthesia 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2012;62(5):454-460.
Postoperative hypothermia and shivering is a frequent event in patients during cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. We assessed the effect of preoperative warming during cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia for prevention of hypothermia and shivering.
Forty five patients undergoing elective cesarean section were randomly assigned to three groups. Group F received warmed intravenous fluid (40℃). Group A patients were actively warmed by forced air-warming. Group C was the control group. Forced air-warming and warmed fluid was maintained for the 15 min preceding spinal anesthesia. Core temperature (tympanic membrane) and the skin temperature of arm and thigh were measured and shivering was graded simultaneously.
The core temperature at 45 min decreased less in Groups F and A than Group C (-0.5℃ ± 0.3℃ vs -0.6℃ ± 0.4℃ vs -0.9℃ ± 0.4℃, respectively; P = 0.004). The arm temperature at 15 min and 30 min exhibited a greater increase in Group A than Group F and Group C (P = 0.001 and P = 0.012, respectively). Leg temperature increased similarly among the three groups. The incidence of shivering was significantly less in Group A and Group F than Group C (20%, 13.3%, and 53.3%, respectively; P = 0.035).
Preoperative forced air-warming and warmed fluid prevents hypothermia and shivering in patients undergoing elective cesarean delivery with spinal anesthesia.
PMCID: PMC3366313  PMID: 22679543
Cesarean section; Shivering; Spinal anesthesia; Warming
6.  Water warming garment versus forced air warming system in prevention of intraoperative hypothermia during liver transplantation: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN32154832] 
BMC Anesthesiology  2002;2:7.
The authors compared two strategies for the maintenance of intraoperative normothermia during orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT): the routine forced-air warming system and the newly developed, whole body water garment.
In this prospective, randomized and open-labelled study, 24 adult patients were enrolled in one of two intraoperative temperature management groups during OLT. The water-garment group (N = 12) received warming with a body temperature (esophageal) set point of 36.8°C. The forced air-warmer group (N = 12) received routine warming therapy using upper- and lower-body forced-air warming system. Body core temperature (primary outcome) was recorded intraoperatively and during the two hours after surgery in both groups.
The mean core temperatures during incision, one hour after incision and during the skin closing were significantly higher (p < 0.05, t test with Bonferroni corrections for the individual tests) in the water warmer group compared to the control group (36.7 ± 0.1, 36.7 ± 0.2, 36.8 ± 0.1 vs 36.1 ± 0.4, 36.1 ± 0.4, 36.07 ± 0.4°C, respectively). Moreover, significantly higher core temperatures were observed in the water warmer group than in the control group during the placement of cold liver allograft (36.75 ± 0.17 vs 36.09 ± 0.38°C, respectively) and during the allograft reperfusion period (36.3 ± 0.26 vs 35.52 ± 0.42°C, respectively). In addition, the core temperatures immediately after admission to the SICU (36.75 ± 0.13 vs 36.22 ± 0.3°C, respectively) and at one hr (36.95 ± 0.13 vs 36.46 ± 0.2°C, respectively) were significantly higher in the water warmer group, compared to the control group, whereas the core temperature did not differ significantly afte two hours in ICU in both groups.
The investigated water warming system results in better maintenance of intraoperative normothermia than routine air forced warming applied to upper- and lower body.
PMCID: PMC137608  PMID: 12441007
7.  The Effect of Postoperative Skin-Surface Warming on Oxygen Consumption and the Shivering Threshold 
Anaesthesia  2003;58(12):1228-1234.
Cutaneous warming is reportedly an effective treatment for shivering during epidural and after general anaesthesia. We quantified the efficacy of cutaneous warming as a treatment for shivering. Unwarmed surgical patients (final intraoperative core temperatures ≈35°C) were randomly assigned to be covered with a blanket (n=9) or full-body forced-air cover (n=9). Shivering was evaluated clinically and by oxygen consumption. Forced-air heating increased mean-skin temperature (35.7±0.4 °C vs. 33.2±0.8°C, P< 0.0001) and lowered core temperature at the shivering threshold (35.7±0.2 °C vs. 36.4±0.2°C, P< 0.0001). Active warming improved thermal comfort and significantly reduced oxygen consumption from 9.7±4.4 to 5.6±1.9 mL·min−1·kg−1(P=0.038). However, duration of shivering was similar in the two groups (37±11 min [warming] and 36±10 min [control]). Core temperature thus contributed about four times as much as skin temperature to control of shivering. Cutaneous warming improved thermal comfort and reduced metabolic stress in postoperative patients, but did not quickly obliterate shivering.
PMCID: PMC1314985  PMID: 14705689
shivering; body temperature; thermoregulatory control
8.  Are active warming measures required during paediatric cleft surgeries? 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2013;57(4):377-380.
During paediatric cleft surgeries intraoperative heat loss is minimal and hence undertaking all possible precautions available to prevent hypothermia and use of active warming measures may result in development of hyperthermia. This study aims to determine whether there will be hyperthermia on active warming and hypothermia if no active warming measures are undertaken. The rate of intraoperative temperature changes with and without active warming was also noted.
This study was conducted on 120 paediatric patients undergoing cleft lip and palate surgeries. In Group A, forced air warming at 38°C was started after induction. In Group B, no active warming was done. Body temperature was recorded every 30 min starting after induction until 180 min or end of surgery. Intragroup comparison of variables was done using Paired sample test and intergroup comparison using independent sample t-test.
In Group A, all intraoperative temperature readings were significantly higher than baseline. In Group B, there was a significant reduction in temperature at 30 and 60 min. Temperature at 90 min did not show any significant difference, but further readings were significantly higher. Maximum rise in temperature occurred in Group A between 120 and 150 min and maximum fall in temperature in Group B was seen during first 30 min.
In pediatric cleft surgeries, we recommend active warming during the first 30 minutes if the surgery is expected to last for <2h, and no such measures are required if the expected duration is >2h.
PMCID: PMC3800330  PMID: 24163452
Active warming; hyperthermia; hypothermia; paediatric cleft surgeries
9.  The effect of warmed inspired gases on body temperature during arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia 
Perioperative hypothermia can develop easily during shoulder arthroscopy, because cold irrigation can directly influence core body temperature. The authors investigated whether active warming and humidification of inspired gases reduces falls in core body temperature and allows redistribution of body heat in patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia.
Patients scheduled for arthroscopic shoulder surgery were randomly assigned to receive either room temperature inspired gases using a conventional respiratory circuit (the control group, n = 20) or inspired gases humidified and heated using a humidified and electrically heated circuit (HHC) (the heated group, n = 20).
Core temperatures were significantly lower in both groups from 30 min after anesthesia induction, but were significantly higher in the heated group than in the control group from 75 to 120 min after anesthesia induction.
In this study the use of a humidified and electrically heated circuit did not prevent core temperature falling during arthroscopic shoulder surgery, but it was found to decrease reductions in core temperature from 75 min after anesthesia induction.
PMCID: PMC3726840  PMID: 23904934
Arthroscopy; Circuit; General anesthesia; Shoulder; Temperature
10.  Core temperatures during major abdominal surgery in patients warmed with new circulating-water garment, forced-air warming, or carbon-fiber resistive-heating system 
Journal of Anesthesia  2011;26(2):168-173.
It has been reported that recently developed circulating-water garments transfer more heat than a forced-air warming system. The authors evaluated the hypothesis that circulating-water leg wraps combined with a water mattress better maintain intraoperative core temperature ≥36°C than either forced-air warming or carbon-fiber resistive heating during major abdominal surgery.
Thirty-six patients undergoing open abdominal surgery were randomly assigned to warming with: (1) circulating-water leg wraps combined with a full-length circulating-water mattress set at 42°C, (2) a lower-body forced-air cover set on high (≈43°C), and (3) a carbon-fiber resistive-heating cover set at 42°C. Patients were anesthetized with general anesthesia combined with continuous epidural analgesia. The primary outcome was intraoperative tympanic-membrane temperature ≥36°C.
In the 2 h after anesthesia induction, core temperature decreased 1.0 ± 0.5°C in the forced-air group, 0.9 ± 0.2°C in the carbon-fiber group, and 0.4 ± 0.4°C in the circulating-water leg wraps and mattress group (P < 0.05 vs. forced-air and carbon-fiber heating). At the end of surgery, core temperature was 0.2 ± 0.7°C above preoperative values in the circulating-water group but remained 0.6 ± 0.9°C less in the forced-air and 0.6 ± 0.4°C less in the carbon-fiber groups (P < 0.05 vs. carbon fiber).
The combination of circulating-water leg wraps and a mattress better maintain intraoperative core temperature than did forced-air and carbon-fiber warming systems.
PMCID: PMC3328673  PMID: 22189652
Temperature; Hypothermia; Circulating-water garment; Carbon fiber; Forced air
11.  Rewarming of healthy volunteers after induced mild hypothermia: a healthy volunteer study 
Emergency Medicine Journal : EMJ  2005;22(3):182-184.
Objectives: The study compares the efficacy of two active and one passive warming interventions in healthy volunteers with induced mild hypothermia.
Methods: Eight volunteers were studied in a random order crossover design. Each volunteer was studied during re-warming from a core temperature of 35°C with each of: a radiant warmer (Fisher & Paykel); a forced air warmer (Augustine Medical), and a polyester filled blanket, to re-warm.
Results: No significant differences in re-warming rates were observed between the three warming devices. It was found that the subject's endogenous heat production was the major contributor to the re-warming of these volunteers. Metabolic rates of over 350 W were seen during the study.
Conclusions: For patients with mild hypothermia and in whom shivering is not contraindicated our data would indicate that the rate of re-warming would be little different whether a blanket or one of the two active devices were used. In the field, this may provide the caregiver a useful choice.
PMCID: PMC1726709  PMID: 15735265
12.  Effects of a Circulating-water Garment and Forced-air Warming on Body Heat Content and Core Temperature 
Anesthesiology  2004;100(5):1058-1064.
Background: Forced-air warming is sometimes unable to maintain perioperative normothermia. We therefore compared heat transfer, regional heat distribution, and core rewarming of forced-air warming with a novel circulating-water garment.
Methods: Nine volunteers were each evaluated on two randomly ordered study days. They were anesthetized and cooled to a core temperature near 34°C. The volunteers were subsequently warmed for 2.5 hours with either a circulating-water garment or forced-air cover. Overall, heat balance was determined from the difference between cutaneous heat loss (thermal flux transducers) and metabolic heat production (oxygen consumption). Average arm and leg (peripheral) tissue temperatures were determined from 18 intramuscular needle thermocouples, 15 skin thermal flux transducers, and “deep” arm and foot thermometers.
Results: Heat production (≈ 60 kcal/h) and loss (≈45 kcal/h) were similar with each treatment before warming. The increase in heat transfer across anterior portions of the skin surface was similar with each warming system (≈65 kcal/h). Forced-air warming had no effect on posterior heat transfer whereas circulating-water transferred 21 ± 9 kcal/h through the posterior skin surface after a half hour of warming. Over 2.5 h, circulating-water thus increased body heat content 56% more than forced air. Core temperatures thus increased faster than with circulating water than forced air, especially during the first hour, with the result that core temperature was 1.1 ± 0.7°C greater after 2.5 h (P < 0.001). Peripheral tissue heat content increased twice as much as core heat content with each device, but the core-to-peripheral tissue temperature gradient remained positive throughout the study.
Conclusions: The circulating-water system transferred more heat than forced air, with the difference resulting largely from posterior heating. Circulating water rewarmed patients 0.4°C/h faster than forced air. A substantial peripheral-to-core tissue-temperature gradient with each device indicated that peripheral tissues insulated the core, thus slowing heat transfer.
PMCID: PMC1409744  PMID: 15114200
13.  Comparison of the efficacy of a forced-air warming system and circulating-water mattress on core temperature and post-anesthesia shivering in elderly patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty under spinal anesthesia 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2014;66(5):352-357.
In the present study, we compared changes in body temperature and the occurrence of shivering in elderly patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty under spinal anesthesia during warming with either a forced-air warming system or a circulating-water mattress.
Forty-six patients were randomly assigned to either the forced-air warming system (N = 23) or circulating-water mattress (N = 23) group. Core temperature was recorded using measurements at the tympanic membrane and rectum. In addition, the incidence and intensity of post-anesthesia shivering and verbal analogue score for thermal comfort were simultaneously assessed.
Core temperature outcomes did not differ between the groups. The incidence (13.0 vs 43.5%, P < 0.05) and intensity (20/2/1/0/0 vs 13/5/3/2/0, P < 0.05) of post-anesthesia shivering was significantly lower in the forced-air system group than in the circulating-water mattress group.
The circulating-water mattress was as effective as the forced-air warming system for maintaining body temperature. However, the forced-air warming system was superior to the circulating-water mattress in reducing the incidence of post-anesthesia shivering.
PMCID: PMC4041953  PMID: 24910726
Shivering; Spinal anesthesia; Temperature
14.  Local warming and insertion of peripheral venous cannulas: single blinded prospective randomised controlled trial and single blinded randomised crossover trial 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2002;325(7361):409.
To determine whether local warming of the lower arm and hand facilitates peripheral venous cannulation.
Single blinded prospective randomised controlled trial and single blinded randomised crossover trial.
Neurosurgical unit and haematology ward of university hospital.
100 neurosurgical patients and 40 patients with leukaemia who required chemotherapy.
Neurosurgical patients' hands and forearms were covered for 15 minutes with a carbon fibre heating mitt. Patients were assigned randomly to active warming at 52°C or passive insulation (heater not activated). The same warming system was used for 10 minutes in patients with leukaemia. They were assigned randomly to active warming or passive insulation on day 1 and given alternative treatment during the subsequent visit.
Main outcome measures
Primary: success rate for insertion of 18 gauge cannula into vein on back of hand. Secondary: time required for successful cannulation.
In neurosurgical patients, it took 36 seconds (95% confidence interval 31 to 40 seconds) to insert a cannula in the active warming group and 62 (50 to 74) seconds in the passive insulation group (P=0.002). Three (6%) first attempts failed in the active warming group compared with 14 (28%) in the passive insulation group (P=0.008). The crossover study in patients with leukaemia showed that insertion time was reduced by 20 seconds (8 to 32, P=0.013) with active warming and that failure rates at first attempt were 6% with warming and 30% with passive insulation (P<0.001).
Local warming facilitates the insertion of peripheral venous cannulas, reducing both time and number of attempts required. This may decrease the time staff spend inserting cannulas, reduce supply costs, and improve patient satisfaction.
What is already known on this topicInsertion of peripheral venous cannulas may be difficult because of severe vasoconstrictionVasoconstriction can be overcome by local heatingWhat this study addsActive local warming facilitates the insertion of peripheral venous cannulas, reducing both the time and number of attempts requiredLocal warming will decrease the amount of time staff spend inserting cannulas, reduce supply costs, and improve patient satisfaction
PMCID: PMC119431  PMID: 12193353
15.  European society of intensive care medicine study of therapeutic hypothermia (32-35°C) for intracranial pressure reduction after traumatic brain injury (the Eurotherm3235Trial) 
Trials  2011;12:8.
Traumatic brain injury is a major cause of death and severe disability worldwide with 1,000,000 hospital admissions per annum throughout the European Union.
Therapeutic hypothermia to reduce intracranial hypertension may improve patient outcome but key issues are length of hypothermia treatment and speed of re-warming. A recent meta-analysis showed improved outcome when hypothermia was continued for between 48 hours and 5 days and patients were re-warmed slowly (1°C/4 hours). Previous experience with cooling also appears to be important if complications, which may outweigh the benefits of hypothermia, are to be avoided.
This is a pragmatic, multi-centre randomised controlled trial examining the effects of hypothermia 32-35°C, titrated to reduce intracranial pressure <20 mmHg, on morbidity and mortality 6 months after traumatic brain injury. The study aims to recruit 1800 patients over 41 months. Enrolment started in April 2010.
Participants are randomised to either standard care or standard care with titrated therapeutic hypothermia. Hypothermia is initiated with 20-30 ml/kg of intravenous, refrigerated 0.9% saline and maintained using each centre's usual cooling technique. There is a guideline for detection and treatment of shivering in the intervention group. Hypothermia is maintained for at least 48 hours in the treatment group and continued for as long as is necessary to maintain intracranial pressure <20 mmHg. Intracranial hypertension is defined as an intracranial pressure >20 mmHg in accordance with the Brain Trauma Foundation Guidelines, 2007.
The Eurotherm3235Trial is the most important clinical trial in critical care ever conceived by European intensive care medicine, because it was launched and funded by the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine and will be the largest non-commercial randomised controlled trial due to the substantial number of centres required to deliver the target number of patients. It represents a new and fundamental step for intensive care medicine in Europe. Recruitment will continue until January 2013 and interested clinicians from intensive care units worldwide can still join this important collaboration by contacting the Trial Coordinating Team via the trial website
Trial registration
Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN34555414
PMCID: PMC3027122  PMID: 21226939
16.  Meperidine and skin surface warming additively reduce the shivering threshold: a volunteer study 
Critical Care  2007;11(1):R29.
Mild therapeutic hypothermia has been shown to improve outcome for patients after cardiac arrest and may be beneficial for ischaemic stroke and myocardial ischaemia patients. However, in the awake patient, even a small decrease of core temperature provokes vigorous autonomic reactions–vasoconstriction and shivering–which both inhibit efficient core cooling. Meperidine and skin warming each linearly lower vasoconstriction and shivering thresholds. We tested whether a combination of skin warming and a medium dose of meperidine additively would reduce the shivering threshold to below 34°C without producing significant sedation or respiratory depression.
Eight healthy volunteers participated on four study days: (1) control, (2) skin warming (with forced air and warming mattress), (3) meperidine (target plasma level: 0.9 μg/ml), and (4) skin warming plus meperidine (target plasma level: 0.9 μg/ml). Volunteers were cooled with 4°C cold Ringer lactate infused over a central venous catheter (rate ≈ 2.4°C/hour core temperature drop). Shivering threshold was identified by an increase of oxygen consumption (+20% of baseline). Sedation was assessed with the Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation scale.
Control shivering threshold was 35.5°C ± 0.2°C. Skin warming reduced the shivering threshold to 34.9°C ± 0.5°C (p = 0.01). Meperidine reduced the shivering threshold to 34.2°C ± 0.3°C (p < 0.01). The combination of meperidine and skin warming reduced the shivering threshold to 33.8°C ± 0.2°C (p < 0.01). There were no synergistic or antagonistic effects of meperidine and skin warming (p = 0.59). Only very mild sedation occurred on meperidine days.
A combination of meperidine and skin surface warming reduced the shivering threshold to 33.8°C ± 0.2°C via an additive interaction and produced only very mild sedation and no respiratory toxicity.
PMCID: PMC2151895  PMID: 17316456
17.  Perioperative antibiotics for prevention of acute endophthalmitis after cataract surgery 
Endophthalmitis is a severe inflammation of the anterior and/or posterior chambers of the eye that may be sterile or associated with infection. It is a potentially vision-threatening complication of cataract surgery. Prophylactic measures for endophthalmitis are targeted against various sources of infection.
The objective of this review was to evaluate the effects of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis for endophthalmitis following cataract surgery.
Search methods
We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 10), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE, (January 1950 to October 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to October 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (, ( and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) ( We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 25 October 2012. We also searched for additional studies that cited any included trials using the Science Citation Index.
Selection criteria
We included randomized controlled trials that enrolled adults undergoing cataract surgery (any method and incision type) for lens opacities due to any origin. Trials that evaluated preoperative antibiotics, intraoperative (intracameral, subconjunctival or systemic) or postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis for acute endophthalmitis were included. We did not include studies that evaluated antiseptic preoperative preparations using agents such as povidone iodine, nor did we include studies that evaluated antibiotics for treating acute endophthalmitis after cataract surgery.
Data collection and analysis
Two review authors independently reviewed abstracts and full-text articles for eligibility, assessed the risk of bias for each included study, and abstracted data.
Main results
Four studies met the inclusion criteria for this review, including 100,876 adults and 131 endophthalmitis cases. While the sample size is very large, the heterogeneity of the study designs and modes of antibiotic delivery made it impossible to conduct a formal meta-analysis. Interventions investigated in the studies included the utility of adding vancomycin and gentamycin to the irrigating solution compared with standard balanced saline solution irrigation alone, use of intracameral cefuroxime and/or topical levofloxacin perioperatively, periocular penicillin injections and topical chloramphenicol-sulphadimidine drops compared with topical antibiotics alone, and mode of antibiotic delivery (subconjunctival versus retrobulbar injections). Two studies with adequate sample sizes to evaluate a rare outcome found reduced risk of endophthalmitis with antibiotic injections during surgery compared with topical antibiotics alone: risk ratio (RR) 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12 to 0.92 (periocular penicillin versus topical chloramphenicol-sulphadimidine) and RR 0.21, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.74 (intracameral cefuroxime versus topical levofloxacin). Another study found no significant difference in endophthalmitis when comparing subconjunctival versus retrobulbar antibiotic injections (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.32). The fourth study which compared irrigation with balanced salt solution (BSS) alone versus BSS with antibiotics was not sufficiently powered to detect differences in endophthalmitis between groups. The risk of bias among studies was low to unclear due to information not being reported.
Authors' conclusions
Multiple measures for preventing endophthalmitis following cataract surgery have been studied. One of the included studies, the ESCRS (European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeons) study, was performed using contemporary surgical technique and employed cefuroxime, an antibiotic commonly used in many parts of the world. Clinical trials with rare outcomes require very large sample sizes and are quite costly to conduct; thus, it is unlikely that additional clinical trials will be conducted to evaluate currently available prophylaxis. Practitioners should rely on current evidence to make informed decisions regarding prophylaxis choices.
PMCID: PMC4262119  PMID: 23857416
18.  Intensified thermal management for patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) 
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation via the transapical approach (TAVI-TA) without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a minimally invasive alternative to open-heart valve replacement. Despite minimal exposure and extensive draping perioperative hypothermia still remains a problem.
In this observational study, we compared the effects of two methods of thermal management on the perioperative course of core temperature. The methods were standard thermal management (STM) with a circulating hot water blanket under the patient, forced-air warming with a lower body blanket and warmed infused fluids, and an intensified thermal management (ITM) with additional prewarming using forced-air in the pre-operative holding area on the awake patient.
Nineteen patients received STM and 20 were treated with ITM. On ICU admission, ITM-patients had a higher core temperature (36.4 ± 0.7°C vs. 35.5 ± 0.9°C, p = 0.001), required less time to achieve normothermia (median (IQR) in min: 0 (0-15) vs. 150 (0-300), p = 0.003) and a shorter period of ventilatory support (median (IQR) in min: 0 (0-0) vs. 246 (0-451), p = 0.001).
ITM during TAVI-TA reduces the incidence of hypothermia and allows for faster recovery with less need of ventilatory support.
PMCID: PMC3203847  PMID: 21943183
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation; hypothermia; thermal management; core temperature; prewarming; forced air warming
19.  Mechanical methods of reducing blood transfusion in cardiac surgery: randomised controlled trial 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2002;324(7349):1299.
To assess the effectiveness of two mechanical methods of blood conservation in reducing the need for allogeneic red blood cells or coagulation products during cardiac surgery.
Randomised controlled trial.
Regional cardiac centre in a teaching hospital in Southampton.
263 adults aged 18-80 years undergoing elective coronary artery bypass surgery entered the study, of whom 252 completed the trial. All patients received routine perioperative care. Patients were allocated to one of three treatment groups: intraoperative cell salvage, intraoperative cell salvage with acute perioperative normovolaemic haemodilution, or no mechanical blood conservation. There were 84 patients in each group.
Main outcome measures
Numbers of patients who received allogeneic blood or coagulation products, and the mean number of units of blood transfused per patient.
Of the patients in the intraoperative cell salvage group, 26 were given a transfusion of allogeneic blood, compared with 43 in the control group (odds ratio 0.43 (95% confidence interval 0.23 to 0.80)). The mean number of units of allogeneic blood transfused per patient in the intraoperative cell salvage group was 0.68 units (SD=1.55), compared with 1.07 (1.56) units in the control group. 32 of the patients in the intraoperative cell salvage group were given any blood product, compared with 47 in the control group (odds ratio 0.47 (0.25 to 0.89); P=0.019). Combining acute perioperative normovolaemic haemodilution with intraoperative cell salvage conferred no additional benefits.
An intraoperative cell salvage device should be used in elective coronary artery bypass grafting. Pharmacological strategies may achieve further reductions in blood transfusions. Yet further reductions in blood transfusions could be achieved if the lower safe limit of haemoglobin concentration in patients undergoing cardiac surgery were known.
What is already known on this topicPatients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass surgery often need a blood transfusionRecent meta-analyses have shown that the mechanical blood conservation techniques of intraoperative cell salvage and acute perioperative normovolaemic haemodilution may reduce the need for transfusion, but flawed methods in trials mean that clear evidence in cardiac surgery is lackingWhat this study addsIntraoperative cell salvage significantly reduces the number of patients needing an allogeneic blood transfusionCombining acute perioperative normovolaemic haemodilution with intraoperative cell salvage does not confer any additional benefit
PMCID: PMC113763  PMID: 12039820
20.  The effect of pre-warmed intravenous fluids on prevention of intraoperative hypothermia in cesarean section 
Hypothermia is one of the problems occurring during surgery, which can happen due to thermoregulation mechanism disorders and intake of low temperature IV fluids, and may cause increase in blood pressure, heart rate, intracranial pressure, oxygen consumption, pain, and discomfort to the patient. The rate of cesarean section in our country is three times more than the global standard. As one of the responsibilities of the nurse is patient's advocacy, s/he should support them. This study aimed to investigate the effect of pre-warmed intravenous fluids on prevention of hypothermia during general anesthesia in cesarean section.
Materials and Methods:
Sixty-two women undergoing elective cesarean section by general anesthesia were randomly allocated in two groups of intervention and control. Women in the intervention group received pre-warmed serum (37°C) while those in the control group received serum at room temperature (25.5°C). The core body temperature and some hemodynamic parameters of the participants were assessed during the operation.
The mean of pulse rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and arterial O2 saturation in the two groups were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). But the mean of mothers’ core body temperature at the end of anesthesia in the intervention and control groups were 36 ± 0.5°C and 35.34 ± 0.6°C, respectively (P < 0.05).
Infusion of pre-warmed serum (37°C) would prevent intraoperative hypothermia and improve the nursing care for women who undergo cesarean section by general anesthesia.
PMCID: PMC3917187  PMID: 24554962
Cesarean; hypothermia; intravenous fluids; Iran; nursing care
21.  Using “warm handoffs” to link hospitalized smokers with tobacco treatment after discharge: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial 
Trials  2012;13:127.
Post-discharge support is a key component of effective treatment for hospitalized smokers, but few hospitals provide it. Many hospitals and care settings fax-refer smokers to quitlines for follow-up; however, less than half of fax-referred smokers are successfully contacted and enrolled in quitline services. “Warm handoff” is a novel approach to care transitions in which health care providers directly link patients with substance abuse problems with specialists, using face-to-face or phone transfer. Warm handoff achieves very high rates of treatment enrollment for these vulnerable groups.
The aim of this study—“EQUIP” (Enhancing Quitline Utilization among In-Patients)—is to determine the effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness, of warm handoff versus fax referral for linking hospitalized smokers with tobacco quitlines. This study employs a two-arm, individually randomized design. It is set in two large Kansas hospitals that have dedicated tobacco treatment interventionists on staff. At each site, smokers who wish to remain abstinent after discharge will be randomly assigned to groups. For patients in the fax group, staff will provide standard in-hospital intervention and will fax-refer patients to the state tobacco quitline for counseling post-discharge. For patients in the warm handoff group, staff will provide brief in-hospital intervention and immediate warm handoff: staff will call the state quitline, notify them that a warm handoff inpatient from Kansas is on the line, then transfer the call to the patients’ mobile or bedside hospital phone for quitline enrollment and an initial counseling session. Following the quitline session, hospital staff provides a brief check-back visit. Outcome measures will be assessed at 1, 6, and 12 months post enrollment. Costs are measured to support cost-effectiveness analyses. We hypothesize that warm handoff, compared to fax referral, will improve care transitions for tobacco treatment, enroll more participants in quitline services, and lead to higher quit rates. We also hypothesize that warm handoff will be more cost-effective from a societal perspective.
If successful, this project offers a low-cost solution for more efficiently linking millions of hospitalized smokers with effective outpatient treatment—smokers that might otherwise be lost in the transition to outpatient care.
Trial registration
Clinical Trials Registration NCT01305928
PMCID: PMC3495904  PMID: 22853047
Tobacco use disorder; Smoking cessation; Hospital; Randomized clinical trial
22.  Effect evaluation of a heated ambulance mattress-prototype on body temperatures and thermal comfort - an experimental study 
Exposure to cold temperatures is, often, a neglected problem in prehospital care. One of the leading influences of the overall sensation of cold discomfort is the cooling of the back. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a heated ambulance mattress-prototype on body temperatures and thermal comfort in an experimental study.
Data were collected during four days in November, 2011 inside and outside of a cold chamber. All participants (n = 23) participated in two trials each. In one trial, they were lying on a stretcher with a supplied heated mattress and in the other trial without a heated mattress. Outcomes were back temperature, finger temperature, core body temperature, Cold Discomfort Scale (CDS), four statements from the state-trait anxiety – inventory (STAI), and short notes of their experiences of the two mattresses. Data were analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. A repeated measure design was used to evaluate the effect of the two mattresses.
A statistical difference between the regular mattress and the heated mattress was found in the back temperature. In the heated mattress trial, the statement “I am tense” was fewer whereas the statements “I feel comfortable”, “I am relaxed” and “I feel content” were higher in the heated mattress trial. The qualitative analyses of the short notes showed that the heated mattress, when compared to the unheated mattress, was experienced as warm, comfortable, providing security and was easier to relax on.
Heat supply from underneath the body results in increased comfort and may prevent hypothermia which is important for injured and sick patients in ambulance care.
PMCID: PMC4131165  PMID: 25103366
Thermal comfort; Cold discomfort; Cold exposure
23.  A comparison of Kneipp hydrotherapy with conventional physiotherapy in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip or knee: protocol of a prospective randomised controlled clinical trial 
The increasing age of the population, especially in the western world, means that the prevalence of osteoarthritis is also increasing, with corresponding socioeconomic consequences. Although there is no curative intervention at present, in accordance with US and European guidelines, pharmacotherapeutic and non-pharmacological approaches aim at pain control and the reduction of functional restriction.
It has been established that hydrotherapy for osteoarthritis of the hip or knee joint using serial cold and warm water stimulation not only improves the range of movement but also reduces pain significantly and increases quality of life over a period of up to three months. Weight reduction is important for patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. In addition, conventional physiotherapy and exercise therapy have both been shown, at a high level of evidence, to be cost-effective and to have long-term benefits for pain relief, movement in the affected joint, and patient quality of life.
The study design consists of a prospective randomised controlled three-armed clinical trial, which will be carried out at a specialist clinic for integrative medicine, to investigate the clinical effects of hydrotherapy on osteoarthritis of the knee or hip joint, in comparison with conventional physiotherapy.
One hundred and eighty patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis of hip or knee will be randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups: hydrotherapy, physiotherapy, and both physiotherapy and hydrotherapy of the affected joint. In the first group, patients will receive Kneipp hydrotherapy daily, with water applied in the form of alternate cold and warm thigh affusions (alternating cold and warm water stimulation is particularly relevant to the knee and hip regions).
Patients in the second group will receive physiotherapy of the hip or knee joint three times a week. Patients in the physiotherapy-hydrotherapy combination group will receive both joint-specific physiotherapy three times a week and alternate cold and warm thigh affusions every day. Follow-up assessments will be on three levels: clinical assessment by the investigator; subjective patient assessment consisting of a patient diary, and questionnaires on admission and at the end of the treatment phase; and a final telephone assessment by the external evaluation centre. Assessments will be made at baseline, after two weeks of inpatient treatment, and finally after a further ten weeks of follow-up. The primary outcome measure will be pain intensity of the affected joint in the course of inpatient treatment, judged by the patient and the investigator. Secondary outcomes include health-related quality of life and joint-specific pain and mobility in the course of the study. Statistical analysis of the results will be on an intention-to-treat basis.
This study methodology has been conceived according to the standards of the CONSORT recommendations. The results will contribute to establishing hydrotherapy as a non-invasive, non-interventional, reasonably priced, therapeutic option with few side effects, in the concomitant treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip or knee.
Trial Registration
Trial registration number: NCT 00950326
PMCID: PMC2736923  PMID: 19689824
24.  A tertiary care center’s experience with therapeutic hypothermia after pediatric cardiac arrest 
To describe the use and feasibility of therapeutic hypothermia after pediatric cardiac arrest.
Retrospective cohort study.
Pediatric tertiary care university hospital.
Infants and children (age 1 wk to 21 yrs) without complex congenital heart disease with return of spontaneous circulation after in-hospital or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest from 2000 to 2006.
Measurements and Main Results
We studied 181 patients after cardiac arrest, of which 91% were asphyxial in etiology (vs. cardiac) and 52% occurred in-hospital. Overall survival to hospital discharge was 45%. Forty patients received therapeutic hypothermia; all were admitted during or after 2002. Sixty percent of patients in the therapeutic hypothermia group had an initial temperature <35°C. The median therapeutic hypothermia target temperature was 34.0°C (33.5–34.8°C), was reached by 7 hrs (5–8 hrs) after admission in patients who were not hypothermic on admission, and was maintained for 24 hrs (16–48 hrs). Re-warming lasted 6 hrs (5–8 hrs). In the therapeutic hypothermia group, temperature <32°C occurred in 15% of patients and was associated with higher hospital mortality (29% vs. 11%; p = .02). Patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia differed from those treated with standard therapy, with more un-witnessed cardiac arrest (p = .04), more doses of epinephrine to achieve return of spontaneous circulation (p = .03), and a trend toward more out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (p = .11). After arrest, therapeutic hypothermia patients received more frequent electrolyte supplementation (p < .05). Standard therapy patients were twice as likely as therapeutic hypothermia patients to have a fever (>38°C) after arrest (37% vs. 18%; p = .02) and trended toward a higher rate of re-arrest (26% vs. 13%; p = .09). Rates of red blood cell transfusions, infection, and arrhythmias were similar between groups. There was no difference in hospital mortality (55.0% therapeutic hypothermia vs. 55.3% standard therapy; p = 1.0), and 78% of the therapeutic hypothermia survivors were discharged home (vs. 68% of the standard therapy survivors; p = .46). In multivariate analysis, mortality was independently associated with initial hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia, number of doses of epinephrine during resuscitation, asphyxial etiology, and longer duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, but not treatment group (odds ratio for mortality in the therapeutic hypothermia group, 0.47; p = .2).
This is the largest study reported on the use of therapeutic mild hypothermia in pediatric cardiac arrest to date. We found that therapeutic hypothermia was feasible, with target temperature achieved in <3 hrs overall. Temperature below target range was associated with increased mortality. Prospective study is urgently needed to determine the efficacy of therapeutic hypothermia in pediatric patients after cardiac arrest.
PMCID: PMC3654403  PMID: 19935440
brain injury; cardiopulmonary resuscitation; cardiac arrest; pediatric; outcome
25.  Relation between duration and intensity of first exercise and "warm up" in ischaemic heart disease 
Heart  2000;83(1):17-21.
OBJECTIVE—To determine the importance of the duration and intensity of "warm up" exercise for reducing ischaemia during second exercise in patients with exertional angina.
DESIGN—Randomised crossover comparison of three warm up exercise protocols.
PATIENTS—18 subjects with stable ischaemic heart disease and > 0.1 mV ST segment depression on treadmill exercise testing.
INTERVENTIONS—The warm up protocols were 20 minutes of slow exercise at 2.7 km/h, symptom limited graded exercise for a mean of 7.4 (range 5.0 to 10.5) minutes, and three minutes of symptom limited fast exercise of similar maximum intensity.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—ST segment depression during graded treadmill exercise undertaken 10 minutes after each warm up protocol or no warm up exercise.
RESULTS—Compared with exercise with no warm up, the duration of graded exercise after earlier slow warm up increased by 4.9% (95% confidence interval (CI), −3.3% to 13.7%), after graded warm up by 10.3% (95% CI, 5.6% to 15.2%), and after fast warm up by 16% (95% CI, 6.2% to 26.7%). ST segment depression at equivalent submaximal exercise decreased after slow warm up by 27% (95% CI, 5% to 44%), after graded warm up by 31% (95% CI, 17% to 44%), and after fast warm up by 47% (95% CI, 27% to 61%). Compared with slow warm up exercise, the more intense graded and fast warm up protocols significantly increased the duration of second exercise (p = 0.0072) and reduced both peak ST depression (p = 0.0026) and the rate of increase of ST depression (p = 0.0069).
CONCLUSIONS—In patients with exertional angina the size of the warm up response is related to the maximum intensity rather than the duration of first exercise.

Keywords: exercise; angina; warm up; preconditioning
PMCID: PMC1729284  PMID: 10618328

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