Current reconstructive techniques for continuity defects of the mandible include the use of free flaps, bone grafts, and alloplastic materials. New methods of regenerative medicine designed to restore tissues depend mainly on the so-called extrinsic neovascularization, where the neovascular bed originates from the periphery of the construct. This method is not applicable for large defects in irradiated fields.
We are introducing a new animal model for mandibular reconstruction using intrinsic axial vascularization by the Arterio-Venous (AV) loop. In order to test this model, we made cadaveric, mechanical loading, and surgical pilot studies on adult male goats. The cadaveric study aimed at defining the best vascular axis to be used in creating the AV loop in the mandibular region. Mechanical loading studies (3 points bending test) were done to ensure that the mechanical properties of the mandible were significantly affected by the designed defect, and to put a base line for further mechanical testing after bone regeneration. A pilot surgical study was done to ensure smooth operative and post operative procedures.
The best vascular axis to reconstruct defects in the posterior half of the mandible is the facial artery (average length 32.5 ± 1.9 mm, caliber 2.5 mm), and facial vein (average length 33.3 ± 1.8 mm, caliber 2.6 mm). Defects in the anterior half require an additional venous graft. The defect was shown to be significantly affecting the mechanical properties of the mandible (P value 0.0204). The animal was able to feed on soft diet from the 3rd postoperative day and returned to normal diet within a week. The mandible did not break during the period of follow up (2 months).
Our model introduces the concept of axial vascularization of mandibular constructs. This model can be used to assess bone regeneration for large bony defects in irradiated fields. This is the first study to introduce the concept of axial vascularization using the AV loop for angiogenesis in the mandibular region. Moreover, this is the first study aiming at axial vascularization of synthetic tissue engineering constructs at the site of the defect without any need for tissue transfer (in contrast to what was done previously in prefabricated flaps).
Co-axial electrospun fibers can offer both topographical and biochemical cues for tissue engineering applications. In this study, we demonstrate the sustained treatment of hemophilia through a non-viral, tissue engineering approach facilitated by growth factor-releasing co-axial electrospun fibers. FVIII-producing skeletal myotubes were first engineered on aligned electrospun fibers in vitro, followed by implantation in hemophilic mice with or without a layer of core-shell electrospun fibers designed to provide sustained delivery of angiogenic or lymphangiogenic growth factors, which serves to stimulate the lymphatic or vascular systems to enhance the FVIII transport from the implant site into systemic circulation. Upon subcutaneous implantation into hemophilic mice, the construct seamlessly integrated with the host tissue within one month, and specifically induced either vascular or lymphatic network infiltration in accordance with the growth factors released from the electrospun fibers. Engineered constructs that induced angiogenesis resulted in sustained elevation of plasma FVIII and significantly reduced blood coagulation time for at least two months. Biomaterials-assisted functional tissue engineering was shown in this study to offer protein replacement therapy for a genetic disorder such as hemophilia.
Hemophilia; skeletal muscle engineering; angiogenesis; lymphangiogenesis; electrospinning; protein replacement therapy
It is becoming evident that tissue-engineered constructs adapt to altered mechanical loading, and that specific combinations of multidirectional loads appear to have a synergistic effect on the remodeling. However, most studies of mechanical stimulation of engineered vascular tissue engineering employ only uniaxial stimulation. Here we present a novel computer-controlled bioreactor and biomechanical testing device designed to precisely and simultaneously control mean and cyclic values of transmural pressure (at rates up to 1 Hz and ranges of 40 mmHg), luminal flow rate, and axial length (or load) applied to gel-derived, scaffold-derived, and self-assembly-derived tissue-engineered blood vessels during culture, while monitoring vessel geometry with a resolution of 6.6 μm. Intermittent monitoring of the extracellular matrix and cells is accomplished on live tissues using multi-photon confocal microscopy under unloaded and loaded conditions at multiple time-points in culture (on the same vessel) to quantify changes in cell and extracellular matrix content and organization. This same device is capable of performing intermittent cylindrical biaxial biomechanical testing at multiple time-points in culture (on the same vessel) to quantify changes in the mechanical behavior during culture. Here we demonstrate the capabilities of this new device on self-assembly-derived and collagen-gel-derived tissue-engineered blood vessels.
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystem connective tissue disease of unknown etiology. The hallmark of SSc is scleroderma, referring to the presence of thickened, hardened skin. Oral and maxillofacial manifestations of the disease are numerous including masklike appearance, trismus, muscular atrophy, thin atrophied lips, secondary microstomia, xerostomia, rigidity of tongue and lips, widening of the periodontal ligament space, trigeminal neuralgia, and resorption of the mandible. A 35-year-old woman with limited cutaneous SSc presented with bilateral mandibular condylysis, severe class II mandibular deficiency, and large anterior open bite and limited range of mandibular opening at 27 mm. Surgical correction consisted of bilateral total temporomandibular joint reconstruction with stock prostheses combined with Le Fort I maxillary impaction and functional advancement genioplasty. This resulted in a functional occlusion with elimination of her open bite and a more esthetic profile. Her occlusion has remained stable at 7 months. The incidence of mandibular resorption in SSc has been found to be 20% to 33%. The mandibular angles are most commonly involved (37.6%), followed by the condyle (20.8%), coronoid process (20.0%), and the posterior border of the ascending ramus (14.4%). Bilateral condylysis is present in 13.7% of the cases. Very few cases of surgical correction of malocclusion induced by SSc-related condylysis have been reported in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of bilateral condylysis from SSc where surgical replacement of the resorbed condyles was attempted. Bilateral total temporomandibular joint replacement can give these patients a functional occlusion, improved facial balance, and improved quality of life.
Scleroderma; systemic; temporomandibular joint; arthroplasty; replacement; osteolysis
The skin paddle of the free fibula flap receives its vascular supply from septocutaneous perforators, musculocutaneous perforators or from both, and these perforators might originate from the peroneal or posterior tibial vessels or from both. The objective of this study was to classify the skin paddles based on the dominance of vascular contribution by these axial vessels through their different perforator systems.
Materials and Methods:
A retrospective analysis of 5-year data of 386 free fibula flaps used in oro-mandibular reconstruction was done and the skin paddle vascularity was studied. While majority of the skin paddles received their blood supply from the peroneal septocutaneous perforators, a few had their dominant supply from the soleus musculocutaneous perforators in addition to peroneal septocutaneous perforators. In few cases, the soleus musculocutaneous perforators were the sole source of blood supply to the skin paddle. The limitation in this study was the inability to augment the clinical observation with cadaveric study.
The skin paddle of the free fibula flap was classified into four different types (a–d) based on the dominance of vascular contribution by axial vessels of the leg.
The skin paddle of the free fibula flap has reliable blood supply, but a thorough knowledge of the variations in vascular pattern of the skin paddle is required especially to salvage the larger paddles used in the reconstruction complex oro-mandibular defects.
Free fibula flap; musculocutaneous perforators; septo cutaneous perforators; skin paddle; vascular supply
Tissue engineering has become a new approach for repairing bony defects. Highly porous osteoconductive scaffolds perform the important role for the success of bone regeneration. By biomimetic strategy, apatite-coated porous biomaterial based on silk fibroin scaffolds (SS) might provide an enhanced osteogenic environment for bone-related outcomes. To assess the effects of apatite-coated silk fibroin (mSS) biomaterials for bone healing as a tissue engineered bony scaffold, we explored a tissue engineered bony graft using mSS seeded with osteogenically induced autologous bone marrow stromal cells (bMSCs) to repair inferior mandibular border defects in a canine model. The results were compared with those treated with bMSCs/SS constructs, mSS alone, SS alone, autologous mandibular grafts and untreated blank defects. According to radiographic and histological examination, new bone formation was observed from 4 weeks post-operation, and the defect site was completely repaired after 12 months for the bMSCs/mSS group. In the bMSCs/SS group, new bone formation was observed with more residual silk scaffold remaining at the center of the defect compared with the bMSCs/mSS group. The engineered bone with bMSCs/mSS achieved satisfactory bone mineral densities (BMD) at 12 months post-operation close to those of normal mandible (p>0.05). The quantities of newly formed bone area for the bMSCs/mSS group was higher than the bMSCs/SS group (p<0.01), but no significant differences were found when compared with the autograft group (p>0.05). In contrast, bony defects remained in the center with undegraded silk fibroin scaffold and fibrous connective tissue, and new bone only formed at the periphery in the groups treated with mSS or SS alone. The results suggested apatite-coated silk fibroin scaffolds combined with bMSCs could be successfully used to repair mandibular critical size border defects and the premineralization of these porous silk fibroin protein scaffolds provided an increased osteoconductive environment for bMSCs to regenerate sufficient new bone tissue.
Tissue engineering; Silk; Apatite; Bone marrow stromal cells; Canine
Background and objective: Mandibular reconstruction following tumor ablative surgery had been a challenge. It has gone through days of temporary stabilization with k-wire, stainless steel reconstruction plate to avascularized and vascularized bone grafts with varying degree of success and failure. Reconstruction with vascularized bone grafts, though most definitive, requires special expertise, expensive equipment, and long operative time. It also produces donor site morbidity and requires a significant learning curve. With the development of transport distraction techniques there has been a paradigm shift from “reconstructive” to “regenerative” surgery. The objective of this study was to identify the feasibility of an internal device for reconstruction of extensive mandibular defects. Methods and material: This article is to highlight a process of attempted mandibular regeneration in two cases using an indigenously designed distractor device. In individuals with extensive post ablative mandibular defects who were unwilling to have a secondary surgical site or were medically unfit for a long reconstructive procedure, the distraction technique can be used to reconstruct the lost mandibular structures. Conclusion: A satisfactory amount of regenerate was achieved using a bifocal distraction osteogenesis technique for extensive defects of the mandible. The custom made device which was used for this purpose was moderately satisfactory and requires further evaluation and refinement.
Transport distraction; extensive mandibular defects; single unit distractor device; mandibular reconstruction
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most commonly injured intra-articular ligament of the knee. The insufficient vascularization of this tissue prevents it from healing completely after extreme tearing or rupture, creating a need for ACL grafts for reconstruction. The limitations of existing grafts have motivated the investigation of tissue engineered ACL grafts. A successful tissue engineered graft must possess mechanical properties similar to the ACL; to date no commercially available synthetic graft has achieved this. To accomplish this goal we have combined the techniques of polymer fiber braiding and twisting to design a novel poly L-lactic acid (PLLA) braid-twist scaffold for ACL tissue engineering. The scaffold is designed to accurately mimic the biomechanical profile and mechanical properties of the ACL. In this study, braid-twist scaffolds were constructed and compared to braided scaffolds and twisted fiber scaffolds.
The addition of fiber twisting to the braided scaffold resulted in a significant increase in the ultimate tensile strength, an increase in ultimate strain, and an increase in the length of the toe region in these constructs over scaffolds that were braided. Based on the findings of this study, the braid-twist scaffold studied was found to be a promising construct for tissue engineering of the anterior cruciate ligament.
anterior cruciate ligament (ACL); poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA); scaffold; polymer; tissue engineering
Mandibular defect occurs more frequently in recent years, and clinical repair operations via bone transplantation are difficult to be further improved due to some intrinsic flaws. Tissue engineering, which is a hot research field of biomedical engineering, provides a new direction for mandibular defect repair. As the basis and key part of tissue engineering, scaffolds have been widely and deeply studied in regards to the basic theory, as well as the principle of biomaterial, structure, design, and fabrication method. However, little research is targeted at tissue regeneration for clinic repair operations. Since mandibular bone has a special structure, rather than uniform and regular structure in existing studies, a methodology based on tissue engineering is proposed for mandibular defect repair in this paper. Key steps regarding scaffold digital design, such as external shape design and internal microstructure design directly based on triangular meshes are discussed in detail. By analyzing the theoretical model and the measured data from the test parts fabricated by rapid prototyping, the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methodology are properly verified. More works about mechanical and biological improvements need to be done to promote its clinical application in future.
Digital design; Mandibular defect; Scaffold; Tissue engineering
Over the years, cardiovascular diseases continue to increase and affect not only human health but also the economic stability worldwide. The advancement in tissue engineering is contributing a lot in dealing with this immediate need of alleviating human health. Blood vessel diseases are considered as major cardiovascular health problems. Although blood vessel transplantation is the most convenient treatment, it has been delimited due to scarcity of donors and the patient's conditions. However, tissue-engineered blood vessels are promising alternatives as mode of treatment for blood vessel defects. The purpose of this paper is to show the importance of the advancement on biofabrication technology for treatment of soft tissue defects particularly for vascular tissues. This will also provide an overview and update on the current status of tissue reconstruction especially from autologous stem cells, scaffolds, and scaffold-free cellular transplantable constructs. The discussion of this paper will be focused on the historical view of cardiovascular tissue engineering and stem cell biology. The representative studies featured in this paper are limited within the last decade in order to trace the trend and evolution of techniques for blood vessel tissue engineering.
Current limitations of exogenous scaffolds or extracellular matrix based materials have underlined the need for alternative tissue-engineering solutions. Scaffolds may elicit adverse host responses and interfere with direct cell-cell interaction, as well as assembly and alignment of cell-produced ECM. Thus, fabrication techniques for production of scaffold-free engineered tissue constructs have recently emerged. Here we report on a fully biological self-assembly approach, which we implement through a rapid prototyping bioprinting method for scaffold-free small diameter vascular reconstruction. Various vascular cell types, including smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts, were aggregated into discrete units, either multicellular spheroids or cylinders of controllable diameter (300 to 500 μm). These were printed layer-by-layer concomitantly with agarose rods, used here as a molding template. The post-printing fusion of the discrete units resulted in single- and double-layered small diameter vascular tubes (OD ranging from 0.9 to 2.5 mm). A unique aspect of the method is the ability to engineer vessels of distinct shapes and hierarchical trees that combine tubes of distinct diameters. The technique is quick and easily scalable.
Tissue engineering solutions focused on the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) have expanded in number and variety over the past decade to address the treatment of TMJ disorders. The existing literature on approaches for healing small defects in the TMJ condylar cartilage and subchondral bone, however, is sparse. The purpose of this study was thus to evaluate the performance of a novel gradient-based scaffolding approach to regenerate osteochondral defects in the rabbit mandibular condyle.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Miniature bioactive plugs for regeneration of small mandibular condylar defects in New Zealand White rabbits were fabricated. The plugs were constructed from poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres with a gradient transition between cartilage-promoting and bone-promoting growth factors.
At six weeks of healing, results suggested that the implants provided support for the neo-synthesized tissue as evidenced by histology and 9.4T magnetic resonance imaging.
The inclusion of bioactive factors in a gradient-based scaffolding design is a promising new treatment strategy for focal defect repair in the TMJ.
TMJ; Osteochondral; Interface; Gradient; Microsphere; PLGA; BMP-2; TGF-β1
This case report describes a 35-year-old Caucasian radiographer who presented with a significant mandibular bony defect following multiple excisions of an ameloblastoma. As a result, there was an absence of teeth on the lower-right mandible and a clear defect in the mandible. The treatment objectives were to rebuild the mandibular defect, with a long-term view of inserting dental implants. In a novel approach outlined in this presentation, tissue expansion of the submucosa, a titanium construct and an iliac bone graft were used to rebuild the patient’s jaw. This surgical technique is recommended for the reconstruction of bony defects.
Premineralized silk fibroin protein scaffolds (mSS) were prepared to combine the osteoconductive properties of biological apatite with aqueous-derived silk scaffold (SS) as a composite scaffold for bone regeneration. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of premineralized silk scaffolds combined with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) modified bone marrow stromal cells (bMSCs) to repair mandibular bony defects in a rat model. bMSCs were expanded and transduced with adenovirus AdBMP-2, AdLacZ gene in vitro. These genetically modified bMSCs were then combined with premineralized silk scaffolds to form tissue engineered bone. Mandibular repairs with AdBMP-2 transduced bMSCs/mSS constructs were compared with those treated with AdLacZ transduced bMSCs/mSS constructs, native (nontransduced) bMSCs/mSS constructs and mSS alone. Eight weeks post-operation, the mandibles were explanted and evaluated by radiographic observation, micro-CT, histological analysis and immunohistochemistry. The presence of BMP-2 gene enhanced tissue engineered bone in terms of the most new bone formed and the highest local bone mineral densities (BMD) found. These results demonstrated that premineralized silk scaffold could serve as a potential substrate for bMSCs to construct tissue engineered bone for mandibular bony defects. BMP-2 gene therapy and tissue engineering techniques could be used in mandibular repair and bone regeneration.
Defects requiring reconstruction in the mandible are commonly encountered and may result from resection of benign or malignant lesions, trauma, or osteoradionecrosis. Mandibular defects can be classified according to location and extent, as well as involvement of mucosa, skin, and tongue. Vascularized bone flaps, in general, provide the best functional and aesthetic outcome, with the fibula flap remaining the gold standard for mandible reconstruction. In this review, we discuss classification and approach to reconstruction of mandibular defects. We also elaborate upon four commonly used free osteocutaneous flaps, inclusive of fibula, iliac crest, scapula, and radial forearm. Finally, we discuss indications and use of osseointegrated implants as well as recent advances in mandibular reconstruction.
Bone flap; condyle; fibular flap; mandible; osseointegrated implant; osteocutaneous flap
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), a major stabilizer of the knee, is commonly injured. Because of its intrinsic poor healing ability, a torn ACL is usually reconstructed by a graft. We developed a multi-phasic, or bone–ligament–bone, tissue-engineered construct for ACL grafts using bone marrow stromal cells and sheep as a model system. After 6 months in vivo, the constructs increased in cross section and exhibited a well-organized microstructure, native bone integration, a functional enthesis, vascularization, innervation, increased collagen content, and structural alignment. The constructs increased in stiffness to 52% of the tangent modulus and 95% of the geometric stiffness of native ACL. The viscoelastic response of the explants was virtually indistinguishable from that of adult ACL. These results suggest that our constructs after implantation can obtain physiologically relevant structural and functional characteristics comparable to those of adult ACL. They present a viable option for ACL replacement.
To report treatment of severe mandibular defect caused by Aneurysmal Bone Cyst (ABC) in a 6-year-old child, with off-label use of Recombinant Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (rhBMP-2)
After corrective segmental mandibulectomy, mandible was stabilized by precontoured titanium reconstruction plates spanning the entire defect. After confirming final diagnosis and a wait and watch approach, rhBMP-2 was inserted into mandibular defect along with conventional split rib graft.
New bone formation was identified at 3 months and was evident at radiographic examinations upto 5 months.
Reconstruction of a large mandibular defect was facilitated by use of an osteoinductive factor (rhBMP-2) as a graft additive.
One-step salvage and reconstruction could be facilitated by use of an osteoinductive factor, as a graft additive, may be an alternative strategy for repair of large mandibular defects.
rhBMP-2; Rib graft; Segmental reconstructions
Costochondral graft (CCG) replacement of the mandibular condyle was first described by Gilles in 1920. Since then CCGs have gained increasing popularity in reconstruction of the TMJ and condyle in children. The influence of CCGs on mandibular growth and function is not known in detail. Adaptation of the graft has been observed to be better in children, but CCGs have also been shown to grow in adult patients. One of the major disadvantages of the CCGs is its growth pattern, which is extremely unpredictable and may manifest as excessive growth or no growth at all. A mandibular overgrowth on the grafted site can actually be more troublesome than lack of growth. Furthermore, maxillary growth is proportionality influenced by vertical mandibular growth of the graft. This is a report of such a case in which a bizarre overgrowth of the graft was seen following a reconstruction of TMJ by CCG and the devastating outcomes of the treatment. He required one further resection because the grafted tissue had overgrown five years later.
Costochondral graft; overgrowth; TMJ ankylosis
This study was undertaken to determine whether periosteum from different bone sources in a donor results in the same formation of bone and cartilage. In this case, periosteum obtained from the cranium and mandible (examples of tissue supporting intramembranous ossification) and the radius and ilium (examples of tissues supporting endochondral ossification) of individual calves was used to produce tissue-engineered constructs that were implanted in nude mice and then retrieved after 10 and 20 weeks. Specimens were compared in terms of their osteogenic and chondrogenic potential by radiography, histology, and gene expression levels. By 10 weeks of implantation and more so by 20 weeks, constructs with cranial periosteum had developed to the greatest extent, followed in order by ilium, radius, and mandible periosteum. All constructs, particularly with cranial tissue although minimally with mandibular periosteum, had mineralized by 10 weeks on radiography and stained for proteoglycans with safranin-O red (cranial tissue most intensely and mandibular tissue least intensely). Gene expression of type I collagen, type II collagen, runx2, and bone sialoprotein (BSP) was detectable on QRT-PCR for all specimens at 10 and 20 weeks. By 20 weeks, the relative gene levels were: type I collagen, ilium >> radial ≥ cranial ≥ mandibular; type II collagen, radial > ilium > cranial ≥ mandibular; runx2, cranial >>> radial > mandibular ≥ ilium; and BSP, ilium ≥ radial > cranial > mandibular. These data demonstrate that the osteogenic and chondrogenic capacity of the various constructs is not identical and depends on the periosteal source regardless of intramembranous or endochondral ossification. Based on these results, cranial and mandibular periosteal tissues appear to enhance bone formation most and least prominently, respectively. The appropriate periosteal choice for bone and cartilage tissue engineering and regeneration should be a function of its immediate application as well as other factors besides growth rate.
Periosteum; Bone; Cartilage; Regeneration; Tissue engineering
During in vivo development, articular cartilage is exposed to several different forms of stress. This study examined the effects of radial confinement and passive axial compression-induced vertical confinement, on the biomechanical, biochemical, and histological properties of self-assembled chondrocyte constructs. The self-assembled constructs, engineered without the use of an exogenous scaffold, exhibited significant increases in stiffness in the direction orthogonal to that of the confinement surface. With radial confinement, the significantly increased aggregate modulus was accompanied by increased collagen organization in the direction perpendicular to the articular surface, with no change in collagen or glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content. Additionally, radial confinement was most beneficial when applied before t=2 wks. With passive axial compression, the significantly increased Young’s modulus and ultimate tensile strength were accompanied by a significant increase in collagen production. This study is the first to demonstrate the beneficial effects of confinement on tissue engineered constructs in the direction orthogonal to that of the confinement surface.
Whenever there is soft tissue loss from the perineum there are many options for reconstruction. These include allowing the wound to heal by secondary intention and the use of local random or axial pattern flaps, regional flaps, or free flaps. The axial skin flap can be defined as a flap based on known constant vessels of the subcutaneous tissue and its vena comitantes. The perforator flap on the other hand is a randomly selected perforator consisting of an artery with vena comitantes, which perforate the deep fascia to supply the subcutaneous vascular networks. The perineum has a rich blood supply with multiple perforating vessels, and the vascular network of the perineum is similar to that of the head and neck. Anatomically, there exist circles of anastomosis around any orifice or joint. The perineum has two outlets: the urogenital and the anal. The arterial network of the perineum is supplied by the vessels of the lower abdomen, medial thigh, and gluteal region. Knowledge of the rich blood supply of the perineum can be applied to harvest the various types of perforator flaps in perineal reconstruction.
Skin flap; perforator flaps; perineal reconstruction
In vitro fabricated tissue engineered vascular constructs could provide an alternative to conventional substitutes. A crucial factor for tissue engineering of vascular constructs is an appropriate cell source. Vascular cells from the human umbilical cord can be directly isolated and cryopreserved until needed. Currently no cell bank for human vascular cells is available. Therefore, the establishment of a future human vascular cell bank conforming to good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions is desirable for therapeutic applications such as tissue engineered cardiovascular constructs.
Materials and methods
A fundamental step was the adaption of conventional research and development starting materials to GMP compliant starting materials. Human umbilical cord artery derived cells (HUCAC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were isolated, cultivated, cryopreserved (short- and long-term) directly after primary culture and recultivated subsequently. Cell viability, expression of cellular markers and proliferation potential of fresh and cryopreserved cells were studied using trypan blue staining, flow cytometry analysis, immunofluorescence staining and proliferation assays. Statistical analyses were performed using Student’s t-test.
Sufficient numbers of isolated cells with acceptable viabilities and homogenous expression of cellular markers confirmed that the isolation procedure was successful using GMP compliant starting materials. The influence of cryopreservation was marginal, because cryopreserved cells mostly maintain phenotypic and functional characteristics similar to those of fresh cells. Phenotypic studies revealed that fresh cultivated and cryopreserved HUCAC were positive for alpha smooth muscle actin, CD90, CD105, CD73, CD29, CD44, CD166 and negative for smoothelin. HUVEC expressed CD31, CD146, CD105 and CD144 but not alpha smooth muscle actin. Functional analysis demonstrated acceptable viability and sufficient proliferation properties of cryopreserved HUCAC and HUVEC.
Adaptation of cell isolation, cultivation and cryopreservation to GMP compliant starting materials was successful. Cryopreservation did not influence cell properties with lasting impact, confirming that the application of vascular cells from the human umbilical cord is feasible for cell banking. A specific cellular marker expression profile was established for HUCAC and HUVEC using flow cytometry analysis, applicable as a GMP compliant quality control. Use of these cells for the future fabrication of advanced therapy medicinal products GMP conditions are required by the regulatory authority.
Vascular human umbilical cord cells; Good manufacturing practice (GMP); Cryopreservation; Cell banking
The correction or augmentation of soft tissue defects caused by trauma, tumor resection, congenital abnormalities, and aging presents a multitude of challenges in reconstructive surgery. Soft tissue defects run the gamut in terms of volume, from restoring the fullness of the face by removing wrinkles to restoring the breast mound after mastectomy. The limitations of current restorative and reparative techniques have served as drivers for the development of adipose tissue as an application area for tissue engineering. Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary and maturing field that combines bioengineering, the clinical sciences, and the life sciences to repair or regrow tissues. This article discusses the inadequacies of current methods of correcting soft tissue defects and the innovative adipose tissue engineering strategies under pursuit to abrogate these limitations and improve patients’ outcomes and quality of life, and speculates rationally on the future. It does not discuss the applications and technologies involved with adipose-derived stem cells unless directly applied toward adipogenesis.
Adipose tissue; biomedical engineering; breast reconstruction; soft tissue augmentation; tissue engineering; tissue scaffolds
The guidance of endothelial cell organization into a capillary network has been a long-standing challenge in tissue engineering. Some research efforts have been made to develop methods to promote capillary networks inside engineered tissue constructs. Capillary and vascular networks that would mimic blood microvessel function can be used to subsequently facilitate oxygen and nutrient transfer as well as waste removal. Vascularization of engineering tissue construct is one of the most favorable strategies to overpass nutrient and oxygen supply limitation, which is often the major hurdle in developing thick and complex tissue and artificial organ. This paper addresses recent advances and future challenges in developing three-dimensional culture systems to promote tissue construct vascularization allowing mimicking blood microvessel development and function encountered in vivo. Bioreactors systems that have been used to create fully vascularized functional tissue constructs will also be outlined.
The paired-related homeobox genes, Prx1 and Prx2, encode transcription factors critical for orofacial development. Prx1-/-/Prx2-/- neonates have mandibular hypoplasia and malformed mandibular incisors. Although the mandibular incisor phenotype has been briefly described (ten Berge et al., 1998, 2001; Lu et al., 1999), very little is known about the role of Prx proteins during tooth morphogenesis. Since the posterior mandibular region was relatively normal, we examined molar tooth development in Prx1-/-/Prx2-/- embryos to determine whether the tooth malformation is primary to the loss of Prx protein or secondary to defects in surrounding tissues. Three-dimensional (3D) morphological reconstructions demonstrated that Prx1-/-/Prx2-/- embryos had molar malformations, including cuspal changes and ectopic epithelial projections. Although we demonstrate that Prx1 protein is expressed only mesenchymally, 3D reconstructions showed important morphological defects in epithelial tissues at the cap and bell stages. Analysis of these data suggests that the Prx homeoproteins are critical for mesenchymal-epithelial signaling during tooth morphogenesis.
homeobox; tooth development; molars; patterning