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1.  Serologic Responses to Recombinant Pneumocystis jirovecii Major Surface Glycoprotein among Ugandan Patients with Respiratory Symptoms 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e51545.
Background
Little is known about the serologic responses to Pneumocystis jirovecii major surface glycoprotein (Msg) antigen in African cohorts, or the IgM responses to Msg in HIV-positive and HIV-negative persons with respiratory symptoms.
Methods
We conducted a prospective study of 550 patients, both HIV-positive (n = 467) and HIV-negative (n = 83), hospitalized with cough ≥2 weeks in Kampala, Uganda, to evaluate the association between HIV status, CD4 cell count, and other clinical predictors and antibody responses to P. jirovecii. We utilized ELISA to measure the IgM and IgG serologic responses to three overlapping recombinant fragments that span the P. jirovecii major surface glycoprotein: MsgA (amino terminus), MsgB (middle portion) and MsgC1 (carboxyl terminus), and to three variations of MsgC1 (MsgC3, MsgC8 and MsgC9).
Results
HIV-positive patients demonstrated significantly lower IgM antibody responses to MsgC1, MsgC3, MsgC8 and MsgC9 compared to HIV-negative patients. We found the same pattern of low IgM antibody responses to MsgC1, MsgC3, MsgC8 and MsgC9 among HIV-positive patients with a CD4 cell count <200 cells/µl compared to those with a CD4 cell count ≥200 cells/µl. HIV-positive patients on PCP prophylaxis had significantly lower IgM responses to MsgC3 and MsgC9, and lower IgG responses to MsgA, MsgC1, MsgC3, and MsgC8. In contrast, cigarette smoking was associated with increased IgM antibody responses to MsgC1 and MsgC3 but was not associated with IgG responses. We evaluated IgM and IgG as predictors of mortality. Lower IgM responses to MsgC3 and MsgC8 were both associated with increased in-hospital mortality.
Conclusions
HIV infection and degree of immunosuppression are associated with reduced IgM responses to Msg. In addition, low IgM responses to MsgC3 and MsgC8 are associated with increased mortality.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051545
PMCID: PMC3528778  PMID: 23284710
2.  Long-Term Serologic Responses to the Pneumocystis jirovecii Major Surface Glycoprotein in HIV-Positive Individuals With and Without P. jirovecii Infection 
The Journal of infectious diseases  2009;199(9):1335-1344.
Background
The immune responses to Pneumocystis jirovecii major surface glycoprotein (Msg) in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are poorly understood.
Methods
We examined the sequential serologic responses to recombinant Msg carboxyl terminus fragments (MsgC1, MsgC3, MsgC8, and MsgC9) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in a cohort of individuals with HIV infection for the 5.5 years before death and autopsy. Analyses included mean antibody levels by status at death (Pneumocystis pneumonia, P. jirovecii colonization, or neither), factors associated with high antibody levels, and antibody responses before and after active Pneumocystis pneumonia.
Results
Patients who died from Pneumocystis pneumonia had higher levels of antibody to MsgC8 than did patients who died from other causes. Previous episode of Pneumocystis pneumonia, geographic location, and age were independent predictors of high levels of anitbodies to most or all Msgs. Failure to take Pneumocystis pneumonia prophylaxis was associated with high levels of antibody to MsgC1. Patients who developed and recovered from active Pneumocystis pneumonia during the study exhibited an increase in serum antibody levels that persisted for months after the infection, whereas patients who developed another acquired immunodeficiency syndrome–defining illness did not.
Conclusions
Serum antibodies to Msgs are important markers of P. jirovecii infection in patients with HIV infection and are influenced by host and environmental factors in complex ways.
doi:10.1086/597803
PMCID: PMC2714884  PMID: 19301979
3.  Ambient Air Pollution Associated with Suppressed Serologic Responses to Pneumocystis jirovecii in a Prospective Cohort of HIV-Infected Patients with Pneumocystis Pneumonia 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e80795.
Background
Ambient air pollution (AAP) may be associated with increased risk for Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). The mechanisms underlying this association remain uncertain.
Objectives
To determine if real-life exposures to AAP are associated with suppressed IgM antibody responses to P. jirovecii in HIV-infected (HIV+) patients with active PCP, and to determine if AAP, mediated by suppressed serologic responses to Pneumocystis, is associated with adverse clinical outcomes.
Methods
We conducted a prospective cohort study in HIV+ patients residing in San Francisco and admitted to San Francisco General Hospital with microscopically confirmed PCP. Our AAP predictors were ambient air concentrations of particulate matter of < 10 µm in diameter (PM10) and < 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) measured immediately prior to hospital admission and 2 weeks prior to admission. Our primary outcomes were the IgM serologic responses to four recombinant P. jirovecii major surface glycoprotein (Msg) constructs: MsgC1, MsgC3, MsgC8, and MsgC9.
Results
Elevated PM10 and NO2 exposures immediately prior to and two weeks prior to hospital admission were associated with decreased IgM antibody responses to P. jirovecii Msg. For exposures immediately prior to admission, every 10 µg/m3 increase in PM10 was associated with a 25 to 35% decrease in IgM responses to Msg (statistically significant for all the Msg constructs), and every 10 ppb increase in NO2 was associated with a 19-45% decrease in IgM responses to Msg (statistically significant for MsgC8 and MsgC9). Similar findings were seen with exposures two weeks prior to admission, but for fewer of the Msg constructs.
Conclusions
Real life exposures to PM10 and NO2 were associated with suppressed IgM responses to P. jirovecii Msg in HIV+ patients admitted with PCP, suggesting a mechanism of immunotoxicity by which AAP increases host susceptibility to pulmonary infection.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080795
PMCID: PMC3827464  PMID: 24236202
4.  Geographical variation in serological responses to recombinant Pneumocystis jirovecii major surface glycoprotein antigens 
The use of recombinant fragments of the major surface glycoprotein (Msg) of Pneumocystis jirovecii has proven useful for studying serological immune responses of blood donors and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive (HIV+) patients. Here, we have used ELISA to measure antibody titres to Msg fragments (MsgA, MsgB, MsgC1, MsgC3, MsgC8 and MsgC9) in sera isolated in the USA and Spain, to determine whether geographical location affects serological responses to these antigens. Blood donors from Seville exhibited a significantly greater antibody titre to MsgC8, and significantly lower responses to MsgC3 and MsgC9, than did Cincinnati (USA) donors. Spanish blood donors also exhibited elevated responses to MsgC1, MsgC8 and MsgC9 as compared with Spanish HIV+ patients . HIV+ patients who had Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP+) exhibited a higher response to MsgC8 than did HIV+ PcP- patients. These data show that geographical location plays a role in responsiveness to Msg fragments. Additionally, these fragments have utility in differentiating between patient populations.
doi:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.02716.x
PMCID: PMC2766022  PMID: 19416292
Xxxxx; xxxx; xxxx
5.  Evidence for high prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii exposure among Cameroonians 
Acta tropica  2009;112(2):219-224.
Cameroon lacks the capacity for routine Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) diagnosis thus, the prevalence of Cameroonian exposure to this microbe is unknown. It is known that Pneumocystis infecting different mammalian host species represent diverse phylogenetic backgrounds and are now designated as separate species. The highly sensitive nature of ELISA and the specificity afforded by using human-derived P. jirovecii Msg peptides has been shown to be useful for serological analysis of human sera. Thus, sera from patients in Yaoundé, the capital city of Cameroon, were analyzed for anti-P. jirovecii antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using three recombinant major surface glycoprotein (Msg) peptide fragments, MsgA1, MsgB, and MsgC1. Based on serum recognition of one or more of the three fragments, 82% of the total samples analyzed was positive for antibodies to P. jirovecii Msg, indicating high prevalence of P. jirovecii infection or colonization among Cameroonians. Different Msg fragments appear to be recognized more frequently by sera from different geographic regions of the globe. Antibodies in the Cameroonian serum samples recognized MsgA>MsgC>MsgB, suggesting that different P. jirovecii strains exist in different parts of the world and/or human populations differ in their response to P. jirovecii. Also, HIV+ patients diagnosed with respiratory infections (such as TB and pneumonia) and maintained on trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazol prophylaxis had relatively lower anti-Msg titers. Whether PcP prophylaxis has significant effects on the quality of life among HIV+ patients in Cameroon warrants further investigation.
doi:10.1016/j.actatropica.2009.07.030
PMCID: PMC2761101  PMID: 19665440
glycoprotein (Msg); recombinant protein; serology; sub-Sahara Africa
6.  Characterization of Pneumocystis Major Surface Glycoprotein Gene (msg) Promoter Activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae 
Eukaryotic Cell  2013;12(10):1349-1355.
Major surface glycoprotein (Msg), the most abundant cell surface protein of Pneumocystis, plays an important role in the interaction of this opportunistic pathogen with host cells, and its potential for antigenic variation may facilitate evasion of host immune responses. In the present study, we have identified and characterized the promoter region of msg in 3 species of Pneumocystis: P. carinii, P. jirovecii, and P. murina. Because Pneumocystis cannot be cultured, promoter activity was measured in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a related fungus, using a yeast vector modified to utilize the gene coding for Renilla luciferase as a reporter gene. The 5′-flanking sequences of msg from all three Pneumocystis species showed considerable promoter activity, with increases in luciferase activity up to 15- to 44-fold above baseline. Progressive deletions helped define an ∼13-bp sequence in each Pneumocystis species that appears to be critical for promoter activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift analysis using P. carinii-specific msg promoter sequences demonstrated binding of nuclear proteins of S. cerevisiae. The 144-bp 5′-flanking region of P. murina msg showed 72% identity to that of P. carinii. The 5′-flanking region of P. jirovecii msg showed 58 and 61% identity to those of P. murina and P. carinii, respectively. The msg promoter is a good candidate for inclusion in a construct designed for genetic manipulation of Pneumocystis species.
doi:10.1128/EC.00122-13
PMCID: PMC3811333  PMID: 23893080
7.  Serologic responses to Pneumocystis Proteins in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients With and Without Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia 
Background
Immune responses to Pneumocystis jirovecii are not well understood in HIV infection, but antibody responses to proteins may be useful as a marker of Pneumocystis risk or presence of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP).
Design
Retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort
Methods
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of antibodies to recombinant Pneumocystis proteins of major surface glycoprotein fragments (MsgC1, C3, C8, and C9) and of antibody titers to recombinant kexin protein (KEX1) were performed on three sequential serum samples up to 18 months prior to and three samples after first AIDS-defining illness from Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study participants and compared between those who had PcP or a non-PcP AIDS-defining illness.
Results
Fifty-four participants had PcP and 47 had a non-PcP AIDS-defining illness. IgG levels to MsgC fragments were similar between groups prior to first AIDS-defining illness, but the PcP group had higher levels of IgG to MsgC9 (median units/ml 50.2 vs. 22.2, p=0.047) post-illness. Participants with PcP were more likely to have an increase in MsgC3 (OR 3.9, p=0.02), MsgC8 (OR 5.5, p=0.001), and MsgC9 (OR 4.0, p=0.007). The PcP group was more likely to have low KEX1 IgG prior to development of PcP (OR 3.6, p=0.048) independent of CD4 cell count and to have an increase in high IgG titers to KEX1 after PcP.
Conclusion
HIV-infected individuals develop immune responses to both Msg and kexin proteins after PcP. Low KEX1 IgG titers may be a novel marker of future PcP risk before CD4 cell count has declined below 200 cells/μl.
doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e3182167516
PMCID: PMC3150634  PMID: 21372726
HIV; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Pneumocystis; serology
8.  Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients with Prior Pneumocystis Pneumonia Exhibit Increased Serologic Reactivity to Several Major Surface Glycoprotein Clones 
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology  2006;13(10):1071-1078.
Recombinant clones of the carboxyl terminus of the major surface glycoprotein (MsgC) of Pneumocystis jirovecii are useful for analyzing serologic responses in humans. However, there is no standardized set of antigens in general use, which could lead to conflicting results. We have previously shown that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients with prior Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP+) responded more frequently and more strongly to a clone of MsgC than did HIV-1-infected patients without PcP (PcP−). Here we test three new clones of MsgC to determine the effect of antigenic sequence variation on immune reactivity in blood donors and HIV-infected patients previously analyzed for reactivity to our original MsgC clone. In Western blot analyses, PcP+ patients exhibited the highest frequency of reactivity to each MsgC clone, and the frequency of reactivity with all four MsgC clones together was significantly higher in sera from PcP+ patients than in sera from the other patient groups. Furthermore, in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay we found that the PcP+ population had the highest level of reactivity to two of the four clones tested. One of the new clones could distinguish between PcP+ and PcP− populations, and two MsgC clones could distinguish blood donors from the other patient populations. The results show that inherent differences in MsgC amino acid sequence can affect recognition by antibodies independently of variations in protein length or patient population, and the utility of a clone depends on its sequence and on the populations tested.
doi:10.1128/CVI.00140-06
PMCID: PMC1595325  PMID: 17028210
9.  Proliferative and cytokine responses to a major surface glycoprotein of Pneumocystis carinii. 
Infection and Immunity  1993;61(11):4703-4709.
Naturally derived T-cell responses by rats to a 120-kDa major surface glycoprotein (MSG) of rat-derived Pneumocystis carinii were analyzed in vitro. Specific cytokines elicited by the T-cell response to the MSG were also identified. MSG was purified from rat-derived P. carinii by three different techniques: lectin affinity chromatography, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by electroelution, and size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography. The cell-mediated immunity of spleen cells isolated from Lewis rats with and without natural exposure to P. carinii to the purified MSG was studied. Exposure to P. carinii was monitored by the presence or absence of serum antibodies to P. carinii antigens by Western blotting (immunoblotting). A T-cell proliferative response to the MSG was identified only with spleen cells isolated from rats exposed to P. carinii and peaked at 4 days. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the percentage of CD4 cells was significantly increased during the proliferative response to MSG. MSG also elicited secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1, and interleukin-2, with peak activity of these cytokines occurring after 12, 24, and 48 h, respectively, of culture. These findings suggest that MSG is important in host T-cell recognition of and immune response to P. carinii by recruitment of inflammatory cells and cytokine production.
Images
PMCID: PMC281224  PMID: 8406869
10.  Humoral Immune Responses to Pneumocystis jirovecii Antigens in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Young Children with Pneumocystis Pneumonia 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e82783.
Background
Humoral immune responses in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and uninfected children with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) are poorly understood.
Methods
Consecutive children hospitalized with acute pneumonia, tachypnea, and hypoxia in South Africa were investigated for PcP, which was diagnosed by real-time polymerase chain reaction on lower respiratory tract specimens. Serum antibody responses to recombinant fragments of the carboxyl terminus of Pneumocystis jirovecii major surface glycoprotein (MsgC) were analyzed.
Results
149 children were enrolled of whom 96 (64%) were HIV-infected. PcP occurred in 69 (72%) of HIV-infected and 14 (26%) of HIV-uninfected children. HIV-infected children with PcP had significantly decreased IgG antibodies to MsgC compared to HIV-infected patients without PcP, but had similar IgM antibodies. In contrast, HIV-uninfected children with PcP showed no change in IgG antibodies to MsgC, but had significantly increased IgM antibodies compared to HIV-uninfected children without PCP. Age was an independent predictor of high IgG antibodies, whereas PcP was a predictor of low IgG antibodies and high IgM antibodies. IgG and IgM antibody levels to the most closely related MsgC fragments were predictors of survival from PcP.
Conclusions
Young HIV-infected children with PcP have significantly impaired humoral immune responses to MsgC, whereas HIV-uninfected children with PcP can develop active humoral immune responses. The children also exhibit a complex relationship between specific host factors and antibody levels to MsgC fragments that may be related to survival from PcP.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0082783
PMCID: PMC3873266  PMID: 24386119
11.  Antibody Responses against Pneumocystis jirovecii in Health Care Workers Over Time 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2013;19(10):1613-1620.
In a previous cross-sectional study, we showed that clinical staff working in a hospital had significantly higher antibody levels than nonclinical staff to Pneumocystis jirovecii. We conducted a longitudinal study, described here, to determine whether occupation and self-reported exposure to a patient with P. jirovecii pneumonia were associated with antibody levels to P. jirovecii over time. Baseline and quarterly serum specimens were collected and analyzed by using an ELISA that targeted different variants of the Pneumocystis major surface glycoprotein (MsgA, MsgB, MsgC1, MsgC3, MsgC8, and MsgC9). Clinical staff had significantly higher estimated geometric mean antibody levels against MsgC1 and MsgC8 than did nonclinical staff over time. Significant differences were observed when we compared the change in antibody levels to the different MsgC variants for staff who were and were not exposed to P. jirovecii pneumonia–infected patients. MsgC variants may serve as indicators of exposure to P. jirovecii in immunocompetent persons.
doi:10.3201/eid1910.121836
PMCID: PMC3810734  PMID: 24048016
Pneumocystis jirovecii; transmission; health care worker–patient; human immunodeficiency virus; HIV; major surface glycoprotein; pneumonia; respiratory diseases; fungi; HIV/AIDS and other retroviruses
12.  Seroepidemiological study of Pneumocystis jirovecii infection in healthy infants in Chile using recombinant fragments of the P. jirovecii major surface glycoprotein 
Summary
Objectives
To characterize the seroepidemiological features of Pneumocystis jirovecii infection in healthy Chilean children using overlapping fragments (A, B, C) of the P. jirovecii major surface glycoprotein (Msg).
Methods
Serum antibodies to MsgA, MsgB, and MsgC were measured every 2 months by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 45 Chilean infants from about age 2 months to 2 years.
Results
Peak antibody levels (usually reached at age 6 months) and the force (or rate) of infection were somewhat greater for MsgC than for MsgA. Significant seasonal variation in antibody levels was only found with MsgA. Respiratory infections occurred in most children, but nasopharyngeal aspirates were of limited value in detecting the organism. In contrast, serological responses commonly occurred, and higher levels only to MsgC were significantly related to the number of infections.
Conclusions
Serological responses to recombinant Msg fragments provide new insights into the epidemiological and clinical features of P. jirovecii infection of early childhood. MsgA, the amino terminus fragment, is more sensitive in detecting seasonal influences on antibody levels, whereas MsgC is better able to detect changes in antibody levels in response to clinical infection.
doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2010.07.003
PMCID: PMC2995006  PMID: 20926326
Serological responses; Pneumocystis; Major surface glycoprotein (Msg); Children
13.  Variation in the Major Surface Glycoprotein Genes in Pneumocystis jirovecii 
The Journal of infectious diseases  2008;198(5):741-749.
The genome of Pneumocystis, which causes life-threatening pneumonia in immunosuppressed patients, contains a multi-copy gene family that encodes the major surface glycoprotein (Msg). Pneumocystis can vary the expressed Msg, presumably as a mechanism to avoid host immune responses. Analysis of 24 msg gene sequences obtained from a single human Pneumocystis isolate demonstrated that the sequences segregate into two branches. Based on a number of analyses, recombination among msg genes appears to be an important mechanism for generating msg diversity. Intra-branch recombination occurred more frequently than inter-branch recombination. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis demonstrated substantial variation in the repertoire of the msg gene family among isolates of human Pneumocystis, which was not observed in laboratory isolates of rat or mouse Pneumocystis; this may be the result of examining outbred vs. captive populations. Increased diversity in the Msg repertoire, generated in part by recombination, increases the potential for antigenic variation in this abundant surface protein.
doi:10.1086/590433
PMCID: PMC2561252  PMID: 18627244
AIDS; Pneumocystis; antigenic variation; repertoire; immune evasion; major surface glycoprotein
14.  Healthcare Worker Occupation and Immune Response to Pneumocystis jirovecii 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2009;15(10):1590-1597.
Humans may be a reservoir for this pathogen and transmit it from person to person.
The reservoir and mode of transmission of Pneumocystis jirovecii remain uncertain. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 126 San Francisco General Hospital staff in clinical (n = 103) and nonclinical (n = 23) occupations to assess whether occupational exposure was associated with immune responses to P. jirovecii. We examined antibody levels by ELISA for 3 overlapping fragments that span the P. jirovecii major surface glycoprotein (Msg): MsgA, MsgB, and MsgC1. Clinical occupation participants had higher geometric mean antibody levels to MsgC1 than did nonclinical occupation participants (21.1 vs. 8.2, p = 0.004); clinical occupation was an independent predictor of higher MsgC1 antibody levels (parameter estimate = 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.29–1.48, p = 0.003). In contrast, occupation was not significantly associated with antibody responses to either MsgA or MsgB. Healthcare workers may have occupational exposure to P. jirovecii. Humans may be a reservoir for P. jirovecii and may transmit it from person to person.
doi:10.3201/eid1510.090207
PMCID: PMC2866396  PMID: 19861050
Pneumocystis; health personnel; HIV/AIDS and other retroviruses; opportunistic infections; antibodies; fungal; fungi; serologic tests; research
15.  Complexity of the MSG gene family of Pneumocystis carinii 
BMC Genomics  2009;10:367.
Background
The relationship between the parasitic fungus Pneumocystis carinii and its host, the laboratory rat, presumably involves features that allow the fungus to circumvent attacks by the immune system. It is hypothesized that the major surface glycoprotein (MSG) gene family endows Pneumocystis with the capacity to vary its surface. This gene family is comprised of approximately 80 genes, which each are approximately 3 kb long. Expression of the MSG gene family is regulated by a cis-dependent mechanism that involves a unique telomeric site in the genome called the expression site. Only the MSG gene adjacent to the expression site is represented by messenger RNA. Several P. carinii MSG genes have been sequenced, which showed that genes in the family can encode distinct isoforms of MSG. The vast majority of family members have not been characterized at the sequence level.
Results
The first 300 basepairs of MSG genes were subjected to analysis herein. Analysis of 581 MSG sequence reads from P. carinii genomic DNA yielded 281 different sequences. However, many of the sequence reads differed from others at only one site, a degree of variation consistent with that expected to be caused by error. Accounting for error reduced the number of truly distinct sequences observed to 158, roughly twice the number expected if the gene family contains 80 members. The size of the gene family was verified by PCR. The excess of distinct sequences appeared to be due to allelic variation. Discounting alleles, there were 73 different MSG genes observed. The 73 genes differed by 19% on average. Variable regions were rich in nucleotide differences that changed the encoded protein. The genes shared three regions in which at least 16 consecutive basepairs were invariant. There were numerous cases where two different genes were identical within a region that was variable among family members as a whole, suggesting recombination among family members.
Conclusion
A set of sequences that represents most if not all of the members of the P. carinii MSG gene family was obtained. The protein-changing nature of the variation among these sequences suggests that the family has been shaped by selection for protein variation, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the MSG gene family functions to enhance phenotypic variation among the members of a population of P. carinii.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-10-367
PMCID: PMC2743713  PMID: 19664205
16.  Decreased Serum Antibody Responses to Recombinant Pneumocystis Antigens in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Current Smokers▿  
Serologic studies can provide important insights into the epidemiology and transmission of Pneumocystis jirovecii. Exposure to P. jirovecii can be assessed by serum antibody responses to recombinant antigens from the major surface glycoprotein (MsgC), although factors that influence the magnitude of the antibody response are incompletely understood. We determined the magnitudes of antibody responses to P. jirovecii in comparison to adenovirus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in HIV-infected and uninfected patients and identified predictors associated with the magnitude of the response. We performed a cross-sectional analysis using serum samples and data from 153 HIV-positive and 92 HIV-negative subjects enrolled in a feasibility study of the Veterans Aging Cohort 5 Site Study (VACS 5). Antibodies were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Independent predictors of antibody responses were determined using multivariate Tobit regression models. The results showed that serum antibody responses to P. jirovecii MsgC fragments were significantly and independently decreased in current smokers. Antibodies to P. jirovecii also tended to be lower with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), hazardous alcohol use, injection drug use, and HIV infection, although these results were not statistically significant. These results were specific to P. jirovecii and did not correlate with adenovirus. Antibody responses to RSV were in the inverse direction. Thus, current smoking was independently associated with decreased P. jirovecii antibody responses. Whether smoking exerts an immunosuppressive effect that affects the P. jirovecii antibody response, colonization, or subsequent risk for disease is unclear; prospective, longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate these findings further.
doi:10.1128/CVI.00421-10
PMCID: PMC3067379  PMID: 21191078
17.  Antibody Response to Pneumocystis jirovecii 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2006;12(8):1231-1237.
We conducted a prospective pilot study of the serologic responses to overlapping recombinant fragments of the Pneumocystis jirovecii major surface glycoprotein (Msg) in HIV-infected patients with pneumonia due to P. jirovecii and other causes. Similar baseline geometric mean antibody levels to the fragments measured by an ELISA were found in both groups. Serum antibodies to MsgC in P. jirovecii patients rose to a peak level 3–4 weeks (p<0.001) after recovery from pneumocystosis; baseline CD4+ count >50 cells/μL and first episode of pneumocystosis were the principal host factors associated with this rise (both p<0.001). Thus, MsgC shows promise as a serologic reagent and should be tested further in clinical and epidemiologic studies.
doi:10.3201/eid1208.060230
PMCID: PMC3291227  PMID: 16965702
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV); Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS); Pneumocystis pneumonia; Pneumocystis jirovecii; Recombinant antigens; Major surface glycoprotein (Msg); Serum antibody responses; Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); CD4+ cells; First episode pneumocystosis
18.  Identification of a Putative Precursor to the Major Surface Glycoprotein of Pneumocystis carinii 
Infection and Immunity  1998;66(2):741-746.
The major surface glycoprotein (MSG) of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii is a family of proteins encoded by a family of heterogeneous genes. Messenger RNAs encoding different MSGs each begin with the same 365-bp sequence, called the Upstream Conserved Sequence (UCS), which is in frame with the contiguous MSG sequence. The UCS contains several potential start sites for translation. To determine if translation of MSG mRNAs begins in the UCS, polyclonal antiserum was raised against the 123-amino-acid peptide encoded by the UCS. The anti-UCS serum reacted with a P. carinii protein that migrated at 170 kDa; however, it did not react with the mature MSG protein, which migrates at 116 kDa. A 170-kDa protein was immunoprecipitated with anti-UCS serum and shown to react with a monoclonal antibody against a conserved MSG epitope. To explore the functional role of the UCS in the trafficking of MSG, the nucleotide sequence encoding the UCS peptide was ligated to the 5′ end of an MSG gene and incorporated into a recombinant baculovirus. Insect cells infected with the UCS-MSG hybrid gene expressed a 160-kDa protein which was N-glycosylated. By contrast, insect cells infected with a baculovirus carrying an MSG gene lacking the UCS expressed a nonglycosylated 130-kDa protein. These data suggest that in P. carinii, translation begins in the UCS to produce a pre-MSG protein, which is subsequently directed to the endoplasmic reticulum and processed to the mature form by proteolytic cleavage.
PMCID: PMC113502  PMID: 9453635
19.  Serum Antibody Levels to the Pneumocystis jirovecii Major Surface Glycoprotein in the Diagnosis of P. jirovecii Pneumonia in HIV+ Patients 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(12):e14259.
Background
Pneumocystis jirovecii remains an important cause of fatal pneumonia (Pneumocystis pneumonia or PcP) in HIV+ patients and other immunocompromised hosts. Despite many previous attempts, a clinically useful serologic test for P. jirovecii infection has never been developed.
Methods/Principal Findings
We analyzed serum antibody responses to the P. jirovecii major surface glycoprotein recombinant fragment C1 (MsgC1) in 110 HIV+ patients with active PcP (cases) and 63 HIV+ patients with pneumonia due to other causes (controls) by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The cases had significantly higher IgG and IgM antibody levels to MsgC1 than the controls at hospital admission (week 0) and intervals up to at least 1 month thereafter. The sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) of IgG antibody levels increased from 57.2%, 61.7% and 71.5% at week 0 to 63.4%, 100%, and 100%, respectively, at weeks 3–4. The sensitivity, specificity and PPV of IgM antibody levels rose from 59.7%, 61.3%, and 79.3% at week 0 to 74.6%, 73.7%, and 89.8%, respectively, at weeks 3–4. Multivariate analysis revealed that a diagnosis of PcP was the only independent predictor of high IgG and IgM antibody levels to MsgC1. A high LDH level, a nonspecific marker of lung damage, was an independent predictor of low IgG antibody levels to MsgC1.
Conclusions/Significance
The results suggest that the ELISA shows promise as an aid to the diagnosis of PCP in situations where diagnostic procedures cannot be performed. Further studies in other patient populations are needed to better define the usefulness of this serologic test.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014259
PMCID: PMC3000336  PMID: 21151564
20.  Expression of variants of the major surface glycoprotein of Pneumocystis carinii 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  1996;183(3):1229-1234.
Previously, we have shown that a multicopy family of related but unique genes encodes the major surface glycoprotein (MSG) of Pneumocystis carinii. To examine whether different members of this gene family are expressed by P. carinii, antisera were prepared against peptides whose sequences were determined from the deduced amino acid sequences of variants of rat-derived MSG. Immunohistochemical staining of serial sections of rat lungs of infected animals showed that at least three variants of MSG were expressed in an individual lobe, that there was a focal expression of these variants within the lung, and that the relative numbers of these foci were different. Indirect immunofluorescent staining of purified P. carinii organisms using these antisera revealed that at least three variants of MSG were present in organisms isolated from an individual rat and that both cysts and trophozoites reacted with each antiserum. A substantial difference in the fraction of organisms reacting with a specific antipeptide antiserum was seen when comparing organisms isolated from rats raised in a single colony over a period of two years as well as organisms isolated at one time point from rats raised in different colonies. This demonstration of antigenic variation in P. carinii supports the hypothesis that P. carinii utilizes such variation for evading host defense mechanisms.
PMCID: PMC2192330  PMID: 8642264
21.  Characterization of Major Surface Glycoprotein Genes of Human Pneumocystis carinii and High-Level Expression of a Conserved Region 
Infection and Immunity  1998;66(9):4268-4273.
To facilitate studies of Pneumocystis carinii infection in humans, we undertook to better characterize and to express the major surface glycoprotein (MSG) of human P. carinii, an important protein in host-pathogen interactions. Seven MSG genes were cloned from a single isolate by PCR or genomic library screening and were sequenced. The predicted proteins, like rat MSGs, were closely related but unique variants, with a high level of conservation among cysteine residues. A conserved immunodominant region (of approximately 100 amino acids) near the carboxy terminus was expressed at high levels in Escherichia coli and used in Western blot studies. All 49 of the serum samples, which were taken from healthy controls as well as from patients with and without P. carinii pneumonia, were reactive with this peptide by Western blotting, supporting the hypothesis that most adult humans have been infected with P. carinii at some point. This recombinant MSG fragment, which is the first human P. carinii antigen available in large quantities, may be a useful reagent for investigating the epidemiology of P. carinii infection in humans.
PMCID: PMC108515  PMID: 9712777
22.  Adoptive transfer of lymphocytes sensitized to the major surface glycoprotein of Pneumocystis carinii confers protection in the rat. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1995;95(6):2587-2593.
Pneumocystis carinii is a major opportunistic pathogen and a leading cause of morbidity in patients with AIDS. CD4+ cells have been shown to be important in host defenses against P. carinii, but the antigen(s) involved with this response have not been identified. We undertook the present study to determine whether the major surface glycoprotein (MSG) of P. carinii contains epitopes that can elicit a protective cellular immune response. Spleen cells and purified CD4+ cells isolated from Lewis rats, pulsed 1-4 d with MSG, and injected into corticosteroid-treated Lewis rats with pneumocystosis resulted in significant reduction in the P. carinii burden, as judged by organism quantitation and lung histology. The protective response demonstrated by the donor cells was dependent on previous exposure to P. carinii, cell concentration, and time of incubation with MSG. In addition, reconstitution with MSG-specific CD4+ cells resulted in an early hyperinflammatory response within the lungs of these animals with a high percentage of mortality. Thus, in this model, MSG can elicit an immune response mediated by CD4+ cells, which has a harmful as well as helpful effect on the host, and these responses occur despite the presence of corticosteroids.
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PMCID: PMC295941  PMID: 7769101
23.  Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Serologic Responses to Pneumocystis jiroveci 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2004;10(5):848-854.
Seroepidemiologic studies of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in humans have been limited by inadequate reagents. We have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using three overlapping recombinant fragments of the human Pneumocystis major surface glycoprotein (MsgA, MsgB, and MsgC) for analysis of antibody responses in HIV-positive patients and healthy blood donors. HIV-positive patients had significantly higher antibody levels to all Msg fragments. Furthermore, HIV-positive patients who experienced a previous episode of PCP (PCP-positive) had higher level of antibodies to MsgC than patients who never had PCP. A significant association was found between ELISA antibody level and reactivity by Western blot in HIV-positive patients, especially those who were PCP-positive. Thus, this ELISA will be useful in studying serum antibody responses to Pneumocystis in different human populations.
doi:10.3201/eid1005.030497
PMCID: PMC3323219  PMID: 15200818
Pneumocystis; Major surface glycoprotein; Infection; ELISA; HIV patients; Serum antibodies
24.  Expression of Pneumocystis jirovecii Major Surface Glycoprotein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases  2013;208(1):170-179.
The major surface glycoprotein (Msg), which is the most abundant protein expressed on the cell surface of Pneumocystis organisms, plays an important role in the attachment of this organism to epithelial cells and macrophages. In the present study, we expressed Pneumocystis jirovecii Msg in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a phylogenetically related organism. Full-length P. jirovecii Msg was expressed with a DNA construct that used codons optimized for expression in yeast. Unlike in Pneumocystis organisms, recombinant Msg localized to the plasma membrane of yeast rather than to the cell wall. Msg expression was targeted to the yeast cell wall by replacing its signal peptide, serine-threonine–rich region, and glycophosphatidylinositol anchor signal region with the signal peptide of cell wall protein α-agglutinin of S. cerevisiae, the serine-threonine–rich region of epithelial adhesin (Epa1) of Candida glabrata, and the carboxyl region of the cell wall protein (Cwp2) of S. cerevisiae, respectively. Immunofluorescence analysis and treatment with β-1,3 glucanase demonstrated that the expressed Msg fusion protein localized to the yeast cell wall. Surface expression of Msg protein resulted in increased adherence of yeast to A549 alveolar epithelial cells. Heterologous expression of Msg in yeast will facilitate studies of the biologic properties of Pneumocystis Msg.
doi:10.1093/infdis/jit131
PMCID: PMC3666137  PMID: 23532098
Pneumocystis jirovecii; major surface glycoprotein; upstream conserved sequence; antigenic variation; GPI anchored protein
25.  The major surface glycoprotein of Pneumocystis carinii induces release and gene expression of interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha in monocytes. 
Infection and Immunity  1997;65(11):4790-4794.
Recent studies suggest that interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) may play a central role in host defense and pathogenesis during Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. In order to investigate whether the major surface antigen (MSG) of human P. carinii is capable of eliciting the release of IL-8 and TNF-alpha, human monocytes were cultured in the presence of purified MSG. MSG-stimulated cells released significant amounts of IL-8 within 4 h, and at 20 h, cells stimulated with MSG released 45.5 +/- 9.3 ng of IL-8/ml versus 3.7 +/- 1.1 ng/ml for control cultures (P = 0.01). In a similar fashion, MSG elicited release of TNF-alpha. Initial increases were also seen at 4 h, and at 20 h, TNF-alpha levels reached 6.4 +/- 1.1 ng/ml, compared to 0.08 +/- 0.01 ng/ml for control cultures (P < 0.01). A concentration-dependent increase in IL-8 and TNF-alpha secretion was observed at 20 h with 0.2 to 5 microg of MSG/ml (P < 0.01). Secretion of IL-8 and TNF-alpha from MSG-stimulated monocytes at 20 h was inhibited by 60 and 86%, respectively, after coincubation with soluble yeast mannan (P = 0.01). With an RNase protection assay, increases in steady-state mRNA levels for IL-8 and TNF-alpha were detectable at 4 h. These data show that recognition of MSG by monocytes involves a mannose-mediated mechanism and results in the release of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-8 and TNF-alpha.
PMCID: PMC175687  PMID: 9353066

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