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1.  Half-dose vs one-third-dose photodynamic therapy for chronic central serous chorioretinopathy 
Eye  2012;26(5):640-649.
To prospectively compare the effects of half-dose verteporfin (3 mg/m2) photodynamic therapy (1/2 PDT) with those of one-third-dose verteporfin (2 mg/m2) PDT (1/3 PDT) for chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).
Sixteen eyes of 16 consecutive patients with chronic CSC were enrolled and followed up for a 3-month study period. The first 10 patients received 1/2 PDT and the next 6 patients received 1/3 PDT. The resolution rate of subretinal fluid (SRF) was compared between the two groups. The changes in the choroidal thickness inside and outside the PDT-applied area in both groups were also evaluated.
SRF disappeared in all eyes (100%) in the 1/2 PDT group and in two eyes (33%) in the 1/3 PDT group. In the 1/2 PDT group, choroidal thickness inside and outside the PDT-applied area reduced significantly from the baseline (inside, from 387±24 to 325±25 μm; outside, from 292±25 to 249±19 μm; both P=0.005). In the 1/3 PDT group, choroidal thickness decreased in two eyes where SRF disappeared (inside, 87.2 and 90.9% of the baseline; outside, 91.4 and 92.6% of the baseline), but did not change in the other four eyes where SRF remained (inside, 104.1, 100.0, 105.1, and 100.5% of the baseline; outside, 98.9, 103.0, 100.0, and 99.0% of the baseline).
1/2 PDT is more effective than 1/3 PDT in the resolution of SRF for chronic CSC. Decrease in the choroidal thickness after PDT may be related to the resolution of SRF in chronic CSC.
PMCID: PMC3351069  PMID: 22573069
central serous chorioretinopathy; photodynamic therapy; verteporfin; choroidal thickness; subretinal fluid; choroidal vein
2.  The Effect of Intravitreal Bevacizumab in Patients with Acute Central Serous Chorioretinopathy 
To evaluate the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab injection (IVBI) in acute central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) patients.
Patients with acute CSC received IVBI (1.25 mg/0.05 mL) or observation by randomization. Twelve eyes in each group completed 6 months of regular follow-up and were ultimately included in this study. Each patient was assessed using best corrected visual acuity measurements, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography at baseline and had regular follow-ups after treatment.
All patients showed improvements in visual acuity and fluorescein angiographic leakage and had resolution of their neurosensory detachment following treatment. There were no significant differences in visual acuity, central retinal thickness, or remission duration between the IVBI group and the control group at baseline or after treatment (p>0.05).
Intravitreal bevacizumab showed no positive effect in acute CSC patients compared to the observation group, and there were no adverse effects of treatment. Further investigation will be helpful to understand this therapy in patients with CSC.
PMCID: PMC2882078  PMID: 20532141
Bevacizumab; Central serous chorioretinopathy; Randomized comparison; Therapeutics
3.  Choroidal vascular remodelling in central serous chorioretinopathy after indocyanine green guided photodynamic therapy with verteporfin: a novel treatment at the primary disease level 
The British Journal of Ophthalmology  2003;87(12):1453-1458.
Aims: To evaluate the changes in the choroidal vasculature in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) after photodynamic therapy (PDT) with verteporfin and to assess its potential role as a treatment option.
Methods: A prospective, non-comparative, interventional study was performed in eyes with persistent CSC or chronic CSC that had fluorescein leakage at the fovea. All eyes received one single session of PDT with verteporfin (6 mg/m2 body surface area) followed by application of 50 J/cm2 laser at 689 nm. The laser spot size was guided by findings in ICG-A.
Results: Six eyes from six patients with a mean follow up of 12.7 months were analysed. Narrowing of the original dilated choroidal vessels and decrease in extravascular leakage could be demonstrated in all (100%) PDT treated eyes. 3 months after PDT, the mean diameter of the dilated choroidal vessel reduced from 546 μm to 371 μm (p = 0.028). Five (83%) patients had improvement in visual symptoms and best corrected visual acuity. Fluorescence leakage stopped at the 1 month follow up in five eyes (83%) and at 3 months in all six eyes (100%). One eye developed choroidal neovascularisation at 3 month follow up. There was no other serious ocular or systemic complication.
Conclusions: PDT is successful in stopping the fluorescein leakage in all six patients without recurrence of CSC. The ICG-A findings of choroidal vascular remodelling and decreased choroidal permeability after PDT are encouraging. As the sample size is small and the mean follow up period is short, further trials of PDT with verteporfin for CSC are required to address the optimal parameters in ensuring longer term safety and efficacy outcome.
PMCID: PMC1920573  PMID: 14660450
choroidal vascular remodelling; indocyanine green; photodynamic therapy; central serous chorioretinopathy
4.  Change in subfoveal choroidal thickness in central serous chorioretinopathy following spontaneous resolution and low-fluence photodynamic therapy 
Eye  2013;27(3):387-391.
To assess the change in subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) following spontaneous resolution and low-fluence photodynamic therapy (PDT) using the enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT).
A total of 36 consecutive eyes of 36 patients were included in this retrospective study: 16 eyes with spontaneously resolved CSC and 20 eyes with PDT-treated CSC. Best-corrected visual acuity and SFCT were evaluated at each visit until complete absorption of the subretinal fluid. SFCT of 32 normal subjects were also measured, as the control group. Wilcoxon's singed-rank test was used to evaluate the effects of spontaneous resolution and PDT. To compare the SFCT of the eyes with resolved CSC with that of the normal eyes, Mann–Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction was also employed.
SFCT of patients was 459.16±77.50 μm at the baseline, and decreased to 419.31±54.49μm after a spontaneous resolution (P=0.015). However, SFCT was not normalized in comparison with that of the normal subjects (P<0.001). SFCT in PDT group was also reduced from 416.43±74.01 to 349.50±88.99 μm (P<0.001), with no significant difference with the normal value (P=0.087).
SFCT in patients with CSC decreased both after spontaneous resolution and low-fluence PDT. However, only in the PDT group, after disappearance of subretinal fluid, did it decrease to that of normal subjects.
PMCID: PMC3597877  PMID: 23288136
choroidal thickness; enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography; low-fluence photodynamic therapy; spontaneously resolved CSC
5.  Photoreceptor disruption in central serous chorioretinopathy treated by half-dose photodynamic therapy 
To evaluate photoreceptor disruption in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) treated by half-dose photodynamic therapy (PDT).
A total of 29 patients with symptomatic CSC were recruited and underwent half-dose verteporfin PDT covering the leakage sites as observed via fundus fluorescein angiography. The primary outcome was the percentage of patients with the presence of photoreceptor disruption, and the secondary outcome was the correlation between photoreceptor disruption and visual results at the 1-year follow-up.
Photoreceptor disruption was identified in 13 eyes (44.8%) 12 months after treatment. Twenty-seven patients experienced best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improvement after PDT, while two patients showed stable BCVA. The mean BCVA in patients with photoreceptor disruption at the baseline and every follow-up visit was significantly lower than that of patients without photoreceptor disruption. However, there was no correlation between the presence or absence of photoreceptor disruption and the improvement of visual acuity because the BCVA gain at the last follow-up visit between the two groups was not significant (P = 0.69). No potential ocular complication was encountered in the study.
Photoreceptor disruption was found in about 45% of CSC patients treated by PDT, which ultimately resulted in poor visual outcomes. However, a half-dose PDT might not affect or modify the photoreceptor function because it gave the same pattern of visual recovery in patients with and without photoreceptor cell loss.
PMCID: PMC3548438  PMID: 23345962
photoreceptor disruption; central serous chorioretinopathy; photodynamic therapy
6.  Photodynamic Therapy Rescue for Subretinal Fluid Exacerbation After Focal Laser Treatment in Idiopathic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy 
To report a case of subretinal leakage after focal laser treatment for idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (ICSC). This rare complication was successfully treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT).
Interventional case report.
A 36-year-old male presented with ICSC in his right eye. After a period of observation without resolution, he was treated with focal laser. That treatment resulted in a massive exacerbation of his subretinal fluid. PDT was successfully used to treat the severe exacerbation with rapid resolution of the subretinal fluid, improvement in visual acuity, decreased leakage on fluorescein angiography, and reduction of subretinal fluid on ophthalmoscopic exam and by optical coherence tomography.
Ophthalmologists should consider the use of PDT in cases where focal laser causes an exacerbation of subretinal fluid in ICSC.
PMCID: PMC3052636  PMID: 21399767
Idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy; focal laser; photodynamic therapy.
7.  Surgical Management of Bilateral Exudative Retinal Detachment Associated with Central Serous Chorioretinopathy 
To report a case of bilateral bullous exudative retinal detachment in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) which was attached by vitrectomy and internal drainage of the subretinal fluid.
A 47-year-old man affected by bilateral atypical CSC with a bullous retinal detachment with subretinal exudate. A fluorescein angiogram (FAG) showed multiple points of leakage and staining of subretinal fibrosis. A tentative diagnosis of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) syndrome was made and the patient was treated with systemic corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents. However, the subretinal fluid was not absorbed. He was then treated with vitrectomy and internal drainage of subretinal fluid.
The retina was attached successfully in both eyes. Visual acuity improved to 20/50 in his left eye but did not improve in the right eye due to subretinal fibrotic scarring and atropic changes on the macula.
Our case suggests that the surgical management of bullous exudative retinal detachment is safe and necessary.
PMCID: PMC2908829  PMID: 16892652
Bullous retinal detachment; Central serous chorioretinopathy; Subretinal fluid drainage; Vitrectomy
8.  Half-fluence photodynamic therapy to treat chronic central serous chorioretinopathy: A case series 
Oman Journal of Ophthalmology  2011;4(2):63-66.
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of half-fluence photodynamic therapy (PDT) in treating chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) in Omani population.
Materials and Methods:
A Retrospective chart review of all patients with chronic CSC treated with half-fluence PDT from November 2009 to December 2010 was carried out. Recorded parameters included best-corrected visual acuity, findings of clinical examination, results of fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography at baseline and during follow-up visits after treatment.
Six eyes (of five Omani patients) with chronic CSC, of at least 9 months duration, were treated with half-fluence PDT. All eyes showed a complete resolution of CSC within 1 month following treatment. Four eyes showed visual improvement and two had unchanged stable vision. No complications from the treatment were noticed during the follow-up visits.
Half-fluence PDT to treat chronic CSC in Omani population is a promising treatment that results in both structural and functional improvement.
PMCID: PMC3160071  PMID: 21897620
Central serous chorioretinopathy; half-fluence photodynamic therapy; Omani; verteporfin
9.  Subthreshold diode laser micropulse photocoagulation versus intravitreal injections of bevacizumab in the treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy 
Eye  2011;26(2):307-314.
To evaluate the treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) with either subthreshold diode laser MicroPulse (SDM) or intravitreal bevacizumab (BCZ).
This comparative, controlled, prospective study conducted over a period of 10 months examined 52 eyes of 52 patients with (a) treatment with SDM at the active leakage site guided by fluorescein angiography (FA) (n=16 eyes), (b) intravitreal injection of 1.25 mg BCZ (n=10 eyes), or (c) observation (n=26 eyes). Outcome measures included changes in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) leakage at FA, central macular thickness (CMT), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and 10° macular perimetry.
At the end of the study, there was 12.5% persistent leakage in the SDM, compared with 60% in the BCZ and 92% in the control group. Mean CMT decreased by 94 μm in the SDM, 38 μm in the BCZ, and did not change in the control group. Mean BCVA improved more than 6 early treatment of diabetic retinopathy study letters in the SDM, decreased by one letter in the BCZ, and by two letters in the control group. In the SDM group, mean perimetric deficit improved by 1.5 decibels and corrected lost variance by 2.6. In the BCZ, it improved by 0.6, and in the control group by 0.5. Retreatment was required in 7/16 eyes of the SDM group (43.75%), and in 5/10 eyes of the BCZ group (50%).
SDM photocoagulation was superior to intravitreal injections of 1.25 mg BCZ in the treatment of CSC, which resulted in enhanced visual acuity and macular perimetry.
PMCID: PMC3272193  PMID: 22079961
central serous chorioretinopathy; micropulse laser, subthreshold photocoagulation; bevacizumab
10.  The effect of eradicating Helicobacter pylori on idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy patients 
To evaluate the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication on the remission of acute idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (ICSCR).
Study design
A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study of 53 participants.
Main outcome measure
Twenty-seven acute ICSCR patients tested positive for H. pylori were given an eradication H. pylori therapy, and another 26 patients with the same diagnosis received matching placebo medication. All participants were tested for the following items: (1) disappearance rate of subretinal fluid (SRF); (2) best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA); and (3) central retinal sensitivity at baseline, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks after treatment. The difference between the two groups was analyzed by PASW statistics version 18.0.
At each follow-up, the disappearance rate of SRF in the active treatment group seemed slightly better than in the control group, but no statistically significant differences were observed (P > 0.05 at each follow-up). The BCVA between the two groups also did not demonstrate statistically significant differences (P > 0.05 at each follow-up). Unlike the BCVA and the disappearance rate of SRF, we compared the change in central retinal sensitivity at 12 weeks after treatment; a statistical difference was observed (P = 0.042).
Our findings suggested that H. pylori eradication does not improve BCVA and the disappearance rate of SRF, but it could improve the central retinal sensitivity in acute ICSCR patients. We recommend that chronic ICSCR patients and more sensitive methods for H. pylori diagnosis should be involved in evaluating the effect of H. pylori eradication.
PMCID: PMC3772708  PMID: 24043941
Helicobacter pylori; acute idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy; best-corrected visual acuity; subretinal fluid; central retinal sensitivity
11.  Effects of photodynamic therapy with verteporfin for the treatment of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy: An uncontrolled, open-label, observational study* 
Background: Central serous chorioretinopathy is an idiopathic disorder that leads to serous neurosensory retinal detachment. The disorder is usually self-limited and resolves spontaneously; however, sometimes neurosensory retinal detachment persists. This form of the disorder is called chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CCSC).
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on visual acuity with full-dose verteporfin for CCSC.
Methods: The eyes of patients with CCSC were included in the study. Ophthalmic examination including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), fundus examination, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography was performed before treatment and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. PDT with full-dose verteporfin (6 μ/m2 of body surface area) was applied only to areas of active leakage. BCVA was converted to a log of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) equivalent for statistical analysis. Central foveal thickness and BCVA between baseline and follow-up were compared.
Results: Seventeen eyes of 16 patients (13 males, 3 females; mean [SD] age, 39.75 [7.51] years; mean duration of follow-up, 13.06 [1.82] months) were used in the study. The mean (SEM) logMAR BCVA was 0.26 (0.07) at baseline and 0.04 (0.02) at 12 months. Mean logMAR BCVA values at baseline (0.259) and after treatment (0.112, 0.053, 0.047, 0.041, and 0.041 at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, respectively) differed significantly (P = 0.006, P = 0.005, P = 0.005, P = 0.005, and P = 0.005). There was a significant difference in the mean central foveal thickness at the final visit (169 μm) compared with the baseline value (383 μm; P < 0.001). BCVA decreased in one eye (20/20 vs 20/25) and persisted during follow-up; in the other 16 eyes, BCVA either increased (n = 10) or remained stable (n = 6).
Conclusions: In this small, open-label study, patients with CCSC treated with a single course of PDT with full-dose verteporfin had significant improvement from baseline in BCVA and resolution of subretinal fluid accumulation and active leakage. Treatment was generally well tolerated, but one patient had worsening in BCVA.
PMCID: PMC3967338
central serous chorioretinopathy; photodynamic therapy; optical coherence tomography; verteporfin
12.  Microperimetric evaluation of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy after half-dose photodynamic therapy 
The purpose of this study was to determine baseline clinical factors to correlate the outcome of half-dose verteporfin photodynamic therapy (PDT) in eyes with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).
In this prospective, non-comparative, interventional case series, 14 eyes of 14 patients with chronic CSC who received half-dose verteporfin PDT were examined. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), macular sensitivity in the central 4, 8, and 12 degrees, and fixation stability were evaluated at baseline and at months 1, 3, 6, and 12 after half-dose verteporfin PDT. Macular sensitivity and fixation stability were determined by MP-1 microperimetry.
Mean retinal sensitivity in the central 4 and 8 degrees was significantly better at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after half-dose verteporfin PDT than at baseline. BCVA was significantly better after half-dose verteporfin PDT but only after 3 months. Fixation was relatively unstable in three eyes at baseline, but became stable at 12 months. BCVA at 12 months was significantly correlated with pre-PDT fixation stability (r = 0.7120, P = 0.0038).
Half-dose verteporfin PDT results in a significant increase in mean central retinal sensitivity for at least 12 months. Our findings indicate that microperimetry is a useful method for evaluating the functional benefits of half-dose verteporfin PDT in eyes with chronic CSC.
PMCID: PMC3476484  PMID: 23097612
microperimetry; fixation point; retinal sensitivity; photodynamic therapy; chronic central serous chorioretinopathy
13.  Atypical vitelliform macular dystrophy misdiagnosed as chronic central serous chorioretinopathy: case reports 
BMC Ophthalmology  2012;12:25.
To report two cases of atypical vitelliform macular dystrophy misdiagnosed as chronic central serous chorioretinopathy.
Case presentation
Two patients with incidentally discovered abnormalities of the retina without specific symptoms were referred to our hospital for consultation. Bilateral macula atrophic lesions were observed and optical coherence tomography revealed serous retinal detachment in the macula. Fluorescein angiography showed multiple leakages around the central hypofluorescent area and indocyanine green angiography showed partially dilated choroidal vessels. Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) showed a decreasing pattern of autofluorescence in the subretinal fluid area, and increasing autofluorescence at the border of the serous retinal detachment. Both patients were diagnosed with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy. Photodynamic therapy and intravitreal bevacizumab injection were administered for engorged choroidal vessels during follow-up, but neither patient showed improvement in symptoms or ophthalmologic findings. Based on re-evaluation by fundus photography, optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, and comparison of the results of FAF with the first visit, vitelliform macular dystrophy was suspected and a definite diagnosis was made by electrooculography and genetic testing.
In patients with continuous serous retinal detachment without response to photodynamic therapy or intravitreal bevacizumab injection, careful fundus exam and FAF can be used to diagnose atypical vitelliform macular dystrophy.
PMCID: PMC3549736  PMID: 22817759
14.  Features of abnormal choroidal circulation in central serous chorioretinopathy 
Aims: To evaluate abnormalities in the choroidal circulation in cases of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).
Methods: A complete clinical ophthalmological examination was performed using simultaneous fluorescein and indocyanine green (ICG) angiography with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and the digital images analysed in 36 consecutive patients with acute CSC. To quantify the choroidal circulation, the foveal choroidal blood flow was measured in 11 patients using laser Doppler flowmetry.
Results: Fluorescein angiography showed focal leakage from the retinal pigment epithelium in all patients. ICG angiography revealed delays in arterial filling in 27 eyes (75%), and fluorescein angiography showed small hypofluorescent points around the leakage in 27 eyes (75%). Abnormal choroidal hyperfluorescence was observed in 30 eyes (83%). The choroidal blood flow in eyes with CSC was 45% lower than in fellow eyes (p<0.01).
Conclusion: Decreased choroidal blood flow in CSC was demonstrated for the first time. The decreased choroidal blood flow might be correlated with the small, localised hypofluorescent areas, which may indicate non-perfused areas of the choriocapillaris that are frequently seen during ICG angiography.
PMCID: PMC1771731  PMID: 12770966
central serous chorioretinopathy; fluorescein angiography; indocyanine green angiography; foveal choroidal blood; laser Doppler flowmetry
15.  Role of Avastin in management of central serous chorioretinopathy 
Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology  2010;24(3):69-75.
To evaluate the short-term safety and efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab for the treatment of intraretinal or subretinal fluid accumulation secondary to central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).
Prospective interventional series non-comparative study.
Department of Ophthalmology, Al-Minya University Faculty of Medicine, Egypt.
The study included 20 eyes of 20 patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), Out of them 10 eyes with acute CSC (group I), 6 eyes with chronic CSC (defined as symptoms present for longer than 6 months) and four eyes with recurrent (defined as more than one episode of the disease) chronic and recurrent cases are considered in one group (group II), all patients were injected with intravitreal Avastin (IVA) 1.25 mg (0.05 mL) of commercially available bevacizumab [Avastin; Genentech, Inc., San Francisco, CA] as a primary treatment. At baseline and follow up visits patients had best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), IOP assessment, dilated fundus examination, fundus photography, fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging is used for measurement of central retinal thickness (CRT). Main outcome measures were the resolution of neurosensory detachment, improvement in visual symptoms and visual acuity, and resolution of leakage in FA. Secondary outcome and measures were the need for re-injection and the adverse effects. The mean number of injections was 2 (range 1–3 injections) 6–8 weeks intervals and follow up for 6 months (range 5–7 months). All finding at baseline and each follow up visit were reported and compared.
The mean age of all patients was 40.3 years ± 6.5 (range 25–50 years), 15 males and five females patients. In acute CSC group, the mean baseline BCVA was 20/60 (log MAR 0.48) and improved to 20/30 (log MAR 0.18) with statistically significance difference change (P < 0.003) and in (chronic and recurrent group), the mean baseline VA was 20/80 (log MAR 0.60) and improved to 20/40 (log MAR 0.30) with statistically significance difference change (P < 0.002). The mean baseline CRT for all patients was 486 ± 86 μm (range, 386–580), decreased to 316 ± 56 μm (range, 276–368) after 1 months with statistically significance difference change (P < 0.02) and to 272 ± 52 μm (range 220–338) at last follow up with statistically significance difference change from the baseline (P < 0.001).
Intravitreal Avastin (IVA) injection was associated with visual improvement and reduced neurosensory detachment without adverse events in patients with CSC. Although these results are promising, further randomized controlled studies would be helpful to understand this therapy for patients with CSC.
PMCID: PMC3729398  PMID: 23960879
Central serous chorioretinopathy; Avastin (bevacizumab); FA; OCT; Intravitreal injection
16.  Efficacy of half-fluence photodynamic therapy depending on the degree of choroidal hyperpermeability in chronic central serous chorioretinopathy 
Eye  2013;27(3):353-362.
The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of half-fluence photodynamic therapy (PDT) depending on the degree of hyperfluorescence based on indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) for treatment of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).
We conducted a prospective study of 30 eyes of 30 patients with chronic CSC. Half-fluence PDT (25 J/cm2 for 83 s) with ICGA guidance was applied to the area of choroidal hyperpermeability. The baseline middle-phase ICGA findings were classified as intense or weak hyperfluorescence depending on the degree of hyperpermeability from choriocapillaris. Changes in mean best-corrected visual acuity, resolution of subretinal fluid, recurrence rate, and complications were compared between the two groups.
The baseline ICGA findings showed intense hyperfluorescence in 16 eyes (53.3%) and weak hyperfluorescence in 14 eyes (46.7%). Subretinal fluid showed complete resolution in both the groups 1 month after a single application of half-fluence PDT. Recurrence of subretinal fluid was observed in one of 14 eyes (7.1%) with weak hyperfluorescence and in no eyes (0%) with intense hyperfluorescence. No statistically significant difference in the rate of recurrence was observed between the two groups.
Half-fluence PDT appears to be an effective and safe treatment option for patients with chronic CSC regardless of the degree of hyperfluorescence based on ICGA. According to these findings, choroidal hyperpermeability, rather than dysfunction of retinal pigment epithelium, might be more important as primary pathogenesis of chronic CSC.
PMCID: PMC3597893  PMID: 23449515
chronic central serous chorioretinopathy; choroidal hyperpermeability; indocyanine green angiography; photodynamic therapy
17.  Multiple spots of photodynamic therapy for the treatment of severe chronic central serous chorioretinopathy 
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of fluorescein angiography (FA)-guided photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of severe chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).
Patients presenting with chronic CSC with multiple areas of retinal pigment epithelium decompensation, with or without focal leaks, were treated with FA-guided full-fluence PDT. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), optical coherence tomography (OCT), FA, indocyanine green angiography, and fundus autofluorescence were used to determine functional and anatomic outcomes.
Twenty-one eyes (17 patients) were treated with PDT and followed for a median of 24 months (range, 12–73). In fourteen eyes (66.66%), two PDT spots were performed within the same session. In three eyes (14.28%), three PDT spots were performed, in two eyes (9.52%) four spots, and in two eyes (9.52%) five spots. In 17 eyes (80.95%), the leakage in FA and the subretinal fluid in OCT disappeared after only one session of PDT. In four eyes (19.05%), a second session – with only one spot – of PDT was required due to persistent or recurrent leakage and subfoveal SRF. Median BCVA improved significantly from 20/63 at baseline to 20/40 at 3 months (P = 0.0002) and 20/32 at 6 months (P < 0.0001), and remained improved until the last examination (20/25, P < 0.0001). Two patients complained of a transient central scotoma after the treatment.
FA-guided full-fluence PDT with multiple PDT spots within the same session seems to be effective and safe for the treatment of chronic CSC cases with multiple areas of retinal pigment epithelium decompensation.
PMCID: PMC3474267  PMID: 23109801
central serous chorioretinopathy; photodynamic therapy
18.  Presumed Idiopathic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy in a 12-Year-Old Girl 
Idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) typically affects middle-aged males. To date, only one case of idiopathic CSC in a prepubertal subject has been reported. Atypical idiopathic CSC presentation may be challenging to diagnose. Exclusion of secondary causes of serous retinal detachment (SRD) is warranted. We describe the atypical case of a 12-year-old female with a circumscribed SRD that resolved spontaneously and with fluorescein angiography (FA) findings that were compatible with idiopathic CSC. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and systemic assessment were performed to exclude other etiologies. FA demonstrated multiple focal leaks in early phases, with subretinal leakage and pooling in late phases. OCT showed a localized circumscribed retinal detachment. Complete blood count was within normal limits. Serum cortisol was normal (22.1 μg/dl) and mean arterial blood pressure was 100/60 mm Hg, thereby excluding secondary causes of CSC. This is the second reported case of idiopathic CSC in a prepubertal female and the first one documented by FA and OCT, as well as other studies to exclude secondary causes. Albeit rare, idiopathic CSC should be considered in the differential diagnosis of SRD in this (prepubertal) age group, after excluding secondary ocular or systemic etiologies.
PMCID: PMC3357173  PMID: 22615694
Central serous chorioretinopathy, idiopathic; Fluorescein angiography; Optical coherence tomography; Serous retinal detachment
19.  Profile of verteporfin and its potential for the treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy 
Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is an idiopathic disorder characterized by serous retinal detachments associated with focal leakage on fluorescein angiography and pigment epithelial detachments. While the majority of cases improve spontaneously over several months, a significant subset of patients advance to a chronic recurrent form of the disease with diffuse pigment epitheliopathy, foveal atrophy, scarring, and permanent visual loss. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with verteporfn has been extensively studied as a potential therapeutic option for chronic cases. Multiple prospective interventional studies have demonstrated the efficacy of PDT for CSCR with significant functional and anatomic improvements achieved. Refinement of the PDT protocol has subsequently been performed in an effort to minimize adverse effects. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents, such as bevacizumab, have been utilized in the treatment of CSCR. Recent advances in imaging and functional testing have shed further light on possible pathophysiologic mechanisms of disease and post treatment changes induced by PDT. While the body of evidence supports PDT as an efficacious and relatively safe treatment for CSCR, further evaluation of the long-term efficacy and safety of PDT, as well as protocol improvements are required.
PMCID: PMC3788817  PMID: 24092965
photodynamic therapy; retinopathy; CSC; CSCR
20.  Safety enhanced photodynamic therapy with half dose verteporfin for chronic central serous chorioretinopathy: a short term pilot study 
To evaluate short term safety of an enhanced photodynamic therapy (PDT) protocol with half dose verteporfin for treating chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).
20 eyes of 18 patients with symptomatic chronic CSC underwent PDT using 3 mg/m2 verteporfin. Verteporfin was infused over 8 minutes followed by indocyanine green angiography guided laser application 2 minutes later. Serial optical coherence tomography (OCT) and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) recordings were performed before PDT, at 4 days, 2 weeks, and 1 month after PDT. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), OCT central retinal thickness, and mean mfERG response amplitudes and peak latencies were compared longitudinally. Subgroup analysis was further performed for eyes with or without pigment epithelial detachment (PED).
At 1 month after PDT, the median BCVA improved from 20/40 to 20/30 (p = 0.001). The mean central retinal thickness also reduced from 276 μm to 158 μm (p<0.001) and 17 (85%) eyes had complete resolution of serous retinal detachment and/or PED. MfERG showed no significant changes in the mean N1 and P1 response amplitude and latency for all eyes. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that eyes without PED had a significant increase in the mean central mfERG P1 response amplitude with reduction in P1 peak latency at 1 month post‐PDT. For eyes with PED, transient reduction in the mean central P1 response amplitude was observed at 4 days post‐PDT.
The modified safety enhanced PDT protocol with half dose verteporfin appeared to be a beneficial treatment option for patients with chronic CSC, especially in eyes without serous PED. Further controlled study is warranted to demonstrate the long term safety and efficacy of this treatment option.
PMCID: PMC1857171  PMID: 16597666
central serous chorioretinopathy; photodynamic therapy; verteporfin; multifocal electroretinography; optical coherence tomography
21.  Finasteride for Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy 
Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)  2011;31(4):766-771.
To evaluate the safety and efficacy of finasteride, an inhibitor of dihyroxytestosterone (DHT) synthesis, in the treatment of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).
Five patients with chronic CSC were prospectively enrolled in this pilot study. Patients were administered finasteride (5mg) daily for 3 months, following which study medication was withheld and patients were observed for 3 months. Main outcome measures included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), center-subfield macular thickness and subretinal fluid volume as assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Serum DHT, serum testosterone, and urinary cortisol were also measured.
There was no change in mean BCVA. Mean center-subfield macular thickness and subretinal fluid volume reached a nadir at 3 months, and rose to levels that were below baseline by 6 months. The changes in both OCT parameters paralleled changes in serum DHT level. In four patients, center-subfield macular thickness and/or subretinal fluid volume increased following discontinuation of finasteride. In the remaining patient, both OCT parameters normalized with finasteride and remained stable when the study medication was discontinued.
Finasteride may represent a novel medical treatment for chronic CSC. Larger controlled clinical trials are needed to further assess the efficacy of finasteride for the treatment of CSC.
Pilot study to evaluate finasteride for treatment of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy suggests efficacy and tolerability.
PMCID: PMC3116973  PMID: 21273946
Finasteride; Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy; Retina; Optical Coherence Tomography
22.  Recurrent Central Serous Chorioretinopathy with Dexamethasone Eye Drop used Nasally for Rhinitis 
Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is characterized by serous retinal detachment at the posterior pole. Several factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis, and endogenous or exogenous corticosteroids are thought to play a major role. Here we present a case of a 35-year-old male with complaints of a dark circle in front of his right eye. Fundus examination, optical coherence tomography and fundus fluorescein angiography were performed. The patient was diagnosed with CSC. CSC resolved completely within seven weeks. Four weeks later the CSC recurred and spontaneously resolved over eight weeks. Overall, the patient had three additional recurrences of CSC in the same eye over the next year. A detailed history taking revealed the patient was using 0.1% dexamethasone eye drops nasally for recurrent rhinitis for few days prior to each episode of CSC. This indicates the strong correlation between steroids given by any route and the pathogenesis of CSC.
PMCID: PMC3841960  PMID: 24339692
Central Serous Chorioretinopathy; Cortisol; Dexamethasone; Nasal Drop
23.  Morphologic Changes in Acute Central Serous Chorioretinopathy Using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography 
To investigate morphologic changes of acute central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.
This retrospective study included 63 eyes of 63 patients with unilateral acute CSC. All patients underwent simultaneous SD-OCT and fluorescein angiography examination using Spectralis HRA+OCT.
The external limiting membrane could be seen on SD-OCT, although the junction between photoreceptor inner and outer segments (IS/OS) was not detected in all eyes with retinal detachment (RD). However, IS/OS became visible after resolution of serous RD in 51 eyes (81.0%). SD-OCT images at the leakage sites showed a bump of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in in 47 cases (68.1%) and pigment epithelial detachment (PED) in 22 of 69 leakage sites (31.9%). In 14 of 69 leakage sites (20.3%), highly reflective areas suggesting fibrinous exudate were observed in the subretinal space. In nine leakage sites (13.0%), sagging or dipping of the posterior retinal layer was seen. Abnormal RPE changes such as RPE bump and PED were observed in 12 of 22 fellow eyes (54.5%).
A variety of morphologic changes could be identified on SD-OCT, and those findings may contribute more information to our understanding of the pathophysiology of CSC.
PMCID: PMC3464318  PMID: 23060721
Central serous chorioretinopathy; Fluorescein angiography; Indocyanine green angiography; Leakage site; Spectral domain optical coherence tomography
24.  Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Photodynamic Therapy-Induced Massive Macular Detachment in Acute Central Serous Chorioretinopathy 
Case Reports in Ophthalmology  2012;3(2):196-199.
We present a long followed up case of acute central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) complicated by a severe visual loss due to massive pigment epithelium detachment of the macula after a full-dose photodynamic therapy (PDT). Rapid anatomical and functional improvement was observed after a single intravitreal injection of bevacizumab. To our knowledge, we report the first case of PDT-treated CSC complicated by severe visual loss. We can only speculate that the serous detachment of the posterior pole might have been caused by PDT-induced VEGF overexpression, explaining such an impressive response to Avastin treatment.
PMCID: PMC3383330  PMID: 22740830
Bevacizumab; Central serous chorioretinopathy; Photodynamic therapy
25.  Central Serous Chorioretinopathy: Update on Pathophysiology and Treatment 
Survey of ophthalmology  2013;58(2):103-126.
Recent technological advances have led to an improved understanding of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC): new pathophysiological insights, new imaging techniques for diagnosis and management, and new treatments. The primary role of the choroid has become more widely accepted with widespread use of indocyanine green angiography. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), and particularly enhanced depth imaging OCT, demonstrate a thickened and engorged choroid. Adaptive optics, fundus autofluorescence, multifocal electroretinography, microperimetry, and contrast sensitivity testing reveal that patients with even a mild course suffer previously undetected anatomic and functional loss. While focal laser and photodynamic therapy are the current standard of care for persistent subretinal fluid in CSC, they are not appropriate in all cases, and the optimal timing of intervention remains unclear.
PMCID: PMC3574296  PMID: 23410821
central serous chorioretinopathy; diffuse retinal pigment epitheliopathy; photodynamic therapy; corticosteroids; indocyanine green angiography; fundus autofluorescence; optical coherence tomography

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