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1.  Lymphocyte Rich Hodgkin's Lymphoma Presented with Warm Hemolytic Anemia: A Case Report and Literature Review 
Case Reports in Hematology  2011;2011:385408.
Hodgkin's lymphoma accounts for ten percent of all lymphomas. In the United States, there are about 8000 new cases every year. This paper describes a case of lymphocyte-rich Hodgkin's lymphoma (LRHL) manifested by autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). A 27-year-old Israeli male presented with dizziness associated with one month of low-grade fevers and night sweats; he also complained of persistent cough, pruritus, and ten-pound weight lost during this time. The CBC revealed hemoglobin of 5.9 gm/dL, and direct Coomb's test detected multiple nonspecific antibodies consistent with the diagnosis of AIHA. Chest, abdomen, and pelvic CT scan showed mediastinal lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. Lymph node biopsy revealed classic LRHL. AIHA resolved after completion of the first cycle of chemotherapy with adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD); after six cycles, he went into complete remission. Although infrequent, AIHA can be responsible for the presenting symptoms of HL.
doi:10.1155/2011/385408
PMCID: PMC3420746  PMID: 22937306
2.  Coombs-Negative Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia in Crohn’s Disease 
Patient: Female, 41
Final Diagnosis: Coombs negative autoimmune hemolytic anemia
Symptoms: Dark urine • dizziness • dyspnea
Medication: —
Clinical Procedure: Immunoradiometric assay for RBC-IgG
Specialty: Hematology
Objective:
Rare disease
Background:
Anemia is a common, important extraintestinal complication of Crohn’s disease. The main types of anemia in patients with Crohn’s disease are iron deficiency anemia and anemia of chronic disease. Although patients with Crohn’s disease may experience various type of anemia, autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) in patients with Crohn’s disease, especially Coombs-negative AIHA, is very rare.
Case Report:
A 41-year-old woman with Crohn’s disease presented to our emergency room (ER) with dark urine, dizziness, and shortness of breath. The activity of Crohn’s disease had been controlled, with Crohn’s disease activity index (CDAI) score below 100 point. On physical examination, the patient had pale conjunctivae and mildly icteric sclerae. Serum bilirubin was raised at 3.1 mg/dL, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level was 1418 U/L and the haptoglobin level was <3 mg/dL. Results of direct and the indirect Coombs tests were all negative. We then measured the RBC-IgG to evaluate the possibility of Coombs-negative AIHA. The result revealed that RBC-IgG level was 352 IgG molecules/cell, with the cut-off value at 78.5 IgG molecules/cell.
Conclusions:
We report a case of Coombs-negative AIHA in a patient with Crohn’s disease with chronic anemia, diagnosed by red blood cell-bound immunoglobulin G (RBC-IgG) and treated with steroids therapy.
doi:10.12659/AJCR.892136
PMCID: PMC4264829  PMID: 25488633
Crohn Disease; Coombs Test; Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune
3.  Reappraisal of the Etiology of Extracorpuscular Non-Autoimmune Acquired Hemolytic Anemia in 2657 Hospitalized Patients with Non-Neoplastic Disease 
INTRODUCTION
Unlike autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), literature on the etiological study of non-autoimmune hemolytic anemia (non-AIHA) is scarce. The incidence and prevalence of non-AIHA in different geographic regions are largely unknown perhaps owing to the lack of perspective investigation and different profiles of etiologies from different geographic regions. We aimed to examine the real-world etiology or mechanisms of the non-hereditary non-AIHA from a nationwide population-based administrative claim database in Taiwan.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
The National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan was adopted for this research. The studied population was total inpatient claim records including both pediatric and adult patients, contributed by a population of 23 million insured individuals in Taiwan. From 2002 to 2008, we retrieved 3,903 patients having no pre-existing malignancy discharged after inpatient management for acquired hemolytic anemia, which was defined as coding in discharge diagnoses containing ICD-9-CM code 283. By contrast, ICD-9-CM code 282 and all of the sub-codes are for hereditary hemolytic anemias.
RESULTS
AIHA accounted for 32% of the total cases. Among 2,657 patients with non-AIHA, mechanical or microangiopathic mechanism accounted for 19% of cases; hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) 4%, hemoglobinuria because of hemolysis from external causes such as paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and march hemoglobinuria 7%, and chronic idiopathic hemolytic anemia or other unspecified non-AIHA 69%. We looked further for specific etiology or mechanism for this group of patients with non-hereditary extrinsic non-AIHA (n = 2,657). The explanatory disease states or conditions were splenomegaly; alcohol use disorder (spur cell hemolysis); heart-valve prosthesis; malignant hypertension; disseminated intravascular coagulation; transfusion reaction; dengue fever-induced hemolytic anemia; direct parasitization; snake, lizard, or spider bite; and Wilson’s disease with internal toxin mechanism. All these cases can explain up to 34.6% of all the non-hereditary extrinsic non-AIHA cases. Fragmentation hemolysis (HUS, heart-valve prosthesis, malignant hypertension, and disseminated intravascular coagulation) accounted for 7.4% of non-AIHA hospitalized patients with non-neoplastic disease.
CONCLUSIONS
This article is the first one to clearly demonstrate that the non-neoplastic-induced HUS requiring hospitalization cases in Taiwan, which has a population of over 23 million were 110 over a span of seven years, 16 cases per year. Although the etiologies of non-AIHA are well known and described in the literature, this work added the statistical percentages of the various etiologies of non-AIHA in Taiwan.
doi:10.4137/CPath.S14875
PMCID: PMC3999811  PMID: 24808725
non-immune hemolytic anemia; anemia; hemolytic; etiology; causality; extracorpuscular; hospitalized; NHIRD
4.  Pure red-cell aplasia and autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a patient with acute hepatitis A 
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology  2014;20(2):204-207.
Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) have rarely been reported as an extrahepatic manifestation of acute hepatitis A (AHA). We report herein a case of AHA complicated by both PRCA and AIHA. A 49-year-old female with a diagnosis of AHA presented with severe anemia (hemoglobin level, 6.9 g/dL) during her clinical course. A diagnostic workup revealed AIHA and PRCA as the cause of the anemia. The patient was treated with an initial transfusion and corticosteroid therapy. Her anemia and liver function test were completely recovered by 9 months after the initial presentation. We review the clinical features and therapeutic strategies for this rare case of extrahepatic manifestation of AHA.
doi:10.3350/cmh.2014.20.2.204
PMCID: PMC4099336  PMID: 25032187
Hepatitis A; Pure red-cell aplasia; Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
5.  A Case of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in Patient with Coombs' Negative Hemolytic Anemia and Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura 
Coombs' negative autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a rare disease which shares similar clinical and hematological features with Coombs' positive AIHA, but its exact frequency remains unknown. There have been few reports of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and Coombs' negative AIHA associated with other lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs). Since there is a well known association between LPDs and autoimmune phenomena, it is important to investigate the possibility of an underlying malignancy. We report a case of ITP and Coombs' negative AIHA associated with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
doi:10.4143/crt.2012.44.1.69
PMCID: PMC3322204  PMID: 22500164
Lymphoma; Hemolytic anemia; Coombs' test; Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
6.  STUDIES UPON MINUTE HEMOLYTIC STREPTOCOCCI  
1. Minute beta hemolytic streptococci were found to occur from one-third to one-half as frequently in normal individuals as do ordinary beta hemolytic streptococci. 2. They were rarely isolated from the rhinopharynges of individuals suffering from chronic disease. 3. In acute respiratory tract infection other than that due to the ordinary beta hemolytic streptococcus the incidence of minute streptococci was slightly higher than in normal individuals. 4. In acute streptococcal infections, scarlet fever and acute tonsillitis, for example, the incidence of minute hemolytic streptococci did not significantly vary from the incidence found in normal human beings. 5. Minute beta hemolytic streptococci were found in the throats of 33 out of 42 patients ill with glomerular nephritis and in 25 out of 59 patients who were suffering from the various manifestations of rheumatic fever. 6. In glomerular nephritis and rheumatic infection the minute beta hemolytic streptococci were isolated from the throats of more patients than were the ordinary beta hemolytic streptococci.
PMCID: PMC2132431  PMID: 19870327
7.  Acute Q fever in Portugal. Epidemiological and clinical features of 32 hospitalized patients 
Germs  2012;2(2):43-59.
Introduction
Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. The main characteristic of acute Q fever is its clinical polymorphism, usually presenting as a febrile illness with varying degrees of hepatitis and/or pneumonia. Q fever is endemic in Portugal, and it is an obligatory notifiable disease since 1999. However, its epidemiological and clinical characteristics are still incompletely described.
Methods
We performed a retrospective study of 32 cases admitted in the Infectious Diseases Department, Santa Maria’s University Hospital, from January 2001 to December 2010, in whom acute Q fever was diagnosed by the presence of antibodies to phase II Coxiella burnetii antigens associated with a compatible clinical syndrome.
Results
Out of the 32 cases recorded, 29 (91%) were male, with a male:female ratio of 9.7:1. Individuals at productive age were mainly affected (88%, n=28, with ages between 25 and 64 years). Clinically, the most common manifestation of acute Q fever was hepatic involvement (84%, n=27), which occurred isolated in 53% (n=17) of the cases. Hepatitis was more severe, presenting with higher values of liver function tests, in patients presenting both pulmonary and hepatic involvement. Additionally, we report one case of myocarditis and another one with neurological involvement. Empiric but appropriate antibiotic therapy was given in 66% (n=21) of the cases. There was a complete recovery in 94% (n=30) of the patients, and one death. We confirmed the sub-notification of this disease in Portugal, with only 47% (n=15) of the cases notified.
Conclusion
In Portugal further studies are needed to confirm our results. From the 32 cases studied, acute Q fever presented more frequently as a febrile disease with hepatic involvement affecting mainly young male individuals. Furthermore, acute Q fever is clearly underdiagnosed and underreported in Portugal, which suggests that an increased awareness of the disease is needed, together with a broader use of serological testing.
doi:10.11599/germs.2012.1013
PMCID: PMC3882866  PMID: 24432263
Coxiella burnetii; acute Q fever; epidemiology; hepatitis; cholestasis; pneumonia; Portugal
8.  Giant cell hepatitis with autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a nine month old infant 
World Journal of Hepatology  2013;5(4):226-229.
Giant cell hepatitis (GCH) with autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a rare entity, limited to young children, with an unknown pathogenesis. We report the case of 9-mo old who presented with fever, diarrhea and jaundice four days before hospitalization. Physical examination found pallor, jaundice and hepatosplenomegaly. The laboratory workup showed serum total bilirubin at 101 μmol/L, conjugated bilirubin at 84 μmol/L, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and immunoglobulin G (IgG) and anti-C3d positive direct Coombs’ test. The antinuclear, anti-smooth muscle and liver kidney microsomes 1 non-organ specific autoantibodies, antiendomisium antibodies were negative. Serological assays for viral hepatitis B and C, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex and Epstein Barr virus were negative. The association of acute liver failure, Evan’s syndrome, positive direct Coomb’s test of mixed type (IgG and C3) and the absence of organ and non-organ specific autoantibodies suggested the diagnosis of GCH. The diagnosis was confirmed by a needle liver biopsy. The patient was treated by corticosteroids, immunomodulatory therapy and azathioprine but died with septicemia.
doi:10.4254/wjh.v5.i4.226
PMCID: PMC3648655  PMID: 23671728
Giant cell hepatitis; Anemia; Hemolytic; Autoimmune; Child
9.  Hypercalcemia after transplant nephrectomy in a hemodialysis patient: a case report 
Introduction
Hypercalcemia is a complication often seen in chronic hemodialysis patients. A rare cause of this condition is sarcoidosis. Its highly variable clinical presentation is challenging. Especially in patients suffering chronic kidney graft failure the nonspecific constitutional symptoms of sarcoidosis like fever, weight loss, arthralgia and fatigue may be easily misleading.
Case presentation
A 51 year old male developed hypercalcemia, arthralgia and B-symptoms after explantation of his kidney graft because of suspected acute rejection. The removed kidney showed vasculopathy and tubulointerstitial nephritis, which had not been overt in the biopsy taken half a year earlier. Despite explantation and withdrawal of the immunosuppression the patient's general condition deteriorated progressively. A rapid rise in serum calcium finally provoked us to check for sarcoidosis. CT scans of the lungs, broncho-alveolar-lavage and further lab tests confirmed the diagnosis.
Conclusion
This case demonstrates that withdrawal of immunosuppressive drugs sometimes unmasks sarcoidosis. It should be considered as differential diagnosis even in hemodialysis patients, in whom other reasons for hypercalcemia are much more common.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-1-164
PMCID: PMC2241629  PMID: 18053167
10.  A case of recurrent autoimmune hemolytic anemia during remission associated with acute pure red cell aplasia and hemophagocytic syndrome due to human parvovirus B19 infection successfully treated by steroid pulse therapy with a review of the literature 
The patient was a 47-year-old man diagnosed as having autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) in April 2011. He also had a congenital chromosomal abnormality, a balanced translocation. Treatment with prednisolone (PSL) 60 mg/day resulted in resolution of the AIHA, and the treatment was completed in November 2011. While the patient no longer had anemia, the direct and indirect Coombs tests remained positive. In May 2013, he developed recurrent AIHA associated with acute pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) and hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) caused by human parvovirus B19 (HPV B19) infection. Tests for anti-erythropoietin and anti-erythropoietin receptor antibodies were positive. Steroid pulse therapy resulted in resolution of the AIHA, PRCA, as well as HPS. The serum test for anti-erythropoietin antibodies also became negative after the treatment. However, although the serum was positive for anti-HPV B19 IgG antibodies, the patient continued to have a low CD4 lymphocyte count (CD4, <300/μL) and persistent HPV B19 infection (HPV B19 DNA remained positive), suggesting the risk of recurrence and bone marrow failure.
PMCID: PMC4069955  PMID: 24966977
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia; human parvovirus B19; pure red cell aplasia; hemophagocytic syndrome; CD4 lymphocyte count
11.  Erythrocytic transglutaminase inhibition hemolysis at presentation of celiac disease 
Celiac disease (CD) is a common autoimmune condition. Previously it was considered to be a rare childhood disorder, but is actually considered a relatively common condition, present at any age, which may have multiple complications and manifestations. Hematological disorders of the disease are not uncommon. Among these disorders, the most frequently reported are anemias as a result of iron deficiency, often associated with folate and/or B12 deficiency. Anemias caused by hemolysis are very rarely reported in celiac patients. An 11-year-old girl with a previous uneventful medical history presented with severe hemolytic anemia. Hemolysis was Coombs negative, accompanied by inappropriate low reticulocyte count, despite exaggerated bone marrow hyperplasia of the erythroid precursors which showed normal maturation. Serology for recent infections, including Epstein-Barr virus, parvovirus B19, cytomegalovirus and mycoplasma, were all negative. Levels of serum IgA, IgG and IgM, were all within normal ranges for age. Screening for anti-DNA, antinuclear, antineutrophil cytoplasmic, antimicrosomal, antithyroglobulin, and antimitochondrial antibodies and lupus anticoagulants, was negative. She was also negative for human immunodeficiency virus. Conventional therapy with corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin failed. CD was serendipitously discovered upon screening for anti-tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies. The disease was confirmed by biopsy of the small intestine mucosa. The patient recovered with gluten-free diet. A unique case of CD is presented. CD should be serologically screened in each patient with Coombs negative “immune” hemolytic anemia, particularly if accompanied by “reticulocytopenia”. A new hemolytic mechanism and very speculative explanation for “reticulocytopenia” are discussed.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v16.i44.5647
PMCID: PMC2992686  PMID: 21105201
Celiac disease; Tissue transglutaminase; Antibodies; Hemolytic anemia; Gluten free diet
12.  Tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis syndrome complicated by IgA nephropathy and Graves’ disease: a case report 
Introduction
Tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis syndrome is a disorder characterized by a combination of acute tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis. Immunoglobulin A nephropathy is defined by the presence of immunoglobulin A deposits in glomerular mesangial areas. In this report, we describe a rare case of tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis syndrome complicated by immunoglobulin A nephropathy and Graves’ disease, which was successfully treated with corticosteroids. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time such a case has been documented since tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis syndrome was first described.
Case presentation
A 64-year-old Japanese woman presented with tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis syndrome accompanied by immunoglobulin A nephropathy and Graves’ disease. She had renal dysfunction, proteinuria, and hematuria. Two weeks after her admission, she developed anterior chamber uveitis. She received corticosteroids, resulting in significant clinical improvement.
Conclusion
Tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis syndrome is a relatively uncommon cause of tubulointerstitial nephritis. Clinicians should recognize that tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis syndrome with immunoglobulin A nephropathy can occur in the presence of Graves’ disease. Additionally, this report may provide important clues in terms of the management of a concomitant case of these diseases.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-8-305
PMCID: PMC4168995  PMID: 25216854
Corticosteroids; Graves’ disease; IgA nephropathy; TINU syndrome
13.  Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a patient with Malaria 
Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (AIHA), a very infrequent condition which represents a group of disorders in which presence of autoantibodies directed against self-antigens leads to shortened red cell survival. Till date, a very few cases of AIHA in Malaria patients are reported worldwide but still AIHA should be considered a relatively rare cause of anemia in malaria. A 20 year male presented with intermittent fever since seven days and yellowish discoloration of urine and sclera since 5 days. He was transfused three units of blood at a private clinic before one month. On examination, pallor, icterus and spelnomegaly were present. Hemoglobin (Hb) was 3.2 gm% and peripheral smear revealed ring forms of both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. Serum LDH and Serum billirubin (Indirect and Direct) were high. This patient’s blood group was B +ve with positive autocontrol. Indirect Antiglobulin Test (IAT), antibody screening and antibody identification were pan-positive with reaction strength of +4 against each cell. Direct Antiglobulin Test was +4 positive anti IgG and negative with anti C3. He was treated with Artesunate and methylprednisone. Least incompatible, saline washed O Neg and B neg red cells were transfused on the 2nd day of starting treatment. Hb was raised to 6.1 gm% on 4th day. Patient was discharged on 9th day with Hb 7.0 gm% with oral tapering dose of steroids. In the above case, patient was suffering from high grade malarial parasitemia with co-existing autoimmune RBC destruction by IgG auto-antibodies which led to sudden drop in Hb and rise in serum LDH and indirect billirubin. Least incompatible packed red cells along with antimalarials and steroids led to clinical improvement. So far, one case report each from India, Korea, Canada and Germany and one case series report of three cases from India have been reported. Under-reporting or rarity of this phenomenon may be accountable for this.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.115581
PMCID: PMC3757778  PMID: 24014948
Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia; autoantibodies; malaria
14.  Q Fever, Spotted Fever Group, and Typhus Group Rickettsioses Among Hospitalized Febrile Patients in Northern Tanzania 
In a prospective cohort study of febrile patients in northern Tanzania, Q fever and spotted fever group rickettsiosis were common but were not diagnosed by physicians in the absence of specific clinical features and local diagnostic methods.
Background. The importance of Q fever, spotted fever group rickettsiosis (SFGR), and typhus group rickettsiosis (TGR) as causes of febrile illness in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown; the putative role of Q fever as a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection is unclear.
Methods. We identified febrile inpatients in Moshi, Tanzania, from September 2007 through August 2008 and collected acute- and convalescent-phase serum samples. A ≥4-fold increase in immunoglobulin (Ig) G immunfluorescence assay (IFA) titer to Coxiella burnetii phase II antigen defined acute Q fever. A ≥4-fold increase in IgG IFA titer to Rickettsia conorii or Rickettsia typhi antigen defined SFGR and TGR, respectively.
Results. Among 870 patients, 483 (55.5%) were tested for acute Q fever, and 450 (51.7%) were tested for acute SFGR and TGR. Results suggested acute Q fever in 24 (5.0%) patients and SFGR and TGR in 36 (8.0%) and 2 (0.5%) patients, respectively. Acute Q fever was associated with hepato- or splenomegaly (odds ratio [OR], 3.1; P = .028), anemia (OR, 3.0; P = .009), leukopenia (OR, 3.9; P = .013), jaundice (OR, 7.1; P = .007), and onset during the dry season (OR, 2.7; P = .021). HIV infection was not associated with acute Q fever (OR, 1.7; P = .231). Acute SFGR was associated with leukopenia (OR, 4.1; P = .003) and with evidence of other zoonoses (OR, 2.2; P = .045).
Conclusions. Despite being common causes of febrile illness in northern Tanzania, Q fever and SFGR are not diagnosed or managed with targeted antimicrobials. C. burnetii does not appear to be an HIV-associated co-infection.
doi:10.1093/cid/cir411
PMCID: PMC3148261  PMID: 21810740
15.  Nephritis and the risk of acute myocardial infarction in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus 
Background
Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We examined if nephritis or other clinical manifestations of SLE identified patients at increased risk.
Methods
In this population-based case-control study, we identified patients with SLE hospitalized with an AMI in California in 1996–2000. We compared the frequency of six manifestations of SLE (nephritis, pleuritis, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, psychosis/major depression, seizures) and of venous thrombosis/pulmonary embolism, in this group (n=535) to the frequency of these manifestations in two control groups: patients with SLE hospitalised for pulmonary disease (n=529), and patients with SLE hospitalised for gastrointestinal bleeding (n=349).
Results
Nephritis was present in 23.7% of patients with AMI, 11.0% of patients with pulmonary disease and 25.2% of patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. In adjusted analyses, nephritis was more common in the AMI group (odds ratio (OR) 2.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.97–4.14; p<.0001) than in the pulmonary disease control group. Among women, nephritis was more common in the AMI group (OR 2.83; 95% CI 1.33–6.01; p=0.007) than in the gastrointestinal bleeding control group. Psychosis/major depression was less common among patients with AMI.
Conclusions
Among patients with SLE, nephritis was associated with 2.8-fold increased risk of AMI.
PMCID: PMC2952830  PMID: 20483044
Systemic lupus erythematosus; myocardial infarction; cardiovascular disease; lupus nephritis
16.  Graves' Disease Causing Pancytopenia and Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia at Different Time Intervals: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature 
Case Reports in Medicine  2013;2013:194542.
Graves' disease (GD) is associated with various hematologic abnormalities but pancytopenia and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) are reported very rarely. Herein, we report a patient with GD who had both of these rare complications at different time intervals, along with a review of the related literature. The patient was a 70-year-old man who, during a hospitalization, was also noted to have pancytopenia and elevated thyroid hormone levels. Complete hematologic workup was unremarkable and his pancytopenia was attributed to hyperthyroidism. He was started on methimazole but unfortunately did not return for followup and stopped methimazole after a few weeks. A year later, he presented with fatigue and weight loss. Labs showed hyperthyroidism and isolated anemia (hemoglobin 7 g/dL). He had positive direct Coombs test and elevated reticulocyte index. He was diagnosed with AIHA and started on glucocorticoids. GD was confirmed with elevated levels of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins and thyroid uptake and scan. He was treated with methimazole and radioactive iodine ablation. His hemoglobin improved to 10.7 g/dL at discharge without blood transfusion. Graves' disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hematologic abnormalities. These abnormalities in the setting of GD generally respond well to antithyroid treatment.
doi:10.1155/2013/194542
PMCID: PMC3844236  PMID: 24319463
17.  Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia Induced by Levofloxacin 
Drug-induced autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a rare condition. We report the case of a 32-year-old white female who presented to the emergency department with generalized fatigue, fever, and jaundice. The patient reported using levofloxacin few days prior to presentation for urinary tract infection. The patient had evidence of hemolytic anemia with a hemoglobin of 6.7 g/dL which dropped to 5 g/dL on day 2, the direct Coombs test was positive, indirect bilirubin was 5.5 mg/dL, and LDH was 1283 IU/L. Further testing ruled out autoimmune disease, lymphoma, and leukemia as etiologies for the patient's hemolytic anemia. Levofloxacin was immediately stopped with a gradual hematologic recovery within few days.
doi:10.1155/2014/201015
PMCID: PMC4082951  PMID: 25024854
18.  STUDIES ON THE RELATIONSHIP OF STREPTOCOCCUS HEMOLYTICUS TO THE RHEUMATIC PROCESS  
Certain factors of climate are favorable to streptococcus respiratory diseases. In those tropical environments where hemolytic streptococcus is unusual in the throat flora, scarlet fever is unknown and rheumatic fever rare. In New York City, however, following epidemic waves of pharyngitis with hemolytic streptococcus the incidence of rheumatic fever rises precipitously. The correlation between the geographical distribution of hemolytic streptococcus and rheumatic fever is a definite one. Furthermore, in New York City during the seasons of the year in which hemolytic streptococcus is seldom recovered from the pharynx, acute attacks of rheumatism are unusual. Corresponding to the seasonal rise in hemolytic streptococcus infections, the curve of incidence of acute rheumatism shows a similar form. Among the children of wealthy patients, enjoying great protection, hemolytic streptococcus has been recovered infrequently from the throat, and rheumatism has not been encountered during this study. Among the poor under observation in New York City, however, the organism is found frequently in the pharyngeal flora, and rheumatic fever is common. The findings suggest that poverty and unhygienic living conditions favor both the activity of hemolytic streptococcus in the throat and the incidence of rheumatic fever. Moreover, localized outbreaks of rheumatism have been observed frequently following epidemics of "sore throat". Bacteriological studies of these upper respiratory infections demonstrate a close relationship between the advent of hemolytic streptococcus in the throat flora and the outbreak of rheumatic fever in susceptible individuals. In addition to these studies of streptococcus infections and their relationship to the development of rheumatic fever, observations of the rheumatic patient add further emphasis to this association. First, among a group of rheumatic children in an isolated environment, reactivation of the rheumatic process has been recognized only following the advent of hemolytic streptococcus in the throat flora. Also, an investigation of families in which several members have rheumatic heart disease has led to the same conclusion. Recrudescences of the disease have been observed under a variety of conditions among these individuals. However, the one constant factor in the outbreaks of recrudescences in rheumatic homes is their association with family epidemics of hemolytic streptococcus infection. Moreover, by studying rheumatic patients before, during and after transplantation to a tropical environment, it has been possible to demonstrate a close relationship between activity of the disease process and infection with hemolytic streptococcus. While the rheumatic patients remained in the tropics this organism was not recovered from the pharyngeal flora, and the disease process seemed quiescent. On return to New York City, those individuals who have escaped respiratory infection have remained symptom-free. However, of those who have contracted hemolytic streptococcus pharyngitis, each has developed a rheumatic attack within 3 weeks after infection. Finally, extensive bacteriological studies made in ambulatory rheumatic subjects over a period of 4 years have demonstrated that the individuals who escape respiratory disease remain free of rheumatic manifestations. On the other hand, the majority of rheumatic patients who contract hemolytic streptococcus pharyngitis experience shortly afterward a definite recrudescence of their disease. In conclusion, there is a close relationship between respiratory infection with hemolytic streptococcus and activity of the rheumatic process in susceptible individuals.
PMCID: PMC2132196  PMID: 19870089
19.  Q Fever myocarditis 
Hippokratia  2008;12(1):46-49.
Clinical manifestations of Q fever infection are fever, productive cough, decrease in exercise tolerance and chills. Cardiovascular involvement is well recognized and usually presents as endocarditis and infection of an aneurysm or vascular graft. Myocarditis has only rarely been described as a manifestation of acute Q fever infection. In this report we describe a case of a young adult who presented with angina-like symptoms and ECG and biochemical markers indicative of acute coronary syndrome. The diagnosis of myocarditis was ultimately made based on the results of a normal coronary angiography and increased anti-Coxiella burnetii antibody titer. The patient has not developed dilated cardiomyopathy after two years of follow up.
PMCID: PMC2532961  PMID: 18923753
Coxiella burnetii; Q fever; myocarditis; antibody titer
20.  Autoimmune Complications after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Children with Nonmalignant Disorders 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:581657.
Background. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains the only curative treatment for many nonmalignant disorders, such as autoimmune disorders, inborn metabolic disorders, hemoglobinopathies, and immunodeficiency disorders. Autoimmune complications (AICs) after HSCT, such as autoimmune cytopenias, autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, and autoimmune cutaneous manifestations, are still neither well defined nor characterized. Patients. Between 2000 and 2012, 92 patients (47 males, 45 females) were treated with HSCT in our hospital, 51 with congenital hemoglobinopathies, 19 with primary immunodeficiency disease, 10 with metabolic disorders, five with Fanconi anemia, three with aplastic anemia, and four with familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Results. Mean age at HSCT was 6.4 years (range, 0.2–32 years) and mean duration of followup after HSCT was 6.81 years (range, 1–11 years). Sixteen (17.4%) patients developed chronic GVHD and five (5.4%) showed sclerodermatous features. Five (5.4%) patients were diagnosed with scleroderma manifestations, six (6.5%) with vitiligo, six (6.5%) with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), six (6.5%) with idiopathic thrombocytopenia, three (3.3%) with mild leucopenia, two (2.2%) with aplastic anemia, two (2.2%) (one boy, one girl) with autoimmune thyroid disease, and one (1.1%) with autoimmune hepatitis. Conclusions. It was concluded that AICs are clinically significant complications after HSCT that contribute to morbidity but not to mortality. AICs are more frequent after HSCT for metabolic disorders, and sclerodermatous GVHD is more significant in children who underwent allogeneic HSCT for hemoglobinopathies. The potential to identify risk factors for AICs could lead to less morbidity and mortality and to maintain the patient's quality of life.
doi:10.1155/2014/581657
PMCID: PMC3916029  PMID: 24574898
21.  Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria in systemic lupus erythematosus: a case report 
Introduction
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is an acquired disorder of hemopoiesis and is characterized by recurrent episodes of intravascular hemolysis due to an increased sensitivity to complement-mediated hemolysis. Systemic lupus erythematosus with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is very rare. We report a case of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria that developed in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis.
Case presentation
A 29-year-old Mongolian woman had systemic lupus erythematosus, which manifested only as skin lesions when she was 12 years old. She had leg edema and proteinuria when she was 23 years old, and a renal biopsy revealed lupus nephritis (World Health Organization type IV). She had been treated with steroids and immunosuppressant therapy. At 29, she had headaches, nausea, general fatigue, and severe pancytopenia and was admitted to our hospital. A laboratory evaluation showed hemolytic anemia. Further examination showed a neutrophil alkaline phosphatase score of 46 points, a CD55 value of 18%, and a CD59 value of 78.6%. The results of Ham test and sugar water tests were positive. The constellation of symptoms throughout the clinical course and the laboratory findings suggested paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.
Conclusions
To the best of our knowledge, systemic lupus erythematosus with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is very rare. Clinicians should be aware of the association between autoimmune and hematological diseases.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-5-550
PMCID: PMC3262772  PMID: 22081908
22.  Autoimmune Cytopenias in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Facts and Myths 
CLL has been defined as presence of more than 5000 small mature appearing monoclonal B lymphocytes with a specific immunophenotype in peripheral blood. It is a well-known fact that CLL is associated with autoimmune cytopenias. CLL cells are CD5+ B lymphocytes, and usually are not the “guilty” cells which produce autoantibodies. T cell defect is another characteristic of CLL and the total number of T cells is increased, and there is inversion of the CD4/CD8 ratio. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is the most common autoimmune complication of CLL and has been reported in 10–25% of CLL patients. However, the stage-adjusted estimated rate of AIHA in CLL is about 5%. Conversely, CLL is three times more common in patients who present with AIHA. Direct agglutinin test (DAT) is positive in 7–14% of CLL patients but AIHA may also occur in DAT negative patients.
Autoimmune thrombocytopenia (AIT) is the second most common complication of CLL and has been reported in 2–3% of patients. DAT is positive in AIT but presence of antiplatelet antibodies is neither diagnostic nor reliable. Autoimmune neutropenia (AIN) and pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) are very rare complications of CLL and like other autoimmune complications of CLL may occur at any clinical stage. It is believed that most case reports of AIN and PRCA in CLL actually belong to large granular lymphocytic leukemia (LGL). Non-hematologic autoimmune complications of CLL including cold agglutinin disease (CAD), paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP), acquired angioedema, and anti-myelin associated globulin are rare.
Before starting any treatment, clinicians should distinguish between autoimmune cytopenias and massive bone marrow infiltration since autoimmune complications of CLL are not necessarily equal to advanced disease with poor prognosis. According to IWCLL guideline, steroids are the mainstay of treatment of simple autoimmunity. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), cyclosporine, and rituximab are used in complex, steroid refractory cases. Monotherapy with purine analogues and alkylating agents should be avoided as they may increase CLL associated autoimmune complications.
doi:10.4084/MJHID.2013.068
PMCID: PMC3867225  PMID: 24363883
23.  Splenic infarction in a patient with autoimmune hemolytic anemia and protein C deficiency 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2011;46(4):274-278.
Splenic infarction is most commonly caused by cardiovascular thromboembolism; however, splenic infarction can also occur in hematologic diseases, including sickle cell disease, hereditary spherocytosis, chronic myeloproliferative disease, leukemia, and lymphoma. Although 10% of splenic infarction is caused by hematologic diseases, it seldom accompanies autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). We report a case of a 47-year-old woman with iron deficiency anemia who presented with pain in the left upper abdominal quadrant, and was diagnosed with AIHA and splenic infarction. Protein C activity and antigen decreased to 44.0% (60-140%) and 42.0% (65-140%), respectively. Laboratory testing confirmed no clinical cause for protein C deficiency, such as disseminated intravascular coagulation, sepsis, hepatic dysfunction, or acute respiratory distress syndrome. Protein C deficiency with splenic infarction has been reported in patients with viral infection, hereditary spherocytosis, and leukemia. This is a rare case of splenic infarction and transient protein C deficiency in a patient with AIHA.
doi:10.5045/kjh.2011.46.4.274
PMCID: PMC3259520  PMID: 22259634
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia; Protein C deficiency; Splenic infarction
24.  Hemolytic anemia due to acute cytomegalovirus infection in an immunocompetent adult: a case report and review of the literature 
Introduction
Cytomegalovirus is a common virus responsible for a wide range of clinical manifestations. Hemolysis is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of cytomegalovirus infection, described mostly in immunocompromised patients, the pathogenesis of which is still unclear.
We performed a review of the literature regarding cases of hemolytic anemia during acute cytomegalovirus infection in apparently immunocompetent individuals. We searched for relevant articles in PubMed for the period of 1980 through 2008.
Case presentation
We describe a case of Coombs-negative hemolytic anemia in a 44-year-old Caucasian immunocompetent man with acute cytomegalovirus infection.
Conclusion
Clinicians should consider cytomegalovirus infection in the differential diagnosis of hemolytic anemia in immunocompetent adults. Possible therapeutic options include antiviral therapy and steroids, although the best treatment strategy is still controversial.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-4-334
PMCID: PMC2984465  PMID: 20964811
25.  Hemolytic Anemia as a Presenting Feature of Wilson’s Disease: A Case Report 
Wilson’s disease is a rare inherited disorder of copper metabolism causing severe damage to vital organs. Liver and brain disorders are the main manifestations. Severe hemolytic anemia is an unusual complication of Wilson’s disease. We present a case who developed spherocytic acute hemolytic anemia (Coomb’s negative) as the initial manifestation of Wilson’s disease. On examination Kayser- Fleischer ring was found. Laboratory data supported a diagnosis of Wilson’s disease.
doi:10.1007/s12288-010-0034-2
PMCID: PMC3002091  PMID: 21886393
Wilson’s disease (WD); Spherocytic anemia

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