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1.  Sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis in postpneumonectomy lung growth: mechanisms of alveolar neovascularization 
Angiogenesis  2013;17(3):541-551.
In most rodents and some other mammals, the removal of one lung results in compensatory growth associated with dramatic angiogenesis and complete restoration of lung capacity. One pivotal mechanism in neoalveolarization is neovascularization, because without angiogenesis new alveoli can not be formed. The aim of this study is to image and analyze three-dimensionally the different patterns of neovascularization seen following pneumonectomy in mice on a sub-micron-scale. C57/BL6 mice underwent a left-sided pneumonectomy. Lungs were harvested at various timepoints after pneumonectomy. Volume analysis by microCT revealed a striking increase of 143 percent in the cardiac lobe 14 days after pneumonectomy. Analysis of microvascular corrosion casting demonstrated spatially heterogenous vascular densitities which were in line with the perivascular and subpleural compensatory growth pattern observed in anti-PCNA-stained lung sections. Within these regions an expansion of the vascular plexus with increased pillar formations and sprouting angiogenesis, originating both from pre-existing bronchial and pulmonary vessels was observed. Also, type II pneumocytes and alveolar macrophages were seen to participate actively in alveolar neo-angiogenesis after pneumonectomy. 3D-visualizations obtained by high-resolution synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy showed the appearance of double-layered vessels and bud-like alveolar baskets as have already been described in normal lung development. Scanning electron microscopy data of microvascular architecture also revealed a replication of perialveolar vessel networks through septum formation as already seen in developmental alveolarization. In addition, the appearance of pillar formations and duplications on alveolar entrance ring vessels in mature alveoli are indicative of vascular remodeling. These findings indicate that sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis are pivotal mechanisms in adult lung alveolarization after pneumonectomy. Various forms of developmental neoalveolarization may also be considered to contribute in compensatory lung regeneration.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10456-013-9399-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4061467  PMID: 24150281
Intussusceptive angiogenesis; Pneumonectomy; Septal alveolarization; Corrosion cast; Synchrotron radiation tomographic microscopy; Lung surgery
2.  Catch-up Alveolarization in Ex-Preterm Children. Evidence from 3He Magnetic Resonance 
Rationale: Histologic data from fatal cases suggest that extreme prematurity results in persisting alveolar damage. However, there is new evidence that human alveolarization might continue throughout childhood and could contribute to alveolar repair.
Objectives: To examine whether alveolar damage in extreme-preterm survivors persists into late childhood, we compared alveolar dimensions between schoolchildren born term and preterm, using hyperpolarized helium-3 magnetic resonance.
Methods: We recruited schoolchildren aged 10–14 years stratified by gestational age at birth (weeks) to four groups: (1) term-born (37–42 wk; n = 61); (2) mild preterm (32–36 wk; n = 21); (3) extreme preterm (<32 wk, not oxygen dependent at 4 wk; n = 19); and (4) extreme preterm with chronic lung disease (<32 wk and oxygen dependent beyond 4 wk; n = 18). We measured lung function using spirometry and plethysmography. Apparent diffusion coefficient, a surrogate for average alveolar dimensions, was measured by helium-3 magnetic resonance.
Measurements and Main Results: The two extreme preterm groups had a lower FEV1 (P = 0.017) compared with term-born and mild preterm children. Apparent diffusion coefficient was 0.092 cm2/second (95% confidence interval, 0.089–0.095) in the term group. Corresponding values were 0.096 (0.091–0.101), 0.090 (0085–0.095), and 0.089 (0.083–0.094) in the mild preterm and two extreme preterm groups, respectively, implying comparable alveolar dimensions across all groups. Results did not change after controlling for anthropometric variables and potential confounders.
Conclusions: Alveolar size at school age was similar in survivors of extreme prematurity and term-born children. Because extreme preterm birth is associated with deranged alveolar structure in infancy, the most likely explanation for our finding is catch-up alveolarization.
PMCID: PMC3734619  PMID: 23491406
alveolar structure; lung acinus; bronchopulmonary dysplasia; neonatal chronic lung disease
3.  Breastfeeding, lung volumes and alveolar size at school-age 
BMJ Open Respiratory Research  2015;2(1):e000081.
Previous studies found larger lung volumes at school-age in formerly breastfed children, with some studies suggesting an effect modification by maternal asthma. We wanted to explore this further in children who had undergone extensive lung function testing. The current study aimed to assess whether breastfeeding was associated with larger lung volumes and, if so, whether all compartments were affected. We also assessed association of breastfeeding with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), which measures freedom of gas diffusion in alveolar-acinar compartments and is a surrogate of alveolar dimensions. Additionally, we assessed whether these effects were modified by maternal asthma.
We analysed data from 111 children and young adults aged 11–21 years, who had participated in detailed lung function testing, including spirometry, plethysmography and measurement of ADC of 3Helium (3He) by MR. Information on breastfeeding came from questionnaires applied in early childhood (age 1–4 years). We determined the association between breastfeeding and these measurements using linear regression, controlling for potential confounders.
We did not find significant evidence for an association between duration of breastfeeding and lung volumes or alveolar dimensions in the entire sample. In breastfed children of mothers with asthma, we observed larger lung volumes and larger average alveolar size than in non-breastfed children, but the differences did not reach significance levels.
Confirmation of effects of breastfeeding on lung volumes would have important implications for public health. Further investigations with larger sample sizes are warranted.
PMCID: PMC4499711  PMID: 26180638
Paediatric asthma
4.  Migration of CD11b+ Accessory Cells During Murine Lung Regeneration 
Stem cell research  2013;10(3):267-277.
In many mammalian species, the removal of one lung leads to growth of the remaining lung to near-baseline levels. In studying post-pneumonectomy mice, we used morphometric measures to demonstrate neoalveolarization within 21 days of pneumonectomy. Of note, the detailed histology during this period demonstrated no significant pulmonary inflammation. To identify occult blood-borne cells, we used a parabiotic model (wild-type/GFP) of post-pneumonectomy lung growth. Flow cytometry of post-pneumonectomy lung digests demonstrated a rapid increase in the number of cells expressing the hematopoietic membrane molecule CD11b; 64.5% of the entire GFP+ population were CD11b+. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that the CD11b+ peripheral blood cells migrated into both the interstitial tissue and alveolar airspace compartments. Pneumonectomy in mice deficient in CD11b (CD18-/- mutants) demonstrated near-absent leukocyte migration into the airspace compartment (p<.001) and impaired lung growth as demonstrated by lung weight (p<.05) and lung volume (p<.05). Transcriptional activity of the partitioned CD11b+ cells demonstrated significantly increased transcription of Angpt1, Il1b, and Mmp8, Mmp9, Ncam1, Sele, Sell, Selp in the alveolar airspace and Adamts2, Ecm1, Egf, Mmp7, Npr1, Tgfb2 in the interstitial tissue (>4-fold regulation; p<.05). These data suggest that blood-borne CD11b+ cells represent a population of accessory cells contributing to post-pneumonectomy lung growth.
PMCID: PMC3622126  PMID: 23376466
lung regeneration; parabiotic mice; hematopoietic CD11b+ cells
5.  Growth of the Lung Parenchyma Early in Life 
Rationale: Early in life, lung growth can occur by alveolarization, an increase in the number of alveoli, as well as expansion. We hypothesized that if lung growth early in life occurred primarily by alveolarization, then the ratio of pulmonary diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DlCO) to alveolar volume (VA) would remain constant; however, if lung growth occurred primarily by alveolar expansion, then DlCO/VA would decline with increasing age, as observed in older children and adolescents.
Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between alveolar volume and pulmonary diffusion capacity early in life.
Methods: In 50 sleeping infants and toddlers, with equal number of males and females between the ages of 3 and 23 months, we measured DlCO and VA using single breath-hold maneuvers at elevated lung volumes.
Measurements and Main Results: DlCO and VA increased with increasing age and body length. Males had higher DlCO and VA when adjusted for age, but not when adjusted for length. DlCO increased with VA; there was no gender difference when DlCO was adjusted for VA. The ratio of DlCO/VA remained constant with age and body length.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that surface area for diffusion increases proportionally with alveolar volume in the first 2 years of life. Larger DlCO and VA for males than females when adjusted for age, but not when adjusted for length, is primarily related to greater body length in boys. The constant ratio for DlCO/VA in infants and toddlers is consistent with lung growth in this age occurring primarily by the addition of alveoli rather than the expansion of alveoli.
PMCID: PMC2633059  PMID: 18996997
pulmonary diffusion capacity; alveolar volume; lung development
6.  Pulmonary 3He Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Childhood Asthma 
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with 3He does not require ionizing radiation and has been shown to detect regional abnormalities in lung ventilation and structure in adult asthma, but the method has not been extended to childhood asthma. Measurements of regional lung ventilation and microstructure in childhood asthma could advance our understanding of disease mechanisms.
To determine whether 3He MRI in children can identify abnormalities related to diagnosis of asthma or prior history of respiratory illness.
Forty-four children aged 9-10 years were recruited from a birth cohort at increased risk of developing asthma and allergic diseases. For each subject a time-resolved three-dimensional (3D) image series and a 3D diffusion-weighted image were acquired in separate breathing maneuvers. The number and size of ventilation defects were scored, and regional maps and statistics of average 3He diffusion length were calculated.
Children with mild to moderate asthma had lower average diffusion length, Xrms¯ (p=0.004), increased regional standard deviation of diffusion length (p=0.03), and higher defect scores (p=0.03) than those without asthma. Children with histories of wheezing illness with rhinovirus infection prior to the third birthday had lower Xrms¯ (p=0.01) and higher defect score (p=0.05).
MRI with 3He detected more and larger regions of ventilation defect and a greater degree of restricted gas diffusion in children with asthma compared to those without asthma. These measures are consistent with regional obstruction and smaller and more regionally variable dimensions of the peripheral airways and alveolar spaces.
PMCID: PMC3563846  PMID: 23246019
asthma; pediatric; hyperpolarized MRI; apparent diffusion coefficient
7.  Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia 
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia and emphysema are significant global health problems at the extreme stages of life. Both are characterized by arrested alveolar development or loss of alveoli, respectively. Both lack effective treatment strategies. Knowledge about the genetic control of branching morphogenesis in mammals derives from investigations of the respiratory system in Drosophila, but mechanisms that regulate alveolar development remain poorly understood. Even less is known about regulation of the growth and development of the pulmonary vasculature. Understanding how alveoli and the underlying capillary network develop, and how these mechanisms are disrupted in disease states, are critical for developing effective therapies for lung diseases characterized by impaired alveolar structure. Recent observations have challenged old notions that the development of the blood vessels in the lung passively follows that of the airways. Rather, increasing evidence suggests that lung blood vessels actively promote alveolar growth during development and contribute to the maintenance of alveolar structures throughout postnatal life. Our working hypothesis is that disruption of angiogenesis impairs alveolarization, and that preservation of vascular growth and endothelial survival promotes growth and sustains the architecture of the distal airspace. Furthermore, the explosion of interest in stem cell biology suggests potential roles for endothelial progenitor cells in the pathogenesis or treatment of lung vascular disease. In this Pulmonary Perspective, we review recent data on the importance of the lung circulation, specifically examining the relationship between dysmorphic vascular growth and impaired alveolarization, and speculate on how these new insights may lead to novel therapeutic strategies for bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
PMCID: PMC2176086  PMID: 17272782
lung injury; oxygen; angiogenesis; newborn; nitric oxide
8.  PPARγ deficiency results in reduced lung elastic recoil and abnormalities in airspace distribution 
Respiratory Research  2010;11(1):69.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ is a nuclear hormone receptor that regulates gene expression, cell proliferation and differentiation. We previously described airway epithelial cell PPARγ deficient mice that develop airspace enlargement with decreased tissue resistance and increased lung volumes. We sought to understand the impact of airspace enlargement in conditionally targeted mice upon the physio-mechanical properties of the lung.
We measured elastic recoil and its determinants, including tissue structure and surface forces. We measured alveolar number using radial alveolar counts, and airspace sizes and their distribution using computer-assisted morphometry.
Air vs. saline-filled pressure volume profiles demonstrated loss of lung elastic recoil in targeted mice that was contributed by both tissue components and surface tension, but was proportional to lung volume. There were no significant differences in surfactant quantity/function nor in elastin and collagen content between targeted animals and littermate controls. Importantly, radial alveolar counts were significantly reduced in the targeted animals and at 8 weeks of age there were 18% fewer alveoli with 32% more alveolar ducts. Additionally, the alveolar ducts were 19% larger in the targeted animals.
Our data suggest that the functional abnormalities, including loss of recoil are secondary to altered force transmission due to differences in the structure of alveolar ducts, rather than changes in surfactant function or elastin or collagen content. These data further define the nature of abnormal lung maturation in the absence of airway epithelial cell PPARγ and identify a putative genetic determinant of dysanapsis, which may serve as a precursor to chronic lung disease.
PMCID: PMC2889874  PMID: 20525205
9.  Imaging the Interaction of Atelectasis and Overdistention in Surfactant Depleted Lungs 
Critical care medicine  2013;41(2):527-535.
Atelectasis and surfactant depletion may contribute to greater distension – and thereby injury – of aerated lung regions; recruitment of atelectatic lung may protect these regions by attenuating such overdistension. However, the effects of atelectasis (and recruitment) on aerated airspaces remain elusive. We tested the hypothesis that during mechanical ventilation, surfactant depletion increases the dimensions of aerated airspaces and that lung recruitment reverses these changes.
Prospective imaging study in an animal model.
Research imaging facility
27 healthy Sprague Dawley rats
Surfactant depletion was obtained by saline lavage in anesthetized, ventilated rats. Alveolar recruitment was accomplished using positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and exogenous surfactant administration.
Measurements and Main Results
Airspace dimensions were estimated by measuring the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of 3He, using diffusion-weighted hyperpolarized gas magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Atelectasis was demonstrated using computerized tomography (CT) and by measuring oxygenation. Saline lavage increased atelectasis (increase in non-aerated tissue from 1.2 to 13.8% of imaged area, P<0.001), and produced a concomitant increase in mean ADC (~33%, P<0.001) vs. baseline; the heterogeneity of the CT signal and the variance of ADC were also increased. Application of PEEP and surfactant reduced the mean ADC (~23%, P<0.001), and its variance, in parallel to alveolar recruitment (i.e. less CT densities and heterogeneity, increased oxygenation).
Overdistension of aerated lung occurs during atelectasis, is detectable using clinically relevant MRI technology, and could be a key factor in the generation of lung injury during mechanical ventilation. Lung recruitment by higher PEEP and surfactant administration reduces airspace distension.
PMCID: PMC3557664  PMID: 23263577
Imaging/MRI; ARDS; Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury; Alveolar Recruitment; Artificial Respiration; Hyperpolarized Gas
10.  Distribution and fibrotic response following inhalation exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes 
Prior studies have demonstrated a rapid and progressive acute phase response to bolus aspiration of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). In this study we sought to test the hypothesis that inhalation exposure to MWCNT produces a fibrotic response and that the response is chronically persistent. To address the hypothesis that inhaled MWCNTs cause persistent morphologic changes, male C57BL/6 J mice were exposed in a whole-body inhalation system to a MWCNT aerosol and the fibrotic response in the alveolar region examined at up to 336 days after termination of exposure.
Inhalation exposure was to a 5 mg/m3 MWCNT aerosol for 5 hours/day for 12 days (4 times/week for 3 weeks). At the end of inhalation exposures, lungs were either lavaged for analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) or preserved by vascular perfusion of fixative while inflated with air at 1, 14, 84, 168 and 336 days post inhalation exposure. Separate, clean-air control groups were also studied. Light microscopy, enhanced darkfield microscopy and field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) of tissue sections were used to analyze the distribution of lung burden following inhalation exposure. Morphometric measurements of Sirius Red staining for fibrillar collagen were used to assess the connective tissue response. Serial section analysis of enhanced darkfield microscope images was used to examine the redistribution of MWCNT fibers within the lungs during the post-exposure period.
At day 1 post-exposure 84 ± 3 and 16 ± 2 percent of the lung burden (Mean ± S.E., N = 5) were in the alveolar and airway regions, respectively. Initial distribution within the alveolar region was 56 ± 5, 7 ± 4 and 20 ± 3 percent of lung burden in alveolar macrophages, alveolar airspaces and alveolar tissue, respectively. Clearance reduced the alveolar macrophage burden of MWCNTs by 35 percent between 1 and 168 days post-exposure, while the content of MWCNTs in the alveolar tissue increased by 63 percent. Large MWCNT structures containing greater than 4 fibers were 53.6 percent of the initial lung burden and accounted for the majority of the decline with clearance, while lung burden of singlet MWCNT was essentially unchanged. The mean linear intercept of alveolar airspace, a measure of the expansion of the lungs, was not significantly different between groups. Pulmonary inflammation and damage, measured as the number of polymorphnuclear leukocytes (PMNs) or lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH) and albumin in BAL, increased rapidly (1 day post) after inhalation of MWCNTs and declined slowly with time post-exposure. The fibrillar collagen in the alveolar region of MWCNT-exposed mice demonstrated a progressive increase in thickness over time (0.17 ± 0.02, 0.22 ± 0.02, 0.26 ± 0.03, 0.25 ± 0.02 and 0.29 ± 0.01 microns for 1, 14, 84, 168 and 336 days post-exposure) and was significantly different from clean-air controls (0.16 ± 0.02) at 84 and (0.15 ± 0.02) at 336 days post-exposure.
Despite the relatively low fraction of the lung burden being delivered to the alveolar tissue, the average thickness of connective tissue in the alveolar region increased by 70% in the 336 days after inhalation exposure. These results demonstrate that inhaled MWCNTs deposit and are retained within the alveolar tissue where they produce a progressive and persistent fibrotic response up to 336 days post-exposure.
PMCID: PMC3733770  PMID: 23895460
11.  Injurious mechanical ventilation in the normal lung causes a progressive pathologic change in dynamic alveolar mechanics 
Critical Care  2007;11(3):R64.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome causes a heterogeneous lung injury, and without protective mechanical ventilation a secondary ventilator-induced lung injury can occur. To ventilate noncompliant lung regions, high inflation pressures are required to 'pop open' the injured alveoli. The temporal impact, however, of these elevated pressures on normal alveolar mechanics (that is, the dynamic change in alveolar size and shape during ventilation) is unknown. In the present study we found that ventilating the normal lung with high peak pressure (45 cmH20) and low positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP of 3 cmH2O) did not initially result in altered alveolar mechanics, but alveolar instability developed over time.
Anesthetized rats underwent tracheostomy, were placed on pressure control ventilation, and underwent sternotomy. Rats were then assigned to one of three ventilation strategies: control group (n = 3, Pcontrol = 14 cmH2O, PEEP = 3 cmH2O), high pressure/low PEEP group (n = 6, Pcontrol = 45 cmH2O, PEEP = 3 cmH2O), and high pressure/high PEEP group (n = 5, Pcontrol = 45 cmH2O, PEEP = 10 cmH2O). In vivo microscopic footage of subpleural alveolar stability (that is, recruitment/derecruitment) was taken at baseline and than every 15 minutes for 90 minutes following ventilator adjustments. Alveolar recruitment/derecruitment was determined by measuring the area of individual alveoli at peak inspiration (I) and end expiration (E) by computer image analysis. Alveolar recruitment/derecruitment was quantified by the percentage change in alveolar area during tidal ventilation (%I – EΔ).
Alveoli were stable in the control group for the entire experiment (low %I – EΔ). Alveoli in the high pressure/low PEEP group were initially stable (low %I – EΔ), but with time alveolar recruitment/derecruitment developed. The development of alveolar instability in the high pressure/low PEEP group was associated with histologic lung injury.
A large change in lung volume with each breath will, in time, lead to unstable alveoli and pulmonary damage. Reducing the change in lung volume by increasing the PEEP, even with high inflation pressure, prevents alveolar instability and reduces injury. We speculate that ventilation with large changes in lung volume over time results in surfactant deactivation, which leads to alveolar instability.
PMCID: PMC2206429  PMID: 17565688
12.  Developmental changes in water permeability across the alveolar barrier in perinatal rabbit lung. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1997;100(5):1071-1078.
Lung fluid is reabsorbed rapidly at birth to permit alveolar respiration. We reported previously that expression of aquaporins (AQP) 1, 4, and 5 in rat lung increased just after birth. The hypothesis was tested that the increased AQP expression is associated with increased osmotic water permeability (Pf) between the airspace and capillary compartments. Pf was measured in isolated perfused fetal and newborn rabbit lungs using a pleural surface fluorescence method (Carter, E.P., M.A. Matthay, J. Farinas, and A.S. Verkman. 1996. J. Gen. Physiol. 108:133-142). In response to perfusate osmolality increase from 300 to 600 mosM, initial rates of osmotic equilibration were 1.13+/-0.13 mosM/s at 0-12 h after birth, increasing to 1.52+/-0.19 mosM/s at 12-24 h, and 1.83+/-0.10 mosM/s at 24-84 h. Corresponding Pf values (in cm/s x 10(-2)), computed from d[mosM]/dt and alveolar surface-to-volume ratios, were 1.03+/-0.11 (0-12 h), 1.51+/-0.16 (12-24 h), and 1.88+/-0.09 (24-84 h). Pf was relatively low in prenatal (1.22-1.27, fetal days 29 and 31) and adolescent (1.25+/-0.08, 21-d) rabbit lungs. To test for involvement of molecular water channels, measurements were made of Arrhenius activation energy (Ea), mercurial inhibition, diffusional water permeability (Pd), and AQP expression. Temperature-dependence measurements showed a 25% decrease in Ea for Pf in lungs < 1 d vs. 4 d. Pf was decreased 30% by 0.5 mM HgCl2 in < 1-d lungs and 44% in 4-d lungs. Pd was 1.0 x 10(-)5 cm/s and did not change when Pf was increased by 75%. RNase protection assay showed increased transcript expression in the first 24 h after birth for rabbit isoforms of AQP1 and AQP4. These results provide the first functional data on water permeability in perinatal lung. The increased water permeability after birth may facilitate the maintenance of dry alveoli.
PMCID: PMC508281  PMID: 9276723
13.  Effect of positive end-expiratory pressure and tidal volume on lung injury induced by alveolar instability 
Critical Care  2007;11(1):R20.
One potential mechanism of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is due to shear stresses associated with alveolar instability (recruitment/derecruitment). It has been postulated that the optimal combination of tidal volume (Vt) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) stabilizes alveoli, thus diminishing recruitment/derecruitment and reducing VILI. In this study we directly visualized the effect of Vt and PEEP on alveolar mechanics and correlated alveolar stability with lung injury.
In vivo microscopy was utilized in a surfactant deactivation porcine ARDS model to observe the effects of Vt and PEEP on alveolar mechanics. In phase I (n = 3), nine combinations of Vt and PEEP were evaluated to determine which combination resulted in the most and least alveolar instability. In phase II (n = 6), data from phase I were utilized to separate animals into two groups based on the combination of Vt and PEEP that caused the most alveolar stability (high Vt [15 cc/kg] plus low PEEP [5 cmH2O]) and least alveolar stability (low Vt [6 cc/kg] and plus PEEP [20 cmH2O]). The animals were ventilated for three hours following lung injury, with in vivo alveolar stability measured and VILI assessed by lung function, blood gases, morphometrically, and by changes in inflammatory mediators.
High Vt/low PEEP resulted in the most alveolar instability and lung injury, as indicated by lung function and morphometric analysis of lung tissue. Low Vt/high PEEP stabilized alveoli, improved oxygenation, and reduced lung injury. There were no significant differences between groups in plasma or bronchoalveolar lavage cytokines or proteases.
A ventilatory strategy employing high Vt and low PEEP causes alveolar instability, and to our knowledge this is the first study to confirm this finding by direct visualization. These studies demonstrate that low Vt and high PEEP work synergistically to stabilize alveoli, although increased PEEP is more effective at stabilizing alveoli than reduced Vt. In this animal model of ARDS, alveolar instability results in lung injury (VILI) with minimal changes in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage cytokines and proteases. This suggests that the mechanism of lung injury in the high Vt/low PEEP group was mechanical, not inflammatory in nature.
PMCID: PMC2151879  PMID: 17302983
14.  Four-dimensional visualization of subpleural alveolar dynamics in vivo during uninterrupted mechanical ventilation of living swine 
Biomedical Optics Express  2013;4(11):2492-2506.
Pulmonary alveoli have been studied for many years, yet no unifying hypothesis exists for their dynamic mechanics during respiration due to their miniature size (100-300 μm dimater in humans) and constant motion, which prevent standard imaging techniques from visualizing four-dimensional dynamics of individual alveoli in vivo. Here we report a new platform to image the first layer of air-filled subpleural alveoli through the use of a lightweight optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) probe that can be placed upon the pleura to move with the lung over the complete range of respiratory motion. This device enables in-vivo acquisition of four-dimensional microscopic images of alveolar airspaces (alveoli and ducts), within the same field of view, during continuous ventilation without restricting the motion or modifying the structure of the alveoli. Results from an exploratory study including three live swine suggest that subpleural alveolar air spaces are best fit with a uniform expansion (r 2 = 0.98) over a recruitment model (r 2 = 0.72). Simultaneously, however, the percentage change in volume shows heterogeneous alveolar expansion within just a 1 mm x 1 mm field of view. These results signify the importance of four-dimensional imaging tools, such as the device presented here. Quantification of the dynamic response of the lung during ventilation may help create more accurate modeling techniques and move toward a more complete understanding of alveolar mechanics.
PMCID: PMC3829543  PMID: 24298409
(110.4500) Optical coherence tomography; (170.2655) Functional monitoring and imaging
15.  Validation and Clinical Application of a First Order Step Response Equation for Nitrogen Clearance During FRC Measurement 
To derive a difference equation based on mass conservation and on alveolar tidal volumes for the calculation of Functional Residual Capacity. Derive an equation for the FRC from the difference equation. Furthermore, to derive and validate a step response equation as a solution of the difference equation within the framework of digital signal processing where the FRC is known a priori.
A difference equation for the calculation of Functional Residual Capacity is derived and solved as step response of a first order system. The step response equation calculates endtidal fractions of nitrogen during multiple breath nitrogen clearance. The step response equation contains the eigenvalue defined as the ratio of FRC to the sum of FRC and alveolar tidal ventilation. Agreement of calculated nitrogen fractions with measured fractions is demonstrated with data from a metabolic lung model, measurements from patients in positive pressure ventilation and volunteers breathing spontaneously. Examples of eigenvalue are given and compared between diseased and healthy lungs and between ventilatory settings.
Comparison of calculated and measured fractions of endtidal nitrogen demonstrates a high degree of agreement in terms of regression and bias and limits of agreement (precision) in Bland & Altman analysis. Examples illustrate the use of the eigenvalue as a possible discriminator between disease states.
The first order step response equation reliably calculates endtidal fractions of nitrogen during washout based on a Functional Residual Capacity. The eigenvalue may be a clinically valuable index alone or in conjunction with other indices in the analysis of respiratory states and may aid in the setting of the ventilator.
PMCID: PMC2798958  PMID: 18004668
physiologic monitoring; respiration disorder; functional residual capacity; nitrogen washout; digital signal processing; mechanical ventilators
16.  Epithelial Cell Apoptosis Causes Acute Lung Injury Masquerading as Emphysema 
Theories of emphysema traditionally revolved around proteolytic destruction of extracellular matrix. Models have recently been developed that show airspace enlargement with the induction of pulmonary cell apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism by which a model of epithelial cell apoptosis caused airspace enlargement. Mice were treated with either intratracheal microcystin (MC) to induce apoptosis, intratracheal porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE), or their respective vehicles. Mice from all groups were inflated and morphometry was measured at various time points. Physiology measurements were performed for airway resistance, tissue elastance, and lung volumes. The groups were further analyzed by air–saline quasistatic measurements, surfactant staining, and surfactant functional studies. Mice treated with MC showed evidence of reversible airspace enlargement. In contrast, PPE-treated mice showed irreversible airspace enlargement. The airspace enlargement in MC-treated mice was associated with an increase in elastic recoil due to an increase in alveolar surface tension. PPE-treated mice showed a loss of lung elastic recoil and normal alveolar surface tension, a pattern more consistent with human emphysema. Airspace enlargement that occurs with the MC model of pulmonary epithelial cell apoptosis displays physiology distinct from human emphysema. Reversibility, restrictive physiology due to changes in surface tension, and alveolar enlargement associated with heterogeneous alveolar collapse are most consistent with a mild acute lung injury. Inflation near total lung capacity gives the appearance of enlarged alveoli as neighboring collapsed alveoli exert tethering forces.
PMCID: PMC2746987  PMID: 19188661
apoptosis; emphysema; physiology; murine model
17.  Roles for claudins in alveolar epithelial barrier function 
Terminal airspaces of the lung, alveoli, are sites of gas exchange which are sensitive to disrupted fluid balance. The alveolar epithelium is a heterogeneous monolayer of cells interconnected by tight junctions at sites of cell-cell contact. Paracellular permeability depends on claudin-family tight junction proteins. Of over a dozen alveolar claudins, cldn-3, cldn-4 and cldn-18 are the most highly expressed; other prominent alveolar claudins include cldn-5 and cldn-7. Cldn-3 is primarily expressed by type II alveolar epithelial cells whereas cldn-4 and cldn-18 are expressed throughout the alveolar epithelium. Lung diseases associated with pulmonary edema, such as alcoholic lung syndrome and acute lung injury affect alveolar claudin expression which is frequently associated with impaired fluid clearance due to increased alveolar leak. However, recent studies have identified a role for increased cldn-4 in protecting alveolar barrier function following injury. Thus, alveolar claudins are dynamically regulated, tailoring lung barrier function to control the air-liquid interface.
PMCID: PMC3375852  PMID: 22671603
tight junction; acute lung injury; acute respiratory distress syndrome; alcoholic lung disease; sepsis
18.  Alveolar Gas Exchange and Pulmonary Functions in Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus 
Background: The incidence of diabetes is increasing tremendously throughout the world especially in the developing countries. This disease affects various organs like eyes, nerves, kidneys and the heart. In this study, we investigated whether lungs are also one of the target organs of diabetes mellitus or not.
Aim: To assess the pulmonary function parameters including alveolar gas exchange in patients with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus and to find the influence of hyperglycaemia and duration of diabetes.
Methodology: This cross sectional study involved 30 type II diabetic patients of age 30-60 years attending the diabetic outpatient department of SRM Medical College & Research Centre and 30 age and sex matched non-diabetic subjects as controls. The glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, fasting and post prandial blood glucose levels, pulmonary function parameters such as Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV1), Forced Expiratory Volume Percentage (FEV1 /FVC), Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR), Forced Expiratory Flow (25 – 75%), Peak Inspiratory flow ( PIF), Forced Inspiratory Vital Capacity ( FIVC), Total Lung Capacity ( TLC),Diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide( DLCO) were measured for all the participants using Easyone Pro computerised spirometer. DLCO was measured by single breath Carbon Monoxide (CO) diffusion test. The alveolar membrane permeability was assessed by evaluating the ratio of DLCO to Alveolar Ventilation (VA).
Results: The pulmonary function parameters FVC, FEV1, PEFR, PIF, FIVC, TLC , DLCO and DLCO/VA were significantly low (p<0.05) in patients with type II diabetes mellitus when compared to control group. The DLCO and DLCO/VA were significantly lower (p<0.05) in patients with poor glycemic control(HbA1c > 7).
Conclusion: We conclude that the pulmonary function parameters like FVC, FEV1, PEFR, PIF, FIVC, TLC and alveolar gas exchange were significantly reduced in patients with type II diabetes. The patients with Type II diabetes mellitus had a restrictive pattern of respiratory abnormality. The patients with poor glycaemic control( HbA1c > 7) had reduced alveolar diffusion which was not dependent on the duration of diabetes. The impaired respiratory function may give way for the development of pulmonary complications. Spirometry can be used as a screening tool among diabetics as an early preventive measure.
PMCID: PMC3809625  PMID: 24179886
Alveolar gas exchange; Pulmonary Function Tests; Type II Diabetes Mellitus
19.  Chemical modulation of alveolar epithelial permeability. 
The volume and composition of fluid on the surface of the alveoli can affect alveolar ventilation, gas diffusion, and macrophage function. The passive permeability and active processes of the alveolar epithelial lining play a role in regulating surface fluid and are a potential site of damage by airborne chemicals. Like other epithelial barriers, the alveolar lining is permeable to lipophilic substances but restricts the transmural flow of small ions and hydrophilic nonelectrolytes (equivalent pore radius ca. 0.5-1.5 nm). The mammalian fetal lung and alveolar sacs of the adult bullfrog secrete Cl- and K+ into the airspace. Secretion by the fetal lung ceases at birth. Many environmental agents increase the permeability of the capillary endothelium and/or respiratory epithelium and induce pulmonary edema. Studies with bullfrog alveolar sacs have demonstrated that selective effects may or may not be followed by general derangement of the epithelial barrier. Exposure of the luminal surface to HgCl2 (10(-6) to 10(-4) M) induces a selective increase in Cl- secretion that is followed by a fall in transport and a general increase in ion permeation. CdCl2 (10(-5) to 10(-3) M) depresses ciliomotion on cells on the trabecula of the alveolus but does not affect Cl- secretion or transepithelial conductance. HNO3, like other mineral acids, increases conductance and the radii or pores in the barrier, whereas NaNO3 selectively inhibits Cl- secretion. Amphotericin B(10(7) to 10(-5) MJ) induces K+ secretion into the lumen of both bullfrog and rat lung. We conclude that environmental agents induce changes in epithelial function that may compromise the lung's ability to regulate respiratory fluid without destroying the characteristic permeability of the epithelial lining.
PMCID: PMC1568474  PMID: 6250808
20.  Collagen content of alveolar wall tissue in emphysematous and non-emphysematous lungs. 
Thorax  1994;49(4):319-326.
BACKGROUND--Emphysema is currently defined as "a condition of the lung characterised by abnormal, permanent enlargement of the airspaces distal to the terminal bronchiole, accompanied by destruction of their walls, and without obvious fibrosis." The functional and morphological changes that occur in emphysema have largely been attributed to changes in alveolar elastin rather than in collagen. A study was performed to determine whether the amount of collagen in the alveolar wall changes with age in the lungs of non-smokers and of smokers with different types of macroscopically defined emphysema in relation to a microscopic measurement of lung structure. METHODS--Total alveolar wall collagen was measured (as hydroxyproline) in known volumes of distended lung tissue (by reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography) in the lungs of non-smokers (n = 23) and in regions sampled away from emphysematous lesions in the lungs of 36 smokers (four with no emphysema, 13 with centriacinar emphysema (CAE), nine with panacinar emphysema (PAE), and 10 with a mixture (MIX) of both PAE and CAE). Mean lung airspace wall surface area per unit volume (AWUV) was calculated from at least six random blocks per lung and on histological sections immediately adjacent to those prepared for collagen measurement with a rapid scanning device (fast interval processor). RESULTS--In non-smokers there was no significant correlation between the amount of collagen in the alveolar wall tissue and either mean lung AWUV or increasing patient age when amounts of collagen were expressed either per unit volume of distended lung (40 mm3 sample) or per unit surface area of airspace wall tissue. Smokers without emphysema had similar amounts of collagen to non-smokers. Lungs with PAE and MIX, but not CAE alone, contained significantly more collagen than normal when expressed per unit volume of airspace wall tissue whereas all groups, including CAE, contained significantly raised amounts of collagen when expressed per unit surface area. CONCLUSIONS--There is no significant age related change in the collagen content of the lungs of non-smokers which suggests that, as AWUV is lost with age, the main collagenous framework is maintained. However, in smokers with emphysema there is a loss of airspace wall tissue in regions remote from the macroscopic lesions that is accompanied by a net increase in collagen mass. The greater accumulation of collagen in MIX lungs than in CAE lungs suggests a greater degree of structural damage, indicative of an alternative pathogenetic mechanism operating between the different types of emphysema. Our results suggest an active alveolar wall fibrosis in emphysema as a consequence of cigarette smoking. It is suggested that the definition of emphysema may require further revision to include such change.
PMCID: PMC475363  PMID: 8202900
21.  Characterization and detection of physiologic lung changes before and after placement of bronchial valves using hyperpolarized helium-3 MR imaging: preliminary study 
Academic radiology  2011;18(9):1195-1199.
Rational and Objectives
To determine the efficacy of hyperpolarized helium-3 (HHe) ventilation and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) HHe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting changes in lung function and microstructure in emphysematous lung after bronchial valve (BV) placement.
Materials and Methods
One patient diagnosed with emphysema had nine BVs placed in upper lobe bronchi. Imaging was performed pre- and 6-months post-BV placement. Coronal HHe ventilation MRI was used to assess volume changes in the ventilated portions of the lung. Coronal ADC HHe MRI, acquired with b-value pairs of 0 and 1.6 s/cm2 during a second 10 s breath-hold, was used to compute ADC values.
HHe ventilation MRI revealed decreased ventilation in the treated segments of the upper lobes after BV placement. Increased ventilation in the lower lobes and 2 untreated segments of the left upper lobes were also observed, with an upward shift of the major fissure of the right lung. Whole lung mean ADC decreased 6.3% from baseline: mean ± std = 0.48 ± 0.196 cm2/s to 0.45 ± 0.176 cm2/s (towards healthier values) following BV placement.
HHe ventilation MRI detected an increase in whole lung volume and an interlobar fissure shift indicative of increased ventilation of lower relative to upper lobes. Reduced ADC values suggest increased ventilation to healthy lower lobes at the expense of more diseased, expanded alveolar spaces in the upper lobes distal to BV placement. These results suggest that this ionizing-radiation free method for examining the lungs may offer functional and structural information useful in BV intervention planning.
PMCID: PMC3152599  PMID: 21536465
Bronchial; Valves; MR; Helium; CSI; Emphysema
22.  Nitrogen dioxide induces apoptosis and proliferation but not emphysema in rat lungs 
Thorax  2007;62(5):438-446.
Apoptosis of alveolar septal cells has been linked to emphysema formation. Nitrogen dioxide, a component of cigarette smoke, has been shown to induce alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis in vitro. It is hypothesised that exposure of rats to nitrogen dioxide may result in increased alveolar septal cell apoptosis in vivo with ensuing emphysema—that is, airspace enlargement and loss of alveolar walls.
Fischer 344 rats were exposed to 10 ppm nitrogen dioxide for 3, 7, 21 days or 21 days followed by 28 days at room air. Age‐matched control rats were exposed to room air for 3, 21 or 49 days. Lungs fixed at 20 cm fluid column, embedded in paraffin wax, glycol methacrylate and araldite, were analysed by design‐based stereology. Alveolar septal cell apoptosis (transferase dUTP nick end labelling assay, active caspase 3) and proliferation (Ki‐67), airspace enlargement, total alveolar surface area, and absolute alveolar septal volume as well as the ultrastructural composition of the alveolar wall were quantified.
Nitrogen dioxide resulted in an eightfold increase in alveolar septal cell apoptosis at day 3 and a 14‐fold increase in proliferation compared with age‐matched controls. Airspace enlargement, indicated by a 20% increase in mean airspace chord length, was evident by day 7 but was not associated with loss of alveolar walls. By contrast, nitrogen dioxide resulted in an increase in the total surface area and absolute volume of alveolar walls comprising all compartments. The ratio of collagen to elastin, however, was reduced at day 21. Lungs exposed to nitrogen dioxide for 21 days exhibited quantitative structural characteristics as seen in control lungs on day 49.
Nitrogen dioxide exposure of rats results in increased alveolar septal cell turnover leading to accelerated lung growth, which is associated with an imbalance in the relative composition of the extracellular matrix, but fails to induce emphysema.
PMCID: PMC2117174  PMID: 17234660
It has been found that although there is some parallelism between the quantity of tubercle bacilli demonstrable histologically and the number of colonies that can be isolated from a given tissue, the culture method is far the more efficient in indicating quantitative relations. Tubercle bacilli were not perceived in the organs of rabbits 1 day after infection with the modified BCG although as many as 1,500 colonies were isolated from one of them. This may be solely because it is difficult to see widely dispersed single minute acid-fast rods in the diffuse infiltrations of mononuclears with their hyperchromatic nuclei and sparse cytoplasm. Later, with the formation of tubercle, the parallelism is much closer. The culture method gives evidence concerning the number of living tubercle bacilli in the tissue. The significance of the accumulation of acid-fast particles in the tissues has been discussed. It has been seen that from the beginning this accumulation is greater in the Kupffer cells of the liver, in the macrophages of the spleen and in the reticular cells of the bone marrow than within the mononuclears of the lung, the organ where the bacilli grow with the greatest rapidity and are destroyed with the greatest difficulty. Acid-fast particles are more prominent with the bovine than with the human bacillus or the BCG, the microorganism that is destroyed with the greatest difficulty thus leaving more incompletely digested bacillary debris at a given time within the cells. Thus it seems permissible to conclude from the presence of acid-fast material that some tubercle bacilli are undergoing destruction even 24 hours after infection. The initial accumulation of polynuclear leucocytes corresponds with the subsequent severity of the infection. Despite the greater primary localization of bacilli in the liver, this initial inflammatory reaction with all three infections is much greater in the lung than in the liver. In each organ it is more intense with the bovine than with the less virulent strains. The multiplication of the bacillus and its accumulation within large mononuclear and young epithelioid cells is accompanied by an intense formation of new mononuclears by mitosis. The more rapid the growth of the bacillus, the more conspicuous the regeneration of these cells. Thus with all strains mitosis is more intense in the more susceptible organ, as in the lung compared with the liver; with the most virulent strain the most extensive and diffuse accumulation of these new cells corresponds with the greater rise in the numbers of bovine bacilli after the lag of the 1st week. With the maturation of the epithelioid cells and the formation of tubercles the bacilli have already been greatly reduced numerically and the speed of this process diminishes with the virulence of the three strains used. The faster the development of tubercle the faster the destruction of the bacillus and the earlier the resorption of the tubercle. Tubercle bacilli never accumulate in such large numbers in the mononuclears of the liver as they do in the lung. Though at first the tubercles in the liver may be more numerous than those in the lung they never attain the same size. The formation of new mononuclears by mitosis is restricted and Langhans' giant cells appear very early (1st and 2nd weeks). In the lung, giant cells are not found until much later with the BCG and the human bacillus (4th week); they were not noted in the interstitial tubercles with the bovine type, but the extension of these tubercles was accompanied by an unabated mitosis of mononuclears until the death of the animal. The liver tubercles are resorbed early even with the bovine infection. Associated with these histological differences are the slow initial growth and the early and complete destruction of the tubercle bacilli even of bovine type in the liver, and the more rapid initial growth in the lung, with the later destruction of the BCG and the human bacillus and the unabated growth of the bovine bacillus. Similar differences were observed between the splenic pulp and corpuscle. In the former the accumulation of acid-fast particles was much greater and the tubercles developed earlier. Mitosis of mononuclears was less frequent and giant cells appeared earlier. Tubercle bacilli, always intracellular, disappeared from the tubercles in the pulp sooner than from those in the corpuscle, and the tubercles themselves first disappeared from the pulp. Consequently with the persistence of bacilli mitosis continued in the tubercles of the corpuscle and these attained a much larger size. Moreover individual resistance is linked with the ability to form mature tubercles early. In two animals simultaneously infected with the same strain and killed at the same time, the destruction or retardation of the bacillus is greater in that rabbit in which maturation of the tubercle and of epithelioid cells has proceeded further (Figs. 15 and 16). These observations indicate that the mononuclears of different organs or even of the same organ, as in the different parts of the spleen, have a different capacity to destroy the tubercle bacillus, and that the transformation of the mononuclear into the mature epithelioid cell follows its destruction of the tubercle bacilli. In the lung the more virulent types of bacillus are destroyed within the epithelioid cells of interstitial tubercles but persist in foci of tuberculous pneumonia. In this organ in rabbits infected with the human strain and to a lesser degree in rabbits infected with the bovine strain, the parasite largely disappears from the epithelioid cells of interstitial tubercles. But with both strains tubercle bacilli in large numbers may accumulate within epithelioid cells lying free in the alveoli. With the human type they are numerous within the cells and free in caseous material in the localized foci of caseous pneumonia. With the bovine infection, this caseous pneumonia is more often widespread and in the areas of caseous pneumonia the greater part of the vast accumulation of bovine bacilli in the lungs is found; as many as 200,000 colonies have been isolated from 10 mg. of tissue (Fig. 11). Flooding of the respiratory passages by the caseation of tuberculous lesions into the bronchi plays an important rôle in dissemination of tubercle bacilli through the lung. The process on the contrary is predominantly interstitial when the bovine bacillus is held in check (Fig. 12). Thus there is apparently some factor acting in the alveoli that favors the growth of the parasite. The accumulation of tubercle bacilli is seen especially in the peripheral epithelioid cells in immediate contact with the alveolar space. In the same lung the bacilli are much fewer in the interstitial tubercles. The accumulation in human tuberculosis of large numbers of tubercle bacilli in the tissues lining cavities is well known. Novy and Soule (20) have shown that within certain limits the growth of the bacillus in vitro is proportional to the oxygen tension of its environment. Corper, Lurie and Uyei (21) have confirmed these observations and have noted further that a difference in the gaseous environment of the bacilli equal to the difference between the conditions existing in the alveolar air and the venous blood is sufficient to cause a considerable increase in the growth of the microorganism in vitro. Loebel, Shorr and Richardson (22) by the use of Warburg's manometer have found that the oxygen consumption of tuberculous tissue is such that a tubercle 0.5 mm. thick would completely exhaust the oxygen of the air before it reached the center. These observations suggest that a factor responsible for the greater multiplication of the bacillus in the cells of the alveoli may be the greater oxygen tension of the alveolar air. In the liver, spleen and bone marrow even with the bovine infection many instances were found of the effective destruction of the parasite synchronously with the maturation of epithelioid cells and the formation of tubercle. On the other hand, in the spleen and bone marrow of some rabbits, living bacilli persisted within the epithelioid cells of isolated tubercles even 2 months after infection, a condition never found with the human type or BCG infection. Thus the epithelioid cell is the means of defense for the rabbit against the bovine type bacillus, and as such it is usually adequate in the liver, spleen and bone marrow though ineffective in the lung and kidney. In the latter, descending infection, and the occasional colony-like multiplication of bacilli in unorganized material, tubular casts, determine the long persistence of large numbers of bacilli in this organ. In differentiating the mononuclear phagocyte of the connective tissues into the monocyte and clasmatocyte Sabin and her coworkers (23) have maintained that the clasmatocyte can efficiently destroy the tubercle bacillus but that the monocyte and its derivatives, the epithelioid and Langhans' giant cells, cannot. With the progress of the disease they have noted that the monocytes accumulate in great numbers in the foci of infection and overflow into general circulation (4). White (24) and Sabin and her coworkers have concluded that tuberculosis is specifically a disease of the monocyte, and that this cell and its derivatives act as incubators for the tubercle bacillus. Doan and Sabin (25) have therefore sought, with indecisive results, to protect the body against tuberculosis by an antimonocytic serum. However it has been shown here that although an intense multiplication of mononuclears is associated with the growth of the tubercle bacillus, their transformation into mature epithelioid cells is constantly associated with its destruction, and the rapidity of the destruction varies with the rapidity of the maturation of tubercle. Even in the bovine infection the epithelioid cells destroy the bacilli in the liver, spleen and bone marrow as a rule, and even in the lung, keep them in check in the interstitial tubercles. The appearance of giant cells is associated with cessation or diminution of mononuclear regeneration by mitosis, and is coincident with cessation of multiplication or marked reduction in the number of living bacilli. They therefore appear earlier and in larger numbers in these organs or parts of organs that first destroy the bacillus (Figs. 16 and 17). They were not observed even 2 months after the bovine infection in the interstitial tubercles in the lung. Their absence and the continued mitosis of mononuclears, which accounts for the massive pneumonic and interstitial consolidation of the lung with this infection, were associated with the failure of the lung to destroy effectively the bovine parasite. The formation of giant cells in the pneumonic foci in the bovine infection would seem to be an exception to this rule. The Langhans giant cells have often been considered an indication of the chronicity of the pathological process. It would appear that they are formed from existing epithelioid cells when the multiplication of the bacillus has ceased and the stimulus for the formation of new cells has decreased or stopped. Giant cells were most conspicuous in the liver and splenic pulp where, with the BCG infection, no caseation ever developed, and in the liver before caseation was seen anywhere in the body. In the human and bovine infections, giant cells formed in the liver before caseation appeared. Hence caseation is not a necessary requirement for giant cell formation, as maintained by Medlar (26), though these cells frequently form about caseous material. Lymphocytes and granulation tissue do not cause the destruction of tubercle bacilli, these being destroyed in their absence. They usually appear about tubercles due to all strains and in all organs, after the greater part of the microorganisms have been destroyed (Fig. 18). The bacilli are not destroyed in the lung with bovine infection where the tubercles are usually little permeated by lymphocytes and granulation tissue. There is however, no constant relation between granulation tissue and destruction of tubercle bacilli, for in the lung after the human infection and even in other organs after the bovine infection isolated tubercles may be surrounded and penetrated by lymphocytes and granulation tissue at a time when considerable numbers of living bacilli are still histologically demonstrable within the epithelioid cells. Caseation is usually not caused by the local accumulation of tubercle bacilli. At first, when the BCG (after 1 week) and the human microorganism (after 2 weeks) are present in the cells in very large numbers as demonstrated both histologically and by culture (Figs. 4 and 13) there is no necrosis of these cells. An exception to this rule found in the lung with the bovine infection is considered below. Later, after the bacilli have been destroyed to a great extent and even though the number of bacilli is small, caseation appears (Fig. 14). After this preliminary destruction the extent of caseation apparently varies with the number of residual bacilli. With the least virulent microorganism, the BCG, few bacilli remained in the liver in the 4th week and no caseation was seen. In the tubercles of the splenic corpuscle at the same time bacilli were somewhat more numerous and there was scant caseation. On the other hand with the human bacillus after 4 weeks more bacilli survived and caseation was more extensive in both organs; with the bovine microorganism tubercle bacilli were much more numerous and caseation was far advanced. In the lung, however, caseation appeared with the first considerable accumulation of the bovine bacilli present 2 weeks after inoculation. That the bovine bacillus is primarily more injurious to the lung of rabbits than the BCG or the human bacillus is suggested by the greater intensity of the initial inflammation and by the more conspicuous accumulation of cells in the alveoli evident from the very beginning of infection. Maximow (27) showed that bovine bacilli even in small numbers cause the death of cells in tissue cultures of rabbit lymph nodes whereas the BCG or the human bacillus may accumulate within the cells in tremendous numbers without injuring them. Nevertheless in the liver, spleen and bone marrow of the living animal, caseation does not appear at the time when bovine bacilli are most abundant, but after they have been greatly reduced in numbers. Large numbers of the less virulent types of tubercle bacilli accumulated in different organs a short time after infection do not cause caseation, and with the bovine infection caseation under the same conditions occurs only in the lung. Later when the animal is sensitized caseation occurs in various organs in the presence of the small numbers of tubercle bacilli that remain in the tissues after most of them have been destroyed, and the extent of this caseation varies with the numbers of residual bacilli. These observations suggest that a large number of bacilli fail to cause necrosis soon after infection whereas a few bacilli produce caseation in the animal that is sensitized. Many investigators have held that caseation is due to sensitization. Krause (28), Huebschman (29) and Pagel (30) think that caseation is caused by the action of tuberculin-like substances on the sensitized tissues of the allergic animal. Rich and McCordock (31) view the process in essentially the same light. Recently Schleussing (32) has suggested that caseation is a coagulation necrosis in Weigert's sense of an allergically inflamed tissue, and is similar to the necrosis of the Arthus phenomenon.
PMCID: PMC2132067  PMID: 19869977
24.  Assessment of Inhibited Alveolar-Capillary Membrane Structural Development and Function in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia 
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease of extreme prematurity and is defined clinically by dependence on supplemental oxygen due to impaired gas exchange. Optimal gas exchange is dependent on the development of a sufficient surface area for diffusion. In the mammalian lung, rapid acquisition of distal lung surface area is accomplished in neonatal and early adult life by means of vascularization and secondary septation of distal lung airspaces. Extreme preterm birth interrupts secondary septation and pulmonary capillary development and ultimately reduces the efficiency of the alveolar-capillary membrane. Although pulmonary health in BPD infants rapidly improves over the first few years, persistent alveolar-capillary membrane dysfunction continues into adolescence and adulthood. Preventative therapies have been largely ineffective, and therapies aimed at promoting normal development of the air-blood barrier in infants with established BPD remain largely unexplored. The purpose of this review will be: (1) to summarize the histological evidence of aberrant alveolar-capillary membrane development associated with extreme preterm birth and BPD, (2) to review the clinical evidence assessing the long-term impact of BPD on alveolar-capillary membrane function, and (3) to discuss the need to develop and incorporate direct measurements of functional gas exchange into clinically relevant animal models of inhibited alveolar development.
PMCID: PMC3999962  PMID: 24604816
bronchopulmonary dysplasia; mouse; neonatal lung morphogenesis; hyperoxia; lung function; diffusing capacity
25.  Sulfatases are determinants of alveolar formation 
Matrix Biology  2012;31(4):253-260.
Alveolar formation or alveolarization is orchestrated by a finely regulated and complex interaction between growth factors and extracellular matrix proteins. The lung parenchyma contains various extracellular matrix proteins including proteoglycans, which are composed of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) linked to a protein core. Although GAGs are known to regulate growth factor distribution and activity according to their degree of sulfation the role of sulfated GAG in the respiratory system is not well understood. The degree of sulfation of GAGs is regulated in part, by sulfatases that remove sulfate groups. In vertebrates, the enzyme Sulfatase-Modifying Factor 1 (Sumf1) activates all sulfatases. Here we utilized mice lacking Sumf1−/− to study the importance of proteoglycan desulfation in lung development. The Sumf1−/− mice have normal lungs up until the onset of alveolarization at post-natal day 5 (P5). We detected increased deposition of sulfated GAG throughout the lung parenchyma and a decrease in alveolar septa formation. Moreover, stereological analysis showed that the alveolar volume is 20% larger in Sumf1−/− as compared to wild type (WT) mice at P10 and P30. Additionally, pulmonary function test were consistent with increased alveolar volume. Genetic experiments demonstrate that in Sumf1−/− mice arrest of alveolarization is independent of fibroblast growth factor signaling. In turn, the Sumf1−/− mice have increased transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling and in vivo injection of TGFβ neutralizing antibody leads to normalization of alveolarization. Thus, absence of sulfatase activity increases sulfated GAG deposition in the lungs causing deregulation of TGFβ signaling and arrest of alveolarization.
PMCID: PMC3340524  PMID: 22366163
Alveolarization; Sumf1; Glycosaminoglycans; Sulfatases; TGFβ

Results 1-25 (1358049)