Zinc finger E-box binding (ZEB) proteins ZEB1 and ZEB2 are transcription factors essential in transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-mediated senescence, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cell function. ZEBs are negatively regulated by members of the miR-200 microRNA family, but precisely how tumor cells expressing ZEBs emerge during invasive growth remains unknown. Here we report that NOTCH3-mediated signaling prevents expansion of a unique subset of ZEB-expressing cells. ZEB expression was associated with the lack of cellular capability of undergoing NOTCH3-mediated squamous differentiation in human esophageal cells. Genetic inhibition of the Notch-mediated transcriptional activity by dominant-negative Mastermind-like1 (DNMAML1) prevented squamous differentiation and induction of Notch target genes including NOTCH3. Moreover, DNMAML1 enriched EMT competent cells exhibited robust upregulation of ZEBs, downregulation of the miR-200 family, and enhanced anchorage independent growth and tumor formation in nude mice. RNA interference (RNAi) experiments suggested the involvement of ZEBs in anchorage independent colony formation, invasion and TGF-β-mediated EMT. Invasive growth and impaired squamous differentiation was recapitulated upon Notch inhibition by DNMAML1 in organotypic 3D culture, a form of human tissue engineering. Together, our findings indicate that NOTCH3 is a key factor limiting the expansion of ZEB-expressing cells, providing novel mechanistic insights into the role of Notch signaling in the cell fate regulation and disease progression of squamous esophageal cancers.
Notch; EMT; squamous cell differentiation; ZEB1; miR-200
Background & Aims
The Notch receptor family regulates cell fate through cell-cell communication. CSL (CBF-1/RBP-jκ, Su(H), Lag-1) drives canonical Notch-mediated gene transcription during cell lineage specification, differentiation and proliferation in the hematopoietic system, the intestine, the pancreas and the skin. However, the functional roles of Notch in esophageal squamous epithelial biology remain unknown.
Normal esophageal keratinocytes were stimulated with calcium chloride to induce terminal differentiation. The squamous epithelia were reconstituted in organotypic three-dimensional culture, a form of human tissue engineering. Notch was inhibited in culture with a γ-secretase inhibitor or dominant negative mastermind-like1 (DNMAML1). The roles of Notch receptors were evaluated by in vitro gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments. Additionally, DNMAML1 was targeted to the mouse esophagus by cytokeratin K14 promoter-driven Cre (K14Cre) recombination of Lox-STOP-Lox-DNMAML1. Notch-regulated gene expression was determined by reporter transfection, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR), Western blotting, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry.
NOTCH1 (N1) was activated at the onset of squamous differentiation in the esophagus. Intracellular domain of N1 (ICN1) directly activated NOTCH3 (N3) transcription, inducing HES5 and early differentiation markers such as involucrin (IVL) and cytokeratin CK13 in a CSL-dependent fashion. N3 enhanced ICN1 activity and was required for squamous differentiation. Loss of Notch signaling in K14Cre;DNMAML1 mice perturbed esophageal squamous differentiation and resulted in N3 loss and basal cell hyperplasia.
Notch signaling is important for esophageal epithelial homeostasis. In particular, the crosstalk of N3 with N1 during differentiation provides novel, mechanistic insights into Notch signaling and squamous epithelial biology.
NOTCH1; NOTCH3; esophageal epithelium; squamous differentiation
There exists a highly tumorigenic subset of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells defined by high expression of CD44. A novel therapy targeting these cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) is needed to improve prognosis of ESCC. CSCs of ESCC have a mesenchymal phenotype and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is critical to enrich and maintain CSCs. EGFR, frequently overexpressed in ESCC, has pivotal roles in EMT induced by TGF-β in invasive fronts. Thus, EMT in invasive fronts of ESCC might be important for CSCs and EGFR could be a target of a novel therapy eliminating CSCs. However, effects of EGFR inhibitors on CSCs in ESCC have not been fully examined. EGFR inhibitors, erlotinib and cetuximab, significantly suppressed enrichment of CSCs via TGF-β1-mediated EMT. Importantly, EGFR inhibitors sharply suppressed ZEB1 that is essential for EMT in ESCC. Further, EGFR inhibitors activated Notch1 and Notch3, leading to squamous cell differentiation. EGFR inhibition may suppress expression of ZEB1 and induce differentiation, thereby blocking EMT-mediated enrichment of CSCs. In organotypic 3D culture, a form of human tissue engineering, tumor cells in invasive nests showed high expression of CD44. Erlotinib significantly blocked invasion into the matrix and CD44 high expressing CSCs were markedly suppressed by erlotinib in organotypic 3D culture. In conclusion, EMT is a critical process for generation of CSCs and the invasive front of ESCC, where EMT occurs, might form a CSC niche in ESCC. EGFR inhibitors could suppress EMT in invasive fronts and be one therapeutic option targeting against generation of CSCs in ESCC.
cancer stem cell; esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; EGFR inhibitor; organotypic 3D culture; ZEB1
WNT10A is upregulated in invasive esophageal tumor cells versus non-invasive cells in 3D-organotypic cultures. Functionally, WNT10A promotes proliferation, migration, invasion and self-renewal. WNT10A is expressed during development, downregulated postnatally and re-expressed during carcinogenesis, where it correlates with poor prognosis.
Esophageal cells overexpressing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and TP53 mutation can invade into the extracellular matrix when grown in 3D-organotypic cultures (OTC) and mimic early invasion in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We have performed laser capture microdissection with RNA microarray analysis on the invasive and non-invasive tumor cells of p53R175H-overexpressing OTC samples to determine candidate genes facilitating tumor invasion. WNT10A was found to be >4-fold upregulated in the invasive front. Since WNT10A is also prominently upregulated during placode promotion in hair follicle development, a process that requires epithelial cells to thicken and elongate, in order to allow downward growth, we hypothesized that WNT10A may be important in mediating a similar mechanism of tumor cell invasion in ESCC. We have found that WNT10A expression is significantly upregulated in human ESCC, when compared with normal adjacent tissue. Furthermore, high WNT10A expression levels correlate with poor survival. Interestingly, we observe that WNT10A is expressed early in embryogenesis, but is reduced dramatically postnatally. We demonstrate that overexpression of WNT10a promotes migration and invasion, and proliferation of transformed esophageal cells. Lastly, we show that WNT10A overexpression induces a greater CD44High/CD24Low population, which are putative markers of cancer stem cells, and increases self-renewal capability. Taken together, we propose that WNT10A acts as an oncofetal factor that is highly expressed and may promote proper development of the esophagus. During tumorigenesis, it is aberrantly overexpressed in order to promote ESCC migration and invasion, and may be linked to self-renewal of a subset of ESCC cells.
Barrett's esophagus (BE) is defined as an incomplete intestinal metaplasia characterized generally by the presence of columnar and goblet cells in the formerly stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus. BE is known as a precursor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. Currently, the cell of origin for human BE has yet to be clearly identified. Therefore, we investigated the role of Notch signaling in the initiation of BE metaplasia. Affymetrix gene expression microarray revealed that BE samples express decreased levels of Notch receptors (NOTCH2 and NOTCH3) and one of the the ligands (JAG1). Furthermore, BE tissue microarray showed decreased expression of NOTCH1 and its downstream target HES1. Therefore, Notch signaling was inhibited in human esophageal epithelial cells by expression of dominant-negative-Mastermind-like (dnMAML), in concert with MYC and CDX1 overexpression. Cell transdifferentiation was then assessed by 3D organotypic culture and evaluation of BE-lineage specific gene expression. Notch inhibition promoted transdifferentiation of esophageal epithelial cells toward columnar-like cells as demonstrated by increased expression of columnar keratins (K8, K18, K19, K20) and glandular mucins (MUC2, MUC3B, MUC5B, MUC17) and decreased expression of squamous keratins (K5, K13, K14). In 3D culture, elongated cells were observed in the basal layer of the epithelium with Notch inhibition. Furthermore, we observed increased expression of KLF4, a potential driver of the changes observed by Notch inhibition. Interestingly, knockdown of KLF4 reversed the effects of Notch inhibition on BE-like metaplasia. Overall, Notch signaling inhibition promotes transdifferentiation of esophageal cells toward BE-like metaplasia in part via upregulation of KLF4. These results support a novel mechanism through which esophageal epithelial transdifferentiation promotes the evolution of BE.
Barrett's esophagus; KLF4; metaplasia; Notch signaling; transdifferentiation
Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest human malignancies, with few therapeutic options. Re-activation of embryonic signaling pathways is commonly in human pancreatic cancer and provided rationale to explore inhibition of these pathways therapeutically. Notch signaling is important during pancreatic development, and it is re-activated in pancreatic cancer. The functional role of Notch signaling during pancreatic carcinogenesis has been previously characterized using both genetic and drug-based approaches. However, contrasting findings were reported based on the study design. In fact, Notch signaling has been proposed to act as tumor-promoter or tumor-suppressor. Given the availability of Notch inhibitors in the clinic, understanding how this signaling pathway contributes to pancreatic carcinogenesis has important therapeutic implications. Here, we interrogated the role of Notch signaling specifically in the epithelial compartment of the pancreas, in the context of a genetically engineered mouse model of pancreatic cancer.
To inhibit Notch signaling in the pancreas epithelium, we crossed a mouse model of pancreatic cancer based on pancreas-specific expression of mutant Kras with a transgenic mouse that conditionally expresses a dominant negative form of the Mastermind-like 1 gene. MAML is an essential co-activator of the canonical Notch signaling-mediated transcription. DNMAML encodes a truncated MAML protein that represses all canonical Notch mediated transcription in a cell autonomous manner, independent of which Notch receptor is activated. As a result, in mice co-expressing mutant Kras and DNMAML, Notch signaling is inhibited specifically in the epithelium upon Cre-mediated recombination. We explored the effect of epithelial-specific DNMAML expression on Kras-driven carcinogenesis both during normal aging and following the induction of acute pancreatitis.
We find that DNMAML expression efficiently inhibits epithelial Notch signaling and delays PanIN formation. However, over time, loss of Notch inhibition allows PanIN formation and progression.
Epithelial-specific Notch signaling is important for PanIN initiation. Our findings indicate that PanIN formation can only occur upon loss of epithelial Notch inhibition, thus supporting an essential role of this signaling pathway during pancreatic carcinogenesis.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-862) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Pancreatic cancer; Notch; DNMAML; Mastermind-like; Epithelium; Genetically engineered mouse model
Background/Aim: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors. It has been reported that Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role in Esophageal Cancer progression, metastasis and invasion. However the clinicopathological significance of Wnt2, GSK3β, and β-catenin in ESCC has been little reported. In the present study, the aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathologic and prognosis roles of Wnt2, GSK3β, and β-catenin in ESCC tissue. Methods: 265 ESCC samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using Wnt2, GSK3β, and β-catenin antibodies. Then, correlation of Wnt2, GSK3β, and β-catenin expression with clinicopathological features and prognosis of ESCC patients was statistically analyzed. Results: Cytoplasmic Wnt2 overexpression was detected in 55.5% (147 of 265) ESCCs, which was significantly correlated with the degree of differentiation (P = 0.031). Cytoplasmic GSK3β overexpression was detected in 7.2% (19 of 265) ESCCs, and aberrant β-catenin expression was identified in 54.3% (144 of 265) of ESCCs. The positive rate of Wnt2 significantly increased with the malignant degree of Kazak ESCC patients. The aberrant β-catenin expression in GSK3β-negative ESCC was significantly associated with the ethnic, tumor size, tumor location, degree of differentiation, AJCC stage, lymph node status. Furthermore, the expression of β-catenin implicated the ethnic difference (P = 0.019). In Kaplan-Meier curve analysis, no significant correlation was observed between the expression of Wnt2, GSK3β, β-catenin and the poor prognosis of ESCCs. Conclusion: The aberrant β-catenin expression could be an adverse underlying factor in carcinogenesis and progression of ESCC. There was a different statistical signification for β-catenin in Kazakhs to compare with Hans.
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; immunohistochemistry; Wnt2; GSK3β; β-catenin; clinicopathology
Genetic inactivation of Notch signaling in CD4−CD8− double-negative (DN) thymocytes was previously shown to impair T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement and to cause a partial block in CD4+CD8+ double-positive (DP) thymocyte development in mice. In contrast, in vitro cultures suggested that Notch was absolutely required for the generation of DP thymocytes independent of pre-TCR expression and activity. To resolve the respective role of Notch and the pre-TCR, we inhibited Notch-mediated transcriptional activation in vivo with a green fluorescent protein–tagged dominant-negative Mastermind-like 1 (DNMAML) that allowed us to track single cells incapable of Notch signaling. DNMAML expression in DN cells led to decreased production of DP thymocytes but only to a modest decrease in intracellular TCRβ expression. DNMAML attenuated the pre-TCR–associated increase in cell size and CD27 expression. TCRβ or TCRαβ transgenes failed to rescue DNMAML-related defects. Intrathymic injections of DNMAML− or DNMAML+ DN thymocytes revealed a complete DN/DP transition block, with production of DNMAML+ DP thymocytes only from cells undergoing late Notch inactivation. These findings indicate that the Notch requirement during the β-selection checkpoint in vivo is absolute and independent of the pre-TCR, and it depends on transcriptional activation by Notch via the CSL/RBP-J–MAML complex.
Background and Objective
Despite great progress in treatment, the prognosis for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains poor, highlighting the importance of early detection. Although upper endoscopy can be used for the screening of esophagus, it has limited sensitivity for early stage disease. Thus, development of new diagnosis approach to improve diagnostic capabilities for early detection of ESCC is an important need. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using cathepsin B (CB) as a novel imaging target for the detection of human ESCC by near-infrared optical imaging in nude mice.
Initially, we examined specimens from normal human esophageal tissue, intraepithelial neoplasia lesions, tumor in situ, ESCC and two cell lines including one human ESCC cell line (Eca-109) and one normal human esophageal epithelial cell line (HET-1A) for CB expression by immunohistochemistry and western blot, respectively. Next, the ability of a novel CB activatable near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) probe detecting CB activity presented in Eca-109 cells was confirmed by immunocytochemistry. We also performed in vivo imaging of tumor bearing mice injected with the CB probe and ex vivo imaging of resected tumor xenografts and visceral organs using a living imaging system. Finally, the sources of fluorescence signals in tumor tissue and CB expression in visceral organs were identified by histology.
CB was absent in normal human esophageal mucosa, but it was overexpressed in ESCC and its precursor lesions. The novel probe for CB activity specifically detected ESCC xenografts in vivo and in vitro.
CB was highly upregulated in human ESCC and its precursor lesions. The elevated CB expression in ESCC allowed in vivo and in vitro detection of ESCC xenografts in nude mice. Our results support the usefulness of CB activity as a potential imaging target for the detection of human ESCC.
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most aggressive forms of human cancer with poor prognosis due to late diagnosis and metastasis. Common genomic alterations in ESCC include p53 mutation, p120ctn inactivation, and overexpression of oncogenes such as cyclin D1, EGFR, and c-Met. Using esophageal epithelial cells transformed by the overexpression of EGFR and p53R175H, we find novel evidence of a functional link between p53R175H and the c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase to mediate tumor cell invasion. Increased c-Met receptor activation was observed upon p53R175H expression and enhanced further upon subsequent EGFR overexpression. We inhibited c-Met phosphorylation, resulting in diminished invasion of the genetically transformed primary esophageal epithelial cells (EPC-hTERT-EGFR-p53R175H), suggesting that the mechanism of increased invasiveness upon EGFR and p53R175H expression may be the result of increased c-Met activation. These results suggest that the use of therapeutics directed at c-Met in ESCC and other squamous cell cancers.
p53 mutation; c-Met; esophageal cancer; tumor invasion
Human squamous cell cancers are the most common epithelially derived malignancies. One example is esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), which is associated with a high mortality rate (1) that is related to a propensity for invasion and metastasis (2). Here we report that periostin, a highly expressed cell adhesion molecule, is a key component of a novel tumor invasive signature obtained from an organotypic culture model of engineered ESCC. This tumor invasive signature classifies with human ESCC microarrays, underscoring its utility in human cancer. Genetic modulation of periostin promotes tumor cell migration and invasion as revealed in gain of and loss of function experiments. Inhibition of EGFR signaling and restoration of wild-type p53 function were each found to attenuate periostin, suggesting interdependence of two common genetic alterations with periostin function. Collectively, our studies reveal periostin as an important mediator of ESCC tumor invasion and they indicate that organotypic (3D) culture can offer an important tool to discover novel biologic effectors in cancer.
tumor microenvironment; periostin; EGFR; p53
The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between microRNA-141 (miR141) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) expression levels in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and to investigate the effects of miR141 on ESCC cells. A total of 45 consecutive patients with ESCC were enrolled in the study. The expression of miR141 in ESCC tissue samples was detected using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The expression of STAT5 in the ESCC tissues was detected using immunohistochemical staining and western blotting. In addition, Eca109 cells were transfected with miR141 mimic, and the levels of STAT5 were detected using western blotting. The effects of miR141 on the proliferation, invasion and migration of the cells were also detected using MTT, scratch and Transwell invasion assays, respectively. The miR141 expression level in the ESCC tissue samples was significantly decreased compared with that in the adjacent normal tissues (P<0.05). The expression of miR141 in the tissues from patients with lymph node metastasis was significantly decreased compared with that in the tissues of patients without such metastasis (P<0.05). The expression levels of STAT were significantly increased in the ESCC tissues compared with those in the adjacent normal tissues (P<0.05). Furthermore, the levels of STAT5 were significantly increased in the tissues from patients with lymph node metastasis compared with those without such metastasis (P<0.05); however, no statistically significant differences in miR141 expression were observed according to gender, age, tumor size, lesion location, differentiation and invasion (P>0.05). The results suggest that the miR141 mimic significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of Eca109 cells in vitro. miR141 and STAT5 expression levels exhibited a negative association in the ESCC tissues, and were both closely associated with the progression of ESCC. Therefore, it appears that miR141 plays an important role in the development, invasion and metastasis of ESCC by regulating the expression of STAT5.
esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; miR141; signal transducer and activator of transcription 5; invasion; metastasis
Periostin, an extracellular matrix protein, plays key role in cell adhesion and motility within the tumor microenvironment and is correlated with tumor invasion. We developed and characterized a PET tracer that specifically targets periostin and evaluated the probe in preclinical models of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approved all animal studies. Antiperiostin-F(ab′)2 was generated from a monoclonal antibody by enzymatic digestion, conjugated to DOTA, and labeled with 64Cu. Human ESCC cell lines, TE-11 with high and TT with minimal periostin expression, were implanted in nu/nu mice to generate the positive and control tumor models, respectively. PET/CT imaging was performed at 6, 12, and 24 h and organ-specific biodistribution at 24 h after probe injection. Additionally the probe was tested in a genetically engineered mouse model of periostin-expressing distal esophageal/forestomach ESCC. Tissue microarrays of esophageal neoplasms and ESCC as well as extracted tumor samples were stained for periostin.
We generated a 64Cu-DOTA-antiperiostin-F(ab′)2 with a dissociation constant of 29.2 ± 3.0 nM. PET/CT images and biodistribution studies showed significantly higher tracer uptake in TE-11 than TT tumors (maximum standardized uptake value, 24 h: 0.67± 0.09 vs. 0.36 ± 0.03, P < 0.0005; percentage injected dose per gram, 24 h: 3.24 ± 0.65 vs. 1.63 ± 0.49, P < 0.0001). In genetically engineered mouse models, ESCC high periostin tracer uptake anatomically correlated with the 18F-FDG uptake at the gastroesophageal junction. All of the ESCC cores and 96.2% of adenocarcinoma stained positive for periostin, with most stained strongly (67.3% and 69.3%, respectively).
We demonstrated that specific imaging of extracellular matrix periostin in ESCC is feasible using a targeted PET tracer. Detection of periostin in the tumor microenvironment may help with early detection, postsurgical follow-up, and in situ characterization of primary and metastatic lesions.
periostin; immuno-PET imaging; extracellular matrix; tumor microenvironment; esophageal cancer
Esophageal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the world. Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for approximately 90 % of esophageal cancer cases. Genetic and epigenetic changes have been found to accumulate during the development of various cancers, including esophageal squamous carcinoma (ESCC). Tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption are two major risk factors for ESCC, and both tobacco and alcohol were found to induce methylation changes in ESCC. Growing evidence demonstrates that aberrant epigenetic changes play important roles in the multiple-step processes of carcinogenesis and tumor progression. DNA methylation may occur in the key components of cancer-related signaling pathways. Aberrant DNA methylation affects genes involved in cell cycle, DNA damage repair, Wnt, TGF-β, and NF-κB signaling pathways, including P16, MGMT, SFRP2, DACH1, and ZNF382. Certain genes methylated in precursor lesions of the esophagus demonstrate that DNA methylation may serve as esophageal cancer early detection marker, such as methylation of HIN1, TFPI-2, DACH1, and SOX17. CHFR methylation is a late stage event in ESCC and is a sensitive marker for taxanes in human ESCC. FHIT methylation is associated with poor prognosis in ESCC. Aberrant DNA methylation changes may serve as diagnostic, prognostic, and chemo-sensitive markers. Characterization of the DNA methylome in ESCC will help to better understand its mechanisms and develop improved therapies.
DNA methylation; Esophageal cancer; Epigenome; CHFR; Wnt signaling; DNA damage repair
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and esophageal adenocarcinoma are aggressive cancers with poor patient response to conventional chemotherapy and radiation treatment. In this study, comprehensive genomic profiling showed that the frequently altered genes and biological pathways differed between the two subtypes, and a high frequency of clinically relevant genomic alterations was noted as a means of finding a potential targeted therapy to be used in addition or as an alternative to conventional treatment.
Esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs) and esophageal adenocarcinomas (EACs) account for >95% of esophageal malignancies and represent a major global health burden. ESCC is the dominant histology globally but represents a minority of U.S. cases, with EAC accounting for the majority of U.S. cases. The patient outcomes for advanced ESCC and EAC are poor, and new therapeutic options are needed. Using a sensitive sequencing assay, we compared the genomic profiles of ESCC and EAC with attention to identification of therapeutically relevant genomic alterations.
Next-generation sequencing-based comprehensive genomic profiling was performed on hybridization-captured, adaptor ligation-based libraries to a median coverage depth of >650× for all coding exons of 315 cancer-related genes plus selected introns from 28 genes frequently rearranged in cancer. Results from a single sample were evaluated for all classes of genomic alterations (GAs) including point mutations, short insertions and deletions, gene amplifications, homozygous deletions, and fusions/rearrangements. Clinically relevant genomic alterations (CRGAs) were defined as alterations linked to approved drugs and those under evaluation in mechanism-driven clinical trials.
There were no significant differences by sex for either tumor type, and the median age for all patients was 63 years. All ESCCs and EACs were at an advanced stage at the time of sequencing. All 71 ESCCs and 231 EACs featured GAs on profiling, with 522 GAs in ESCC (7.4 per sample) and 1,303 GAs in EAC (5.6 per sample). The frequency of clinically relevant GAs in ESCC was 94% (2.6 per sample) and 93% in EAC (2.7 per sample). CRGAs occurring more frequently in EAC included KRAS (23% EAC vs. 6% ESCC) and ERBB2 (23% EAC vs. 3% ESCC). ESCC samples were enriched for CRGA in PIK3CA (24% ESCC vs. 10% EAC), PTEN (11% ESCC vs. 4% EAC), and NOTCH1 (17% ESCC vs. 3% EAC). Other GAs that differed significantly between histologic tumor types included SMAD4 (14% EAC vs. 1% ESCC), RB1 (14% ESCC vs. 2% EAC), SOX2 (18% ESCC vs. 1% EAC), and NFE2L2 (24% ESCC vs. 1% EAC).
ESCC and EAC share similarly high frequencies of overall and clinically relevant genomic alterations; however, the profiles of genomic alterations in the two diseases differ widely, with KRAS and ERBB2 far more frequently altered in EAC compared with ESCC and with mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR) pathway genes (PIK3CA and PTEN) and NOTCH1 more frequently altered in ESCC compared with EAC. Comprehensive genomic profiling highlights the promise of identifying clinically relevant genomic alterations in both ESCC and EAC and suggests new avenues for molecularly directed therapies in esophageal cancer.
Implications for Practice:
Both esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and esophageal adenocarcinoma are aggressive cancers with poor patient response to conventional chemotherapy and radiation treatment. In this study, comprehensive genomic profiling was performed for 302 advanced esophageal cancers, and it was found that the frequently altered genes and biological pathways differed between the two subtypes. Also, a high frequency of clinically relevant genomic alterations was noted for both types of esophageal cancer as a means of finding a potential targeted therapy to be used in addition to or as an alternative to conventional treatment.
Comprehensive genomic profiling; Next-generation sequencing; Esophageal cancer; Targeted therapy; Adenocarcinoma; Squamous cell
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is often diagnosed at later stages until they are incurable. MicroRNA (miR) is a small, non-coding RNA that negatively regulates gene expression mainly via translational repression. Accumulating evidence indicates that deregulation of miR is associated with human malignancies including ESCC. The aim of this study was to identify miR that could be specifically expressed and exert distinct biological actions in ESCC.
Total RNA was extracted from ESCC cell lines, OE21 and TE10, and a non-malignant human esophageal squamous cell line, Het-1A, and subjected to microarray analysis. Expression levels of miR that showed significant differences between the 2 ESCC and Het-1A cells based on the comprehensive analysis were analyzed by the quantitative reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR method. Then, functional analyses, including cellular proliferation, apoptosis and Matrigel invasion and the wound healing assay, for the specific miR were conducted. Using ESCC tumor samples and paired surrounding non-cancerous tissue obtained endoscopically, the association with histopathological differentiation was examined with quantitative RT-PCR.
Based on the miR microarray analysis, there were 14 miRs that showed significant differences (more than 2-fold) in expression between the 2 ESCC cells and non-malignant Het-1A. Among the significantly altered miRs, miR-205 expression levels were exclusively higher in 5 ESCC cell lines examined than any other types of malignant cell lines and Het-1A. Thus, miR-205 could be a specific miR in ESCC. Modulation of miR-205 expression by transfection with its precursor or anti-miR-205 inhibitor did not affect ESCC cell proliferation and apoptosis, but miR-205 was found to be involved in cell invasion and migration. Western blot revealed that knockdown of miR-205 expression in ESCC cells substantially enhanced expression of zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2, accompanied by reduction of E-cadherin, a regulator of epithelial mesenchymal transition. The miR-205 expression levels were not associated with histological differentiation of human ESCC.
These results imply that miR-205 is an ESCC-specific miR that exerts tumor-suppressive activities with EMT inhibition by targeting ZEB2.
Esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs) are very common, aggressive tumors, and are often associated with alcohol and tobacco abuse. Because ESCCs exhibit high recurrence rates and are diagnosed at late stages, identification of prognostic and drug targets for prevention and treatment is critical. We used the 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) murine model of oral carcinogenesis and the Meadows-Cook model of alcohol abuse to assess changes in the expression of molecular markers during the initial stages of ESCC. Combining these two models, which mimic chronic alcohol and tobacco abuse in humans, we detected increased cellular proliferation (EGFR and Ki67 expression), increased canonical Wnt signaling and downstream elements (β-catenin, FoxM1, and S100a4 protein levels), changes in cellular adhesive properties (reduced E-cadherin in the basal layer of the esophageal epithelium), and increased levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and p38. Additionally, we found that treatment with ethanol alone increased the numbers of epithelial cells expressing solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter, member 1) (SLC2A1) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), and increased the phosphorylation of p38. Thus, we identified both 4-NQO- and ethanol-specific targets in the initial stages of esophageal carcinogenesis, which should lead to the development of potential markers and therapeutic targets for human ESCC.
4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide; Meadows-Cook model of alcohol abuse; esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling; cellular metabolism
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a global public health issue, as it is the eighth most common cancer worldwide. The mechanisms behind ESCC invasion and progression are still poorly understood, and warrant further investigation into these processes and their drivers. In recent years, the ligand Activin A has been implicated as a player in the progression of a number of cancers. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of Activin A signaling in ESCC.
To investigate the role Activin A plays in ESCC biology, tissue microarrays containing 200 cores from 120 ESCC patients were analyzed upon immunofluorescence staining. We utilized three-dimensional organotypic reconstruct cultures of dysplastic and esophageal squamous tumor cells lines, in the context of fibroblast-secreted Activin A, to identify the effects of Activin A on cell invasion and determine protein expression and localization in epithelial and stromal compartments by immunofluorescence. To identify the functional consequences of stromal-derived Activin A on angiogenesis, we performed endothelial tube formation assays.
Analysis of ESCC patient samples indicated that patients with high stromal Activin A expression had low epithelial ACVRIB, the Activin type I receptor. We found that overexpression of stromal-derived Activin A inhibited invasion of esophageal dysplastic squamous cells, ECdnT, and TE-2 ESCC cells, both positive for ACVRIB. This inhibition was accompanied by a decrease in expression of the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein fibronectin and podoplanin, which is often expressed at the leading edge during invasion. Endothelial tube formation was disrupted in the presence of conditioned media from fibroblasts overexpressing Activin A. Interestingly, ACVRIB-negative TE-11 cells did not show the prior observed effects in the context of Activin A overexpression, indicating a dependence on the presence of ACVRIB.
We describe the first observation of an inhibitory role for Activin A in ESCC progression that is dependent on the expression of ACVRIB.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2920-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Dysplasia; Esophageal cell invasion; Cell signaling; Fibronectin; Podoplanin; Angiogenesis
Tumor suppressor maspin is a differentially regulated gene in the progression of many types of cancer. While the biological function of maspin in blocking tumor invasion and metastasis is consistent with the loss of maspin expression at the late stage of tumor progression, the differential expression and the biological significance of maspin in early stage of tumor progression appear to be complex and remain to be elucidated. In the current study, we examined the expression of maspin in 84 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cases (stages I–III) and 55 non-tumor adjacent esophageal tissue specimens by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. The correlation of maspin with clinicopathological parameters was analyzed. Compared to normal esophageal squamous tissue where 80% (47/55) of the cases expressed maspin at a low to moderate level, all ESCC specimens (100% (84/84)) were positive for maspin expression at a moderate to high level. ESCC with low or moderate maspin expression had significantly shorter postoperative survival rates compared to those that had high maspin expression (p<0.001). Since the correlation of maspin with ESCC histology and the correlation of maspin with ESCC prognosis seem to be at odds, we further investigated the biological function of maspin in ESCC using the established ESCC cell lines. The expression of maspin in five human esophageal squamous cancer cell lines (T12, E450, KYSE150, EC109, and KYSE510) was examined by the Western blot. ESCC cell line KYSE510 that did not express maspin and was stably transfected by maspin cDNA or an empty vector. The resulting transfected cells were characterized in vitro. Maspin expression significantly inhibited cell proliferation, motility and matrigel invasion. Taken together, our data suggest that the transient up-regulation of maspin in the early development of ESCC may be a defense mechanism against further transition towards more malignant phenotypes, ultimately slowing down ESCC tumor progression.
Systemic inhibition of Notch signaling was previously shown to attenuate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a disease model of multiple sclerosis in mice. Different studies attributed these effects to decreased T-bet and IFNγ expression, enhanced regulatory T cell function, reduced T cell chemotaxis to the central nervous system (CNS) or impaired Th9 cell differentiation. Interpretation of these heterogeneous findings is difficult, since past experimental strategies did not ensure complete Notch inhibition in T cells and since many cell populations could be affected by systemic Notch blockade. To resolve the role of Notch in T cells during EAE, we used the pan-Notch inhibitor dominant negative form of Mastermind-like 1 (DNMAML), as well as several complementary loss-of-function approaches specifically in myelin-reactive T cells. Notch inhibition in T cells profoundly decreased EAE incidence and severity. Notch-deprived myelin-reactive T cells had preserved activation and effector differentiation in secondary lymphoid tissues. However, Notch-deprived T cells failed to accumulate in the CNS post-immunization. Parking wild type and DNMAML T cells together in bone marrow chimeras increased accumulation of Notch-deprived T cells in the CNS post-immunization but did not prevent EAE, indicating the absence of dominant suppression by DNMAML T cells. Analysis of CNS-infiltrating DNMAML T cells revealed markedly defective IL-17A and IFNγ production, despite preserved T-bet expression. Altogether, our findings capture the profound overall effects of Notch signaling in myelin-reactive T cells and demonstrate that Notch controls the accumulation and pathogenic functions of CD4+ T cells within their target organ but not in lymphoid tissues during EAE.
Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) are activated by the MAPK pathway. ERKs are downstream effectors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which belongs to the receptor tyrosine kinases family. Studies on the activation of the EGFR-ERK pathway in Kazakh patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) have not been reported. Using immunohistochemical staining on tissue microarrays, we investigated the protein expression of EGFR and ERK in 90 ethnic Kazakh patients with ESCC and 48 adjacent normal esophageal tissues (NETs). EGFR and ERK1 expression was localized in the cytoplasm, whereas ERK2 expression was localized in the nucleus. Both were more highly expression in the ESCC tissues than in the NETs, and the difference was considered significant (P = 0.003, 0.002, and 0.005, respectively). ERK1 and EGFR expression was positively correlated with lymph nodes metastasis (P = 0.011 and 0.013, respectively). ERK1 staining was also significantly associated with tumor-node-metastases stage of ESCC (P = 0.044). ERK2 staining was significantly associated with Histological grade (P = 0.012). Furthermore, ERK1 and EGFR expression in the ESCC tissues were positively correlated (r = 0.413, P < 0.001); EGFR was more highly expressed in the ESCC tissues with high ERK1 expression than in the ESCC tissues with low ERK1 expression (4.95 ± 0.57 vs. 3.21 ± 0.35, P = 0.01). This study is thus far the first to demonstrate the correlation between EGFR overexpression and ERK overexpression in Kazakh patients with ESCC. This correlation suggests that the EGFR-ERK signaling pathway participates in ESCC progression and can thus be used as a prognostic marker.
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; Kazakh; epidermal growth factor receptor; extracellular signal-regulated kinase
This study identified significantly down-regulated microRNAs (miRs) specific for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells. Total RNA was extracted from ESCC cell lines (OE21 and TE10) and a non-malignant human esophageal squamous cell line (Het1A), and subjected to microarray analysis. Expression levels of miRs that showed significant down-regulation in ESCC cells compared to Het1A cells based on the comprehensive analysis were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Among the significantly down-regulated miRs, miR-10a expression levels in the five ESCC cell lines examined were significantly lower than in Het1A and the esophageal adenocarcinoma cells. Since miR-10a is a specific miR in ESCC, its clinical relevance was examined. Using ESCC tumor samples and non-cancerous tissue obtained endoscopically, the involvement of miR-10a in the clinicopathological findings was examined. MiR-10a expression was comparably down-regulated in the tumors of high-grade intraepithelial neoplasm and non-invasive ESCC, while the expression levels were elevated in the invasive ESCC tumors. Treatment with a demethylating agent, 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, restored miR-10a expression in OE21 cells. Only a modest additive or synergistic effect was observed in the presence of a histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A. These results imply that miR-10a may be differentially expressed in ESCC cells and may be involved in ESCC development and progression. The unique epigenetic regulation of miR-10a expression can be mediated via hypermethylation of the CpG islands proximal to its gene locus, at least in certain ESCC cells.
microRNA; microRNA 10a; esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; DNA methylation
Notch activity regulates tumor biology in a context-dependent and complex manner. Notch may act as an oncogene or a tumor suppressor gene even within the same tumor type. Recently, Notch signaling has been implicated in cellular senescence. Yet, it remains unclear as to how cellular senescence checkpoint functions may interact with Notch-mediated oncogenic and tumor suppressor activities. Herein, we used genetically engineered human esophageal keratinocytes and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells to delineate the functional consequences of Notch activation and inhibition along with pharmacological intervention and RNA interference (RNAi) experiments. When expressed in a tetracycline-inducible manner, the ectopically expressed activated form of Notch1 (ICN1) displayed oncogene-like characteristics inducing cellular senescence corroborated by the induction of G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest, Rb dephosphorylation, flat and enlarged cell morphology and senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. Notch-induced senescence involves canonical CSL/RBPJ-dependent transcriptional activity and the p16INK4A-Rb pathway. Loss of p16INK4A or the presence of human papilloma virus (HPV) E6/E7 oncogene products not only prevented ICN1 from inducing senescence, but permitted ICN1 to facilitate anchorage-independent colony formation and xenograft tumor growth with increased cell proliferation and reduced squamous-cell differentiation. Moreover, Notch1 appears to mediate replicative senescence as well as TGF-β-induced cellular senescence in non-transformed cells and that HPV E6/E7 targets Notch1 for inactivation to prevent senescence, revealing a tumor suppressor attribute of endogenous Notch1. In aggregate, cellular senescence checkpoint functions may influence dichotomous Notch activities in the neoplastic context.
Notch; Rb; p16; HPV; E7; senescence; squamous cell carcinoma
Growing evidence suggests that SALL4 plays a vital role in tumor progression and metastasis. However, the molecular mechanism of SALL4 promoting esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains to be elucidated.
The gene and protein expression profiles- were examined by using quantitative real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Small hairpin RNA was used to evaluate the role of SALL4 both in cell lines and in animal models. Cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasion were assessed by CCK8, flow cytometry and transwell-matrigel assays. Sphere formation assay was used for cancer stem cell derivation and characterization.
Our study showed that the transcription factor SALL4 was overexpressed in a majority of human ESCC tissues and closely correlated with a poor outcome. We established the lentiviral system using short hairpin RNA to knockdown SALL4 in TE7 and EC109 cells. Silencing of SALL4 inhibited the cell proliferation, induced apoptosis and the G1 phase arrest in cell cycle, decreased the ability of migration/invasion, clonogenicity and stemness in vitro. Besides, down-regulation of SALL4 enhanced the ESCC cells’ sensitivity to cisplatin. Xenograft tumor models showed that silencing of SALL4 decreased the ability to form tumors in vivo. Furthermore, our study demonstrated that SALL4 played a vital role in modulating the stemness of ESCC cells via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and in epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Our results revealed that SALL4 might serve as a functional marker for ESCC cancer stem cell, a crucial marker for prognosis and an attractive candidate for target therapy of ESCC.
SALL4; Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC); Stemness; Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT); Prognostic marker
Lymph node involvement and tumor-induced lymphangiogenesis appear as the earliest features of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), although the molecular regulatory mechanisms involved have remained unclear. Our aim was to investigate the contribution of NF-κB and Notch1 signaling to lymph node involvement and tumor-induced lymphangiogenesis in ESCC.
Material and methods
NF-κB and Notch1 expression in 60 tissue samples of ESCC were assessed by immunohistochemical staining. The correlations of NF-κB and Notch1 with lymph node involvement, lymphatic vessel density (LVD), podoplanin, and vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) were further evaluated to determine the association of NF-κB and Notch1 expression with tumor-induced lymphangiogenesis.
Chi-square tests revealed that NF-κB and Notch1 expression in ESCC tissues were significant associated with lymph node metastasis, LVD, podoplanin, and VEGF-C expression. Strong expression of NF-κB, but weak expression of Notch1, was observed in tumor tissues with lymph nodes involvement (P < 0.05 for both). The mean histoscores of LVD, podoplanin, and VEGF-C staining were higher in high-NF-κB-expressing tissue than in low-expressing tissue (P < 0.05 for each). In contrast, the mean histoscores of LVD and VEGF-C staining were lower in high-Notch1-expressing tissue than in low-expressing tissue (P < 0.05 for both). A multiple factors analysis of LVD and VEGF-C further demonstrated that LVD and VEGF-C status were significantly correlated with NF-κB and Notch1 expression in tumors. NF-κB and Notch1 expression were also significantly inversely correlated (P < 0.05).
These results suggest that different patterns of NF-κB and Notch1 signaling contribute to lymph nodes metastasis and tumor-induced lymphangiogenesis of ESCC, and reveal that up-regulation of NF-κB is associated with down-regulation of Notch1 in tumor tissue.
esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; Notch; NF-κB; angiogenesis; lymphangiogenesis