Communication amongst medical specialists helps display the tensions between localism and transnationalisation. Some quantitative sampling of psychiatric journals provides one framework for understanding the history of psychiatry and, to some extent, the history of medicine in general in the twentieth century. After World War II, extreme national isolation of psychiatric communities gave way to substantial transnationalisation, especially in the 1980s, when a remarkable switch to English-language communication became obvious. Various psychiatric communities used the new universal language, not so much as victims of Americanisation, as to gain general professional recognition and to participate in and adapt to modernisation.
Citation Analysis; Communication; Dissemination; English Language; Globalisation; Information; Internationality; Medical Publications; Psychiatry; Transnationalisation
The Journal of Family and Community Medicine (JFCM) is the official peer reviewed scientific publication of the Saudi Society of Family and Community Medicine. Unlike many peer medical journals, the contents of JFCM, have never been analyzed. The objective of this study was to perform an analysis of the contents of the JFCM over a 16-year period to discern the study designs and statistical methods used with a view to improving future contents of the journal.
Materials and Methods:
All volumes of the JFCM, from 1 January 1994 to 31 December 2010 were hand searched for research articles. All papers identified as original articles were selected. For every article, the study designs and the statistical methods used were recorded. Articles were then classified according to their statistical methods and study designs. The frequency of study designs was calculated as a simple percentage of the total number of articles, while the frequency of statistical methods was calculated as a percentage of articles that used those statistical methods.
A total of 229 articles were analyzed. Of these, 66 (28.8%) either reported no statistics or reported simple summaries. The cross-sectional design was used in 175 (76.4%) of all analyzed articles. Statistical methods were used in 163 (71.2%) articles. Chi-squared test was used in 111 (68.1%) articles, and t-test used in 48 (29.4%) articles. Other common statistical tests were: Regression, which was used in 35 (21.5%) articles, ANOVA used in 23 (14.1%) articles, and odds ratio and relative risk tests which were used in 22 (13.5%) articles.
The JFCM has a wide range of study designs and statistical methods. However, no article on experimental studies has been published in the JFCM since its inception.
Community medicine; family medicine; research methodology; Saudi Arabia
The human head and face is the target structure of a large number of medical disciplines which are subject to a continuing trend in medical science – 'ongoing fragmentation' or, to use a better established term, 'opening up new fields'. An adverse side effect of this trend is the separation of scientists, which contributes to a breakdown in communication. Specialization is necessary, but who is able to recombine the pieces of knowledge gained in different branches of science? Who is able to trace back an effect to its cause through the whole system? What is the instrument that enables scientists to think 'laterally', or across disciplines?
To be one of these instruments is the vision of Head & Face Medicine. To induce 'intra-interdisciplinary' thinking of scientists by bringing together the findings achieved by different researchers from various specialties, all exploring the same target structure – the human head and face. Head & Face Medicine's objective is to support scientists in gaining new insights from different views, to recognize patterns, to extract new thoughts, to recombine them and bring new visions to life.
Evolving tools like the internet, e-publishing, Open Access and open peer review make Head & Face Medicine a cross between a traditional journal and a data stream which can be queried, analyzed and processed with the aim of increasing medical knowledge in the area of head and face medicine. These tools represent several advantages: fast publication, increase of a paper's scientific impact and ethical superiority.
Head & Face Medicine looks forward to receiving your contributions.
The Florida State University (FSU) College of Medicine Medical Library is the first academic medical library to be established since the Web's dramatic appearance during the 1990s. A large customer base for electronic medical information resources is both comfortable with and eager to migrate to the electronic format completely, and vendors are designing radical pricing models that make print journal cancellations economically advantageous. In this (almost) post-print environment, the new FSU Medical Library is being created and will continue to evolve. By analyzing print journal subscription lists of eighteen academic medical libraries with similar missions to the community-based FSU College of Medicine and by entering these and selected quality indicators into a Microsoft Access database, a core list was created. This list serves as a selection guide, as a point for discussion with faculty and curriculum leaders when creating budgets, and for financial negotiations in a broader university environment. After journal titles specific to allied health sciences, veterinary medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, library science, and nursing were eliminated from the list, 4,225 unique journal titles emerged. Based on a ten-point scale including SERHOLD holdings and DOCLINE borrowing activity, a list of 449 core titles is identified. The core list has been saved in spreadsheet format for easy sorting by a number of parameters.
A new section of the Journal of Translational Medicine is being introduced to encourage rapid communication of methods and results that utilize computational modeling and epidemiologic approaches in translational medicine. The focus will be on population-based studies that extend towards more molecular level analysis. Submission of studies involving methods development is encouraged where actual application and results can be shown in the healthcare and life sciences domains.
To investigate the number and content of articles on pediatric medicine in
family medicine journals.
Computerized survey in PubMed of the abstracts of all papers published
between 2000 and 2002 in four family medicine journals. Abstracts were
classified as research or nonresearch. Papers dealing with pediatric
medicine were further categorized by main subject area.
Two North American family medicine journals and two British family medicine
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Number and content of abstracts in family medicine journals: research or not
research, describing children only or including adults.
Of 1199 abstracts reviewed, 947 (79%) were from research articles and 252
(21%) from nonresearch articles. Of the research abstracts, 73 (7.7%)
related to pediatric problems, and 28 (3%) related to both pediatric and
adult problems. Of the nonresearch abstracts, 22 (8.7%) involved pediatric
patients and 7 (2.8%) combined pediatric and adult populations. In all,
nearly 11% of the articles related to pediatric issues. The most common
subjects were infectious disease (26%), adolescent medicine (15%),
organization of medical care (12%), and asthma (12%).
Although pediatric care is an essential part of family practice, the
percentage of papers on pediatric medicine in family medicine journals is
small. We propose that more papers related to pediatric issues be submitted
to family medicine journals, which serve as the main source of medical
information for family physicians.
Journal clubs are an internationally recognized teaching tool in many postgraduate medical education fields. In developing countries lack of funds for current print materials may have limited journal club use. But with advancing information technology trainees in developing countries increasingly have more access to high quality journals online. However, we are aware of no studies describing journal club existence and effectiveness in postgraduate medical training in Pakistan. Also we have found no published effectiveness studies of this teaching modality in Community Medicine (Public Health) in any country. This study evaluated the effectiveness of Community Medicine (Public Health) Resident Journal Club (CMR-JC) in Aga Khan University, Pakistan using international criteria for successful journal clubs (2 years continuous existence and more than 50% attendance) and examining resident and alumni satisfaction.
Journal club effectiveness criteria were searched using electronic search databases. Departmental records were reviewed from September1999–September 2005. Ninety percent of residents and alumni of Community Medicine Residency Programme participated voluntarily in a confidential survey.
The CMR-JC was regularly conducted. More than 95% of residents attended. (Total residents in the CMR-Programme: 32). Twenty-seven out of 29 current residents/alumni responded to the anonymous questionnaire. Acquisition of critical appraisal skills (23 respondents) and keeping up with current literature (18 respondents) were the two most important objectives achieved. Respondents recommended improved faculty participation and incorporating a structured checklist for article review.
CMR-JC fulfils criteria for effective journal clubs. Residents and alumni agree CMR-JC meets its objectives. Incorporating suggested recommendations will further improve standards. The journal club learning modality should be included in residency training programs in developing countries. Effective use of online resources to support journal clubs is demonstrated as a successful alternative to excessive expenditure for obtaining print journals. Those trying to start or improve journal clubs can benefit from our experience.
This study proposed a desirable direction for the future development of the Korean Journal of Family Medicine (KJFM) by comparing with the overseas SCI journals, Family Medicine (FM) and The Journal of Family Practice (JFP) based on the statistical viewpoints.
All of the original articles published in KJFM from January 1981 to June 2011, FM from January 1998 to June 2011, and JFP from January 1978 to June 2011, were reviewed and compared in terms of content, data size, research design, and statistical method.
Of 3,226 total original articles, KJFM published 1,549, FM 322, and JFP 1,355, respectively. Both JFP and KJFM mainly focused on biomedical topics (67.2% and 61.7%), while FM focused on education (55.9%). Most of the studies in three journals used the data size of between 100 to 300 cases. The most frequently used research design was cross-sectional, FM 66.8%, JFP 58.4%, and KJFM 72.4%, respectively. The statistical methods in KJFM were gradually diversified.
The quality of the original articles in KJFM has been improved over the years, but still has conducted based on the relatively weak research designs. Under the circumstances that the higher ranked SCI journals demand the prospective design and large size of data, and most researchers in Korea could not use the large scaled prospective data, we need to collaborate to accumulate the small sized data sets and try to make a registry. More refined statistical method such as a propensity score matching analysis for retrospective data could be an alternative.
Family Medicine Journals; Content Area; Data Size; Research Design; Statistical Method; Statistical Trend
The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement was developed to improve the reporting of observational studies. We aimed to evaluate the quality of reporting in cohort studies and case-control studies among observational studies published in the Korean Journal of Family Medicine.
We searched for cohort studies and case-control studies published as original articles in the Journal of the Korean Academy of Family Medicine during the period January 1992 through December 2009. The main outcome measures were the number and proportion of cohort studies and case-control studies that reported each of 22 checklist items of STROBE.
We identified a total of 84 articles, of which 46 articles were cohort studies and 38 were case-control studies. Concerning methods, study designs (10%), bias (13%), study size (0%), statistical methods (12-c and 12-e items, 0%; 12-d item, cohort study, 6%) have been poorly reported. Of results, participants (5-6%), descriptive data (14-b item, 5%), and funding (1%) among other information have been poorly reported.
The degree of adherence the STROBE recommendations was relatively low in cohort studies and case-control studies published in the Korean Journal of Family Medicine. An effort to improve the reporting of observational studies by application and recommendation of the STROBE statement is required.
Korean Journal of Family Medicine; Cohort Studies; Case-Control Studies; STROBE; Quality of Reporting
Osteopathic Medicine and Primary Care is dedicated to the rapid and universal dissemination of peer-reviewed research and scholarly work within its scope. It aims to bridge diverse professional communities by providing a common forum for the publication of research relevant to the clinical practice of primary care.
At the same time as there is increasing awareness in medicine of the risks of exaggerating differences between men and women, there is a growing professional movement of ‘gender-specific medicine’ which is directed towards analysing ‘sex’ and ‘gender’ differences. The aim of this article is to empirically explore how the concepts of ‘sex’ and ‘gender’ are used in the new field of ‘gender-specific medicine’, as reflected in two medical journals which are foundational to this relatively new field.
Method and Principal Findings
The data consist of all articles from the first issue of each journal in 2004 and an issue published three years later (n = 43). In addition, all editorials over this period were included (n = 61). Quantitative and qualitative content analyses were undertaken by the authors.
Less than half of the 104 papers used the concepts of ‘sex’ and ‘gender’. Less than 1 in 10 papers attempted any definition of the concepts. Overall, the given definitions were simple, unspecific and created dualisms between men and women. Almost all papers which used the two concepts did so interchangeably, with any possible interplay between ‘sex’ and gender’ referred to only in six of the papers.
The use of the concepts of ‘sex’ and gender’ in ‘gender-specific medicine’ is conceptually muddled. The simple, dualistic and individualised use of these concepts increases the risk of essentialism and reductivist thinking. It therefore highlights the need to clarify the use of the terms ‘sex’ and ‘gender’ in medical research and to develop more effective ways of conceptualising the interplay between ‘sex’ and ‘gender’ in relation to different diseases.
This Editorial announces a new section in the Journal of Translational Medicine: Patient-Targeted Molecular Therapies. This section is dedicated to the dissemination of targeted molecular therapies in context of patient-centered outcomes research and evidence-based clinical decisions. The focus on patient-targeted molecular therapies – spanning small molecules and biomolecules alike – stems from the unprecedented growth in this arena. This is consonant with the overall objective of the Journal of Translational Medicine, which seeks out to expand firmly to other vast areas of medicine in the domain of translational science, viewed here as the transaction between translational research and translational effectiveness. As we inaugurate this new section in Journal of Translational Medicine, with its mission described in detail in this Editorial, we invite interested scientists to submit their work for publication.
`The new journal (wrote the Lancet in 1944), edited by Dr. Donald Hunter, closely resembles the Archives of Disease in Childhood in format (with a touch of lead in its cover) and is also published under the auspices of the British Medical Association. It is intended for both whole- and part-timer—for the mass of doctors who cannot do their best for their patients unless they study the conditions in which people work, in factory, mine, shipyard, bus, office or shop. Many of these doctors are cut off from lectures and libraries—more especially in war-time—and have little time for selecting their reading from a multitude of journals. If the new quarterly helps them to bring and keep their knowledge of industrial problems up to date the trouble of launching it in war-time will be well repaid.'
In reporting results of case-control studies, odds ratios are useful methods of reporting findings. However, odds ratios are often misinterpreted in the literature and by general readers.
We searched all original articles which were published in the Korean Journal of Family Medicine from 1980 to May 2011 and identified those that report "odds ratios." Misinterpretation of odds ratios as relative risks has been identified. Estimated risk ratios were calculated when possible and compared with odds ratios.
One hundred and twenty-eight articles using odds ratios were identified. Among those, 122 articles were analyzed for the frequency of misinterpretation of odds ratios as relative risks. Twenty-two reports out of these 122 articles misinterpreted odds ratios as relative risks. The percentage of misinterpreting reports decreased over years. Seventy-seven reports were analyzed to compare the estimated risk ratios with odds ratios. In most of these articles, odds ratios were greater than estimated risk ratios, 60% of which had larger than 20% standardized differences.
In reports published in the Korean Journal of Family Medicine, odds ratios are frequently used. They were misinterpreted in part of the reports, although decreasing trends over years were observed.
Odds Ratio; Relative Risk; Korean Journal of Family Medicine; Misinterpretation
Journal Club at a University-based residency program was restructured to introduce, reinforce and evaluate residents understanding of the concepts of Evidence Based Medicine.
Over the course of a year structured pre and post-tests were developed for use during each Journal Club. Questions were derived from the articles being reviewed. Performance with the key concepts of Evidence Based Medicine was assessed. Study subjects were 35 PGY2 and PGY3 residents in a University based Family Practice Program.
Performance on the pre-test demonstrated a significant improvement from a median of 54.5 % to 78.9 % over the course of the year (F 89.17, p < .001). The post-test results also exhibited a significant increase from 63.6 % to 81.6% (F 85.84, p < .001).
Following organizational revision, the introduction of a pre-test/post-test instrument supported achievement of the learning objectives with a better understanding and utilization of the concepts of Evidence Based Medicine.
A new section of the Journal of Translational Medicine has been launched, devoted to promoting the field of Immunovirology.
It has been established that subject searches of medical full-text databases obtain higher recall than subject searches in a bibliographic database. In this study we attempted to determine if the same rule might apply when searching for a non-subject parameter such as study design. A simultaneous search of bibliographic and full-text records from the New England Journal of Medicine provided data on the number of items retrieved by each kind of search. Filtering strategies were created for 5 different study types: randomized controlled trials, other clinical trials and prospective studies, cohort studies, longitudinal and follow-up studies, and multicenter studies. The point of the study was to compare the numbers of items retrieved from the bibliographic database, MEDLINE, and those retrieved from the full-text version of NEJM, and to examine the unique access points available in each file. For all the study types the full-text file retrieved a larger number of records than MEDLINE, most of which were retrieved because of methodology terms found in the text but not in the title or abstract. In MEDLINE, descriptors and publication types, two value-added fields supplied by indexers, retrieved 11-89% more than title and abstract alone.
The explosion of genome sequencing data along with genotype to phenotype correlation studies has created data deluge in the area of biomedical sciences. The aim of the Medical bioinformatics section is to aid the development and maturation of the field by providing a platform for the translation of these datasets into useful clinical applications. The increase in computing capabilities and availability of different data from advanced technologies will allow researchers to build System Biology models of various diseases in order to efficiently develop new therapeutic interventions and reduce the current prohibitively large costs of drug discovery.
The section welcomes studies on the development of Biomedical Informatics for translational medicine and clinical applications, including tools, methodologies and data integration.
Disease biomarkers are defined to diagnose various phases of diseases, monitor severities of diseases and responses to therapies, or predict prognosis of patients. Disease-specific biomarkers should benefit drug discovery and development, integrate multidisciplinary sciences, be validated by molecular imaging. The opportunities and challenges in biomarker development are emphasized and considered. The Journal of Translational Medicine opens a new Section of Disease Biomarkers to bridge identification and validation of gene or protein-based biomarkers, network biomarkers, dynamic network biomarkers in human diseases, patient phenotypes, and clinical applications. Disease biomarkers are also important for determining drug effects, target specificities and binding, dynamic metabolism and pharmacological kinetics, or toxicity profiles.
Rampant disease in poor countries impedes development and contributes to growing North-South disparities; however, leading international medical journals underreport on health research priorities for developing countries.
We examined 416 weekly issues of the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) over an eight-year period, January 1997 to December 2004. A total of 8857 articles were reviewed by both authors. The content of each issue was evaluated in six categories: research, review articles, editorial, correspondence, book reviews and miscellaneous. If the title or abstract concerned a topic pertinent to any health issue in the developing world, the article was reviewed.
Over the eight years covered in this study, 1997–2004, in the three essential categories of original research articles, review articles and editorials, less than 3.0 percent of these addressed health issues in the developing world. Publications relevant to DC were largely concerned with HIV and communicable diseases and constituted 135 of the 202 articles of which 63 were devoted to HIV. Only 23 articles addressed non-communicable disease in the DC and only a single article – a book review – discussed heart disease.
The medical information gap between rich and poor countries as judged by publications in the NEJM appears to be larger than the gap in the funding for research. Under-representation of developing world health issues in the medical literature is a global phenomenon. International medical journals cannot rectify global inequities, but they have an important role in educating their constituencies about the global divide.
Advances in human genomics are ushering in a new era of predictive, preventative and personalized approaches to medicine. However, as the integration of genomic medicine progresses, the health community has a responsibility to communicate to the public the risks and challenges of genetic information. A possible knowledge transfer framework is outlined as a means to bridge the practical uses of genetics within various ethical, social and economic contexts. Tools and resources are needed to help clinicians understand genetic risks and help them inform the public appropriately and effectively.
Because of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and the Residency Review Committee (RRC) approval timelines, new residency programs cannot use Electronic Residency Application Service (ERAS) during their first year of applicants.
We sought to identify differences between program directors’ subjective ratings of applicants from an emergency medicine (EM) residency program’s first year (in which ERAS was not used) to their ratings of applicants the following year in which ERAS was used.
The University of Utah Emergency Medicine Residency Program received approval from the ACGME in 2004. Applicants for the entering class of 2005 (year 1) did not use ERAS, submitting a separate application, while those applying for the following year (year 2) used ERAS. Residency program directors rated applicants using subjective components of their applications, assigning scores on scales from 0–10 or 0–5 (10 or 5 = highest score) for select components of the application. We retrospectively reviewed and compared these ratings between the 2 years of applicants.
A total of 130 and 458 prospective residents applied during year 1 and year 2, respectively. Applicants were similar in average scores for research (1.65 vs. 1.81, scale 0–5, p = 0.329) and volunteer work (5.31 vs. 5.56, scale 0–10, p = 0.357). Year 1 applicants received higher scores for their personal statement (3.21 vs. 2.22, scale 0–5, p < 0.001), letters of recommendation (7.0 vs. 5.94, scale 0–10, p < 0.001), dean’s letter (3.5 vs. 2.7, scale 1–5, p < 0.001), and in their potential contribution to class characteristics (4.64 vs. 3.34, scale 0–10, p < 0.001).
While the number of applicants increased, the use of ERAS in a new residency program did not improve the overall subjective ratings of residency applicants. Year 1 applicants received higher scores for the written components of their applications and in their potential contributions to class characteristics.
Residency application; ERAS; Subjective Ratings
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a heterogeneous, complex trait that has a major impact on human morbidity and mortality. Common genetic variation may predispose to common forms of CVD in the community, and rare genetic conditions provide unique pathogenetic insights into these diseases. With the advent of the Human Genome Project and the genomic era, new tools and methodologies have revolutionised the field of genetic research in cardiovascular medicine. In this review, we describe the rationale for the current emphasis on large-scale genomic studies, elaborate on genome wide association studies and summarise the impact of genomics on clinical cardiovascular medicine and how this may eventually lead to new therapeutics and personalised medicine.
Cardiovascular disease; GWAS; Gene sequencing; Personalised medicine.
Sex differences in morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease have been recognized by the medical com006Dunity for decades. Investigation into the underlying biological basis of these differences was largely neglected by the scientific community until a report released by the Institute of Medicine in the United States in 2001 “Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health: Does Sex Matter?” Recommendations from this report included the need for more accurate use of the terms “sex” and “gender”, better tools and resources to study the biological basis of sex differences, integration of findings from different levels of biological organization and continued synergy between basic and clinical researchers. Ten years after the Institute’s report, this review evaluates some of the sex differences in cardiovascular disease, reviews new approaches to study sex differences and emphasizes areas where further research is required. In the era of personalized medicine, the study of the biological basis of sex differences promises to optimize preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for cardiovascular disease in men and women, but will require diligence by the scientific and medical communities to remember that sex does matter.
Atherosclerosis; Autonomic nervous system; Heart failure; Hypertension
The Israel Journal of Health Policy Research (IJHPR) is a new, open access journal. IJHPR seeks to promote intensive intellectual interactions among scholars and practitioners from Israel and other countries regarding all aspects of health policy, with particular attention to Israel. The ultimate aim of these interactions is to contribute to the development of health policy in Israel, and also to foster wider communication between health scientists and policy analysts in Israel and their colleagues around the world. This inaugural editorial provides an overview of the new journal's rationale and its key features.