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1.  Nutrition: Basis for Healthy Children and Mothers in Bangladesh 
Recent data from the World Health Organization showed that about 60% of all deaths, occurring among children aged less than five years (under-five children) in developing countries, could be attributed to malnutrition. It has been estimated that nearly 50.6 million under-five children are malnourished, and almost 90% of these children are from developing countries. Bangladesh is one of the countries with the highest rate of malnutrition. The recent baseline survey by the National Nutrition Programme (NNP) showed high rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting. However, data from the nutrition surveillance at the ICDDR, B hospital showed that the proportion of children with stunting, underweight, and wasting has actually reduced during 1984–2005. Inappropriate infant and young child-feeding practices (breastfeeding and complementary feeding) have been identified as a major cause of malnutrition. In Bangladesh, although the median duration of breastfeeding is about 30 months, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding until the first six months of life is low, and practice of appropriate complementary feeding is not satisfactory. Different surveys done by the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and Bangladesh Breastfeeding Foundation (BBF) showed a rate of exclusive breastfeeding to be around 32-52%, which have actually remained same or declined over time. The NNP baseline survey using a strict definition of exclusive breastfeeding showed a rate of exclusive breastfeeding (12.8%) until six months of age. Another study from the Abhoynagar field site of ICDDR, B reported the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding to be 15% only. Considerable efforts have been made to improve the rates of exclusive breastfeeding. Nationally, initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth, feeding colostrum, and exclusive breastfeeding have been promoted through the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) implemented and supported by BBF and UNICEF respectively. Since most (87-91%) deliveries take place in home, the BFHI has a limited impact on the breastfeeding practices. Results of a few studies done at ICDDR, B and elsewhere in developing countries showed that the breastfeeding peer-counselling method could substantially increase the rates of exclusive breastfeeding. Results of a study in urban Dhaka showed that the rate of exclusive breastfeeding was 70% among mothers who were counselled compared to only 6% who were not counselled. Results of another study in rural Bangladesh showed that peer-counselling given either individually or in a group improved the rate of exclusive breastfeeding from 89% to 81% compared to those mothers who received regular health messages only. This implies that scaling up peer-counselling methods and incorporation of breastfeeding counselling in the existing maternal and child heath programme is needed to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of improving child survival. The recent data showed that the prevalence of starting complementary food among infants aged 6-9 months had increased substantially with 76% in the current dataset. However, the adequacy, frequency, and energy density of the complementary food are in question. Remarkable advances have been made in the hospital management of severely-malnourished children. The protocolized management of severe protein-energy malnutrition at the Dhaka hospital of ICDDR, B has reduced the rate of hospital mortality by 50%. A recent study at ICDDR, B has also documented that home-based management of severe protein-energy malnutrition without follow-up was comparable with a hospital-based protocolized management. Although the community nutrition centres of the NNP have been providing food supplementation and performing growth monitoring of children with protein-energy malnutrition, the referral system and management of complicated severely-malnourished children are still not in place.
PMCID: PMC2740711  PMID: 18831228
Child nutrition; Maternal nutrition; Nutrition disorders; Nutritional status; Protein-energy malnutrition; Bangladesh
2.  Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Breastfeeding and Weaning Among Mothers of Children up to 2 Years Old in a Rural Area in El-Minia Governorate, Egypt 
Aim:
Was to describe the knowledge, attitude, and actual practices of mothers in a rural area in Egypt regarding breastfeeding, complementary feeding and weaning and to explore the effect of educational background and age on these views.
Materials and Methods:
A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 307 rural mothers who have a youngest child aged 2 years or less. Mothers were selected using systematic random sampling.
Results:
All the studied mothers knew that breastfeeding is the best nutritional source for the baby. The majority of the mothers had good knowledge about the advantages of breastfeeding for child. As regards weaning, majority (92.5%) of the mothers defined weaning as breastfeeding cessation. Most of the mothers (94.8%) agreed that breastfeeding protect child from infection, 96.1% agreed that it is the healthiest for infant, 76.5% agreed that breast milk lead to loss of figure, and 83.4% agreed that breastfeeding should be avoided during mother's illness. About 84% initiated breastfeeding immediately after delivery, and 42.7% of the studied mothers offered pre-lacteal feeds to baby before lactation. About thirty quarters (74.2%) of mothers fed colostrum. Exclusive breast-feeding was found to be associated with mother's education (P < 0.0001) but not with mother's age at birth, mother's occupation, or place of birth.
Conclusion:
There is a need for health care system interventions, family interventions, and public health education campaigns to promote optimal BF practices, especially in less educated women.
doi:10.4103/2249-4863.137639
PMCID: PMC4139994  PMID: 25161971
Attitude; breastfeeding; Egypt; knowledge; practice; rural
3.  High initiation and long duration of breastfeeding despite absence of early skin-to-skin contact in Karen refugees on the Thai-Myanmar border: a mixed methods study 
Background
Early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) after birth is recommended as part of the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) baby friendly health initiative to promote optimum breastfeeding. This paper reports rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration in a low resource environment, where early SSC is not practised, and explores views of pregnant women and midwives surrounding breastfeeding and swaddling.
Methods
Data from records from a single hospital on the Thai-Myanmar border where refugee women gave birth during a one-year period (2010) were used to determine breastfeeding initiation rates and the time of the first breastfeed, and duration of breastfeeding of the previous alive child in multigravidae. Focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted to obtain information from pregnant women attending antenatal care about their intended or previous duration of breastfeeding and views on breastfeeding. Interviews with local midwives explored reasons for high rates of breastfeeding in this setting and the practice of newborn swaddling.
Results
Of 1404 live births in 2010 in Maela refugee camp there were 982 evaluable mother-newborn pairs, including 80 infants born before 37 weeks gestation. Initiation of breastfeeding within the first hour after birth and exclusive breastfeeding at discharge in term mother-newborn pairs was 91.2% (823/902) and 99.3% (896/902); and before 37 weeks gestation, 48.8% (39/80) and 98.8% (79/80). Reported duration of previous breastfeeding was 19 (range 2 to 72) months.
During FGD all primigravidae (n = 17) intended to breastfeed and all multigravidae (n = 33) had previously breastfed; expected or previous duration of feeding was for more than one year or longer. The major theme identified during FGD was breastfeeding is “good”. Women stated their intention to breastfeed with certainty. This certainty was echoed during the interviews with midwifery staff. SSC requires a delay in early swaddling that in Karen people, with animistic beliefs, could risk loss of the spirit of the newborn or attract malevolent spirits.
Conclusions
In a population with a strong culture of breastfeeding and robust breastfeeding practices, high rates of initiation and duration of breastfeeding were found despite a lack of early skin-to-skin contact. Local preferences, traditions and practices that protect, support and maintain high rates of breastfeeding should be promoted.
doi:10.1186/1746-4358-7-19
PMCID: PMC3547777  PMID: 23241099
Breastfeeding initiation; Breastfeeding duration; Early skin-to-skin care; Midwifery; Refugee; Resource-poor; Swaddling
4.  Need to optimise infant feeding counselling: A cross-sectional survey among HIV-positive mothers in Eastern Uganda 
BMC Pediatrics  2009;9:2.
Background
The choice of infant feeding method is important for HIV-positive mothers in order to optimise the chance of survival of their infants and to minimise the risk of HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate feeding practices, including breastfeeding, in the context of PMTCT for infants and children under two years of age born to HIV-positive mothers in Uganda.
Methods
In collaboration with The Aids Support Organisation Mbale, we conducted a cross-sectional survey involving 235 HIV-positive mothers in Uganda. Infant feeding practices, reasons for stopping breastfeeding, and breast health problems were studied. Breastfeeding duration was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method based on retrospective recall.
Results
Breastfeeding was initiated by most of the mothers, but 20 of them (8.5%) opted exclusively for replacement feeding. Pre-lacteal feeding was given to 150 (64%) infants and 65 (28%) practised exclusive breastfeeding during the first three days. One-fifth of the infants less than 6 months old were exclusively breastfed, the majority being complementary fed including breast milk. The median duration of breastfeeding was 12 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.5 to 12.5). Adjusted Cox regression analysis indicated that a mother's education, socio-economic status, participation in the PMTCT-program and her positive attitude to breastfeeding exclusively, were all associated with a reduction in breastfeeding duration. Median duration was 3 months (95% CI 0–10.2) among the most educated mothers, and 18 months (95% CI 15.0–21.0) among uneducated mothers. Participation in the PMTCT program and being socio-economically better-off were also associated with earlier cessation of breastfeeding (9 months [95% CI 7.2–10.8] vs. 14 months [95% CI 10.8–17.2] and 8 months [95% CI 5.9–10.1] vs. 17 months [95% CI 15.2–18.8], respectively). The main reasons for stopping breastfeeding were reported as: advice from health workers, maternal illness, and the HIV-positive status of the mother.
Conclusion
Exclusive breastfeeding was uncommon. Exclusive replacement feeding was practised by few HIV-positive mothers. Well-educated mothers, mothers who were socio-economically better-off and PMTCT-attendees had the shortest durations of breastfeeding. Further efforts are needed to optimise infant feeding counselling and to increase the feasibility of the recommendations.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-9-2
PMCID: PMC2657132  PMID: 19134187
5.  Association of Breastfeeding With Maternal Control of Infant Feeding at Age 1 Year 
Pediatrics  2004;114(5):e577-e583.
Objective
Previous studies have found that breastfeeding may protect infants against future overweight. One proposed mechanism is that breastfeeding, compared with bottle-feeding, may promote maternal feeding styles that are less controlling and more responsive to infant cues of hunger and satiety, thereby allowing infants greater self-regulation of energy intake. The objective of this study was to examine whether preponderance of breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life and breastfeeding duration are associated with less maternal restrictive behavior and less pressure to eat.
Methods
We studied 1160 mother–infant pairs in Project Viva, an ongoing prospective cohort study of pregnant mothers and their children. The main outcome measures were mothers’ reports of restricting their children’s food intake and of pressuring their children to eat more food, as measured by a modified Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) at 1 year postpartum. Restriction was defined by strongly agreeing or agreeing with the following question from the modified CFQ: “I have to be careful not to feed my child too much.” We derived a continuous pressure to eat score from 5 questions of the modified CFQ. We used multiple logistic regression to examine the association between preponderance of breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life, breastfeeding duration, and mothers’ restriction of children’s access to food. We used multiple linear regression, both before and after adjusting for several groups of confounders, to predict the effects of breastfeeding on the mothers’ scores for pressuring their children to eat.
Results
The mean (SD) age of the women was 32.4 (4.8) years; 24% of the women were nonwhite, and 32% were primigravidas. At 6 months postpartum, 24% of the mothers were exclusively breastfeeding, 25% were mixed feeding, 41% had weaned, and 10% had fed their infants formula only. The mean (SD) duration of breastfeeding was 6.3 (4.5) months. Thirteen percent of the mothers strongly agreed or agreed with the restriction question. The mean (SD) score on the pressure to eat scale was 5.3 (3.7), and the range was 0 to 20. After adjusting for mothers’ preexisting concerns about their children’s future eating and weight status, as well as sociodemographic, economic, and anthropometric predictors of breastfeeding duration, we found that the longer the mothers breastfed, the less likely they were to restrict their children’s food intake at age 1 year. The adjusted odds ratio was 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84–0.95) for each 1-month increment in breastfeeding duration. In addition, we found that compared with mothers who were exclusively formula feeding, mothers who were exclusively breastfeeding at 6 months of age had much lower odds of restricting their children’s food intake at 1 year (odds ratio: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.10–0.72). Preponderance of breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life and breastfeeding duration (β = −0.01 points on the 0–20 scale for each additional 1 month of breastfeeding [95% CI: −0.07 to 0.05]) were not related to mothers’ pressuring their children to eat more.
Conclusion
Mothers who fed their infants breast milk in early infancy and who breastfed for longer periods reported less restrictive behavior regarding child feeding at 1 year. Additional longitudinal studies should examine the extent to which any protective effect of breastfeeding on overweight is explained by decreased maternal feeding restriction.
doi:10.1542/peds.2004-0801
PMCID: PMC1989686  PMID: 15492358
6.  Patterns and determinants of breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices in urban informal settlements, Nairobi Kenya 
BMC Public Health  2011;11:396.
Background
The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life for optimal growth, development and health. Breastfeeding should continue up to two years or more and nutritionally adequate, safe, and appropriately-fed complementary foods should be introduced at the age of six months to meet the evolving needs of the growing infant. Little evidence exists on breastfeeding and infant feeding practices in urban slums in sub-Saharan Africa. Our aim was to assess breastfeeding and infant feeding practices in Nairobi slums with reference to WHO recommendations.
Methods
Data from a longitudinal study conducted in two Nairobi slums are used. The study used information on the first year of life of 4299 children born between September 2006 and January 2010. All women who gave birth during this period were interviewed on breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices at recruitment and this information was updated twice, at four-monthly intervals. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to determine factors associated with cessation of breastfeeding in infancy and early introduction of complementary foods.
Results
There was universal breastfeeding with almost all children (99%) having ever been breastfed. However, more than a third (37%) were not breastfed in the first hour following delivery, and 40% were given something to drink other than the mothers' breast milk within 3 days after delivery. About 85% of infants were still breastfeeding by the end of the 11th month. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months was rare as only about 2% of infants were exclusively breastfed for six months. Factors associated with sub-optimal infant breastfeeding and feeding practices in these settings include child's sex; perceived size at birth; mother's marital status, ethnicity; education level; family planning (pregnancy desirability); health seeking behaviour (place of delivery) and; neighbourhood (slum of residence).
Conclusions
The study indicates poor adherence to WHO recommendations for breastfeeding and infant feeding practices. Interventions and further research should pay attention to factors such as cultural practices, access to and utilization of health care facilities, child feeding education, and family planning.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-396
PMCID: PMC3118248  PMID: 21615957
7.  Patterns and determinants of breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices of Emirati Mothers in the United Arab Emirates 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:171.
Background
Breastfeeding is the preferred method of feeding for the infant. The present study aimed at investigating the different infant feeding practices and the influencing factors in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
Methods
A convenient sample of 593 Emirati mothers who had infants up to 2 years of age was interviewed. The interviews included a detailed questionnaire and conducted in the Maternal and Child Health Centers (MCH) and Primary Health Centers (PHC) in three cities.
Results
Almost all the mothers in the study had initiated breastfeeding (98%). The mean duration of breastfeeding was 8.6 months. The initiation and duration of breastfeeding rates were influenced by mother’s age (P<0.034)and education(P<0.01), parity(OR=2.13; P<0.001), rooming in(OR=21.70; P<0.001), nipple problem(P<0.010) and use of contraception(P<0.034). As for the feeding patterns, the results of the multiple logistic analyses revealed that rooming in (OR=4.48; P<0.001), feeding on demand (OR=2.29; P<0.005) and feeding more frequently at night (P<0.001) emerged as significant factors associated with exclusive or predominantly breastfeeding practices. Among the 593 infants in the study, 24.1% had complementary feeding, 25% of the infants were exclusively breastfed, and 49.4% were predominantly breastfed since birth. About 30% of the infants were given nonmilk fluids such as: Anis seed drink (Yansun), grippe water and tea before 3 months of age. The majority of the infants (83.5%) in the three areas received solid food before the age of 6 months. A variety of reasons were reported as perceived by mothers for terminating breastfeeding. The most common reasons were: new pregnancy (32.5%), insufficient milk supply (24.4%) and infant weaned itself (24.4%).
Conclusions
In conclusion, infant and young child feeding practices in this study were suboptimal. There is a need for a national community-based breastfeeding intervention programme and for the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding as part of a primary public health strategy to decrease health risks and problems in the UAE.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-171
PMCID: PMC3598336  PMID: 23442221
Breastfeeding; Exclusive breastfeeding; Complementary feeding; Supplementation; United Arab Emirates
8.  Infant feeding practices and determinants of poor breastfeeding behavior in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: a descriptive study 
Background
Although breastfeeding is almost universally accepted in the Democratic Republic (DR) of Congo, by the age of 2 to 3 months 65% of children are receiving something other than human milk. We sought to describe the infant feeding practices and determinants of suboptimal breastfeeding behaviors in DR Congo.
Methods
Survey questionnaire administered to mothers of infants aged ≤ 6 months and healthcare providers who were recruited consecutively at six selected primary health care facilities in Kinshasa, the capital.
Results
All 66 mothers interviewed were breastfeeding. Before initiating breastfeeding, 23 gave their infants something other than their milk, including: sugar water (16) or water (2). During the twenty-four hours prior to interview, 26 (39%) infants were exclusively breastfed (EBF), whereas 18 (27%), 12 (18%), and 10 (15%) received water, tea, formula, or porridge, respectively, in addition to human milk. The main reasons for water supplementation included “heat” and cultural beliefs that water is needed for proper digestion of human milk. The main reason for formula supplementation was the impression that the baby was not getting enough milk; and for porridge supplementation, the belief that the child was old enough to start complementary food. Virtually all mothers reported that breastfeeding was discussed during antenatal clinic visit and half reported receiving help regarding breastfeeding from a health provider either after birth or during well-child clinic visit. Despite a median of at least 14 years of experience in these facilities, healthcare workers surveyed had little to no formal training on how to support breastfeeding and inadequate breastfeeding-related knowledge and skills. The facilities lacked any written policy about breastfeeding.
Conclusion
Addressing cultural beliefs, training healthcare providers adequately on breastfeeding support skills, and providing structured breastfeeding support after maternity discharge is needed to promote EBF in the DR Congo.
doi:10.1186/1746-4358-8-11
PMCID: PMC3850507  PMID: 24083882
Breastfeeding; Exclusive breastfeeding; Infant feeding practices; Kinshasa; DR Congo
9.  Breastfeeding policy and practices at the general paediatric outpatient clinic of a teaching hospital in Lagos, Nigeria 
Background
Hospitals have a role to play in supporting, protecting and promoting breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to describe hospital breastfeeding policy and practices and breastfeeding rates among mothers attending General Paediatric Outpatient Clinic at a tertiary hospital in Lagos, Nigeria.
Methods
This was a cross-sectional study involving paediatric nurses and doctors, as well as the mothers who brought their child to the General Paediatric Outpatient Clinic. Two sets of questionnaires, different in content, were administered to doctors and nurses, and to mothers of children aged 6-24 months, to assess hospital policy and breastfeeding rates, respectively. Stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine factors associated with duration of breastfeeding.
Results
Although the hospital had a written breastfeeding policy copies of the policy were not clearly displayed in any of the units in the Paediatric department. Almost half the staff (48%; 60/125) were not aware of the policy. The hospital had no breastfeeding support group. Nearly three quarters (92/125) of the staff had received lactation management training. 36% (112/311) of mothers exclusively breastfed for six months, 42% (129/311) had stopped breastfeeding at the time of the survey. 67% (207/311) of babies were given infant formula, 85% (175/207) before 6 months. Women who had antenatal care in private hospitals and were Christian were more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months. Low maternal education was the only factor associated with breastfeeding longer than 12 months.
Conclusion
Breastfeeding practices and policy implementation at this outpatient clinic were suboptimal. We have identified a need for interventions to increase knowledge of the benefits of breastfeeding and to provide support for its longer term duration. We suggest that BFHI be considered across all facilities concerned with infant and early child health to disseminate appropriate information and promote an increase in exclusive breastfeeding for six months as well as the duration of breastfeeding.
doi:10.1186/1746-4358-9-10
PMCID: PMC4092208  PMID: 25018776
Breastfeeding; Policy; Practices; Out-patient clinic; Nigeria
10.  Women’s perception and risk factors for delayed initiation of breastfeeding in Arba Minch Zuria, Southern Ethiopia 
Background
Breastfeeding is one of the components of Primary Health Care in Ethiopia. In Ethiopia a wide range of harmful infant feeding practices has been documented despite the implementation of infant and young child feeding guidelines. However, there is no well documented study of women’s perception of breastfeeding patterns and factors associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding (with timely initiation of breastfeeding being within the first hour) in rural communities of Arba Minch Zuria.
Methods
A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Arba Minch Zuria from January to February, 2012. Quantitative data were collected from a sample of 383 respondents supplemented by qualitative data generated using in-depth interviews of 10 key informants. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of delayed initiation of breastfeeding practices. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic frameworks.
Results
In the rural communities of Arba Minch Zuria almost all mothers (98.2%) have ever breastfed their children. More than three-fourth (89%) of mothers provided colostrum to their infants while others discarded the first milk until the white milk was produced. A large number of mothers (42.8%) started breastfeeding one hour after childbirth. Delayed initiation of breastfeeding was positively associated with lack of maternal education (AOR 1.91; 95% CI 1.02, 3.44). Maternal knowledge about the duration of exclusive breastfeeding (AOR 0.39; 95% CI 0.15, 0.93), attending a primary health education (AOR 0.74; 95% 0.15, 0.98) and health personnel support for women at delivery time (AOR 0.52; 95% CI 0.21, 0.58) were inversely associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding practices.
Conclusions
A large number of mothers (42.8%) were short of the national and global recommendations about breastfeeding initiation. Therefore, sustained health and community based nutritional education is recommended for pregnant and lactating mothers to promote optimal breastfeeding for the initiation of breastfeeding practices using health extension workers and local community resource people as key actors.
doi:10.1186/1746-4358-9-8
PMCID: PMC4071219  PMID: 24971154
Breastfeeding initiation; Delayed initiation; Ethiopia
11.  Exclusive breastfeeding and associated factors among mothers in Debre Markos, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study 
Background
Exclusive breastfeeding is the most widely known and effective intervention for preventing early-childhood deaths. Optimum breastfeeding practices can prevent 1.4 million deaths worldwide among children under five every year. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding and associated factors among mothers who have an infant less than six months old in Debre Markos, Northwest Ethiopia.
Methods
A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from April 1 to 30, 2013. A simple random sampling technique was used from a list of all mothers who had an infant less than six months old obtained from the health extension workers (HEWs) registration book in all kebeles (neighbourhoods) of the city. A total of 423 mothers with infants less than six months old were included in this study. Data were collected using questionnaires administered at interview. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding.
Results
The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding during the seven days before the survey was 60.8% (95% CI: 55.8%, 65.8%). Those mothers who were unemployed [AOR = 1.98 (1.21, 3.22)], received breastfeeding counseling during antenatal care (ANC) [AOR = 2.44 (1.53, 3.91)], received infant feeding counseling during postnatal care (PNC) [AOR = 5.03 (3.04, 8.31)], didn’t give prelacteal feeding [AOR = 3.44 (1.88, 6.33)] and had adequate knowledge about breastfeeding [AOR = 2.57 (1.57, 4.19)] were more likely to practice EBF than their counterparts.
Conclusions
Although the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding was lower in the study area than international recommendations, rates were higher than found in other studies. Recommendations for improving exclusive breastfeeding include better support for working mothers through extending maternal leave and establishing work-site day care centers for infants, expanding the urban health extension program so that more pregnant women and mothers can be taught about appropriate infant and young child feeding practices and how to express their milk, thereby increasing their breastfeeding knowledge.
doi:10.1186/s13006-014-0027-0
PMCID: PMC4310186  PMID: 25635183
12.  Breastfeeding in infancy: identifying the program-relevant issues in Bangladesh 
Background
In Bangladesh, many programs and projects have been promoting breastfeeding since the late 1980 s. Breastfeeding practices, however, have not improved accordingly.
Methods
For identifying program-relevant issues to improve breastfeeding in infancy, quantitative data were collected through visits to households (n = 356) in rural Chittagong and urban slums in Dhaka, and qualitative data from sub-samples by applying semi-structured in-depth interviews (n = 42), focus group discussions (n = 28), and opportunistic observations (n = 21). Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs) (n = 26) were conducted in the above sites and rural Sylhet to determine how best to design further interventions. Our analysis focused on five breastfeeding practices recommended by the World Health Organization: putting baby to the breast within the first hour of birth, feeding colostrum and not giving fluids, food or other substances in the first days of life, breastfeeding on demand, not feeding anything by bottle, and exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months.
Results
The biggest gaps were found to be in putting baby to the breast within the first hour of birth (76% gap), feeding colostrum and not giving other fluids, foods or substances within the first three days (54% gap), and exclusive breastfeeding from birth through 180 days (90% gap). Lack of knowledge about dangers of delaying initiation beyond the first hour and giving other fluids, foods or substances, and the common perception of "insufficient milk" were main reasons given by mothers for these practices. Health workers had talked to only 8% of mothers about infant feeding during antenatal and immunization visits, and to 34% of mothers during sick child visits. The major providers of infant feeding information were grandmothers (28%).
Conclusions
The findings showed that huge gaps continue to exist in breastfeeding behaviors, mostly due to lack of awareness as to why the recommended breastfeeding practices are beneficial, the risks of not practicing them, as well as how to practice them. Health workers' interactions for promoting and supporting optimal breastfeeding are extremely low. Counseling techniques should be used to reinforce specific, priority messages by health facility staff and community-based workers at all contact points with mothers of young infants.
doi:10.1186/1746-4358-5-21
PMCID: PMC3009955  PMID: 21118488
13.  Prelacteal feeding practices in Vietnam: challenges and associated factors 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:932.
Background
Despite the importance of early initiation of and exclusive breastfeeding, prelacteal feeds continue to pose a barrier to optimal breastfeeding practices in several countries, including Vietnam. This study examined the factors associated with prelacteal feeding among Vietnamese mothers.
Methods
Data from 6068 mother-child (<6 m) dyads were obtained from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 11 provinces in Vietnam in 2011. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine factors associated with prelacteal feeding.
Results
During the first three days after birth, 73.3% of the newborns were fed prelacteals, 53.5% were fed infants formula, and 44.1% were fed water. The odds of feeding prelacteals declined with increased breastfeeding knowledge, beliefs about social norms in favor of exclusive breastfeeding, and confidence in one’s own breastfeeding behaviors. Women who harbored misconceptions about breastfeeding had twice the odds of feeding any prelacteals (OR: 2.09, 95% CI: 1.74–2.50). Health care factors increasing the odds of prelacteal feeding included delivery by caesarean section (OR: 2.94, 95% CI: 2.39–3.61) or episiotomy (OR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.17–1.58) and experiencing breastfeeding problems (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.04–1.66). Health staff support during pregnancy and after birth reduced the odds of feeding formula. However, family support after delivery increased the odds of feeding water to newborns.
Conclusions
The multiple factors contributing to the high prevalence of prelacteal feeding behaviors stress the need for early and appropriate breastfeeding interventions in Vietnam, particularly during routine healthcare contacts. Improving breastfeeding practices during the first days of an infant’s life could be achieved by improving knowledge and confidence of mothers through appropriate perinatal counseling and support. Ensuring that health facilities integrate these practices into routine ante-natal care and post-delivery management is critical.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-932
PMCID: PMC4126174  PMID: 24099034
Prelacteal feeding; Breastfeeding; Infant and young child feeding practices; Behavioral determinants; Vietnam
14.  HIV: prevention of mother-to-child transmission  
Clinical Evidence  2011;2011:0909.
Introduction
Over 2 million children are thought to be living with HIV/AIDS worldwide, of whom over 80% live in sub-Saharan Africa. Without antiretroviral treatment, the risk of HIV transmission from infected mothers to their children is 15% to 30% during gestation or labour, with an additional transmission risk of 10% to 20% associated with prolonged breastfeeding. HIV-1 infection accounts for most infections; HIV-2 is rarely transmitted from mother to child. Transmission is more likely in mothers with high viral loads, advanced disease, or both, in the presence of other sexually transmitted diseases, and with increased exposure to maternal blood. Mixed feeding practices (breast milk plus other liquids or solids) and prolonged breastfeeding are also associated with increased risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of measures to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
Results
We found 53 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria.
Conclusions
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antiretroviral drugs, different methods of infant feeding, elective caesarean section, immunotherapy, micronutrient supplements, vaginal microbicides, and vitamin supplements.
Key Points
Without active intervention, the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 is high, especially in populations where prolonged breastfeeding is the norm. Without antiviral treatment, the risk of transmission of HIV from infected mothers to their children is approximately 15% to 30% during pregnancy and labour, with an additional transmission risk of 10% to 20% associated with prolonged breastfeeding.HIV-2 is rarely transmitted from mother to child.Transmission is more likely in mothers with high viral loads, advanced HIV disease, or both.Without antiretroviral treatment (ART), 15% to 35% of vertically infected infants die within the first year of life.The long-term treatment of children with ART is complicated by multiple concerns regarding the complications associated with life-long treatment, including adverse effects of antiretroviral drugs, difficulties of adherence across the developmental trajectory of childhood and adolescence, and the development of resistance.From a paediatric perspective, successful prevention of MTCT and HIV-free survival for infants remain the most important focus.
Antiretroviral drugs given to the mother during pregnancy or labour, to the baby immediately after birth, or to the mother and baby reduce the risk of intrauterine and intrapartum MTCT of HIV-1 and when given to the infant after birth and to the mother or infant during breastfeeding reduce the risk of postpartum MTCT of HIV-1.
Reductions in MTCT are possible using multidrug ART regimens. Longer courses of ART are more effective, but the greatest benefit is derived from treatment during late pregnancy, labour, and early infancy.Suppression of the maternal viral load to undetectable levels (below 50 copies/mL) using highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) offers the greatest risk reduction, and is currently the standard of care offered in most resource-rich countries, where MTCT rates have been reduced to 1% to 2%. Alternative short-course regimens have been tested in resource-limited settings where HAART is not yet widely available. There is evidence that short courses of antiretroviral drugs have confirmed efficacy for reducing MTCT. Identifying optimal short-course regimens (drug combination, timing, and cost effectiveness) for various settings remains a focus for ongoing research.The development of viral resistance in mothers and infants after single-dose nevirapine and other short-course regimens that include single-dose nevirapine is of concern. An additional short-course of antiretrovirals with a different regimen during labour and early postpartum, and the use of HAART, may decrease the risk of viral resistance in mothers, and in infants who become HIV-infected despite prophylaxis.World Health Organization guidelines recommend starting prophylaxis with antiretroviral drugs from as early as 14 weeks' gestation, or as soon as possible if women present late in pregnancy, in labour, or at delivery.
Elective caesarean section at 38 weeks may reduce vertical transmission rates (apart from breast-milk transmission). The potential benefits of this intervention need to be balanced against the increased risk of surgery-associated complications, high cost, and feasibility issues. These reservations are particularly relevant in resource-limited settings.
Immunotherapy with HIV hyperimmune globulin seems no more effective than immunoglobulin without HIV antibody at reducing HIV-1 MTCT risk.
Vaginal microbicides have not been demonstrated to reduce HIV-1 MTCT risk.
There is no evidence that supplementation with vitamin A reduces the risk of HIV-1 MTCT, and there is concern that postnatal vitamin A supplementation for mother and infant may be associated with increased risk of mortality.
We don't know whether micronutrients are effective in prevention of MTCT of HIV as we found no RCT evidence on this outcome.
Avoidance of breastfeeding prevents postpartum transmission of HIV, but formula feeding requires access to clean water and health education. The risk of breastfeeding-related HIV transmission needs to be balanced against the multiple benefits that breastfeeding offers. In resource-poor countries, breastfeeding is strongly associated with reduced infant morbidity and improved child survival. Exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months may reduce the risk of HIV transmission compared with mixed feeding, while retaining most of its associated benefits.In a population where prolonged breastfeeding is usual, early, abrupt weaning may not reduce MTCT or HIV-free survival at 2 years compared with prolonged breastfeeding, and may be associated with a higher rate of infant mortality for those infants diagnosed as HIV-infected at <4 months of age. Antiretrovirals given to the mother or the infant during breastfeeding can reduce the risk of HIV transmission in the postpartum period. World Health Organization guidelines recommend that HIV-positive mothers should exclusively breastfeed for the first 6 months, after which time appropriate complementary foods can be introduced. Breastfeeding should be continued for the first 12 months of the infant's life, and stopped only when an adequate diet without breast milk can be provided. Heat- or microbicidal-treated expressed breast milk may offer value in particular settings.
PMCID: PMC3217724  PMID: 21477392
15.  'No sister, the breast alone is not enough for my baby' a qualitative assessment of potentials and barriers in the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding in southern Zambia 
Background
Appropriate feeding practices are of fundamental importance for the survival, growth, development and health of infants and young children. The aim of the present study was to collect baseline information on current infant and young child feeding practices, attitudes and knowledge in Mazabuka, Zambia, using a qualitative approach.
Methods
The study was conducted in Mazabuka, 130 km south of Lusaka in Zambia in January and February in 2005. Nine focus group discussions with mothers and a total of 18 in-depth interviews with fathers, grandmothers, health staff and traditional birth attendants were performed in both rural and urban areas.
Results
Breastfeeding was reported to be universal, the use of pre-lacteal feeds appeared to be low, colostrum was rarely discarded, and attitudes to and knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding were generally good. However, few practised exclusive breastfeeding. The barriers revealed were: (1) the perception of insufficient milk, (2) the fear of dying or becoming too sick to be able to breastfeed, (3) convention, (4) the perception of 'bad milk' and (5) lack of knowledge on the subject. The health staff and traditional birth attendants were the most important actors in transmitting knowledge about infant feeding to the mothers. Both categories appeared to have updated knowledge on child health and were well respected in the society. Fathers and grandmothers tended to be less knowledgeable on novel subjects such as exclusive breastfeeding and often showed a negative attitude towards it. At the same time they had considerable authority over mothers and children and infant feeding decisions. The rural population was in general less educated and more prone to conventional non-exclusive feeding practices.
Conclusion
The message that exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is beneficial for child health had reached the health workers and was taught to mothers. However, conventions and expectations from family members in this Zambian community were important barriers in preventing the message of EBF from being translated into practice. The deep-rooted beliefs that prohibit EBF need to be addressed in projects and campaigns promoting EBF.
doi:10.1186/1746-4358-3-26
PMCID: PMC2614965  PMID: 18986539
16.  Early cessation of breastfeeding amongst women in South Africa: an area needing urgent attention to improve child health 
BMC Pediatrics  2012;12:105.
Background
Breastfeeding is a critical component of interventions to reduce child mortality. Exclusive breastfeeding practice is extremely low in South Africa and there has been no improvement in this over the past ten years largely due to fears of HIV transmission. Early cessation of breastfeeding has been found to have negative effects on child morbidity and survival in several studies in Africa. This paper reports on determinants of early breastfeeding cessation among women in South Africa.
Methods
This is a sub group analysis of a community-based cluster-randomized trial (PROMISE EBF) promoting exclusive breastfeeding in three South African sites (Paarl in the Western Cape Province, and Umlazi and Rietvlei in KwaZulu-Natal) between 2006 and 2008 (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00397150). Infant feeding recall of 22 food and fluid items was collected at 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks postpartum. Women’s experiences of breast health problems were also collected at the same time points. 999 women who ever breastfed were included in the analysis. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusting for site, arm and cluster, was performed to determine predictors of stopping breastfeeding by 12 weeks postpartum.
Results
By 12 weeks postpartum, 20% of HIV-negative women and 40% of HIV-positive women had stopped all breastfeeding. About a third of women introduced other fluids, most commonly formula milk, within the first 3 days after birth. Antenatal intention not to breastfeed and being undecided about how to feed were most strongly associated with stopping breastfeeding by 12 weeks (Adjusted odds ratio, AOR 5.6, 95% CI 3.4 – 9.5 and AOR 4.1, 95% CI 1.6 – 10.8, respectively). Also important was self-reported breast health problems associated with a 3-fold risk of stopping breastfeeding (AOR 3.1, 95%CI 1.7 – 5.7) and the mother having her own income doubled the risk of stopping breastfeeding (AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3 – 2.8).
Conclusion
Early cessation of breastfeeding is common amongst both HIV-negative and positive women in South Africa. There is an urgent need to improve antenatal breastfeeding counselling taking into account the challenges faced by working women as well as early postnatal lactation support to prevent breast health problems.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-12-105
PMCID: PMC3441849  PMID: 22827969
17.  Factors associated with the introduction of prelacteal feeds in Nepal: findings from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011 
Background
A prelacteal feed is any food except mother’s milk provided to a newborn before initiating breastfeeding. Prelacteal feeding is a major barrier to exclusive breastfeeding. It is a prevalent practice in Nepal. Little is known about the factors associated with providing prelacteal feeds to the Nepalese newborn. This study explored the factors associated with providing prelacteal feeds to children under three years in Nepal using the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) 2011.
Methods
This study utilised the NDHS 2011 child dataset which is a nationally representative study. The rates of providing prelacteal feeds were reported as a proportion. Complex Sample Analysis method was used to account for the cluster design and sample weight of the study. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression were used to analyse the factors associated with providing prelacteal feeds.
Results
A sample of 3948 mothers were included in the study. A total of 841 [26.5% (95% CI: 23.1%–30.3%)] weighted proportion) of mothers reported of providing prelacteal feeds to their newborn infants. Plain water (n = 75), sugar/glucose (n = 35), gripe water (n = 3), sugar/salt solution (n = 3), fruit juice (n = 3), infant formula (n = 96), tea (n = 3) and other milk other than breast milk (n = 556) were some of the types of prelacteal feeds reported. The multiple regression analysis showed that the mothers who had no education, were not working, were from the middle wealth quintile, who had not attended four antenatal care visits, were first time mothers and who were from the Terai/Plain region were more likely to provide prelacteal feeds.
Conclusions
Given that one in four infants were provided with prelacteal feeds, there is a need to implement breastfeeding promotion programs to increase the practice of exclusive breastfeeding and reduce prelacteal feeding practices. Breastfeeding counseling at antenatal clinics and peer support for exclusive breastfeeding should be included as part of breastfeeding promotion programs. Mobilisation of female community health volunteers for peer counseling is also a feasible option for Nepal.
doi:10.1186/1746-4358-8-9
PMCID: PMC3750657  PMID: 23924230
Cross-sectional survey; Exclusive breastfeeding; Nepal; Prelacteal feeds
18.  Infant feeding among HIV-positive mothers and the general population mothers: comparison of two cross-sectional surveys in Eastern Uganda 
BMC Public Health  2009;9:124.
Background
Infant feeding recommendations for HIV-positive mothers differ from recommendations to mothers of unknown HIV-status. The aim of this study was to compare feeding practices, including breastfeeding, between infants and young children of HIV-positive mothers and infants of mothers in the general population of Uganda.
Methods
This study compares two cross-sectional surveys conducted in the end of 2003 and the beginning of 2005 in Eastern Uganda using analogous questionnaires. The first survey consisted of 727 randomly selected general-population mother-infant pairs with unknown HIV status. The second included 235 HIV-positive mothers affiliated to The Aids Support Organisation, TASO. In this article we compare early feeding practices, breastfeeding duration, feeding patterns with dietary information and socio-economic differences in the two groups of mothers.
Results
Pre-lacteal feeding was given to 150 (64%) infants of the HIV-positive mothers and 414 (57%) infants of general-population mothers. Exclusive breastfeeding of infants under the age of 6 months was more common in the general population than among the HIV-positive mothers (186 [45%] vs. 9 [24%] respectively according to 24-hour recall). Mixed feeding was the most common practice in both groups of mothers. Solid foods were introduced to more than half of the infants under 6 months old among the HIV-positive mothers and a quarter of the infants in the general population. Among the HIV-positive mothers with infants below 12 months of age, 24 of 90 (27%) had stopped breastfeeding, in contrast to 9 of 727 (1%) in the general population. The HIV-positive mothers were poorer and had less education than the general-population mothers.
Conclusion
In many respects, HIV-positive mothers fed their infants less favourably than mothers in the general population, with potentially detrimental effects on both the child's nutrition and the risk of HIV transmission. Mixed feeding and pre-lacteal feeding were widespread. Breastfeeding duration was shorter among HIV-positive mothers. Higher educational level and being socio-economically better off were associated with more beneficial infant feeding practices.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-124
PMCID: PMC2687447  PMID: 19422709
19.  Predictors of non-exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months among rural mothers in east Ethiopia: a community-based analytical cross-sectional study 
Background
Exclusive breastfeeding in infants aged under six months is a simple and cost-effective feeding method that ensures better infant and child survival and boosts the achievement of child related Millennium Development Goals in the developing world. Identifying factors associated with good breastfeeding practice helps to increase its coverage and maximize its advantages through improved advocacy. The objective of this study was to identify the predictors of non-exclusive breastfeeding in the rural areas of eastern Ethiopia.
Methods
A community-based analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on mother/caregiver–child pairs in east Ethiopia from July to August 2011. Data on infant feeding practices were collected by trained interviewers who used a pretested and structured questionnaire. Odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval was estimated for the predictors of non-exclusive breastfeeding using the multivariable logistic regression.
Results
The prevalence of non-exclusive breastfeeding in infants aged under six months, was 28.3%. Non-exclusive breastfeeding was more likely to be practiced by mothers who were not married at the moment [AOR (95% CI) = 2.6 (1.1, 6.0)], mothers who had no access to health facility [AOR (95% CI) = 2.9 (1.9, 4.3)], and mothers whose knowledge about infant and young child feeding practices was low [AOR (95% CI) = 3.4 (2.4, 4.7)].
Conclusion
Non–exclusive breastfeeding was more common among mothers with no marital relationships, poor access to health facilities, and inadequate knowledge about infant and young child feeding practices. Family support, education, and behavior change communication on infant feeding, especially on exclusive breastfeeding, at the community level may improve the knowledge, behavior, and practice of mothers on optimal infant and young child feeding practices.
doi:10.1186/1746-4358-8-8
PMCID: PMC3750393  PMID: 23919800
Non-exclusive breastfeeding; Ethiopia; Predictors; Children under-two
20.  Infant feeding in the context of HIV: a qualitative study of health care workers’ knowledge of recommended infant feeding options in Papua New Guinea 
Background
Interventions to prevent mother to child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during childbirth and breastfeeding can reduce HIV infections in infants to less than 5% in low and middle income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends all mothers, regardless of their HIV status, practice exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of an infant’s life. In line with these recommendations and to protect, promote and support breastfeeding, in 2009 the PNG National Department of Health revised their National HIV infant feeding guidelines, reinforcing the WHO recommendation of exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months followed by the introduction of other food and fluids, while continuing breastfeeding.
The overall aim of this paper is to explore health care workers’ knowledge regarding infant feeding options in PNG, specifically as they relate to HIV exposed infants.
Methods
As part of a study investigating women’s and men’s experiences of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) services in two sites in PNG, 28 key informant interviews were undertaken. This paper addresses one theme that emerged from thematic data analysis: Health care workers’ knowledge regarding infant feeding options, specifically how this knowledge reflects the Papua New Guinea National HIV Care and Treatment Guidelines on HIV and infant feeding (2009).
Results
Most informants mentioned exclusive breastfeeding, the majority of whom reflected the most up-to-date National Guidelines of exclusive breastfeeding for six months. The importance of breastfeeding continuing beyond this time, along with the introduction of food and fluids was less well understood. The most senior people involved in PMTCT were the informants who most accurately reflected the national guidelines of continuing breastfeeding after six months.
Conclusion
Providing advice on optimal infant feeding in resource poor settings is problematic, especially in relation to HIV transmission. Findings from our study reflect those found elsewhere in identifying that key health care workers are not aware of up-to-date information relating to infant feeding, especially within the context of HIV. Greater emphasis needs to be placed on ensuring the most recent feeding guidelines are disseminated and implemented in clinical practice in PNG.
doi:10.1186/1746-4358-8-6
PMCID: PMC3681562  PMID: 23742201
Prevention of mother to child transmission; Infant feeding practices; Exclusive breastfeeding; Health care worker knowledge
21.  BREASTFEEDING PRACTICE AMONG WOMEN ATTENDING PRIMARY HEALTH CENTERS IN RIYADH 
Objectives:
(1) To study the patterns of breastfeeding of last children, duration, factors and reasons for it. (2) To study the factors affecting breastfeeding among mothers who are breastfeeding and the reasons for continuing or failure to continue, at the primary health care centers (PHC) in Riyadh.
Method:
A cross-sectional study was conducted by distributing 1000 questionnaires in 10 PHC centers. The breastfeeding practices were categorized on WHO terms.
Results:
Most of the studied last children (95.1%) were breastfed. Exclusive breastfeeding rate from birth was 62.9%, for up to four months was 13.2% and for six months was 3.3% . The mixed breastfeeding rate from birth was 32.2%, up to age of four months was 53.1% and for children more than six months old it was 20.3%. The mean age of the introduction of solid food was 4.6 ±1.4 months. Artificial feeding rate was 4.9% at birth , 30.3% up to four months and 49.7% for children more than six months old. The most frequent reason for the continuation of breastfeeding was Quranic instruction (55.1%) and its failure was inadequate milk (60.8%). The exclusive breastfeeding and the duration of breastfeeding had statistically significant association with the mothers’ residence, marital status, number of children alive, occupation and the level of education. In addition, there was significant association of exclusive breastfeeding and the non-introduction of artificial feeding at the hospital but not with health education on breastfeeding at the centers .
Recommendations:
To promote the education of mothers on breastfeeding, promote the training of PHC center health professionals and modify the policy of hospitals in the Kingdom on the feeding of newborns.
PMCID: PMC3425754  PMID: 23011977
Breastfeeding; exclusive; duration; continuing
22.  Sub-optimal breastfeeding of infants during the first six months and associated factors in rural communities of Jimma Arjo Woreda, Southwest Ethiopia 
BMC Public Health  2012;12:363.
Background
Studies have shown that sub-optimal breastfeeding is major contributor to infant and young child mortality in Ethiopia. To address this problem, infant and young child feeding guideline was developed in 2004 and interventions have been going on based on the guidelines. There is no study that assessed whether the infant and child feeding practices are according the guideline or not. This study was carried out to assess sub-optimal breastfeeding practices and associated factors among infants from birth to six months in rural communities of Jimma Arjo Woreda in the Southwest Ethiopia.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was carried out from December to January 2009. Quantitative data were collected from a sample of 382 respondents supplemented by qualitative data generated using in-depth interviews of 15 index mothers. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify predictors of timely initiation of breast feeding and non-exclusive breast feeding among mother-infant pairs.
Results
More than three fourth of mothers breastfeed their infants sub-optimally. Thirty-seven percent of mothers initiated breastfeeding later than one hour after delivery, which was significantly associated with not attending formal education (AOR = 1.05[95%CI: 1.03, 1.94]) and painful breastfeeding experiences (AOR = 5.02[95%CI: 1.01, 10.08]). The majority (67.02%) of mothers had no knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding. Non-exclusive breastfeeding was negatively associated with child’s age of 0-2 months (AOR: 0.27[95%CI: 0.16, 0.47) and 3-4 months (AOR = 0.43 [95%CI: 0.25, 0.73) and ownership of radio (AOR = 0.56[95%CI: 0.37, 0.88]), but positively associated with the practice of discarding colostrums (AOR = 1.78[95%CI: 1.09, 4.94]).
Conclusion
The findings showed that the majority of mothers sub-optimally breastfeed their children in the study area. As most of the mothers do not have knowledge on the exclusive breast feeding. Enhancing community based behavior change communications using multiple channels including radio and folk media is recommended to reduce sub-optimal breast feeding practices and associated consequences among children in the study area.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-363
PMCID: PMC3439284  PMID: 22607266
23.  Evaluation of breastfeeding promotion, support, and knowledge of benefits on breastfeeding outcomes 
We examined how prenatal exposure to breastfeeding information from various media sources, maternal knowledge of benefits, family and clinician support, and peer practices influence breastfeeding outcomes in early infancy. Initiation of breastfeeding, any breastfeeding at two months, and exclusivity of breastfeeding at two months were examined in a cohort of US women using data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II. Descriptive statistics, chi-square analyses and logistic regression were conducted. Approximately 85 percent of the women initiated breastfeeding. At two months, 63.8 percent continued breastfeeding, while only 38.1 percent breastfed exclusively. Mothers with greater knowledge about breastfeeding benefits were 11.20 (95%CI: 6.87–18.45) times more likely to initiate breastfeeding and 5.62 (95% CI: 4.19–7.54) times more likely to breastfeed at two months than those with lower levels of knowledge. Women whose families prenatally supported exclusive breastfeeding were 8.21(5.12–13.2) times more likely to initiate and continue breastfeeding (OR 3.21, 95%CI: 2.51–4.11). Clinicians who supported breastfeeding only also increased the odds of a woman initiating breastfeeding (OR 1.95, 95% CI: 1.31–2.88). Interventions to increase maternal knowledge of breastfeeding benefits and family and clinician support of breastfeeding in the prenatal period may help increase breastfeeding rates. The encouragement of breastfeeding needs to be a priority among health care providers to improve the health of mothers and infants.
doi:10.1177/1367493512461460
PMCID: PMC4086458  PMID: 23439591
breastfeeding; clinician; exclusive breastfeeding; family; lactation initiation; prenatal
24.  Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding practices among mothers in Goba district, south east Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study 
Background
Exclusive breastfeeding is defined as feeding infants only breast milk, be it directly from breast or expressed, with no addition of any liquid or solids apart from drops or syrups consisting of vitamins, mineral supplements or medicine, and nothing else. Several studies have shown that exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months plays a great role in preventing morbidity and mortality. However, in Ethiopia a large portion of infants are not exclusively breastfed according to the infant feeding recommendations. Understanding the factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding is crucial to promoting the practice. This study was carried out to identify factors predicting exclusive breastfeeding among mothers in Bale Goba district, south east Ethiopia.
Methods
A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to February 2010 involving both quantitative and qualitative data. A total of 608 mothers were selected randomly. A convenience sampling technique was used to generate the qualitative data. The qualitative data were analyzed using thematic frameworks. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of exclusive breastfeeding after controlling for background variables.
Results
The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in the last 24 hours preceding the survey was 71.3%. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was three months and mean frequency of breastfeeding was six times per day. Being unemployed [AOR: 10.4 (95% CI: 1.51, 71.50)] and age of infants of less than two months [AOR: 5.6 (95% CI: 2.28, 13.60)] were independently associated with exclusive breastfeeding.
Conclusions
A large proportion of infants are not exclusively breastfed during the first 6 months, despite what is recommended in the national and global infant and young child feeding (IYCF) guidelines. Employed mothers were less likely to practice exclusive breastfeeding, implying the need for promoting workplace breastfeeding practices and creating an enabling environment for exclusive breastfeeding. Extensions of maternity leave up to the first six month of child’s age to achieve optimal level of exclusive breastfeeding practices should also be looked into as an alternative solution.
doi:10.1186/1746-4358-7-17
PMCID: PMC3560275  PMID: 23186223
25.  Where and How Breastfeeding Promotion Initiatives Should Focus Its Attention? A Study from Rural Wardha 
Background:
In India, the practice of breastfeeding is almost universal, but initiation of breastfeeding is generally quite late and colostrum is discarded. Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI) strategy recommended systematic assessment of breastfeeding and emphasized counseling of the mother on proper positioning and attachment of infant to the breast.
Objective:
To assess breastfeeding among mothers of below six months children in rural Wardha.
Materials and Methods
The present cross-sectional study was undertaken in surrounding 23 villages of Kasturba Rural Health Training Center (KRHTC), Anji. Two Auxiliary Nurse Midwives (ANMs) trained in IMNCI paid house visits to 99 mothers during the study period and undertook the assessment of breastfeeding using IMNCI assessment form for young infants. Auxiliary Nurse Midwives observed and recorded the positioning and attachment of infant to the breast as per IMNCI guidelines. The data were entered and analyzed using Epi_Info (version 6.04d) software package.
Results:
Most of the deliveries 94 (94.9%) took place in the healthcare facilities. Majority 61 (61.6%) newborn babies had received breastfeeding within half an hour. About half of the mothers had any of the feeding problems like feeding less than eight times in 24 h, giving any other food or drinks or is low weight for age. Significantly more mothers with feeding problems had problems in positioning and attachment of infant to the breast as compared with those mothers who did not have any feeding problems.
Conclusions:
In the settings, where practice of institutional delivery is high, the staff of healthcare facility should ensure education of the mothers regarding position and attachment of infant to the breast before discharge from the healthcare facility. At the village level, Village Health Nutrition Day (VHND) can be utilized for health education of future mothers and support for the breastfeeding mothers. The IMNCI assessment form for young infant should also include assessment of positioning of infant.
doi:10.4103/0970-0218.66865
PMCID: PMC2940176  PMID: 20922097
Breastfeeding; health education; IMNCI

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