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1.  Self-medication patterns among medical students in South India 
The Australasian Medical Journal  2012;5(4):217-220.
Self-medication results in wastage of resources, increases resistance of pathogens and generally causes serious health hazards such as adverse drug reactions, prolonged suffering and drug dependence. This study was undertaken to determine the reasons for self-medication and the pattern of self-medication among medical students.
This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at the K.S. Hegde Medical Academy, Mangalore. The participants were medical students from first to final year. Medical students were selected through convenience sampling. The data was collected using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. The data was analysed using SPSS version 16 and the results expressed as proportions.
A total of 200 students, 121 (60.5%) female and 79 (39.5%) male, were included in the study. Of the medical students surveyed, self-medication was reported among 92%. The respondents who used self-medication found it to be time- saving in providing relief from minor ailments. The most common ailments for which self-medication were used were: the common cold (69%), fever (63%) and headache (60%). The students consulted their textbooks (39%) and seniors or classmates (38%) for the medications. Antipyretics (71%), analgesics (65%), antihistamines (37%) and antibiotics (34%) were the most common self- medicated drugs. Of the respondents, 33% were unaware of the adverse effects of the medication and 5% had experienced adverse reactions. The majority (64%) of students advised medications to others, more often to family and friends.
The prevalence of self-medication among medical students is high, facilitated by the easy availability of drugs and information from textbooks or seniors. A significant number of students are unaware of the adverse effects of the medication that they themselves take and suggest to others. Therefore, potential problems of self-medication should be emphasised to the students.
PMCID: PMC3395275  PMID: 22848313
Self-medication; Medical students
2.  Self-medication and related health complaints among expatriate high school students in the United Arab Emirates 
Pharmacy Practice  2013;11(4):211-218.
Self-medication, often without adult guidance, has been reported to be a common practice during adolescence. Similar to other preventable health-risk behaviors initiated in early adolescence, it has become a cause for concern universally.
This study examines the prevalence of self-medication with both prescribed and non-prescribed (OTC) medications, related health complaints, sources of drugs, and sources of drug recommendation, and gender differences related to self-medication among expatriate high school students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 324 expatriate students through a validated, self-administered questionnaire and data was analyzed using SPSS 19 version. Means and proportions were calculated and Pearson Chi-square test of significance was used to analyze association among variables.
Majority of the participating students, almost equally distributed by gender, was aged 16 to 17 years. The period prevalence rate of self-medication with prescribed and OTC medications were 89.2%, which did not vary with age, gender, ethnicity or parents’ educational level. The most common sources of drug and drug recommendation were community pharmacies and parents respectively. Headache and fever were the common self-medicated conditions and consequently, analgesics and antipyretics were most commonly used both in the previous two weeks and the previous year prior to the survey. A high prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics (53%) and sedative/hypnotics (27%) was also observed. A female excess emerged for certain health complaints and use of medicines except for the use of anti-allergic and herbal/homeopathic drugs.
This is the first study to explore self-medication practices among high school students in UAE and provides baseline data critical in creating awareness about the risks and benefits of self-medication. Health care providers, educators and parents should be actively involved in health education strategies for inculcating responsible self-medication practices in the adolescent population of UAE.
PMCID: PMC3869637  PMID: 24367461
Self Medication; Adolescent; Prevalence; Patient Medication Knowledge; Patient Education as Topic; United Arab Emirates
3.  Medical Students’ Knowledge of Indications for Imaging Modalities and Cost Analysis of Incorrect Requests, Shiraz, Iran 2011-2012 
Medical imaging has a remarkable role in the practice of clinical medicine. This study intends to evaluate the knowledge of indications of five common medical imaging modalities and estimation of the imposed cost of their non-indicated requests among medical students who attend Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. We conducted across-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire to assess the knowledge of indications of a number of medical imaging modalities among 270 medical students during their externship or internship periods. Knowledge scoring was performed according to a descriptive international grade conversion (fail to excellent) using Iranian academic grading (0 to 20). In addition, we estimated the cost for incorrect selection of those modalities according to public and private tariffs in US dollars.
The participation and response rate was 200/270 (74%). The mean knowledge score was fair for all modalities. Similar scores were excellent for X-ray, acceptable for Doppler ultrasonography, and fair for ultrasonography, CT scan and MRI. The total cost for non-indicated requests of those modalities equaled $104303 (public tariff) and $205581 (private tariff).
Medical students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences lacked favorable knowledge about indications for common medical imaging modalities. The results of this study have shown a significant cost for non-indicated requests of medical imaging. Of note, the present radiology curriculum is in need of a major revision with regards to evidence-based radiology and health economy concerns.
PMCID: PMC4027010  PMID: 24850988
Medical students; Knowledge; Cost analysis
4.  Accuracy of drug advertisements in medical journals under new law regulating the marketing of pharmaceutical products in Switzerland 
New legal regulations for the marketing of pharmaceutical products were introduced in 2002 in Switzerland. We investigated whether claims in drug advertisements citing published scientific studies were justified by these studies after the introduction of these new regulations.
In this cross-sectional study, two independent reviewers screened all issues of six major Swiss medical journals published in the year 2005 to identify all drug advertisements for analgesic, gastrointestinal and psychopharmacologic drugs and evaluated all drug advertisements referring to at least one publication. The pharmaceutical claim was rated as being supported, being based on a potentially biased study or not to be supported by the cited study according to pre-specified criteria. We also explored factors likely to be associated with supported advertisement claims.
Of 2068 advertisements 577 (28%) promoted analgesic, psychopharmacologic or gastrointestinal drugs. Among them were 323 (56%) advertisements citing at least one reference. After excluding multiple publications of the same drug advertisement and advertisements with non-informative references, there remained 29 unique advertisements with at least one reference to a scientific study. These 29 advertisements contained 78 distinct pairs of claims of analgesic, gastrointestinal and psychopharmacologic drugs and referenced studies. Thirty-seven (47%) claims were supported, 16 (21%) claims were not supported by the corresponding reference, and 25 (32%) claims were based on potentially biased evidence, with no relevant differences between drug groups. Studies with conflict of interest and studies stating industry funding were more likely to support the corresponding claim (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.07–2.17 and RR 1.50, 95% CI 0.98–2.28) than studies without identified conflict of interest and studies without information on type of funding.
Following the introduction of new regulations for drug advertisement in Switzerland, 53% of all assessed pharmaceutical claims published in major medical journals are not supported by the cited referenced studies or based on potentially biased study information. In light of the discrepancy between the new legislation and the endorsement of these regulations, physicians should not trust drug advertisement claims even when they seem to refer to scientific studies.
PMCID: PMC2631602  PMID: 19117521
5.  Perceived Health Locus of Control, Self-Esteem, and Its Relations to Psychological Well-Being Status in Iranian Students 
Health locus of control (HLC) has been associated with a variety of ailments and health outcomes and designed to predict behaviors and cognitive processes relevant to mental and physical health. This study investigated the relationships between perceived health locus of control, self-esteem, and mental health status among Iranian students.
In this analytical study the subjects were recruited from students in Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Iran, who studied in the first year (N=154). Students completed the questionnaires for assessing demographic, perceived health locus of control, self - esteem and psychological well- being data.
The statistical analysis revealed a negative relationship between perceived Internal HLC and self-esteem with psychological well-being. The positive correlation of the perceived Chance HLC with psychological well-being was statistically significant (r= 0.21, P< 0.01) and the positive correlation of the perceived Internal HLC with self-esteem was statistically significant (r= 0.25, P< 0.01). A significantly direct relationship between low perceived Internal HLC, self–esteem and psychological problems was found among these students.
The findings will be addressed in relation to their implications for effective mental health education based on health locus of control especially internal and powerful others beliefs associated with self-esteem for students. This will require additional monitoring and uninterrupted trying in order to be effective.
PMCID: PMC3481683  PMID: 23113040
Perceived health locus; Psychological well- being; Self - esteem; Student
6.  Medical students' perceptions of the educational environment at an Iranian Medical Sciences University 
BMC Medical Education  2010;10:87.
Students' perceptions of their educational environment have a significant impact on their behavior and academic progress. The aim of this study was to assess the perceptions of medical students concerning their educational environment at Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences in Iran.
In this cross-sectional study, questionnaires were distributed to 210 medical students and 182 were analyzed (response rate = 86.6%); twenty-eight questionnaires were excluded because they were incomplete or unreturned for analysis. Data were collected using a DREEM questionnaire which comprised 50 items based on the Likert scale (scores could range from 0 to 200). There were five domains to the questionnaire including students' perceptions of learning, students' perceptions of teachers, students' academic self-perceptions, students' perceptions of atmosphere and students' social self-perceptions. Data were analyzed using SPSS16 software.
The mean age of the subjects was 21.7 years (SD = 2.7); 38.5% were male and 61.5% were female. Students' perceptions of learning, students' perceptions of teachers, students' academic self-perceptions, students' perceptions of atmosphere, students' social self-perceptions and total DREEM score were 21.2/48, 24.2/44, 15.8/32, 23.8/48, 14.5/28 and 99.6/200, respectively. There was no significant difference between male and female students in educational environment subscales, but there were significant differences between students enrolled on a basic sciences and pathophysiology course and those enrolled on a clinical course in terms of perceptions of learning, academic self-perceptions, perceptions of atmosphere and overall perceptions of educational environment (p < 0.05). The latter group rated each of the aforementioned aspects more highly than the students studying basic science and pathophysiology.
Overall, respondents assessed the educational environment as average. Therefore, improvements are required across all five domains of the educational environment.
PMCID: PMC3001739  PMID: 21114818
7.  Prevalence of ADHD Among Students of Zahedan University of Medical Science in Iran 
Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common mental disorder in adults that was under-diagnosed until recently. Due to probable consequences of ADHD such as occupational and educational dysfunctions and substance use, this disorder is becoming more and more of a concern. This study aimed to investigate ADHD symptoms among students of Zahedan University of medical sciences, Iran.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in Zahedan University of Medical Sciences from 2008 to 2009. Our sample included 1500 individuals who were chosen using simple sampling method. Considering the goal of the investigation, two questionnaires were distributed among students including demographic information form and the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales–Self Report (Screening Version, CAARS-S:SV). Data analysis was done using descriptive and analytical statistics in SPSS software.
Results: Out of 1500 questionnaires distributed among students, 913 were completed. 589 students (64.5%) were female and 324 (35.5%) were male. The Mean age of participants was 21.7 ± 3.2 years. ADHD symptoms were defined based on the Conner’s adult test. Based on CAARS-S: SV, inattention/memory, hyperactivity/restlessness, impulsiveness/emotional lability, and problems with self-concept subscale symptoms were found in 107 (11.7%), 109 (12%), 121 (13.2%), and 30 (3.3%) respondents, respectively. These findings were significantly higher than average.
Conclusions: According to our results, it seems that the prevalence of ADHD is high among students. Thus, more screening is required in this population in order to diagnose and treat the disorder earlier and prevent its consequences, such as substance abuse.
Declaration of interest: None.
PMCID: PMC3939996  PMID: 24644514
ADHD; Adult ADHD; Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scale; Student
8.  Evaluation of Female Youth Educational Needs about Reproductive Health in Non-Medical Students in the City of Qom 
To evaluate reproductive health education which is essential to the prevention of sexual risk behavior and its associated adverse outcomes of unwanted pregnancy, AIDS and other sexually transmitted disease in adolescents. Little is known about youth educational needs about reproductive health in Iran. The aim of this study is evaluation of female youth educational needs about reproductive health in non-medical universities in the city of Qom, north central of Iran.
Materials and methods
The study was descriptive-analytical type conducted in nine non-medical universities (400 students). A questionnaire was constructed to meet the purpose of the study based on similar studies of knowledge and attitude in different countries, yet it was modified according to Iranian culture and social norms.
The findings showed that a majority of participants have moderate knowledge about all components of reproductive health. Approximately, one - third of the participants reported difficulties to discuss about sexual health with mothers. The most of the participants believed insufficient female youth reproductive health services and low knowledge about reproductive health were the main barriers for female youth reproductive health aims.
The participants in this study are representatives of an important subgroup in Iran in order to evaluate female youth reproductive health educational needs. The study identified many misconception and negative attitude that need to be addressed. A health education program through parents, peers, mass media campaign and more comprehensive family planning curriculum in universities are recommended to overcome misconception and spread awareness.
PMCID: PMC4064772  PMID: 24971106
Youth; Reproductive health; Knowledge; Attitude
9.  Perceptions and Practices of Self-Medication among Medical Students in Coastal South India 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e72247.
Self-medication is a common practice worldwide and the irrational use of drugs is a cause of concern. This study assessed the prevalence of self-medication among the medical students in South India. The data was analysed using SPSS version 11.5. A total of 440 students were included in the study. The prevalence of self-medication was 78.6%. A larger number of females were self-medicating (81.2%) than males (75.3%). The majority of the students self-medicated because of the illness being too trivial for consultation (70.5%). Antipyretics were most commonly self–medicated by the participants (74.8%). Only 47% of the participants opined that self-medication was a part of self-care and it needs to be encouraged. 39.3% of the participants perceived that the supply of medicine without prescription by the pharmacist can prevent the growing trend of self-medication. Easy availability and accessibility to health care facilities remains the cornerstone for reducing the practice of self-medication.
PMCID: PMC3756058  PMID: 24015223
10.  Prescription of medicines by medical students of Karachi, Pakistan: A cross-sectional study 
BMC Public Health  2008;8:162.
Prescription of medicines by non-doctors is an issue with serious global implications. To our knowledge prescription of drugs by medical and non-medical students has not been studied before. We aimed to determine the practice and attitudes of drug prescription by medical students and: a) how non-medical students respond to this practice, b) How this compares with the attitudes and practices of non-medical students.
A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 600 students randomly selected from 2 medical and 2 non-medical universities. Ethical requirements were ensured and data was collected using self administered questionnaires. The Chi square tests and logistic univariate regression analyses were performed using SPSS v 14 to identify associations and differences.
A total of 572 forms were completed and the sample consisted of 295 medical students and 277 non-medical students with no significant difference in their demographic profile. Of the 295 medical students 163 (55.3%) had prescribed a medicine independently and most (48.5%) said that they did this 2–3 times a year. The commonest reasons for this were 'previous experience' (68.7%), 'problem too trivial' (34.4%) and 'we knew everything about the condition' (31.3%). One-third (33.6%) of the undergraduate medical students thought that it was alright to independently diagnose an illness while a vast majority (78.3%) thought that it was alright for them to prescribe medicines to others. Common prescriptions were pain-killers, antipyretics, antiallergics and antibiotics. Medical students who prescribed medicines were of lesser age (CI = 1.366–1.887) and more likely to belong to the 1st (CI = 3.588–21.731), 2nd (CI = 2.059– 10.869) or 3rd (CI = 4.331–26.374) year of medical college. One-third (33.9%) of the non-medical students reported that a medical student had prescribed medicines to them and 21.3% said that they trusted medical students and would follow their advice blindly. Many students thought it alright for medical students to diagnose and treat illnesses. A similar proportion of non-medical students (58.5%) reported prescribing medicines to others.
Prescription of medicines by non-doctors is rampant and urgent corrective measures are warranted. We have highlighted areas for future research and intervention and have given a few recommendations.
PMCID: PMC2408580  PMID: 18485246
11.  Investigating the Anxiety Level in Iranian Medical Residents in 2010-2011 
International Journal of Preventive Medicine  2013;4(Suppl 2):S318-S322.
University entrance is accompanied by major changes in social relationship, rules, and expectations that lead to psychological disorders in susceptible students. The goal of this research is to study the anxiety rate in Iranian medical residents in 2010-2011.
This study is a cross-sectional, descriptive study. It contains 370 medical residents from the 1st year to the 4th year of medical universities in Isfahan, Gilan, Zahedan, Sanandaj, and Kashan. The stratified sampling method proportionate to volume of participants is used in this study. The information is collected based on researchers’ questioners and Zung self-rating anxiety scale and analyzed with the use of spss software version 16, addition to descriptive and analytic tests (Pearson, one-way analysis of variance, t-test). Meaningful level is regarded as P ≤ 0.05.
The study showed that more than 92% of residents participated in the study did not demonstrate anxiety. Among 370 subjects 5.5% presented with mild symptoms of anxiety and no one had symptom of severe anxiety. A meaningful statistical relationship was observed between anxiety and sex, major of study and the city of study (P < 0.05). The results showed a positive meaningful relationship between the number of visits and the score of anxiety. On average the number of night floats were two in 1 week and the number of patient visit was 19 in the past 24 h. A meaningful statistical relationship between anxiety score and number of patient visits was observed.
The anxiety rate in medical students in this study compared to the findings of previous studies reveled very low anxiety in medical residents. The low rate of anxiety could be attributed to the sense of job security and the hope for a better future among residents. The high percentage of anxiolytics abuse and absence of anxiety producing factors among residents in addition to inaccurate response to the questionnaire may all contribute to the low rate of anxiety in this study.
PMCID: PMC3678239  PMID: 23776745
Anxiety; medical residents; depression
12.  Absenteeism among medical and health science undergraduate students at Hawassa University, Ethiopia 
BMC Medical Education  2014;14:81.
Student absenteeism is a major concern for university education worldwide. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and causes of absenteeism among undergraduate medical and health sciences students at Hawassa University.
We conducted a cross-sectional study using a pretested self-administered structured questionnaire from May-June 2013. The primary outcome indicator was self-reported absenteeism from lectures in the semester preceding the study period. The study included all regular undergraduate students who were enrolled in the University for at least one semester. The data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. The association between class absenteeism and socio-demographic and behavioral correlates of absenteeism was determined by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results were reported as crude odds ratios (COR), adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
1200 students consented and filled the questionnaire. Of these students, 43.7% had missed three or more lectures and 14.1% (95% CI = 12.2-16.2) missed more than 8 lectures in the preceding semester. There was a significant association between missing more than 8 lectures and age of students, chosen discipline (medicine), and social drug use. The main reasons reported for missing lectures were preparing for another examination, lack of interest, lecturer’s teaching style, and availability of lecture material.
At Hawassa University College of Medicine and Health Science student habits and teacher performance play a role in absenteeism from lectures. A university culture that promotes discipline and integrity especially among medical and older students discourages social drug use will likely improve motivation and attendance. Training in teaching methodologies to improve the quality and delivery of lectures should also help increase attendance.
PMCID: PMC3991889  PMID: 24731511
Non-attendance; Absenteeism; Lecture; Tutorial; University students
13.  Medicines in Pharmacy Students’ Residence and Self-medication Practices 
This study was aimed at identifying the types of medicines in pharmacy students’ residence and to determine if a relationship exists between keeping medicines in students’ accommodation and self-medication practices. A cross-sectional survey of a random sample of 240 undergraduate pharmacy students of the University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria, was carried out. Participating students were given a self-administered questionnaire, and only 188 students returned their filled questionnaire. The data collected were entered and analyzed using SPSS 16, and the χ2-test was used to determine associations between the variables. The results revealed that 66.0% of respondents had medicines in their room. A total of 318 medicines items (2.56 items per student's room) of which 37.1% were leftover medicines were present in respondents’ rooms. Analgesics (34.3%) and antibiotics (25.2%) were the common classes of medicines present in respondents’ rooms. Respondents reported getting these medicines on prescription (25.8%) and self-medication (56.5%) or both (17.7%). Self-medication practice was common among respondents (53.2%); however, no significant relationship (P>0.05) existed between having medicine in students’ room and self-medication practices. Common reasons given by respondents for having medicines in their rooms were that they were leftover medicines and that they were keeping them for emergency use or for use in an event of a similar illness. Most respondents (72.2%) reported disposing of their unused medicines in a trash can/dust bin. This study demonstrated that the prevalence of medicine storage in students’ room and self-medication practice is high. Analgesics and antibiotics were the most common types of medicines present in students’ residence.
PMCID: PMC3385216  PMID: 22754265
Leftover medicines; self-medication; students’ residence
14.  Self-medication with antibiotics for the treatment of menstrual symptoms in southwest Nigeria: a cross-sectional study 
BMC Public Health  2010;10:610.
Self-medication with antibiotics is an important factor contributing to the development of bacterial antibiotic resistance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics for the treatment of menstrual symptoms among university women in Southwest Nigeria.
A cross-sectional survey was administered to female undergraduate and graduate students (n = 706) at four universities in Southwest Nigeria in 2008. The universities were selected by convenience and the study samples within each university were randomly selected cluster samples. The survey was self-administered and included questions pertaining to menstrual symptoms, analgesic and antibiotic use patterns, and demographics. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression.
The response rate was 95.4%. Eighty-six percent (95% CI: 83-88%) of participants experienced menstrual symptoms, and 39% (95% CI: 36-43%) reported using analgesics to treat them. Overall, 24% (95% CI: 21-27%) of participants reported self-medicated use of antibiotics to treat the following menstrual symptoms: cramps, bloating, heavy bleeding, headaches, pimples/acne, moodiness, tender breasts, backache, joint and muscle pain. Factors associated with this usage were: lower levels of education (Odds Ratio (OR): 2.8, 95% CI: 1.1-7.1, p-value: 0.03); non-science major (OR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.03-2.50, p-value: 0.04); usage of analgesics (OR: 3.17, 95% CI: 2.07-4.86, p-value: <0.001); and mild to extreme heavy bleeding (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.01-2.67, p-value: 0.05) and pimples/acne (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 0.98-2.54, p-value: 0.06). Ampicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and metronidazole were used to treat the most symptoms. Doctors or nurses (6%, 95% CI: 4-7%), friends (6%, 95% CI: 4-7%) and family members (7%, 95% CI: 5-8%) were most likely to recommend the use of antibiotics for menstrual symptoms, while these drugs were most often obtained from local chemists or pharmacists (10.2%, 95% CI: 8-12%).
This is the first formal study to report that approximately 1 out of 4 university women surveyed in Southwest Nigeria self-medicate with antibiotics to treat menstrual symptoms. This practice could provide monthly, low-dose exposures to antibiotics among users. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the impacts of self-medication on student health.
PMCID: PMC2965722  PMID: 20946686
15.  Students’ attitude toward use of over the counter medicines during exams in Saudi Arabia 
To explore the use of over the counter (OTC) medicines among students during exams in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
A cross-sectional study was designed; using a self-administered twenty-two item online questionnaire for the students’ convenience and easy response disclosure. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 13®.
A total of N = 1596 students participated in this survey, of whom 829 (51.9%) were university students and 767 (48.1%) were high school students. Overall, 80.0% of the respondents disclosed the use of OTC non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for headache and pain relief. In addition, other substances used during the exams were Energy Drinks (5.0%), Flu Medication (5.0%), Vitamins (5.0%) and Antibiotics (5.0%). Female students were found to be more knowledgeable about safety issues concerning the use of OTC medicines (5.11 ± 1.27, p = <0.001) than male students. Ease in access to OTC medicine, availability of pharmacist consultation and advertisement in print and electronic media were the main factors disclosed by the respondents that may result in an increase in the use of OTC products. The use of OTC medicines was generally higher among female students (p = 0.001).
The use of OTC medication during exams was more among high school and university students. Gender, age and educational institution were found significantly affecting the use of OTC medicines during exams.
PMCID: PMC3950531  PMID: 24648821
OTC medications; High school students; University students; Exams; Saudi Arabia
16.  Computer and Internet Utilization among the Medical Students in Qassim University, Saudi Arabia 
Background: Computer-based training (CBT) and internet-based training (IBT) have become a vital part of the Medical Education. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Qassim University-Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), with the objective of assessing the pattern of the computer and Internet utilization among both male and female medical students.
Methods: A total of 500 medical students from 4 different medical colleges of Qassim University participated in this study. A semi-structured, pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect the data and the data analysis was done by using SPSS, Version 17.
Results: Forty two percent female and twenty four percent male students used computers to get general information, 80% of the students reported using computers for academic activities and 52% females and 22% males used computers for entertainment. Most of the females preferred using computers at home (84%), while 54% males used computers at cyber cafés. For the information retrieval, 84% males used the internet, followed by journals/library (36%) and textbooks (35%), while the females preferred textbooks (75%) and the internet (14%). Google was found to be most commonly used search engine.
Conclusion: The internet creates an educational delivery system; it is highly needed to increase the credit hours for the university requirement courses in computer application and the internet use for both among the male and female students.
PMCID: PMC3708209  PMID: 23905114
Medical students; Internet; Qassim University; KSA
17.  Prevalence, impacts and medical managements of premenstrual syndrome among female students: cross-sectional study in college of health sciences, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia 
BMC Women's Health  2014;14:52.
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is used to describe physical, cognitive, affective, and behavioral symptoms that occur cyclically during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and resolve quickly at or within a few days of the onset of menstruation. The primary aim of the study was to assess the prevalence, impacts and medical managements of PMS on female medical students of Mekelle University College of Health Sciences.
A cross-sectional study was conducted among systematically selected female students of Mekelle University College of Health Sciences, Mekelle town, northern Ethiopia from March to April 2013. A structured and pretested self-administered questionnaire was employed for data collection. The collected data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL (SPSS version 16). The criteria proposed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision (DSM-IV TR) were used to diagnose PMS.
From the total population size of 608; a sample size of 258 was drawn. Age of the study participants ranged from 18 to 25 years, with mean age of 20.86 ± 1.913 years. Among the participants, 144(83.2%) have had at least one PM symptoms with their menstrual period. The prevalence of PMS according to DSM-IV was 37.0%. About 49(28.3%) reported frequent class missing, 17(9.8%) exam missing, 14(8.1%) low grade scoring and 3(1.7%) of them reported withdrawal from their learning associated with their PMS. Only 83(48.0%) participants sought medical treatment for their PMS. The treatment modalities used were pain killers, 63(36.4%), hot drinks like coffee and tea, 13(7.5%), and massage therapy and exercise, 7(4.0%). Binary logistic regression analysis revealed average length of one cycle of menstruation (COR = 0.20(0.070-0.569) and academic performance impairment (AOR = 0.345(0.183-0.653) were significantly associated with the diagnosis of PMS and use of PMS treatments respectively.
Our study revealed a high prevalence and negative impact of PMS on students of Mekelle University. Therefore, health education, appropriate medical treatment and counseling services, as part of the overall health service, should be availed and provided to affected women.
PMCID: PMC3994244  PMID: 24678964
Prevalence; Impacts; Medical management; PMS; Female students
18.  Nursing professional identity: an infant or one with Alzheimer 
Each group or profession has its own discourse. Discourses create identity, support institutions and reproduce power relationships. Professional identity of Iranian nurses, which has recently had the opportunity to represent itself in social arena, needs investigation. This study aimed to make internal aspect of this identity clear.
Materials and Methods:
This study was conducted by discourse analysis, using data of 23 semi-structured individual interviews and 4 focus group interviews with nurses and senior nursing students of Tehran and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, to evaluate their professional identity.
In professional self-concept, elements like spirituality value and low financial benefits were identified as well as conflicting features of holiness and humility, identity emerging, identity escape, low professional self-confidence and justice seeking, lost professional authority and pride.
Nursing professional identity has been formed based on cultural social structure, values and beliefs governing health system. This is a spectrum of a growing and emerging identity to a developed but forgotten identity. Although nursing discourse is subordinate in health system discourse, signs of moving toward professional maturity have emerged.
PMCID: PMC3696964  PMID: 23833602
Professional identity; nursing; discourse analysis
19.  An Assessment of the Level of Awareness, Attitudes, and Opinions of the Medical Students Concerning HIV and AIDS in Malaysia 
Introduction: Human Immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has become one of the most serious health problems in the world. Medical students awareness, attitudes and opinions must be assessed as they are leading health care professionals who provide treatment and care to the HIV and AIDS individuals. This survey was conducted to assess the level of awareness, attitudes and opinions of third year till fifth year medical students concerning HIV and AIDS from universities around Klang Valley area, Malaysia.
Materials and Methods: A total of 327 medical students of third to fifth been took part in the survey. Self prepared and self validated questionnaire was used to assess the study outcomes. Students were asked to fill the consent forms before filling the questionnaires. The results were analyzed by using SPSS version 17. A cross-sectional study among medical students was performed. Data was analyzed with non-parametric spearman’s correlation test to find the difference at p-value < 0.05.
Results: A great majority knew that HIV can be spread via tattoo or body piercing (89.3%), from mother to child (97.9%), being a homosexual (93.3%) and even having circumcision for protection (71.9%). Also, they were aware that HIV cannot be transferred via sneezing and cough (95.1%), swimming pools (89.0%), and toilet seats (89.6%). However, only a few were aware of other modes of transmission, such as visiting the barbers (41.3%) , and having blood splashed on outer body surface including mouth and eyes (49.2%). Only a few negative attitudes were shown such as being unsure about keeping close vicinity to HIV patients and being unsure of whether HIV negative people should be allowed to marry HIV positive patients (median=3).
Conclusion: An optimal plan of education with awareness campaign and preclinical experiences should be made in the future curriculum to increase the knowledge, confidence and minimize phobia among students.
PMCID: PMC4064932  PMID: 24959464
Cross-sectional study; Transmission; Prevention
20.  Knowledge of Orthodontics as a Dental Specialty: A Preliminary Survey among LASUCOM Students 
Awareness of malocclusion and the need to make corrections has increasingly becomes prevalent among our population. However, very few patients have presented in the orthodontic clinics with referrals from medical practitioners, an indication that the primary caregivers may be deficient in the knowledge of orthodontic practice.
To assess the knowledge of orthodontics and the awareness of the effects of malocclusion on the general well-being, among medical students at the Lagos State University College of Medicine (LASUCOM).
Materials and Methods:
This cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 85 medical students in the institution participated in the study. Data entry and analysis was done using Epi info version 3.5. Frequency counts were generated for all variables and measures of central tendency for numerical variables.
All participants were medical students. Majority (75.3%) were in their clinical years while 24.7% were in their preclinical years. Only 45.9% of the respondents had heard of the term “orthodontics” and only 20% correctly answered that orthodontics involves malocclusion and its management. Concerning the treatment procedures used in orthodontic clinics, 54.1% of them selected rearrangement of teeth. When asked to identify the appliances used in orthodontics, 49.4% selected dentures, 40% selected removable appliances, and 57.7% selected braces. Most of the respondents (81.2%) agreed that as medical doctors they would refer patients for orthodontic care, while 3.5% were undecided and 15.3% disagreed.
The medical students surveyed had limited knowledge of orthodontics as a specialty and also knew very little about the impact of malocclusion on the well-being of the individual. They would, therefore, benefit from basic education in orthodontics to stimulate their interest in the specialty and improve their ability to refer patients appropriately.
PMCID: PMC3507125  PMID: 23209984
Knowledge; Malocclusion; Medical students; Orthodontics
21.  Knowledge of and Adherence to Hygiene Guidelines among Medical Students in Austria 
Background. Adherence to hygiene guidelines is of utmost importance for healthcare professionals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge on and the adherence to hygiene guidelines among medical students in Austria. Additionally, a possible difference between female and male students was investigated. Methods. An open paper-based survey among third-year medical students at the Medical University of Graz was conducted. The questionnaire consisted of 20 single-choice questions covering compliance with basic hygiene standards, self-rated knowledge of hygiene guidelines, and satisfaction with current hygiene education, equipment, and quality standards. Results. Of 192 medical students, 70% judged their knowledge of hygiene standards as “excellent” or “good”; however, only 49% reported adherence to hygiene guidelines and only 43% performed hygienic hand disinfection according to WHO guidelines. Of the respondents, 79% voted for a mandatory course on hygiene standards in medical education. No significant gender differences were observed. Conclusion. While the knowledge on hygiene guidelines appears to be good among medical students, adherence is limited and requires improvement. The need for an optimum education in hygiene is high.
PMCID: PMC3649164  PMID: 23690765
22.  To determine the level of satisfaction among medical students of a public sector medical university regarding their academic activities 
BMC Research Notes  2011;4:380.
An ongoing evaluation system is essential to determine if the academic system in place has worked to produce a better product, hence the objective of our study was to evaluate the satisfaction level among medical students regarding their academic teaching and assessment method and what measures will they suggest for the future to rectify the current situation.
This questionnaire based cross sectional study was conducted in a public sector medical university from February to July 2010. A well structured questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 375 final year medical students. However 292 of the students provided informed consent and filled in the questionnaire which included their demographic profile as well as questions in line with the study objective. Data was entered in a Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version.16) and analyzed using descriptive statistics.
The male to female ratio in our study was 1:2. Most of the students (57.2%) were dissatisfied with the quality of teaching in the university. Fifty-seven percent of the participants believed that the current standard of their institute were not at par with those of international medical universities. BCQ's were the mode of examination questions preferred by the majority of the students. Most of the students (66.1%) wanted the university to conduct career planning seminars to help them plan their career.
These results suggest that the students of public sector medical universities are unsatisfied from current academic facilities and teaching activities. Students recommend increased emphasis on better lectures and practical training as well as a need to incorporate career planning sessions for the students to help plan them their future career paths.
PMCID: PMC3203073  PMID: 21974939
Students; Satisfaction; Dissatisfaction; Medical Education; Curriculum; Academic Activities
23.  Illicit methylphenidate use among Iranian medical students: prevalence and knowledge 
Methylphenidate, a medication prescribed for individuals suffering from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, is increasingly being misused by students.
The aims of this study were to evaluate the frequency of methylphenidate use among a group of Iranian medical students and to assess their knowledge of methylphenidate.
Anonymous, self-administered questionnaires were completed by all medical students entering the university between 2000 and 2007.
Methylphenidate users’ mean knowledge score was higher than that of nonusers (15.83 ± 3.14 vs 13.66 ± 3.10, P = 0.008). Age, gender, and school year were positively correlated with knowledge score (P < 0.05). Data analysis demonstrated that 27 participants (8.7%) had taken methylphenidate at least once in their lifetime. The respondents believed that the most common motive for methylphenidate use among youths was that it aided concentration and therefore ability to study.
This study indicates a relatively low level of knowledge about methylphenidate among Iranian medical students. More educational programs regarding the use of methylphenidate are required and should be focused on the student suppliers, clinicians, pharmacists, and medical students.
PMCID: PMC3038997  PMID: 21340040
methylphenidate; medical student; prevalence; Iran
24.  Knowledge of Dentistry, Medicine, and Pharmacy Students about Psychedelic Drugs in Kerman University of Medical Sciences 
Addiction & Health  2009;1(2):92-97.
Psychedelic drugs can cause one to get out of normal status and permanent cerebral defects, via affecting central nervous system. Consumption of theses drugs seems to be increasing nowadays especially among the youth and university educated population. We conducted a study to evaluate the awareness of medical science students of Kerman University of medical science who are going to be the future medical population.
This cross-sectional study was carried out on 471 of students of medicine, dentistry and pharmacy which were in the first to forth year of their education about psychedelic drugs (Ecstasy, LSD, Ice, crack and Yaba). To evaluate the students' awareness of drugs we used questionnaire with reliability and validity proven via pilot study. Statistics analysis was performed using SPSS13 software.
Average of their age was 3.2 ± 20.4. Overall among the students, 56.7% were in the low level of insight, 34.3% in medium and 6.9% in good level and 2.2% had best insight of the drugs. Also only 32.2% of students had the full information about the name of drug, 25.7 % had information about the form of them, 24% about the addiction with them, 7% about their complication and only 5% about the origin of drugs. The information about all psychedelic drugs was higher among pharmacy students, students of the third year and males.
Our study showed a low insight about psychedelic drugs like Ecstasy, LSD, Ice, Crack, and Yaba among the students. According to this lack of information of these groups, it is suggested that educational courses about the complication, signs and symptoms of these drugs be held.
PMCID: PMC3905484  PMID: 24494090
Knowledge; Professional PhD students; Psychedelic drugs; Ecstasy; LSD; Ice; Crack ; Yaba
25.  Adolescent Sexual Assault and the Medical and Nonmedical Use of Prescription Medication 
Journal of addictions nursing  2011;11(1-2):25-31.
Previous research has documented an association between sexual victimization and prescription medication use among adults. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such a relationship was present for adolescent girls when considering sexual victimization by a peer and the use of four drug classes for medical and nonmedical reasons. The study was based on a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional Web-based, self-administered survey of female students from a middle and high school (n = 490). As predicted, sexual victimization increased the likelihood of non-medical prescription medication use of opioid analgesics and sedative medication, although these relationships varied based on the severity of sexual assault. Findings are discussed in light the importance of increasing awareness among health professionals, researchers, and the wider community of the increased risk for prescription medication abuse among adolescent girls who have a history of sexual violence.
PMCID: PMC3208183  PMID: 22065397
Sexual Assault; Adolescence; Substance Use; Prescription Medications

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