Working mostly at night has been suggested to be associated with upset of chronobiological rhythms and high blood pressure, but the evidence from epidemiological studies is weak.
In a cross-sectional survey, we evaluated the association between shift work and blood pressure, pre-hypertension and hypertension. In total, 493 nurses, nurse technicians and assistants, were selected at random in a large general hospital setting. Hypertension was diagnosed by the mean of four automatic blood pressure readings ≥140/90 mmHg or use of blood pressure lowering agents, and pre-hypertension by systolic blood pressure ≥120–139 or diastolic blood pressure ≥80–89 mmHg. Risk factors for hypertension were evaluated by a standardized questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. The association between the shift of work and blood pressure, pre-hypertension and hypertension was explored using univariate and multivariate analyses that controlled for risk factors for hypertension by covariance analysis and modified Poisson regression.
The mean age of the participants was 34.3±9.4 years and 88.2% were women. Night shift workers were older, more frequently married or divorced, and less educated. The prevalence of hypertension in the whole sample was 16%, and 28% had pre-hypertension. Blood pressure (after adjustment for confounding) was not different in day and night shift workers. The prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension by shift work was not different in the univariate analysis and after adjustment for confounding (all risk ratios = 1.0).
Night shift work did not increase blood pressure and was not associated with hypertension or pre-hypertension in nursing personnel working in a large general hospital.
Persons with a systolic blood pressure (BP) of 120 to < 140 or diastolic BP of 80 to < 90 mm hg are classified as having pre-hypertension. Pre-hypertension is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, incident CVD and CVD mortality. Understanding determinants of pre-hypertension especially in low income countries is a pre-requisite for improved prevention and control.
Data were analyzed for 4142 persons aged 18 years and older with BP measured in a community cross sectional survey in Uganda. The prevalence of pre-hypertension was estimated and a number of risk factors e.g. smoking, use of alcohol, overweight, obesity, physical activity, sex, age, marital status, place of residence, and consumption of vegetables and fruits were compared among different groups (normotension, pre-hypertension, and hypertension) using bivariate and multivariable logistic regression.
The age standardized prevalence of normal blood pressure was 37.6%, pre-hypertension 33.9%, hypertension 28.5% and raised blood pressure 62%. There was no difference between the prevalence of hypertension among women compared to men (28.9% versus 27.9%). However, the prevalence of pre-hypertension was higher among men (41.6%) compared to women (29.4%). Compared to people with normal blood pressure, the risk of pre-hypertension was increased by being 40 years and above, smoking, consumption of alcohol, not being married, being male and being overweight or obese. Compared to pre-hypertension, hypertension was more likely if one was more than 40 years, had infrequent or no physical activity, resided in an urban area, and was obese or overweight.
More than one in three of adults in this population had pre-hypertension. Preventive and public health interventions that reduce the prevalence of raised blood pressure need to be implemented.
Cardiovascular diseases; Non communicable diseases; Low income countries; Risk factors; Prevalence
Prevention of pre-hypertension is an important goal for primary care patients. Obesity is a risk factor for hypertension, but has not been addressed for pre-hypertension in primary care populations. The objective of this study was to assess the degree to which obesity independently is associated with risk for pre-hypertension in family medicine patients.
This study was a retrospective analysis of information abstracted from medical records of 707 adult patients. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and pre-hypertension, after adjustment for comorbidity and demographic characteristics. Pre-hypertension was defined as systolic pressure between 120 and 139 mm Hg or diastolic pressure between 80 and 89 mm Hg.
In our sample, 42.9% of patients were pre-hypertensive. Logistic regression analysis revealed that, in comparison to patients with normal body mass, patients with BMI > 35 had higher adjusted odds of being pre-hypertensive (OR = 4.5, CI 2.55–8.11, p < .01). BMI between 30 and 35 also was significant (OR = 2.7, CI 1.61–4.63, p < 0.01) as was overweight (OR = 1.8, CI 1.14–2.92, p = 0.01).
In our sample of family medicine patients, elevated BMI is a risk factor for pre-hypertension, especially BMI > 35. This relationship appears to be independent of age, gender, marital status and comorbidity. Weight loss intervention for obese patients, including patient education or referral to weight loss programs, might be effective for prevention of pre-hypertension and thus should be considered as a potential quality indicator.
Data were collected on a cohort of 435 black medical students whose attendance at Meharry Medical College fell within the period 1958 to 1965, providing baseline measurements on multiple possible hypertension precursors. Relevant family history, sociodemographic, and clinical characteristics were obtained. Fifty percent of the students had at least one of the following possible precursors of hypertension: systolic blood pressure >120 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure >80 mmHg; pulse >80 beats/min; and relative body weight >120 percent of ideal body weight. Contrary to expectations, students from professional families were more likely to have higher systolic blood pressures. Students whose parents had a positive history of hypertension or stroke were likely to have higher diastolic blood pressures. Of the 24 students found to be hypertensive on survey (1981), 73 percent had a positive parental history of hypertension or stroke compared with only 40 percent of a control group matched by age and sex. A 17-year follow-up is currently underway to develop a risk profile for hypertension among black professionals.
To study blood pressure and blood pressure reactivity in young offspring of normotensive or hypertensive parents who are consanguineous (first cousins) or are not blood-related.
Blood pressure, heart rate and body mass index (BMI) were measured in 9–10 year-old male offspring of 19 pairs of first-cousins normotensive, 16 pairs of first-cousin hypertensive and 12 pairs of non-blood-related hypertensive parents.
The offspring of first-cousin hypertensive parents exhibited the greatest systolic and diastolic blood pressure reactivity to their first casual blood pressure measurement, while the offspring of first-cousin normotensive parents showed the least reactivity. The offspring of the hypertensive parents who were not blood-related showed an intermediate reactivity. Basal systolic blood pressure (SBP) was also highest in the offspring of first-cousin hypertensive parents, and their basal diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was higher than that in offspring of first-cousin normotensive parents.
The augmented blood pressure response in the offspring of hypertensive parents may have prognostic implications and serve as an important and significant indicator of predisposition to hypertension later in life.
consanguineous marriage; offspring; blood pressure reactivity; Oman
This study was performed in order to investigate dietary habits, health related lifestyle and blood cadmium and lead levels in female college students. 80 college students (43 males and 37 females) participated in the survey questionnaires. Body weight and height, blood pressure, and body composition were measured. The systolic blood pressure of male and female students were 128.9 ± 13.9 and 109.8 ± 12.0, respectively. The diastolic blood pressure of male and female students were 77.1 ± 10.3 and 66.0 ± 6.9, respectively, showing that male students had significantly higher blood pressure than female students (P < 0.001). The BMI of male and female students were 23.4 ± 3.3 and 20.2 ± 2.3, respectively. Most male students were in the range of being overweight. The dietary habits score of female students was significantly higher than that of male students (P < 0.01).The blood cadmium level of male and female students were 0.54 ± 0.23 and 0.52 ± 0.36, respectively. There was no significant difference between male and female students. The blood lead level of male and female students were 1.09 ± 0.49 and 0.59 ± 0.45, respectively. The blood lead level of male students was significantly higher than that of female students (P < 0.001). The blood cadmium level of smokers and nonsmokers were 0.69 ± 0.29 and 0.49 ± 0.29 respectively (P < 0.05). The blood cadmium level of smokers was significantly higher than that of nonsmokers (P < 0.05). The blood lead level of smokers and nonsmokers were 1.09 ± 0.43 and 0.80 ± 0.54, respectively. The blood lead level of smokers was significantly higher than that of nonsmokers (P < 0.05). Therefore, proper nutritional education programs are required for college students in order to improve their dietary and health related living habits.
Dietary habit; blood cadmium; blood lead; college students
To determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
A cross-sectional study was conducted during 1994 on a sample of students selected from 49 public schools using a multistage stratified random sampling technique. For all students, an interview was conducted and anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were obtained. Fasting glucose and total cholesterol levels on a capillary blood sample were measured using Accutrend for a subsample of students.
Of the 4042 students selected, 71% were males and the overall mean age was 15.3 ± 2.7 years. After age adjustment, about 23% of the students were found overweight. In addition, 6.4% and 9% of the students were found to have systolic and diastolic hypertension, respectively, with no statistically significant difference between males and females. Among 1432 students, 4% of males and 2% of females had hypercholesterolemia (p=0.06). Hyperglycemia was found in 0.4% of males and 0.6% of females. Among 1834 students in the 9th to 12th grades, 6.9% of males and 0.5% of females were current cigarette smokers.
Since attitudes and behaviors that influence future health are established during childhood and adolescence, intervention to prevent cardiovascular diseases (in adult life) should take place in childhood and youth to reduce the risk factors and schools have a great role to play in the promotion of good health.
Cardiovascular risk factors; school students; Saudi Arabia
The Seventh Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in 2003 created a prehypertension category for persons with blood pressures ranging from systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 120–139 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) from 80 to 89 mm Hg, due to increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
Our study utilized the University of California-San Diego (UCSD) Twin Hypertension Cohort. We measured comprehensive plasma cholesterol levels and metabolic (glucose, insulin, leptin) and inflammatory markers (interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), free fatty acids) to determine the differences between normotensive and prehypertensive subjects. Additionally, we determined whether angiotensin II receptor type-1 (AGTR1) polymorphisms, previously associated with hypertension, could predict prehypertension.
A total of 455 white subjects were included in the study (mean age 37.1 years). Prehypertensive subjects were older with greater body mass index (BMI) than the normotensives, and after adjusting for sex and age, had greater plasma glucose, insulin, and IL-6. The common AGTR1 A1166C (rs5186) polymorphism in the 3′-UTR region, particularly the presence of the 1166C allele, which fails to downregulate gene expression, predicted greater likelihood of being in the prehypertension group and higher SBP. A lesser-studied polymorphism in intron-2 of AGTR1 (A/G; rs2276736) was associated with plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoprotein A-1. In a subgroup analysis of nonobese subjects (N = 405), similar associations were noted.
Prehypertensive subjects already exhibit early pathophysiologic changes putting them at risk of future cardiovascular disease, and AGTR1 may also contribute to this increased risk. Further investigation is needed to confirm these findings and the precise molecular mechanisms of action.
AGTR1; angiotensin II receptor; blood pressure; hypertension; inflammation; prehypertension
The clinical behaviour and mean peak serum aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT) values of 106 patients admitted to a coronary care unit with acute myocardial infarction who displayed acute systolic hypertension were studied. Another 106 normotensive patients with acute myocardial infarction acted as controls. Neither group had established hypertension. The mortality rate, incidence of cardiac failure, major arrhythmias, and mean peak SGOT were significantly greater in the hypertensive group, within which the duration of hypertension was correlated with mean peak SGOT levels--through there was no definite relation between the height of systolic or diastolic pressure and SGOT. Transient systolic hypertension after acute myocardial infarction was therefore associated with a relatively poor prognosis, but our observations suggest that patients with a systolic blood pressure of at least 170 mm Hg might benefit from early hypotensive treatment.
OBJECTIVE--To compare the mean nocturnal blood pressure of patients with various forms of renal and endocrine hypertension with that in patients with primary and white coat hypertension, and normal blood pressure. DESIGN--Ambulatory monitoring of blood pressure over 24 hours in a prospective study. SETTING--Two German centres for outpatients with hypertension and kidney diseases. SUBJECTS--176 normotensive subjects, 490 patients with primary hypertension including mild and severe forms, 42 with white coat hypertension, 208 patients with renal and renovascular hypertension, 43 with hypertension and endocrine disorders, and three with coarctation of the aorta. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Fall in nocturnal blood pressure. RESULTS--Blood pressure in normotensive subjects fell by a mean of 14 mm Hg (11%) systolic and 13 mm Hg (17%) diastolic overnight (2200 to 0600). The falls in patients with primary and white coat hypertension were not significantly different. In all patients with renal and renovascular hypertension, however, the fall was significantly reduced (range of fall from 3/3 mm Hg to 7/9 mm Hg). In patients with hypertension and endocrine disorders the pattern of night time blood pressure was not uniform: patients with hyperthyroidism, primary hyperaldosteronism, and Cushing's syndrome had significantly smaller reductions in blood pressure (6/8, 4/7, 3/6 mm Hg, respectively). In patients with phaeochromocytoma the mean night time blood pressure increased by 4/2 mm Hg. In patients with hypertension, primary hyperparathyroidism, and unoperated coarctation of the aorta the falls in blood pressure were normal. CONCLUSIONS--In normotensive subjects and those with primary hypertension there is usually a reduction in blood pressure at night. In all renal forms of secondary hypertension and in most endocrine forms the reduction in blood pressure is only a third to a half of normal. Patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and unoperated coarctation of the aorta show a normal reduction.
Prevention and control of hypertension are critical in reducing morbidity and mortality attributable to cardiovascular diseases. Awareness of hypertension is a pre-condition for control and prevention. This study estimated the proportion of adults who were hypertensive, were aware of their hypertension and those that achieved adequate control.
We conducted a community based cross sectional survey among people≥15 years in Buikwe and Mukono districts of Uganda. People had their blood pressure measured and were interviewed about their social-demographic characteristics. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg, or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, or previous diagnosis of hypertension. Participants were classified as hypertensive aware if they reported that they had previously been informed by a health professional that they had hypertension. Control of hypertension among those aware was if systolic blood pressure was <140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure was <90 mmHg.
The age standardized prevalence of hypertension was 27.2% (95% CI 25.9–28.5) similar among females (27.7%) and males (26.4%). Prevalence increased linearly with age, and age effect was more marked among females. Among the hypertensive participants, awareness was 28.2% (95% CI 25.4–31.0) higher among females (37.0%) compared to males (12.4%). Only 9.4% (95% CI 7.5–11.1) of all hypertensive participants were controlled. Control was higher among females (13.2%) compared to males (2.5%).
More than a quarter of the adult population had hypertension but awareness and control was very low. Measures are needed to enhance control, awareness and prevention of hypertension.
To determine whether cardiac findings differ between blacks and whites with essential hypertension, members of a well-defined working population in New York City were examined. Hypertensives had diastolic blood pressure ≤95, or systolic blood pressure ≤160 mmHg, or both, sustained on three occasions over three weeks. Normotensives were selected to reflect the age, sex, and race distribution of the total working population. Of 207 employees, 75 hypertensives (40 percent blacks) and 132 normotensives (53 percent blacks) under-went M-mode echocardiography. Left ventricular (LV) measurements and simultaneous blood pressure by mercury manometer were used to calculate LV mass index (LVMI), relative wall thickness (RWTd), cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral resistance (TPR). There were no differences in any variable between black and white normotensives. Black and white hypertensives were similar in age (52 ± 10 and 54 ± 12 yr, respectively) and blood pressure (151/100 ± 15/11 and 153/99 ± 18/8 mmHg). Black hypertensives had significantly higher TPR (1.80 ± 0.74 vs 1.43 ± 0.46, P<.01), lower CO (6.0 ± 2.5 vs 7.2 ± 2.4 L/min, P<.01), and higher RWTd (0.43 ± 0.11 vs 0.37 ± 0.07, P<.05) than white hypertensives. Race, per se, cannot explain these differences since they did not occur among normotensives. Rather, these findings may reflect a differing patho-physiology of hypertension in blacks and whites with similar blood pressure elevation.
The relationship between elevated blood pressure and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease risk is well accepted. Both systolic and diastolic hypertension are associated with this risk increase, but systolic blood pressure appears to be a more important determinant of cardiovascular risk than diastolic blood pressure. Subjects for this study are derived from the Framingham Heart Study data set. Each subject had five records of clinical data of which systolic blood pressure, age, height, gender, weight, and hypertension treatment were selected to characterize the phenotype in this analysis.
We modeled systolic blood pressure as a function of age using a mixed modeling methodology that enabled us to characterize the phenotype for each individual as the individual's deviation from the population average rate of change in systolic blood pressure for each year of age while controlling for gender, body mass index, and hypertension treatment. Significant (p = 0.00002) evidence for linkage was found between this normalized phenotype and a region on chromosome 1. Similar linkage results were obtained when we estimated the phenotype while excluding values obtained during hypertension treatment. The use of linear mixed models to define phenotypes is a methodology that allows for the adjustment of the main factor by covariates. Future work should be done in the area of combining this phenotype estimation directly with the linkage analysis so that the error in estimating the phenotype can be properly incorporated into the genetic analysis, which, at present, assumes that the phenotype is measured (or estimated) without error.
The Middle Eastern and North African region of developing countries is associated with poor rates of blood pressure (BP) control and antihypertensive prescribing patterns. This post hoc analysis of data from an international observational study aimed to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of long-acting nifedipine (30 mg or 60 mg; monotherapy or in combination) in the Middle Eastern and Moroccan populations defined as having high cardiovascular risk.
This was a prospective, noninterventional, multicenter observational study. Observations from patients (aged ≥ 18 years) with treated or untreated hypertension from the Middle East (Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Lebanon, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen) and Morocco are presented. Hypertension grade and cardiovascular risk were defined at baseline, and systolic/diastolic BP change was defined at post-baseline visits (≤3). Adverse events and ratings of therapy efficacy and patient/physician satisfaction were recorded.
The study included 1466 patients from the Middle East and 524 from Morocco. Characteristics of the populations differed, with a more severe hypertension profile in Moroccan patients. Despite these differences, nifedipine reduced BP to a similar extent in each group, with efficacy dependent on cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension grade and age. Few adverse drug reactions occurred and nifedipine was well-tolerated in both populations. Efficacy and satisfaction with therapy were rated highly.
Good rates of BP control were observed with nifedipine in patients with moderate-to-severe hypertension and high added risk. Published data in these countries suggest poor antihypertensive prescribing patterns and BP control; these data confirm this trend and suggest that suboptimal dosing may be prevalent.
antihypertensive; safety; tolerability; hypertension; cardiovascular risk; blood pressure
Obesity is a significant risk factor for metabolic disorders including increase in blood pressure. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and Waist/Hip ratio (WHR) are simple and effective indicators of obesity. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationships between obesity anthropometric indicators and hypertension and to identify the best anthropometric indicator/s that can predict hypertension risk among youth in the UAE.
A 110 first year students in a Medical University in Ajman, UAE, during the year 2009–2010 were included in a cross-sectional study. The height, weight, WC, hip circumference and blood pressure were measured and the BMI and WHR were calculated for each student and used in the analyses.
The mean values for BMI, WC, hip circumference and WHR, were significantly higher in the Pre/Hypertensive group compared to normal blood pressure group. The risk of Pre/ hypertension was significantly increased by 4.3 times for participants who had general obesity (BMI≥ 30) or abdominal obesity (identified from high WC). Highly significant correlations were noticed between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and all anthropometric indicators except that for Hip circumference and systolic blood pressure. Step-wise linear regression model showed that when all obesity indicators were studied together, the waist circumference was the only indicator which showed significant relationship with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
Waist circumference is the best anthropometric indicator that can predict hypertension risk among youth in the UAE.
Hypertension; Youth; Obesity indicators
There are no time trends in prevalence, unawareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Switzerland. The objective of this study was to analyze these trends and to determine the associated factors.
Population-based study conducted in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland, between 1999 and 2009. Blood pressure was measured thrice using a standard protocol. Hypertension was defined as mean systolic or diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or self-reported hypertension or anti-hypertensive medication. Unawareness, untreated and uncontrolled hypertension was determined by questionnaires/blood pressure measurements. Yearly age-standardized prevalences and adjusted associations for the 1999–2003 and 2004–2009 survey periods were reported. The 10-year survey included 9,215 participants aged 35 to 74 years. Hypertension remained stable (34.4%). Hypertension unawareness decreased from 35.9% to 17.7% (P<0.001). The decrease in hypertension unawareness was not paralleled by a concomitant absolute increase in hypertension treatment, which remained low (38.2%). A larger proportion of all hypertensive participants were aware but not treated in 2004–2009 (43.7%) compared to 1999–2003 (33.1%). Uncontrolled hypertension improved from 62.2% to 40.6% between 1999 and 2009 (P = 0.02). In 1999–2003 period, factors associated with hypertension unawareness were current smoking (OR = 1.27, 95%CI, 1.02–1.59), male gender (OR = 1.56, 1.27–1.92), hypercholesterolemia (OR = 1.31, 1.20–1.44), and older age (OR 65–74yrs vs 35–49yrs = 1.56, 1.21–2.02). In 1999–2003 and 2004–2009, obesity and diabetes were negatively associated with hypertension unawareness, high education was associated with untreated hypertension (OR = 1.45, 1.12–1.88 and 1.42, 1.02–1.99, respectively), and male gender with uncontrolled hypertension (OR = 1.49, 1.03–2.17 and 1.65, 1.08–2.50, respectively). Sedentarity was associated with higher risk of hypertension and uncontrolled hypertension in 1999–2003.
Hypertension prevalence remained stable since 1999 in the canton of Geneva. Although hypertension unawareness substantially decreased, more than half of hypertensive subjects still remained untreated or uncontrolled in 2004–2009. This study identified determinants that should guide interventions aimed at improving hypertension treatment and control.
We compared patterns of blood pressure (BP) change between normotensive women, women who developed gestational hypertension or preeclampsia and women who had essential hypertension to examine how distinct these conditions are and whether rates of BP change may help to identify women at risk of hypertensive disorders. We used antenatal clinic BP measurements (median 14 per woman) of 13,016 women from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) who had a singleton or twin live birth surviving until at least 1 year. Linear spline models were used to describe changes in systolic and diastolic BP in different periods of pregnancy (8-18, 18-30, 30-36 and 36+ weeks gestation). Women who had essential hypertension, and those who developed gestational hypertension or preeclampsia had higher BP at 8 weeks gestation (baseline) compared with normotensive women. The decrease in BP until 18 weeks was smaller in gestational hypertensive compared with normotensive pregnancies. BP rose more rapidly from 18 weeks onwards in gestational hypertensive and preeclamptic pregnancies and from 30 weeks onwards in essential hypertensive compared with normotensive pregnancies. Women who developed preeclampsia had a more rapid increase in BP from 30 weeks onwards than those who developed gestational hypertension or had essential hypertension. Our findings indicate notable patterns of BP change that distinguish women with essential hypertension, gestational hypertension and preeclampsia from each other and from normotensive women, even from early pregnancy. These distinct patterns may be useful for identifying women at risk of developing a hypertensive disorder later in pregnancy.
blood pressure; preeclampsia; gestational hypertension; pregnancy; ALSPAC
To examine the association of early adulthood blood pressure with CVD mortality, while accounting for middle-age hypertension.
Elevated blood pressure in middle-age is an established CVD risk factor, but evidence for association with measurements earlier in life is sparse.
HAHS is a cohort study of 18,881 male university students who had blood pressure measured at university entry (1914 –1952; mean age 18.3 years) and who responded to a questionnaire mailed in 1962/1966 (mean age 45.8 years) in which physician-diagnosed hypertension status was reported. Study members were subsequently followed for mortality until the end of 1998.
Following adjustment for age, BMI, smoking and physical activity at college entry, compared to men who were normotensive according to JNC-7 criteria (<120/<80mmHg) there was an elevated risk of CHD mortality (1,917 deaths) in those who were pre-hypertensive (120–139/80–89 mmHg) (hazards ratio; 95% confidence intervals: 1.21; 1.07, 1.36), stage 1 (140–159/90–99 mmHg) (1.46; 1.25, 1.70), and stage 2 hypertensive (≥160/≥100 mmHg) (1.89; 1.46, 2.45), incremental across categories (ptrend<0.001). After additional account for middle-age hypertension, estimates were somewhat attenuated but the pattern remained. Similar associations were apparent for total and CVD but not stroke mortality.
Higher blood pressure in early adulthood was associated with elevated risk of mortality from all-causes, CVD and CHD, but not stroke several decades later. Effects largely persisted after taking account of mediation by middle-age hypertension. Thus, the long-term benefits of blood pressure lowering in early adulthood are promising but supporting trial data are required.
blood pressure; cardiovascular disease mortality; epidemiology; blood pressure; lifecourse
Baroreflex sensitivity and cardiopulmonary blood volume were determined in 95 men, including normotensive and hypertensive subjects with normal renal function and balanced sodium intake and urinary output. Baroreflex sensitivity was estimated by determining the slope of the regression line relating the increase of systolic pressure to the cardiac slowing after transient rises of arterial pressure. A technique of gradual atropinisation was used to evaluate the parasympathetic mediated component of the reflex. With this method, it was possible to calculate the exact atropine dose abolishing the reflex sensitivity. This index was not dependent on age. It was negatively correlated to the diastolic pressure in normotensive patients but not in hypertensive patients. The ratio between the cardiopulmonary and the total blood volume was considered as an index of sympathetic venous tone. This ratio was positively correlated to the diastolic pressure in normotensive patients, but not in hypertensive patients. This study strongly suggests that a precise sympathetic-parasympathetic balance existed in the normotensive patients. This balance was disrupted in the hypertensive patients pointing to abnormalities in the autonomic nervous system of permanently hypertensive patients.
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common hereditary condition that may be diagnosed in utero. Our goal was to evaluate symptoms of ADPKD in children, including left ventricular mass index (LVMI), renal volume, renal function and microalbuminuria in relation to systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Eighty-five children were stratified by blood pressure into three cohorts: hypertensive (95th percentile and over), borderline hypertensive (75–95th percentile) and normotensive (75th percentile and below). There were no differences in gender, age, height, renal function, or microalbuminuria between the groups. Both the hypertensive and borderline hypertensive children had a significantly higher LVMI than normotensive children, with no significant difference between hypertensive and borderline hypertensive groups. There was a significant correlation between renal volume and both systolic and diastolic blood pressures in all subjects. Renal volume in hypertensive children was significantly larger than in the borderline hypertensive group, with no significant difference between normotensive and borderline hypertensive groups. These findings show that an increase in LVMI may be detected earlier than an increase in renal volume in children with ADPKD and borderline hypertension, suggesting that close monitoring of cardiac status is indicated in these children.
polycystic kidney disease; children; borderline hypertension; left ventricular mass index
Determining which demographic and medical variables predict the development of hypertension could help clinicians stratify risk in both prehypertensive and nonhypertensive persons. Subject-level data from 2 community-based biracial cohorts were combined to ascertain the relationship between baseline characteristics and incident hypertension. Hypertension, defined as diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, or reported use of medication known to treat hypertension, was assessed prospectively at 3, 6, and 9 years. Internal validation was performed by the split-sample method with a 2:1 ratio for training and testing samples, respectively. A scoring algorithm was developed by converting the multivariable regression coefficients to integer values. Age, level of systolic or diastolic blood pressure, smoking, family history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, high body mass index, female sex, and lack of exercise were associated with the development of hypertension in the training sample. Regression models showed moderate to high capabilities of discrimination between hypertension vs nonhypertension (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.75–0.78) in the testing sample at 3, 6, and 9 years of follow-up. This risk calculator may aide health care providers in guiding discussions with patients about the risk for progression to hypertension.
Psychological distress contributes to the development of hypertension in young adults. This trial assessed the effects of a mind–body intervention on blood pressure (BP), psychological distress, and coping in college students.
This was a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 298 university students randomly allocated to either the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program or wait-list control. At baseline and after 3 months, BP, psychological distress, and coping ability were assessed. A subgroup of 159 subjects at risk for hypertension was analyzed similarly.
Changes in systolic BP (SBP)/diastolic BP (DBP) for the overall sample were −2.0/−1.2 mm Hg for the TM group compared to +0.4/+0.5 mm Hg for controls (P = 0.15, P = 0.15, respectively). Changes in SBP/DBP for the hypertension risk subgroup were −5.0/−2.8 mm Hg for the TM group compared to +1.3/+1.2 mm Hg for controls (P = 0.014, P = 0.028, respectively). Significant improvements were found in total psychological distress, anxiety, depression, anger/hostility, and coping (P values < 0.05). Changes in psychological distress and coping correlated with changes in SBP (P values < 0.05) and DBP (P values < 0.08).
This is the first RCT to demonstrate that a selected mind–body intervention, the TM program, decreased BP in association with decreased psychological distress, and increased coping in young adults at risk for hypertension. This mind–body program may reduce the risk for future development of hypertension in young adults.
One hundred and sixty-five middle-aged, apparently normal men were submitted to a six-month conditioning program. On the basis of a casual blood pressure measurement during the pre-training evaluation, 37 individuals (23%) were classified as “borderline” hypertensive. The remaining subjects (n = 128) were normotensive. At the conclusion of the program both groups exhibited significant reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressures at rest and after submaximal work. Moreover, the reductions of the resting systolic and diastolic and of the exercise (300 kg.m./min.) systolic blood pressures were significantly greater for the hypertensives.
OBJECTIVE: 1) To determine whether African-American physicians, compared to caucasian physicians, were at increased risk to develop hypertension; and 2) to determine whether physicians' knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors influenced their pattern of exercise. DESIGN: A mailed survey of members of the American Medical Association (AMA) and the National Medical Association (NMA) was completed to assess health status and plans for retirement. RESULTS: High-normal blood pressure was defined as systolic blood pressure of 85-89 mmHg. Mild (stage-1) hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure of 140-159 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure of 90-99 mmHg. Gender (male), age, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly correlated with elevated levels of selected blood pressure measures. Using regression analysis to control for gender, age, and BMI, ethnicity was identified as a fourth factor accounting for elevated blood pressure. NMA physicians had 3.25 times the risk of having systolic blood pressure in the mild (stage-1) hypertension range, 5.78 times the risk for blood pressure in the high-normal diastolic hypertension range, and 5.19 times the risk for blood pressure in the mild (stage-1) diastolic hypertension range. Medical specialty and type of psychological support were not significant predictors of elevated blood pressure. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that African-American physicians may be at an increased risk to develop abnormal blood pressure, compared to caucasian physicians, potentially affecting the number of physicians available to minority communities.
The recessive disorder trimethylaminuria is caused by defects in the FMO3 gene, and may be associated with hypertension. We investigated whether common polymorphisms of the FMO3 gene confer an increased risk for elevated blood pressure and/or essential hypertension.
FMO3 genotypes (E158K, V257M, E308G) were determined in 387 healthy subjects with ambulatory systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements, and in a cardiovascular disease population of 1649 individuals, 691(41.9%) of whom had a history of hypertension requiring drug treatment. Haplotypes were determined and their distribution noted.
There was no statistically significant association found between any of the 4 common haplotypes and daytime systolic blood pressure in the healthy population (p = 0.65). Neither was a statistically significant association found between the 4 common haplotypes and hypertension status among the cardiovascular disease patients (p = 0.80).
These results suggest that the variants in the FMO3 gene do not predispose to essential hypertension in this population.