Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is a selective type of autophagy by which specific cytosolic proteins are sent to lysosomes for degradation. Substrate proteins bind to the lysosomal membrane through the lysosome-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP-2A), one of the three splice variants of the lamp2 gene, and this binding is limiting for their degradation via CMA. However, the mechanisms of substrate binding and uptake remain unknown. We report here that LAMP-2A organizes at the lysosomal membrane into protein complexes of different sizes. The assembly and disassembly of these complexes are a very dynamic process directly related to CMA activity. Substrate proteins only bind to monomeric LAMP-2A, while the efficient translocation of substrates requires the formation of a particular high-molecular-weight LAMP-2A complex. The two major chaperones related to CMA, hsc70 and hsp90, play critical roles in the functional dynamics of the LAMP-2A complexes at the lysosomal membrane. Thus, we have identified a novel function for hsc70 in the disassembly of LAMP-2A from these complexes, whereas the presence of lysosome-associated hsp90 is essential to preserve the stability of LAMP-2A at the lysosomal membrane.
Regulated degradation of cellular components by lysosomes is essential to maintain biological homeostasis. In mammals, three forms of autophagy, macroautophagy, microautophagy and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), have been identified. Here, we showed a novel type of autophagy, in which RNA is taken up directly into lysosomes for degradation. This pathway, which we term “RNautophagy,” is ATP-dependent, and unlike CMA, is independent of HSPA8/Hsc70. LAMP2C, a lysosomal membrane protein, serves as a receptor for this pathway. The cytosolic tail of LAMP2C specifically binds to almost all total RNA derived from mouse brain. The cytosolic sequence of LAMP2C and its affinity for RNA are evolutionarily conserved from nematodes to humans. Our findings shed light on the mechanisms underlying RNA homeostasis in higher eukaryotes.
LAMP; LAMP2; LAMP-2; LAMP2C; LAMP-2C; autophagy; RNA; RNautophagy
Lysosome-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP2A) is a key protein in the chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) pathway. LAMP2A helps in lysosomal uptake of modified and oxidatively damaged proteins directly into the lumen of lysosomes for degradation and protein turnover. Elevated expression of LAMP2A was observed in breast tumor tissues of all patients under investigation, suggesting a survival mechanism via CMA and LAMP2A. Reduced expression of the CMA substrates, GAPDH and PKM, was observed in most of the breast tumor tissues when compared with the normal adjacent tissues. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated oxidative stress damages regulatory cellular components such as DNA, proteins and/or lipids. Protein carbonyl content (PCC) is widely used as a measure of total protein oxidation in cells. Ectopic expression of LAMP2A reduces PCC and thereby promotes cell survival during oxidative stress. Furthermore, inhibition of LAMP2A stimulates accumulation of GAPDH, AKT1 phosphorylation, generation of ROS, and induction of cellular apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Doxorubicin, which is a chemotherapeutic drug, often becomes ineffective against tumor cells with time due to chemotherapeutic resistance. Breast cancer cells deficient of LAMP2A demonstrate increased sensitivity to the drug. Thus, inhibiting CMA activity in breast tumor cells can be exploited as a potential therapeutic application in the treatment of breast cancer.
PCC; TUNEL; autophagy; CMA; tumor; tissues; doxorubicin
Background: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in sarcomeric genes. However, extensive genetic screening failed to identify a mutation in about a third of cases. One possible explanation is that other diseases, caused by other genes, may mimic HCM.
Objective: To investigate the possible involvement of Danon’s disease, an X linked lysosomal disease, in a large population of patients with HCM.
Methods: A population of 197 index cases was considered; 124 were subsequently excluded because of a mutation in sarcomeric genes and 23 because of autosomal dominant inheritance. Fifty index cases were therefore included in molecular analysis (direct sequencing) of the lysosome associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2) gene responsible for Danon’s disease.
Results: Two new mutations leading to premature stop codons were identified in patients who evolved towards severe heart failure (< 25 years old): 657C>T and 173_179del. The prevalence was therefore 1% of the total population (two of 197) or 4% of enrolled index cases (two of 50). Interestingly, Danon’s disease was responsible for half of the cases (two of four) with HCM and clinical skeletal myopathy but was not involved in isolated HCM (none of 41).
Conclusions: Danon’s disease may be involved in patients with previously diagnosed as HCM. A diagnosis strategy is proposed. To distinguish HCM from Danon’s disease is important because the clinical evolution, prognosis, mode of inheritance, and therefore genetic counselling are very different.
gene; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; Danon’s disease; LAMP2; lysosome associated membrane protein 2; skeletal myopathy
A subset of cytosolic proteins can be selectively degraded in lysosomes through chaperone-mediated autophagy. The lysosomal-membrane protein type 2A (LAMP-2A) acts as the receptor for the substrates of chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), which should undergo unfolding before crossing the lysosomal membrane and reaching the lumen for degradation. Translocation of substrates is assisted by chaperones on both sides of the membrane, but the actual steps involved in this process and the characteristics of the translocation complex were, for the most part, unknown. We have now found that rather than a stable translocon at the lysosomal membrane, CMA substrates bind to monomers of LAMP-2A driving the organization of this protein into a high molecular weight multimeric complex that mediates translocation. Assembly and disassembly of LAMP-2A into and from this complex is dynamic and it is regulated by hsc70 and hsp90, the two lysosomal chaperones related to CMA. This work thus unveils a unique mechanism of protein translocation across the lysosomal membrane, which involves only transient discontinuity of the membrane. The possible advantages of this transitory lysosomal translocon are discussed in light of the unique properties of the lysosomal compartment.
autophagy; chaperones; membrane dynamics; membrane proteins; protein translocation
The extensively glycosylated lysosome-associated membrane proteins (LAMP)-2a, b, and c are derived from a single gene by alternative splicing that produces proteins with differences in the transmembrane and cytosolic domains. The lysosomal targeting signals reside in the cytosolic domain of these proteins. LAMPs are not restricted to lysosomes but can also be found in endosomes and at the cell surface. We investigated the subcellular distribution of chimeras comprised of the lumenal domain of avian LAMP-1 and the alternatively spliced domains of avian LAMP-2. Chimeras with the LAMP-2c cytosolic domain showed predominantly lysosomal distribution, while higher levels of chimeras with the LAMP-2a or b cytosolic domain were present at the cell surface. The increase in cell surface expression was due to differences in the recognition of the targeting signals and not saturation of intracellular trafficking machinery. Site-directed mutagenesis defined the COOH-terminal residue of the cytosolic tail as critical in governing the distributions of LAMP-2a, b, and c between intracellular compartments and the cell surface.
Danon disease is an X-linked dominant disorder characterized by the clinical triad of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), skeletal myopathy and variable mental retardation. Pathologically, autophagic vacuoles are noted in both skeletal and cardiac muscle. It exhibits an X-linked dominant mode of inheritance and males are severely affected, while females develop milder and later-onset cardiac symptoms. Danon disease has been associated with mutations in the LAMP2 gene located at Xq24, typically resulting in splicing defects or protein truncation affecting the lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 2 (LAMP2). Because of its rarity, the full spectrum of genetic mutation resulting in Danon disease has not been elucidated.
Methods and Results
We analyzed three males with clinical and pathological findings consistent with Danon disease. Comprehensive mutational analysis failed to yield detectable products for selected LAMP2 exons and genomic DNA deletion was suspected. Genomic junction fragment PCR analysis in Case-1 identified a novel Alu-mediated 34kb microdeletion encompassing the entire 5’UTR and exon-1 of LAMP2. In Case-2 and -3, junctional PCR and Southern Blot analyses mapped the breakpoint to a MIRb and (TA)n simple repeats present in intron-3, which determined a 64kb and a 58Kb deletion, respectively, thereby ablating exons-4–10. Western blot analysis confirmed the absence of LAMP2 in protein extract from lymphocytes of index Case-2.
This is the first report of Danon disease caused by microdeletions at Xq24, which functionally ablate LAMP2. The microdeletion mechanism appears to involve one Alu-mediated unequal recombination and two chromosomal breakage points involving TA-rich repeat sequences.
LAMP2; HCM; Danon; Alu; (TA)n simple repeat; MIRb; MER21B; LIMA4A; Xq24; lysosome; vacuoles
Human lysosome membrane glycoprotein h-lamp-1 is a highly N- glycosylated protein found predominantly in lysosomes, with low levels present at the cell surface. The signal required for delivery of h-lamp- 1 to lysosomes was investigated by analyzing the intracellular distribution of h-lamp-1 with altered amino acid sequences expressed from mutated cDNA clones. A cytoplasmic tail tyrosine residue found conserved in chicken, rodent, and human deduced amino acid sequences was discovered to be necessary for efficient lysosomal transport of h- lamp-1 in COS-1 cells. In addition, the position of the tyrosine residue relative to the membrane and carboxyl terminus also determined lysosomal expression. Supplanting the wild-type h-lamp-1 cytoplasmic tail onto a cell surface reporter glycoprotein was sufficient to cause redistribution of the chimera to lysosomes. A similar chimeric protein replacing the cytoplasmic tyrosine residue with an alanine was not expressed in lysosomes. Altered proteins that were not transported to lysosomes were found to accumulate at the cell surface, and unlike wild- type lysosomal membrane glycoproteins, were unable to undergo endocytosis. These data indicate that lysosomal membrane glycoproteins are sorted to lysosomes by a cytoplasmic signal containing tyrosine in a specific position, and the sorting signal may be recognized both in the trans-Golgi network and at the cell surface.
Lysosomes contain various hydrolases that can degrade proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and carbohydrates. We recently discovered “RNautophagy,” an autophagic pathway in which RNA is directly taken up by lysosomes and degraded. A lysosomal membrane protein, LAMP2C, a splice variant of LAMP2, binds to RNA and acts as a receptor for this pathway. In the present study, we show that DNA is also directly taken up by lysosomes and degraded. Like RNautophagy, this autophagic pathway, which we term “DNautophagy,” is dependent on ATP. The cytosolic sequence of LAMP2C also directly interacts with DNA, and LAMP2C functions as a receptor for DNautophagy, in addition to RNautophagy. Similarly to RNA, DNA binds to the cytosolic sequences of fly and nematode LAMP orthologs. Together with the findings of our previous study, our present findings suggest that RNautophagy and DNautophagy are evolutionarily conserved systems in Metazoa.
LAMP2; LAMP-2; LAMP2C; LAMP-2C; autophagy; RNA; RNautophagy; DNA; DNautophagy
The adaptor protein (AP) 3 adaptor complex has been implicated in the transport of lysosomal membrane proteins, but its precise site of action has remained controversial. Here, we show by immuno-electron microscopy that AP-3 is associated with budding profiles evolving from a tubular endosomal compartment that also exhibits budding profiles positive for AP-1. AP-3 colocalizes with clathrin, but to a lesser extent than does AP-1. The AP-3– and AP-1–bearing tubular compartments contain endocytosed transferrin, transferrin receptor, asialoglycoprotein receptor, and low amounts of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor and the lysosome-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) 1 and 2. Quantitative analysis revealed that of these distinct cargo proteins, only LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 are concentrated in the AP-3–positive membrane domains. Moreover, recycling of endocytosed LAMP-1 and CD63 back to the cell surface is greatly increased in AP-3–deficient cells. Based on these data, we propose that AP-3 defines a novel pathway by which lysosomal membrane proteins are transported from tubular sorting endosomes to lysosomes.
AP-3 adaptor protein; TGN; endosomes; immuno-EM; clathrin
Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is a selective form of autophagy whose distinctive feature is the fact that substrate proteins are translocated directly from the cytosol across the lysosomal membrane for degradation inside lysosomes. CMA substrates are cytosolic proteins bearing a pentapeptide motif in their sequence that, when recognized by the cytosolic chaperone HSPA8/HSC70, targets them to the surface of the lysosomes. Once there, substrate proteins bind to the lysosome-associated membrane protein type 2 isoform A (LAMP2A), inducing assembly of this receptor protein into a higher molecular weight protein complex that is used by the substrate proteins to reach the lysosomal lumen. CMA is constitutively active in most cells but it is maximally activated under conditions of stress.
cholesterol; diet; lipid microdomains; lipidomic analysis; lysosomes; membrane proteins; proteolysis
Salmonella is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that replicates within a membrane-bound vacuole in host cells. The major lysosomal membrane proteins 1 and 2 (LAMP-1 and LAMP-2) are recruited to the Salmonella-containing vacuole as well as Salmonella- associated filaments (Sifs) that emerge from the vacuole. LAMP-1 is a dominant membrane marker for the vacuole and Sifs. Its colocalization with both is dependent on a major secreted bacterial virulence protein, SifA. Here, we show that SifA is required for the recruitment of LAMP-2 and can be used as a second independent marker for both the bacterial vacuolar membrane and Sifs. Further, RNAi studies revealed that in LAMP-1 depleted cells, the bacteria remain membrane bound as measured by their association with LAMP-2 protein. In contrast, LAMP-2 depletion increased the amount of LAMP-1 free bacteria. Together, the data suggests that despite its abundance, LAMP-1 is not essential, but LAMP-2 may be partially important for the Salmonella-containing vacuolar membrane.
The bovine cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CD-MPR) is a type 1 transmembrane protein that cycles between the trans-Golgi network, endosomes, and the plasma membrane. When the terminal 40 residues were deleted from the 67-amino acid cytoplasmic tail of the CD- MPR, the half-life of the receptor was drastically decreased and the mutant receptor was recovered in lysosomes. Analysis of additional cytoplasmic tail truncation mutants and alanine-scanning mutants implicated amino acids 34-39 as being critical for avoidance of lysosomal degradation. The cytoplasmic tail of the CD-MPR was partially effective in preventing the lysosomal membrane protein Lamp1 from entering lysosomes. Complete exclusion required both the CD-MPR cytoplasmic tail and transmembrane domain. The transmembrane domain alone had just a minor effect on the distribution of Lamp1. These findings indicate that the cytoplasmic tail of the CD-MPR contains a signal that prevents the receptor from trafficking to lysosomes. The transmembrane domain of the CD-MPR also contributes to this function.
Autophagy contributes to the removal of prone-to-aggregate proteins, but in several instances these pathogenic proteins have been shown to interfere with autophagic activity. In the case of Huntington’s disease (HD), a congenital neurodegenerative disorder resulting from mutation in the huntingtin protein, we have previously described that the mutant protein interferes with the ability of autophagic vacuoles to recognize cytosolic cargo. Growing evidence supports the existence of cross-talk among autophagic pathways, suggesting the possibility of functional compensation when one of them is compromised. In this study, we have identified a compensatory upregulation of chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) in different cellular and mouse models of HD. Components of CMA, namely the lysosome-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP-2A) and lysosomal-hsc70, are markedly increased in HD models. The increase in LAMP-2A is achieved through both an increase in the stability of this protein at the lysosomal membrane and transcriptional upregulation of this splice variant of the lamp-2 gene. We propose that CMA activity increases in response to macroautophagic dysfunction in the early stages of HD, but that the efficiency of this compensatory mechanism may decrease with age and so contribute to cellular failure and the onset of pathological manifestations.
chaperones; lysosomal membrane proteins; lysosomes; neurodegeneration; proteotoxicity; proteolysis
The limiting membrane of the lysosome contains a group of transmembrane glycoproteins named lysosome-associated membrane proteins (Lamps). These proteins are targeted to lysosomes by virtue of tyrosine-based sorting signals in their cytosolic tails. Four adaptor protein (AP) complexes, AP-1, AP-2, AP-3, and AP-4, interact with such signals and are therefore candidates for mediating sorting of the Lamps to lysosomes. However, the role of these complexes and of the coat protein, clathrin, in sorting of the Lamps in vivo has either not been addressed or remains controversial. We have used RNA interference to show that AP-2 and clathrin—and to a lesser extent the other AP complexes—are required for efficient delivery of the Lamps to lysosomes. Because AP-2 is exclusively associated with plasma membrane clathrin coats, our observations imply that a significant population of Lamps traffic via the plasma membrane en route to lysosomes.
A more complete picture of the molecules that are critical for the organization of membrane compartments is beginning to emerge through the characterization of proteins in the vesicle-associated membrane protein (also called synaptobrevin) family of membrane trafficking proteins. To better understand the mechanisms of membrane trafficking within the endocytic pathway, we generated a series of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against the cytoplasmic domain of vesicle-associated membrane protein 7 (VAMP-7). The antibodies recognize a 25-kD membrane-associated protein in multiple tissues and cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis reveals colocalization with a marker of late endosomes and lysosomes, lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1), but not with other membrane markers, including p115 and transferrin receptor. Treatment with nocodozole or brefeldin A does not disrupt the colocalization of VAMP-7 and LAMP-1. Immunoelectron microscopy analysis shows that VAMP-7 is most concentrated in the trans-Golgi network region of the cell as well as late endosomes and transport vesicles that do not contain the mannose-6 phosphate receptor. In streptolysin- O–permeabilized cells, antibodies against VAMP-7 inhibit the breakdown of epidermal growth factor but not the recycling of transferrin. These data are consistent with a role for VAMP-7 in the vesicular transport of proteins from the early endosome to the lysosome.
VAMP-7; SNARE; endosome; lysosome; membrane trafficking
Recent findings from our group, obtained on experimental in vivo and ex vivo models of pancreatitis, reveal that this disease causes a profound dysfunction of key cellular organelles, lysosomes and mitochondria. We found that autophagy, the main cellular degradative, lysosome-driven process, is activated but also impaired in acute pancreatitis because of its’ inefficient progression/resolution (flux) resulting from defective function of lysosomes. One mechanism underlying the lysosomal dysfunction in pancreatitis is abnormal processing (maturation) and activation of cathepsins, major lysosomal hydrolases; another is a decrease in pancreatic levels of key lysosomal membrane proteins LAMP-1 and LAMP-2. Our data indicate that lysosomal dysfunction plays an important initiating role in pancreatitis pathobiology. The impaired autophagy mediates vacuole accumulation in acinar cells; furthermore, the abnormal maturation and activation of cathepsins leads to increase in intra-acinar trypsin, the hallmark of pancreatitis; and LAMP-2 deficiency causes inflammation and acinar cell necrosis. Thus, the autophagic and lysosomal dysfunctions mediate key pathologic responses of pancreatitis. On the other hand, we showed that pancreatitis causes acinar cell mitochondria depolarization, mediated by the permeability transition pore (PTP). Genetic (via deletion of cyclophilin D) inactivation of PTP prevents mitochondrial depolarization and greatly ameliorates the pathologic responses of pancreatitis. Further, our data suggest that mitochondrial damage, by stimulating autophagy, increases the demand for efficient lysosomal degradation and therefore aggravates the pathologic consequences of lysosomal dysfunction. Thus, the combined autophagic, lysosomal and mitochondrial dysfunctions are key to the pathogenesis of pancreatitis.
lysosome; cathepsin; LAMP protein; permeability transition pore; pancreatic mitochondria
Huntington Disease (HD) is caused by an abnormal expansion of polyQ tract in the protein named huntingtin (Htt). HD pathology is featured by accumulation and aggregation of mutant Htt in striatal and cortical neurons. Aberrant Htt degradation is implicated in HD pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulatory role of chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) components, heat shock protein cognate 70 (Hsc70) and lysosome-associated protein 2A (LAMP-2A) in degradation of Htt fragment 1-552aa (Htt-552). A cell model of HD was produced by overexpression of Htt-552 with adenovirus. The involvement of CMA components in degradation of Htt-552 was determined with over-expression or silencing of Hsc70 and LAMP-2A. The results confirmed previous reports that both macroautophagy and CMA were involved in degradation of Htt-552. Changing the levels of CMA-related proteins affected the accumulation of Htt-552. The lysosomal binding and luminal transport of Htt-552 was demonstrated by incubation of Htt-552 with isolated lysosomes. Expansion of the polyQ tract in Htt-552 impaired its uptake and degradation by lysosomes. Mutation of putative KFERQ motif in wild-type Htt-552 interfered with interactions between Htt-552 and Hsc70. Endogenous Hsc70 and LAMP-2A interacted with exogenously expressed Htt-552. Modulating the levels of CMA related proteins degraded endogenous full-length Htt. These studies suggest that Hsc70 and LAMP-2A through CMA play a role in the clearance of Htt and suggest a novel strategy to target the degradation of mutant Htt.
Influenza A virus mutates rapidly, rendering antiviral therapies and vaccines directed against virus-encoded targets ineffective. Knowledge of the host factors and molecular pathways exploited by influenza virus will provide further targets for novel antiviral strategies. However, the critical host factors involved in influenza virus infection have not been fully defined.
We demonstrated that LAMP3, a member of lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein (LAMP) family, was significantly induced in human lung epithelial (A549) cells upon influenza A virus infection. Knockdown of LAMP3 expression by RNA interference attenuated production of viral nucleoprotein (NP) as well as virus titers. Confocal microscopy results demonstrated that viral NP is colocalized within LAMP3 positive vesicles at early stages of virus infection. Furthermore, knockdown of LAMP3 expression led to a reduction in nuclear accumulation of viral NP and impeded virus replication.
LAMP3 is an influenza A virus inducible gene, and plays an important role in viral post-entry steps. Our observations may provide insights into the mechanism of influenza virus replication and potential targets for novel anti-influenza therapeutics.
Although Bordetella pertussis has been observed to survive inside macrophages, its ability to resist or evade degradation in phagolysosomes has not been defined. We here investigated the trafficking of B. pertussis upon entry into human macrophages. During the first hours following phagocytosis, a high percentage of bacteria were destroyed within acidic compartments positive for the lysosome-associated membrane proteins (LAMP). However, roughly one-fourth of the bacteria taken up evade this initial killing event, remaining in nonacidic compartments. Forty-eight hours after infection, the number of intracellular bacteria per cell increased, suggesting that B. pertussis is capable of replicating in this type of compartment. Viable bacteria accumulated within phagosomal compartments positive for the early endosomal marker Rab5 but not the late endosomal marker LAMP. Moreover, B. pertussis-containing phagosomes acquired exogenously added transferrin, indicating that intracellular bacteria have access to extracellular components and essential nutrients via the host cell recycling pathway. Overall, these results suggest that B. pertussis survives and eventually replicates in compartments with characteristics of early endosomes, potentially contributing to its extraordinary ability to persist within hosts and populations.
In neurodegenerative diseases, it remains unclear why certain brain regions are selectively vulnerable to protein aggregation. In transgenic mice expressing human A53T α-synuclein, the brainstem and spinal cord develop the most prominent α-synuclein inclusions which correlate with age-dependent motor dysfunction. Herein we present the novel finding that this selective aggregation is in part dependent on the inability of chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) to effectively degrade α-synuclein in these brain regions. Lysosomal assays revealed that CMA activity was significantly decreased in aggregation-prone regions compared to the remainder of the brain. Previously, CMA activity has been shown to be proportional to levels of the CMA receptor Lamp-2a. Using antibodies, brain tissue from Lamp-2a null mice, enzymatic deglycosylation, and mass spectrometry, we identified Lamp2a as a novel 72 kDa glycoprotein in the mouse brain. Examination of Lamp-2a levels revealed differences in expression across brain regions. The brainstem and the spinal cord had a more than three-fold greater levels of Lamp-2a as compared to regions less vulnerable to aggregation and exhibited a selective upregulation of Lamp-2a during development of α-synuclein inclusions. Despite this dynamic response of Lamp-2a, the levels of substrates bound to the brain lysosomes as well as the rates of substrate uptake and degradation were not proportional to the levels of Lamp-2a. These regional differences in CMA activity and Lamp-2a expression were found in both non-transgenic mice as well as A53T α-syn mice. Therefore, these are inherent variations and not a transgene-specific effect. However, differences in CMA activity may render select brain regions vulnerable to homeostatic dysfunction in the presence of stressors such as overexpression of human A53T α-syn. Collectively, the data provide a potential mechanism to explain the dichotomy of vulnerability or resistance that underlies brain regions during aggregate formation in neurodegenerative disease.
Parkinson’s Disease; protein aggregation; Lamp-2a; lysosomes
Alterations in lipid homeostasis are implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases, although the mechanisms responsible are poorly understood. We evaluated the impact of cholesterol accumulation, induced by U18666A, quinacrine or mutations in the cholesterol transporting Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC1) protein, on lysosomal stability and sensitivity to lysosome-mediated cell death. We found that neurons with lysosomal cholesterol accumulation were protected from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. In addition, human fibroblasts with cholesterol-loaded lysosomes showed higher lysosomal membrane stability than controls. Previous studies have shown that cholesterol accumulation is accompanied by the storage of lipids such as sphingomyelin, glycosphingolipids and sphingosine and an up regulation of lysosomal associated membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2), which may also influence lysosomal stability. However, in this study the use of myriocin and LAMP deficient fibroblasts excluded these factors as responsible for the rescuing effect and instead suggested that primarily lysosomal cholesterol content determineD the cellular sensitivity to toxic insults. Further strengthening this concept, depletion of cholesterol using methyl-β-cyclodextrin or 25-hydroxycholesterol decreased the stability of lysosomes and cells became more prone to undergo apoptosis. In conclusion, cholesterol content regulated lysosomal membrane permeabilization and thereby influenced cell death sensitivity. Our data suggests that lysosomal cholesterol modulation might be used as a therapeutic strategy for conditions associated with accelerated or repressed apoptosis.
The virulence of Salmonella typhimurium for mice results, in part, from its ability to survive after phagocytosis by macrophages. Although it is generally agreed that intracellular bacteria persist in membrane-bound phagosomes, there remains some question as to whether these phagosomes fuse with macrophage lysosomes. This report describes the maturation of phagosomes containing S. typhimurium inside mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. Macrophages were infected briefly and incubated for various intervals; then they were examined by fluorescence microscopy for colocalization of bacteria with lysosomal markers. These markers included LAMP-1, cathepsin L, and fluorescent proteins or dextrans preloaded into lysosomes by endocytosis. By all measures, phagosomes containing S. typhimurium merged completely with the lysosomal compartment within 20 min of phagocytosis. The rate of phagosome-lysosome fusion was similar to the rate for phagocytosed latex beads. Phagolysosomes remained accessible to fluid-phase probes and contained lysosomal markers for many hours. Moreover, a large percentage of the wild-type bacteria that were viable 20 min after infection survived longer incubations inside macrophages, indicating that the survivors were not a minor subpopulation that avoided phagosome-lysosome fusion. Therefore, we conclude that S. typhimurium survives within the lysosomal compartments of macrophages.
Oxidatively damaged proteins accumulate with age in almost all cell types and tissues. The activity of chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), a selective pathway for the degradation of cytosolic proteins in lysosomes, decreases with age. We have analyzed the possible participation of CMA in the removal of oxidized proteins in rat liver and cultured mouse fibroblasts. Added to the fact that CMA substrates, when oxidized, are more efficiently internalized into lysosomes, we have found a constitutive activation of CMA during oxidative stress. Oxidation-induced activation of CMA correlates with higher levels of several components of the lysosomal translocation complex, but in particular of the lumenal chaperone, required for substrate uptake, and of the lysosomal membrane protein (lamp) type 2a, previously identified as a receptor for this pathway. In contrast with the well characterized mechanism of CMA activation during nutritional stress, which does not require de novo synthesis of the receptor, oxidation-induced activation of CMA is attained through transcriptional up-regulation of lamp2a. We conclude that CMA is activated during oxidative stress and that the higher activity of this pathway under these conditions, along with the higher susceptibility of the oxidized proteins to be taken up by lysosomes, both contribute to the efficient removal of oxidized proteins.
Two murine lysosome-associated membrane proteins, LAMP-1 of 105,000- 115,000 D and LAMP-2 of 100,000-110,000 D, have been identified by monoclonal antibodies that bind specifically to lysosomal membranes. Both glycoproteins were distinguished as integral membrane components solubilized by detergent solutions but not by various chaotropic agents. The lysosome localization was demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescent staining, co-localization of the antigen to sites of acridine orange uptake, and immunoelectron microscopy. Antibody binding was predominantly located at the limiting lysosomal membrane, distinctly separated from colloidal gold-labeled alpha-2-macroglobulin accumulated in the lumen during prolonged incubation. LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 also appeared to be present in low concentrations on Golgi trans- elements but were not detected in receptosomes marked by the presence of newly endocytosed alpha-2-macroglobulin, or in other cellular structures. LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 were distinguished as different molecules by two-dimensional gel analysis, 125I-tryptic peptide mapping, and sequential immunoprecipitations of 125I-labeled cell extracts. Both glycoproteins were synthesized as a precursor protein of approximately 90,000 D, and showed a marked heterogeneity of apparent molecular weight expression in different cell lines. LAMP-2 was closely related or identical to the macrophage antigen, MAC-3, as indicated by antibody adsorption and tryptic peptide mapping. It is postulated that these glycoproteins, as major protein constituents of the lysosomal membrane, have important roles in lysosomal structure and function.