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1.  XXIV World Allergy Congress 2015 
Lee, Heung-Man | Park, Il-Ho | Shin, Jae-Min | Yoon, Hyun-Sun | Park, Gyeong Yul | Zeher, Margit | Matsui, Katsuhiko | Tamai, Saki | Ikeda, Reiko | Suri, Drsushil | Suri, Dranu | Arani, Marzieh Heidarzadeh | Lubis, Azwin | Endaryanto, Anang | Koga, Shinichiro | Suk, Lee Ju | Tsuzuki, Yasunobu | Kim, Seo Hyeong | Shin, Jung U. | Noh, Ji Yeon | Jin, Shan | Jin, Shan | Lee, Hemin | Lee, Jungsoo | Park, Chang Ook | Lee, Kwang Hoon | Lee, Kwang Hoon | Tepetam, Fatma Merve | Park, Chun Wook | Son, Jee Hee | Cho, Soo Ick | Cho, Yong Se | Byun, Yun Sun | Yang, Yoon Seok | Chung, Bo Young | Kim, Hye One | Cho, Hee Jin | Katada, Yoshinori | Tanaka, Toshio | Nakabayashi, Akihiko | Nishida, Koji | Aoyagi, Kenichi | Tsukamoto, Yuki | Konma, Kazushi | Matsuura, Motoo | Park, Jung-Won | Harada, Yoshinori | Jeong, Kyoung Yong | Yura, Akiko | Yoshimura, Maiko | Kyung, Tae-Suk | Kim, Young Hyo | Park, Chang-Shin | Jang, Tae Young | Heo, Min-Jeong | Jung, Ah-Yeoun | Yang, Seung-Chan | Kim, Hye One | Cho, Yong Se | Byun, Yun Sun | Yang, Yoon Seok | Chung, Bo Young | Son, Jee Hee | Park, Chun Wook | Cho, Hee Jin | Pfaar, Oliver | Sager, Angelika | Agarwal, Amit | Singh, Meenu | Chatterjee, Bishnupda | Chauhan, Anil | Striz, Ilja | Cecrdlova, Eva | Petrickova, Katerina | Kolesar, Libor | Sekerkova, Alena | Svachova, Veronika | Petricek, Miroslav | Kwon, Hyuck Hoon | Kim, Kyu Han | Kumar, Suman | Manzon, Lou Ver Leigh Arciaga | Andaya, Pilar Agnes Gonzalez | Lew, Bark-Lynn | Oh, Youngjun | Suh, Dongwoo | Sim, Woo-Young | Jeong, Kyoung Yong | Yi, Myung-Hee | Son, Mina | Lyu, Dongpyo | Lee, Jae-Hyun | Yong, Tai-Soon | Hong, Chein-Soo | Park, Jung-Won | Jeong, Kyoung Yong | Yi, Myung-Hee | Son, Mina | Lyu, Dongpyo | Lee, Jae-Hyun | Yong, Tai-Soon | Hong, Chein-Soo | Park, Jung-Won | Siavashi, Mohammadreza | Yun, Hey Suk | Kang, Ha-Na | Oh, Jae-Won | Choi, Young Jin | Oh, Jae-Won | Choi, Young Jin | Kang, Ha-Na | Sentsova, Tatiana | Vorozhko, Ilya | Chernyak, Olga | Revyakina, Vera | Timopheeva, Anna | Donnikov, Andrey | Sentsova, Tatiana | Vorozhko, Ilya | Chernyak, Olga | Revyakina, Vera | Timopheeva, Anna | Lee, Ji Hyun | Park, Young Min | Choi, Sang Soo | Han, Kyung Do | Jung, Han Mi | Youn, Young Hoon | Lee, Jun Young | Park, Yong Gyu | Lee, Seung-Hwan | Li, Jing | Feng, Mulin | Roponen, Marjut | Schaub, Bianca | Wong, Gary W. K. | Yang, Zhaowei | Choi, Young Jin | Kang, Ha-Na | Oh, Jae-Won | Sun, Baoqing | Zheng, Peiyan | Park, Yoon-Sung | Son, Sang Wook | Kose, Sukran | Kiraz, Kemal | Yalcin, Arzu Didem | Yune, Sehyo | Paeng, Jae-Won | Oh, Mi-Jung | Lee, Byung-Jae | Choi, Dong-Chull | Lim, Young Hee | Ha, Kyoung Won | Lee, Jin-Young | Yamamoto-Hanada, Kiwako | Narita, Masami | Futamura, Masaki | Ohya, Yukihiro | Kim, Jihyun | Choi, Jinwha | Kim, Kwanghoon | Choi, Jaehee | Ahn, Kangmo | Chang, Sun-Ho/Brian | Li, Lisha | Adachi, Yu-Ichi | Kanatani, Kumiko Tsuji | Narabayashi, Shigeyuki | Okafuji, Ikuo | Tanaka, Yuya | Tsuruta, Satoru | Takamatsu, Nobue | Kim, Soo Whan | Kim, Do Hyun | Yoon, Jong-Seo | Kim, Jin Tack | Kim, Hwan Soo | Chun, Yoon Hong | Kim, Hyun Hee | Won, Sul Mui | Hon, Kam Lun E. | Chow, Chung Mo | Leung, Ting Fan | Kim, Do Hyun | Kim, Soo Whan | Esguerra, Gemmalyn | Resurreccion, Emily | Kionisala, Kristine Elisa | Dela Cruz, Jenni Rose | Imran, Muhammad | Choe, Yun Seon | Kim, Kyu Han | Choi, Mira | Kim, Byung Soo | Lee, Hyun-Joo | Kim, Jeong-Min | Kim, Jeong-Min | Kim, Gun-Wook | Mun, Je-Ho | Mun, Je-Ho | Kim, Hoon-Soo | Song, Margaret | Ko, Hyun-Chang | Ko, Hyun-Chang | Kim, Moon-Bum | Yoon, Sun-Young | Kandhare, Amit | Yahiro, Noriko | Agarwal, Amit | Singh, Meenu | Kaur, Jasleen | Pawankar, Ruby | Pant, Pankaj | Singh, Sukhmanjeet | Kim, Hwan Soo | Yoon, Jong-Seo | Won, Sul Mui | Chun, Yoon Hong | Kim, Jin Tack | Kim, Hyun Hee | Kim, Hwan Soo | Won, Sul Mui | Chun, Yoon Hong | Yoon, Jong-Seo | Kim, Hyun Hee | Kim, Jin Tack | Kampitak, Thatchai | Kim, So Min | Lee, Hyun Joo | Kim, Hei Sung | Lee, Jeong Deuk | Cho, Sang Hyun | Godse, Kiran | Soekarno, Juwita | Ratnasari, Sarie | Datau, E. Alwi | Surachmanto, Eko | Matheos, JC | Leung, Ting Fan | Kwok, Jamie Sui-Lam | Tung, Christine Kit-Ching | Tang, Man Fung | Tsui, Stephen Kwok-Wing | Wong, Gary WK | Hon, Kam Lun Ellis | Tam, Wing Hung | Sy, Hing Yee | Lee, Sohee | Shin, Hyun-Woo | Lee, Mingyu | Kim, Dae Woo | Khalmuratova, Roza | Kim, Mi Yeoung | Jeong, Jaewon | Park, Chansun | Wai, Christine Yee Yan | Leung, Patrick S. C. | Leung, Nicki Y. H. | Chu, Ka Hou | Lee, Hee Seon | Lee, Kyung Eun | Hong, Jung Yeon | Kim, Mi Na | Kim, Min Jung | Kim, Yoon Hee | Sol, In Suk | Yoon, Seo Hee | Kim, Kyung Won | Sohn, Myung Hyun | Kim, Kyu-Earn | Kim, Ji Hye | Park, Hae-Sim | Shin, Yoo Seob | Ye, Young Min | Seo, Daehong | Yoon, Moon Gyeong | Lee, Young Mok | Seo, Daehong | Kim, Ji Hye | Lee, Young-Mok | Ye, Young Min | Park, Hae-Sim | Ban, Ga Young | Cho, Kumsun | Kim, Seung-Hyun | Kwon, Yong Eun | Yoon, Moon Gyeong | Kim, Ji Hye | Shin, Yoo Seob | Ye, Young Min | Nahm, Dong-Ho | Park, Hae-Sim | Andaya, Pilar Agnes Gonzalez | Andaya, Pilar Agnes Gonzalez | Ban, Ga Young | Jung, Chang Gyu | Lee, Seung-Ihm | Le Pham, Duy | Suh, Dong-Hyeon | Yang, Eun-Mi | Ye, Young Min | Shin, Yoo Seob | Park, Hae-Sim | Wang, Wan Jun | Xian, MO | Xie, Yan Qing | Zheng, Jing Ping | Li, Jing | Savilahti, Emma Merike | Mäkitie, Outi | Kukkonen, Anna Kaarina | Andersson, Sture | Viljakainen, Heli | Savilahti, Erkki | Kuitunen, Mikael | Godse, Kiran | Le Pham, Duy | Ban, Ga Young | Kim, Seung-Hyun | Yang, Eun-Mi | Park, Hae-Sim | Lee, Ji-Ho | Chwae, Yong-Joon | Chin, Li-Ming | Shieh, Chi-Chang | Kim, Ji Hye | Yoo, Hye-Soo | Yoon, Moon Gyeong | Ban, Ga Young | Ban, Ga Young | Shin, Yoo Seob | Ye, Young Min | Park, Hae-Sim | Sung, Myong Soon | Choi, Jin Uck | Kim, Sung Won | Hwang, Yong Jin | Park, Arum | Lee, Eun | Yang, Song-I | Cho, Hyun-Ju | Yu, Jinho | Lee, Dong Hun | Kim, Eun Ju | Kim, Yeon Kyung | Doh, Eun Jin | Eun, Hee Chul | Chung, Jin Ho | Lee, Young Mee | Jin, Seon Pil | Li, Xingnan | Kaminski, Naftali | Wenzel, Sally | Bleecker, Eugene | Meyers, Deborah | Huasong, Zeng | Mo, Ji-Hun | Samivel, Ramachandran | Kim, Eun-Hee | Kim, Ji-Hye | Bae, Jun-Sang | Chung, Young-Jun | Kim, Dae Woo | Lee, Eun | Lee, Si Hyeon | Kim, Young-Ho | Cho, Hyun-Ju | Yu, Ho-Sung | Kang, Mi-Jin | Yang, Song-I | Jung, Young-Ho | Kim, Hyung Young | Seo, Ju-Hee | Kim, Byoung-Ju | Kim, Hyo-Bin | Lee, So-Yeon | Kwon, Ho-Jang | Hong, Soo-Jong | Palikhe, Sailesh | Park, Hae-Sim | Kim, Seung-Hyun | Kim, Ji Hye | Yang, Eun-Mi | Sibunruang, Suda | Klaewsongkram, Jettanong | Sentsova, Tatiana | Vorozhko, Ilya | Timopheeva, Anna | Chernyak, Olga | Revyakina, Vera | Sokolnikov, Andrey | Nisihino, Makoto | Okada, Yu | Yanagida, Noriyuki | Ebisawa, Motohiro | Sato, Sakura | Ogura, Kiyotake | Asaumi, Tomoyuki | Nagakura, Kenichi | Manabe, Tetsuharu | Unno, Hirotoshi | Rodrigues, Pedro M. | Schrama, Denise | Mohamed, Gadija | Hüsselmann, Lizex | Hüsselmann, Lizex | Ndimba, Bongani | Shim, Jae-Uoong | Koh, Young Il | Rhee, Joon Haeng | Jeong, Ji-Ung | Van Nguyen, Dinh | Chu, Hieu Chi | Tran, Mui Thi | Vidal, Christopher | Fernando, Suran | Van Nunen, Sheryl | Van Than, Sy | Feng, Mulin | Li, Jing | Kim, Dong-Kyu | Hong, Seung-No | Eun, Kyoung Mi | Jin, Hong Ryul | Kim, Dae Woo | Bao, Jun | Bao, Yi-Xiao | Podder, Sanjoy | Kumar, Goutam | Dutta, Shampa | Ghosh, Amlan | Saha, Goutam Kumar | Podder, Sanjoy | Gupta, Salil Kumar | Trinh, Tu/Hoang Kim | Shin, Yoo Seob | Park, Hae-Sim | Liu, Jing-Nan | Le Pham, Duy | Ko, Hyun-Chang | Kim, Byung Soo | Kim, Moon-Bum | Özbudak, Ömer | Üzer, Fatih | Al-Ahmad, Mona | Alowayesh, Maryam | Carroll, Norman | Singh, Anand Bahadur | Pérez-Llano, Yordanis | Lorenzo, María Del Carmen Luzardo | González, Wendy Ramírez | Cruz, Carlos Calcines | Quintana, Rady Laborde | Morejón, Alain | Bourg, Virgilio | Stoker, Marilé Hechavarría | Bae, Jun-Sang | Samivel, Ramachandran | Kim, Eun-Hee | Kim, Ji-Hye | Mo, Ji-Hun | Hanaoka, Keiko | Hide, Michihiro | Tanaka, Akio | Hiragun, Makiko | Kawai, Mikio | Kim, Kwanghoon | Kim, Hye-Young | Kim, Jihyun | Ahn, Kangmo | Han, Youngshin | Kim, Gun-Wook | Ko, Hyun-Chang | Kim, Byung Soo | Kim, Moon-Bum | Song, Margaret | Matsubara, Takeshi | Iwamoto, Hiroshi | Nakazato, Yuki | Namba, Kazuyoshi | Takeda, Yasuhiro | Lee, Jae Hoon | Bae, Woo Yong | De Schryver, Els | Calus, Lien | Gevaert, Philippe | Van Zele, Thibaut | Bachert, Claus | Mori, Akio | Kouyama, Satoshi | Yamaguchi, Miyako | Iijima, Yo | Abe-Ohtomo, Akemi | Hayashi, Hiroaki | Watai, Kentaroh | Mitsui, Chihiro | Oshikata, Chiyako | Sekiya, Kiyoshi | Tsuburai, Takahiro | Ohtomo, Mamoru | Fukutomi, Yuma | Taniguchi, Masami | Kang, Ju Wan | Kim, Jeong Hong | Kim, Jeong Hong | Lee, Keun-Hwa | Lee, Hye-Sook | Hong, Seong-Chul | Lee, Jaechun | Seo, Ji Won | Lee, Jae Hoon | Bae, Woo Yong | Kuznecovs, Ivans Sergejs | Kuznecova, Galina | Bergmann, Karl-Christian | Zuberbier, Torsten | Salame, Joseph | Sehlinger, Torsten | Bölke, Georg | Kim, Yoo Suk | Chang, Jung Hyun | Kim, Jeong Hong | Kang, Ju Wan | Hong, Seung-No | Han, Doo Hee | Rhee, Chae-Seo | Ko, Young-Joo | Kim, Young Hyo | Kim, Dae-Young | Jang, Tae Young | Yokooji, Tomoharu | Hirano, Taiki | Matsuo, Hiroaki | Kuznecova, Galina | Kuznecovs, Ivans Sergejs | Wani, Roohi Rasool | Syed, Shafia Alam | Hassan, Ghulam | Gul, Ayaz | Nissar, Saniya | Shah, Zaffar Amin | Pereira, Marilyn Urrutia | Fernandez, Carmen | Sole, Dirceu | Neto, Herberto Jose Chong | Acosta, Veronica | Cepeda, Alfonso Mario | Castello, Mirta Alvarez | Almendarez, Claudia | Saenz, Jose Santos Lozano | Sisul, Juan C. | Filho, Nelson Rosario | Castillo, Antonio | Rostan, Marylin Valentin | Avila, Jennifer | Badellino, Hector | Manotas, Maria Carolina | Almarales, Raúl Lázaro Castro | León, Mayda González | Kim, Woo Kyung | Yoon, Hae-Sun | Kobayashi, Takehito | Noguchi, Tooru | Soma, Tomoyuki | Nakagome, Kazuyuki | Nakamoto, Hidetomo | Kita, Hirohito | Nagata, Makoto | Pereira, Marilyn Urrutia | Sole, Dirceu | Neto, Herberto Jose Chong | Cepeda, Alfonso Mario | Almarales, Raúl Lázaro Castro | Sisul, Juan C. | Rostan, Marylin Valentin | Badellino, Hector | Avalos, Miguel Alejandro Medina | Castillo, Antonio | Almendarez, Claudia | Filho, Nelson Rosario | Silot, Caridad Sanchez | Avila, Jennifer | Rodriguez, Felicia Berroa | Saenz, Jose Santos Lozano | Castello, Mirta Alvarez | Fernandez, Carmen | Soh, Wai Tuck | Jacquet, Alain | Ruxrungtham, Kiat | Nony, Emmanuel | Le Mignon, Maxime | Lee-Wong, Mary | McClelland, Suzanne | McClelland, Suzanne | Silverberg, Nanette B. | Song, Christian E. | Yang, Zhaowei | Zhang, Jiukai | Zheng, Wentao | Zhong, Nanshan | Li, Jing | Bae, Jung Ho | Cho, Young Joo | Kim, Joo Yeon | Vourdas, Dimitrios | Grigoreas, Christos | Petalas, Konstantinos | Zhang, Yuan | Shin, Seung-Heon | Ye, Mi-Kyung | Kim, Jeong-Kyu | Feng, Yong | Shang, Yunxiao | Seo, Sungchul | Choung, Ji Tae | Kim, Dohyeong | Yoo, Young | Lim, Hyunwook | Zhu, Wenjing | Liu, Chuanhe | Sha, Li | Chang, Li | Zhao, Min | Zhao, Linqing | Qian, Yuan | Chen, Yuzhi | Kim, Min-Hye | Cho, Young Joo | Rho, Mina | Kim, Jung-Won | Kang, Yeon-Mi | Yum, Kyung-Eun | Choi, Hyeon-Il | Choi, Jun-Pyo | Park, Han-Ki | Min, Taek-Ki | Pyun, Bok-Yang | Kim, Yoon-Keun | Wang, Xueyan | Kim, Woo Kyung | Nam, Yu Ran | Nam, Joo Hyun | Kim, Jung-Won | Kim, Min-Hye | Rho, Mina | Kang, Yeon-Mi | Yum, Kyung-Eun | Choi, Hyeon-Il | Choi, Jun-Pyo | Park, Han-Ki | Min, Taek-Ki | Cho, Young Joo | Pyun, Bok-Yang | Kim, Yoon-Keun | Narita, Hiroshi | Hirose, Junko | Kizu, Kumiko | Matsunaga, Ayu | Li, Jingyun | Zhang, Yuan | Zhang, Luo | Choi, Yean Jung | Shin, Hye Lim | Yang, Song-I | Lee, So-Yeon | Kwon, Sung-Ok | Jung, Young-Ho | Kwon, Ji-Won | Kim, Hyung Young | Seo, Ju-Hee | Kim, Byoung-Ju | Kim, Hyo-Bin | Oh, Se-Young | Kwon, Ho-Jang | Lee, Eun | Kang, Mi-Jin | Hong, Soo-Jong | Lee, Yun-Jeong | Kim, Joonil | Choi, Joon Young | Kang, Ji Young | Kim, Seok Chan | Kim, Sei Won | Kim, Seung Joon | Kim, Young Kyoon | Rhee, Chin Kook | Lee, Hea Yon | Lee, Hwa Young | Lee, Sook Young | Koh, Tae Kyung | Kim, Sung Wan | Lee, Kun Hee | Kwon, Chul | Jo, Joong-Saeng | Dong, Sung-Hwa | Byun, Young Seok | Song, Charles | Kang, Ji Young | Lee, Hwa Young | Kim, In Kyoung | Kim, Sei Won | Rhee, Chin Kook | Kim, Seung Joon | Kim, Seok Chan | Lee, Sook Young | Kim, Young Kyoon | Kwon, Soon Seog | Choi, Joon Young | Park, Pona | Jin, Hong Ryul | Kim, Dong-Kyu | Kim, Dae Woo | Hogenkamp, Astrid | Knippels, Leon | Van Esch, Betty C.a.m. | Van Bilsen, Jolanda | Jeurink, Prescilla V. | Gros, Marjan | Garssen, Johan | Smit, Joost J. | Pieters, Raymond H. H. | Kim, Boo-Young | Kim, Soo Whan | Lleonart, Ramon | Lay, Christophe | Benamor, Kaouther | Chen, Chua Mei | Knol, Jan | Chew, Charmaine | Chongsrisawat, Voranush | Goh, Anne | Chiang, Wen Chin | Rao, Rajeshwar | Chaithongwongwatthana, Surasith | Khemapech, Nipon | Yhi, Ji Young | Kim, Sang-Heon | Park, Dong Won | Moon, Ji-Yong | Kim, Tae Hyung | Sohn, Jang Won | Shin, Dong Ho | Yoon, Ho Joo | Cho, Seok Hyun | Kim, Sang-Heon | Moon, Ji-Yong | Lee, Jae-Hyun | Ban, Ga Young | Kim, Sujeong | Kim, Mi-Ae | Kim, Joo-Hee | Kim, Min-Hye | Park, Chan-Sun | Kwon, Hyouk-Soo | Kwon, Jae-Woo | Jung, Jae Woo | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Park, Jong-Sook | Kim, Tae-Bum | Park, Heung Woo | Cho, You Sook | Yoo, Kwang-Ha | Oh, Yeon-Mok | Lee, Sang-Rok | Julge, Kaja | Vasar, Maire | Vasar, Maire | Voor, Tiia | Rebane, Tiina | Kim, Yu Jin | Lee, Sang Min | Kang, Shin Myung | Kim, Sojeong | Kyung, Sun Young | Jeong, Sung Hwan | Park, Jeong-Woong | Hwang, Hyunjung | Seon, Yong Han | Park, Sanghui | Lee, Sang Pyo | Iordache, Marius | Jeong, Yeongsang | Eun, Sohee | Choi, Byung Min | Choung, Ji Tae | Seo, Wonhee | Zhang, Liang | Pawankar, Ruby | Nonaka, Manabu | Hayashi, Miyuki | Yamanishi, Shingo | Suzaki, Harumi | Itoh, Yasuhiko | Watanabe, So | Kobayashi, Hitome | Zotter, Zsuzsanna | Farkas, Henriette | Varga, Lilian | Veszeli, Nora | Imreh, Eva | Kovacs, Gabor | Nallbani, Marsel | Zheleznov, Semen | Urzhumtseva, Galina | Petrova, Natalia | Sarsaniia, Zhanna | Didkovskii, Nikolai | Zuberbier, Torsten | Gerdabi, Nader Dashti | Khodadadi, Ali | Abdoli, Zahra | Ghafourian, Mehri | Assarehzadegan, Mohammad Ali | Ghorban, Khodayar | Kim, Hyo-Bin | Zhou, Hui | Kim, Jeong Hee | Habre, Rima | Bastain, Theresa | Gilliland, Frank | Bae, Jong-Wook | Han, Kyu-Hyung | Jee, Young-Koo | Choi, Misoo | Hong, Seung-Phil | Kim, Seung-Hyun | Kim, Hee-Kyoo | Choi, Gil-Soon | Heo, Jeonghoon | Kim, Young-Ho | Park, Eun-Kee | Inoue, Takashi | Ogura, Kiyotake | Yanagida, Noriyuki | Unno, Hirotoshi | Nagakura, Kenichi | Manabe, Tetsuharu | Asaumi, Tomoyuki | Sato, Sakura | Okada, Yu | Ebisawa, Motohiro | Kim, Min-Gu | Cho, You Sook | Kim, Tae-Bum | Moon, Hee-Bom | Kim, Jung-Hyun | Kim, Hyo-Jung | Park, So-Young | Seo, Bomi | Kwon, Hyouk-Soo | Lee, Jaemoon | Lee, Taehoon | Yoo, Hye-Soo | Kim, Jieun | Kim, Inok | Kim, Haejin | Chang, Younhee | Park, Hae-Sim | Lee, Sooyoung | Lee, Sooyoung | Kuzume, Kazuyo | Koizumi, Munemitsu | Nishimura, Koji | Okamoto, Michiko | Kim, Seung-Hyun | Ye, Young Min | Hur, Gyu Young | Park, Hae-Sim | Kim, Sang-Heon | Jee, Young-Koo | Kim, Seung-Hyun | Choi, Hyunna | Ye, Young Min | Park, Hae-Sim | Van Khanh, Bui | Chu, Hieu Chi | Nguyet, Nguyen Nhu | Phuong, Nguyen Hoang | Roh, Joo Young | Kim, Hyun Jeong | Kim, Jung Eun | Lew, Bark-Lynn | Lee, Kyung Ho | Hong, Seung-Phil | Jang, Yong Hyun | Park, Kui Young | Seo, Seong Jun | Bae, Jung Min | Choi, Eung Ho | Suhr, Ki Beom | Lee, Seung Chul | Ko, Hyun-Chang | Park, Young Lip | Son, Sang Wook | Seo, Young Jun | Lee, Yang Won | Cho, Sang Hyun | Park, Chun Wook | Lee, Kun Hee | Kim, Sung Wan | Chu, Chia-Yu | Aw, Derrick | Ye, Young-Min | Bader, Giovanni | Dolfi, Fabrizio | Oliveira, Nathalie | Choi, Jae Chol | Jung, Jae Woo | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Kim, Kijeong | Choi, Byoung Whui | Shin, Jong Wook | Jung, Jae Woo | Choi, Jae Chol | Park, In Won | Choi, Byoung Whui | Kim, Jae Yeol | Lee, Jin-Young | Ha, Kyoung Won | Jeung, Yun-Jin | Yune, Sehyo | Lee, Byung-Jae | Choi, Dong-Chull | Oh, Mi-Jung | Lim, Young Hee | Lee, Eui Jun | Suh, Dongin | Suh, Dongin | Woo, Sung-Il | Woo, Sung-Il | Cho, Hwa Jin | Cho, Hwa Jin | Chung, Eun Hee | Chung, Eun Hee | Chung, Soo Youn | Shah, Ashok | Gera, Kamal | Ha, Kyoung Won | Oh, Mi-Jung | Lim, Young Hee | Yune, Sehyo | Paeng, Jae-Won | Jang, Mi-Jin | Lee, Byung-Jae | Choi, Dong-Chull | Lee, Jin-Young | Jang, Mi-Jin | Paeng, Jae-Won | Jeung, Yun-Jin | Lim, Young Hee | Oh, Mi-Jung | Ha, Kyoung Won | Lee, Byung-Jae | Choi, Dong-Chull | Yune, Sehyo | Lee, Jin-Young | Ito, Takahiro | Lee, Jin-Young | Yune, Sehyo | Lee, Byung-Jae | Choi, Dong-Chull | Jang, Mi-Jin | Paeng, Jae-Won | Kim, Young Eun | Kim, Young Nam | Lee, Yongseok | Kim, Jihye | Lee, Hwa Young | Lee, Sook Young | Kwon, Soon Seog | Kim, Young Kyoon | Rhee, Chin Kook | Kim, Sei Won | Lee, Hea Yon | Choi, Joon Young | Kim, In Kyoung | Aranzabal, Maria Ascension | Joral, Alejandro | Lizarza, Susana | Echenagusia, Miguel | Lasa, Eva Maria | Navarro, Jose Antonio | Jo, Eun-Jung | Jang, Sun-Mi | Song, Seung-Eon | Na, Hae-Jung | Kim, Chang-Hoon | Lee, Woo-Seop | Park, Hye-Kyung | Miyauchi, Sachiko | Uchida, Yoshitaka | Soma, Tomoyuki | Yamazaki, Susumu | Noguchi, Toru | Kobayashi, Takehito | Nakagome, Kazuyuki | Nagata, Makoto | Oh, Hea Lin | Kim, Do Kyun | Suh, Dongin | Koh, Young Yull | Lee, Jin-Young | Lee, Byung-Jae | Choi, Dong-Chull | Paeng, Jae-Won | Jang, Mi-Jin | Kim, Jihye | Kim, Young Nam | Yune, Sehyo | Kim, Sang-Hoon | Sohn, Jang Won | Yoon, Ho Joo | Shin, Dong Ho | Lee, Jae Hyung | Lee, Byoung Hoon | Kim, Youn-Seup | Park, Jae-Seuk | Jee, Young-Koo | Kim, Sang-Heon | Lee, Jin-Young | Paeng, Jae-Won | Jang, Mi-Jin | Choi, Dong-Chull | Lee, Byung-Jae | Lee, Yongseok | Kim, Young Eun | Yune, Sehyo | Yoon, Jisun | Zhang, Li | Cai, Xuxu | Feng, Yong | Yoon, Jong-Seo | Jeong, Kyunguk | Yoo, Hye-Soo | Lee, Sooyoung | Lee, Sooyoung | Lee, Hae-Jin | Lee, Noo Ri | Kim, Bo-Kyung | Jung, Minyoung | Kim, Dong Hye | Moniaga, Catharina S. | Kabashima, Kenji | Choi, Eung Ho | Yanagida, Noriyuki | Sato, Sakura | Sugizaki, Chizuko | Ebisawa, Motohiro | Kiehm, Jamie | Ponda, Punita | Farzan, Sherry | Weiss, Jared | Elera, Claudia | Destio, Catherine | Sison, Cristina | Lee, Annette | Ri, Soo Hyun | Lim, Chang Hoon | Pulido, Iñaki Izquierdo | Taubel, Jorg | Ferber, Georg | Masdeu, Eva Santamaria | Khayatzadeh, Alireza | Movahedi, Masoud | Ebisawa, Motohiro | Gharagozlou, Mohammad | Atasoy, Ulus | Techasintana, Patsharaporn | Gubin, Matt | Glascock, Jacqueline | Ridenhour, Suzanne | Magee, Joseph | Filho, Nelson Rosario | Neto, Herberto Jose Chong | Wandalsen, Gustavo Falbo | Dela Bianca, Ana Caroline | Aranda, Carolina | Sole, Dirceu | Mallol, Javier | Garcia-Marcos, Luis | Garcia-Marcos, Luis | Toh, Jennifer | Lee, Yoomie | Huang, Joyce | Jerschow, Elina | Shliozberg, Jenny | Satitsuksanoa, Pattraporn | Suratannon, Narissara | Wongpiyabovorn, Jongkonnee | Chatchatee, Pantipa | Ruxrungtham, Kiat | Jacquet, Alain | Yang, Min Suk | Lee, Jin Yong | Kim, Ja Yeun | Park, Han-Ki | Kim, Ju-Young | Song, Woo-Jung | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Park, Heung Woo | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Cho, Sang-Heon | Min, Kyung-up | Park, Chang-Han | Chang, Suk-Il | Song, Sook-Hee | Kim, Si-Heon | Choi, Gil-Soon | Kim, Su-Chin | Kim, Ji Hye | Ban, Ga Young | Shin, Yoo Seob | Park, Hae-Sim | Ye, Young Min | Hwang, Yoon Ha | Sim, Da Woon | Park, Kyung Hee | Park, Kyung Hee | Park, Hye Jung | Park, Hye Jung | Park, Jung-Won | Park, Jung-Won | Lee, Jae-Hyun | Lee, Jae-Hyun | Allen, Katrina | Beck, Cara | Koplin, Jennifer | Matheson, Melanie | Tang, Mimi | Ponsonby, Anne-Louise | Gurrin, Lyle | Dharmage, Shyamali | Wake, Melissa | Mcwilliam, Vicki | Liu, Xiaoying | Wang, Jing | Xiang, Li | Wang, Qun | Lee, Ji-Eun | Kim, Dong-Young | Rhee, Chae-Seo | Rhee, Chae-Seo | Vazquez-Nava, Francisco | Cho, Sang-Heon | Jeong, Jaewon | Perng, Diahn-Warng | Price, David | Neira, Glenn | Lin, Jiangtao | Semernik, Olga | Kim, Ha-Su | Jung, Jin-a | Jung, Ji-in | Miao, Qing | Xiang, Li | Cho, Sang-Heon | Jeong, Jaewon | Perng, Diahn-Warng | Lin, Jiangtao | Price, David | Neira, Glenn | Lee, Hyun Young | Park, Hae-Sim | Ye, Young Min | Kim, Su Chin | Farrokhi, Shokrollah | Gheiby, Mohammadkazem | Kim, Sang-Heon | Park, Heung Woo | Kim, Sang-Hoon | Jee, Young-Koo | Park, Sunjoo | Moon, Keun Ai | Kwon, Hyouk-Soo | Kim, Tae-Bum | Cho, You Sook | Moon, Hee-Bom | Lee, Kyoung Young | Hong, Gyong Hwa | Ha, Eun Hee | Han, Heejae | Park, Hye Jung | Park, Yoon Hee | Kim, Yoon-Jo | Lee, Kangtaek | Park, Jung-Won | Lee, Jae-Hyun | Slavyanskaya, Tatiana | Derkach, Vladislava | Park, Hye Jung | Hong, Chein-Soo | Lee, Jae-Hyun | Kim, Sungryeol | Park, Kyung Hee | Lee, Choong-Kun | Kang, Beodeul | Beom, Seung-Hoon | Shin, Sang Joon | Jung, Minku | Park, Jung-Won | Kim, Eun-Hee | Kim, Ji-Hye | Mo, Ji-Hun | Chung, Young-Jun | Kim, Mi-Ae | Park, Hae-Sim | Yoon, Moon Gyeong | Lee, Young-Soo | Kim, Ji Hye | Ban, Ga Young | Yoo, Hye-Soo | Shin, Yoo Seob | Ye, Young Min | Nahm, Dong-Ho | Miao, Qing | Xiang, Li | Li, Ying-Ji | Shimizu, Takako | Inagaki, Hirofumi | Hirata, Yukiyo | Takizawa, Hajime | Azuma, Arata | Yamamoto, Masayuki | Kawada, Tomoyuki | Kim, Min-Gu | Hong, Gyong Hwa | Lee, Kyoung Young | Ha, Eun Hee | Moon, Keun Ai | Park, Sunjoo | Kwon, Hyouk-Soo | Kim, Tae-Bum | Moon, Hee-Bom | Cho, You Sook | Kim, Jung-Hyun | Kim, Hyo-Jung | Park, So-Young | Seo, Bomi | Kim, Ji-Hye | Samivel, Ramachandran | Kim, Eun-Hee | Chung, Young-Jun | Mo, Ji-Hun | Soumya, M. S. | Inbaraj, G. | Chellaa, R. | Pawankar, Ruby | Choi, Wonsun | Park, Hae-Sim | Ye, Young Min | Kim, Ji Hye | Ban, Ga Young | Shin, Yoo-Seob | Braber, Saskia | Verheijden, Kim | Kraneveld, Aletta | Garssen, Johan | Folkerts, Gert | Willemsen, Linette | Eichhorn, Stephanie | Ferreira, Fatima | Pablos, Isabel | Kastner, Bianca | Schweidler, Bettina | Wildner, Sabrina | Briza, Peter | Park, Jung-Won | Arora, Naveen | Vieths, Stefan | Gadermaier, Gabriele | Park, Sung-Min | Lee, Won-Ku | Kim, Jeong-Min | Kim, Gun-Wook | Mun, Je-Ho | Kim, Hoon-Soo | Song, Margaret | Ko, Hyun-Chang | Kim, Moon-Bum | Kim, Byung Soo | Kim, Young Nam | Yune, Sehyo | Lee, Jin-Young | Kim, Jihye | Kim, Young Eun | Paeng, Jae-Won | Jang, Mi-Jin | Choi, Dong-Chull | Lee, Byung-Jae | Lee, Yongseok | Goh, Si Hui | Lee, Bee Wah | Soh, Jian Yi | Kang, Hyungoo | Kim, Hyunhee | Yum, Hye-Yung | Ye, Young Min | Park, Hae-Sim | Ban, Ga-Young | Kim, Ji Hye | Shin, Yoo Seob | Takizawa, Takumi | Tabata, Masahiko | Aizawa, Akira | Yagi, Hisako | Nishida, Yutaka | Arakawa, Hirokazu | Morikawa, Akihiro | Orosoo, Solongo | Braber, Saskia | Bol-Schoenmakers, Marianne | Akbari, Peyman | Jeurink, Prescilla V. | Jeurink, Prescilla V. | De Graaff, Priscilla | Smit, Joost J. | Van Esch, Betty C. A. M. | Garssen, Johan | Garssen, Johan | Fink-Gremmels, Johanna | Pieters, Raymond H. H. | Kim, Gun-Woo | Jo, Eun-Jung | Kim, Sujeong | Song, Woo-Jung | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Faruqi, Shoaib | Kim, Ju-Young | Kang, Mingyu | Kim, Min-Hye | Plevkova, Jana | Park, Heung Woo | Cho, Sang-Heon | Morice, Alyn | Lee, So-Hee | Kim, Sun-Sin | Lee, Seoung-Eun | Gemicioglu, Bilun | Misirligil, Zeynep | Cimrin, Arif Hikmet | Gunen, Hakan | Ozlu, Tevfik | Cilli, Aykut | Akyildiz, Levent | Bayram, Hasan | Uzaslan, Esra | Abadoglu, Oznur | Suerdem, Mecit | Kainuma, Keigo | Kim, Hyun-a | Kim, Ha-Su | Bae, Woo Yong | Jung, Jin-a | Kamenwa, Rose | Macharia, William | Said, Nusrat | Nerurkar, Vidya | Patel, Meenal | Bhatia, Simi | Choi, Inseon S. | Kim, Soo-Jeong | Won, Joo-Min | Park, Myeong-Soo | Nagao, Mizuho | Park, Dong Won | Sohn, Jang Won | Yhi, Ji Young | Moon, Ji-Yong | Kim, Sang-Heon | Kim, Tae Hyung | Shin, Dong Ho | Yoon, Ho Joo | Hyo, Yukiyoshi | Lee, Jaechun | Kim, Su Hee | Lee, Eunkyoung | Jung, Hahn Jin | Lim, Jaehyun | Hong, Seung-No | Han, Doo Hee | Rhee, Chae-Seo | Lee, Kun Song | Lee, Jaechun | Yang, Sun Young | Ahn, Mi Young | Lee, Jong Hoo | Golez, Jasmina | Tian, Hui-Qin | Cheng, Lei | Chen, Xin-Yuan | Moon, Ji-Yong | Kim, Sang-Heon | Kim, Tae Hyung | Yhi, Ji Young | Yoon, Ho Joo | Sohn, Jang Won | Shin, Dong Ho | Park, Dong Won | Cho, Won Im | Choi, Jong Sub | Suh, Dongin | Kang, Gyeong Hoon | Moon, Jin Soo | Ko, Jae Sung | Lee, Kyung Jae | Choi, Shin Jie | Luo, Wenting | Sun, Baoqing | Gao, Qi | Xiang, Li | Shen, Kunling | Jang, Yong Hyun | Bergmann, Karl-Christian | Sehlinger, Torsten | Bölke, Georg | Berger, Uwe | Zuberbier, Torsten | Kolodziejczyk, Joanna | Wojciechowska, Milena | Hnatyszyn-Dzikowska, Anna | Chojnacki, Micha | Bartuzi, Zbigniew | Masaki, Katsunori | Fukunaga, Koichi | Kamatani, Takashi | Ohtsuka, Kengo | Tanosaki, Takae | Matsusaka, Masako | Mochimaru, Takao | Kabata, Hiroki | Ueda, Soichiro | Suzuki, Yusuke | Kamei, Katsuhiko | Asano, Koichiro | Betsuyaku, Tomoko | Trafford, Karlee | Bulut, Ismet | Ozseker, Zeynep Ferhan | Horimukai, Kenta | Morita, Hideaki | Narita, Masami | Niizeki, Hironori | Matsumoto, Kenji | Ohya, Yukihiro | Saito, Hirohisa | Kabashima, Shigenori | Kondo, Mai | Inoue, Eisuke | Siebers, Robert | Wu, Francis F. S. | Siebers, Robert | Wu, Francis F. S. | Ting, Ming-Hui | Laio, Hung-En | Kuo, Tsung-Huai | Lee, Pei-Yuan | Maddox, Daniel Eugene | Ryu, Gwanghui | Kim, Hyo Yeol | Dhong, Hun-Jong | Hong, Sang Duk | Chung, Seung-Kyu | Higuchi, Osamu | Adachi, Yu-Ichi | Itazawa, Toshiko | Adachi, Yoko | Hamamichi, Miki | Nakabayashi, Motokazu | Ito, Yasunori | Wada, Takuya | Murakami, Gyoukei | Takao, Miki | Yamamoto, Junko | Jin, Hyun Jung | Yoon, Moon Gyeong | Ye, Young Min | Shin, Yoo-Seob | Kim, Seung-Hyun | Park, Hae-Sim | Min, Taek-Ki | Pyun, Bok-Yang | Lee, So-Yeon | Kim, Hyun Hee | Jang, Gwang-Cheon | Yu, Jinho | Suh, Dongin | Lee, Sooyoung | Park, Yong Mean | Kim, Jeong Hee | Yum, Hye-Yung | Kim, Kyung Won | Yang, Hyeon-Jong | Ahn, Kangmo | Kwon, Ji-Won | Sohn, Myung Hyun | Lee, Hae Ran | Kwon, Jung Hyun | Kim, Kyu-Earn | Hong, Soo-Jong | Cho, Su-Mi | Nahm, Dong-Ho | Kim, Myoung-Eun | Lee, Jin Hwa | Rhee, Chin Kook | Park, Hye Yun | Kim, Woo Jin | Park, Yong Bum | Yoo, Kwang-Ha | Kang, Heejeong | Yang, Hyeon-Jong | Min, Taek-Ki | Pyun, Bok-Yang | Suk, Lee Ju | Kim, Cheol Hong | Kwon, Jung Hyun | Lee, Sang Hyun | Seo, Wonhee | Kim, Kang-in | Park, Young Cheon | Yang, Hyeon-Jong | Min, Taek-Ki | Pyun, Bok-Yang | Kim, Sujeong | Jin, Sun | Lee, Jong-Myung | Jung, Hye-Jin | Park, Jung-Wha | Kim, Hyo-Jung | Kim, Tae-Bum | Cho, You Sook | Moon, Hee-Bom | Kwon, Hyouk-Soo | Park, So Young | Park, So-Young | Kim, Jung-Hyun | Seo, Bomi | Kim, Min-Gu | Kim, Youn Yee | Lee, Yena | Min, Taek-Ki | Yang, Hyeon-Jong | Pyun, Bok-Yang | Han, Suk Hee | Park, Suyeon | Lee, Jeongho | Hahn, Won-Ho | Jeon, Youhoon | Kim, Joo-Hee | Shin, Tae-Rim | Kim, Cheol-Hong | Hyun, In-Gyu | Choi, Jeong-Hee | Jang, Sun-Mi | Na, Hae-Jung | Song, Seung-Eon | Park, Hye-Kyung | Jo, Eun-Jung | Lee, Dong Hun | Lee, Jin-Young | Park, Yang | Oh, Jae-Won | Lee, Mi Hee | Hong, Soo-Jong | Hong, Soo-Jong | Lee, So-Yeon | Park, Joon Soo | Nahm, Dong-Ho | Yum, Hye-Yung | Yum, Hye-Yung | Choi, Kyu Young | Kim, Dong-Young | Palapinyo, Sirinoot | Klaewsongkram, Jettanong | Chen, Xing | Jin, Yuting | Hou, Xiaoming | Liu, Fengqin | Guo, Chunyan | Wang, Yulin | Okafuji, Ikuo | Tanaka, Yuya | Narabayashi, Shegeyuki | Tsuruta, Satoru | Jang, Yong Hyun | Ahn, Jun-Hong | Lee, Dong-Won | Chung, Jin Hong | Jin, Hyun Jung | Sohn, Min-Su | Park, Young a | Jeong, Kyunguk | Kim, Yoon Hee | Sol, In Suk | Yoon, Seo Hee | Kim, Kyung Won | Sohn, Myung Hyun | Kim, Kyu-Earn | Lee, Sooyoung | Kim, Ho | Kim, Ja Yeun | Lee, So-Yeon | Min, Taek-Ki | Song, Tae-Won | Ahn, Kangmo | Kim, Jihyun | Jang, Gwang-Cheon | Yang, Hyeon-Jong | Pyun, Bok-Yang | Kwon, Ji-Won | Sohn, Myung Hyun | Kim, Kyu-Earn | Yu, Jinho | Hong, Soo-Jong | Kwon, Jung-Hyun | Kim, Sung-Won | Lee, Sooyoung | Kim, Woo Kyung | Kim, Hyung Young | Kim, Hye-Young | Jeon, Youhoon | Lim, Chang Hoon | Jeong, Yeongsang | Kim, Su Jung | Chang, Hun Soo | Heo, Jeong-Seok | Bae, Da-Jeong | Lee, Jong-Uk | Kim, Ji-Na | Min, Chang-Gi | Song, Hyun Ji | Park, Jong-Sook | Kim, Soo Hyun | Park, Choon-Sik | Liu, Jing-Nan | Choi, Youngwoo | Shin, Yoo Seob | Park, Hae-Sim | Rezaei, Nima | Mahneh, Sedigheh Bahrami | Rezaei, Arezou | Sadr, Maryam | Movahedi, Masoud | Gang, Jun Seak | Park, Joon Soo | Kim, Seung Soo | Bang, Hyun Ho | Park, Kyeong Bae | Kim, Hye Sun | Kim, Tae Ho | Hwangbo, Young | Lee, Hyun Jung | Yoo, Gyeong Hee | Kim, Young Chang | Sato, Sakura | Yanagida, Noriyuki | Ebisawa, Motohiro | Palikhe, Sailesh | Park, Hae-Sim | Kim, Seung-Hyun | Kim, Ri-Yeon | Yang, Eun-Mi | Lee, Li Yuan Gabriella Nadine | Aw, Marion | Aw, Marion | Lee, Bee Wah | Lee, Bee Wah | Loo, Evelyn Xiu Ling | Chan, Yiong Huak | Shek, Lynette | Shek, Lynette | Kuo, I-Chun | Kuo, I-Chun | Quah, Phaik Ling | Quah, Phaik Ling | Llanora, Genevieve | Irvin, Gerez | Jung, Joo Hyun | Kang, Il Gyu | Kim, Seon Tae | Park, Hyoungmin | Kim, Seon Tae | Jung, Joo Hyun | Kang, Il Gyu | Park, Hyoungmin | Ko, Kwang-Pil | Lee, Jungsoo | Chu, Howard | Lee, Hemin | Shin, Jung U. | Park, Chang Ook | Lee, Kwang Hoon | Lee, Kwang Hoon | Kang, Hong Kyu | Lee, Dong Chang | Kim, Geun Jeon | Hwang, Jae Hyung | Ha, Jin Bu | Jeong, Su Hee | Kim, Ho | Hwang, Shinha | Lee, Whahee | Bazarsad, Enkhbayar | Narantsetseg, Logii | Sonomjamts, Munkhbayarlakh | Jang, Gwang-Cheon | Lee, Hyun-Hee | Lee, Chang-Jong | Lim, Huynsun | Soh, Ji-Eun | Song, Dae-Jin | Kwon, Ji-Won | Kim, Hyung Young | Seo, Ju-Hee | Kim, Byoung-Ju | Kim, Hyo-Bin | Lee, So-Yeon | Jang, Gwang-Cheon | Kim, Woo Kyung | Jung, Young-Ho | Hong, Soo-Jong | Shim, Jung Yeon | Bazarsad, Enkhbayar | Narantsetseg, Logii | Sonomjamts, Munkhbayarlakh | Pv, Prabhakarrao | Nadendla, Ranjitha | Fang, Juan | Zhao, Jing | Song, Dae-Jin | Seo, Sungchul | Yoo, Young | Kim, Yu-Ri | Choung, Ji Tae | Lee, Jee Hoo | Berings, Margot | De Ruyck, Natalie | Bachert, Claus | Gevaert, Philippe | Holtappels, Gabriële | Lee, Pureun-Haneul | Kim, Byeong-Gon | Park, Choon-Sik | Leikauf, George D. | Jang, An-Soo | Kimc, Byeong-Gon | Lee, Pureun-Haneul | Park, Choon-Sik | Jang, An-Soo | Park, Yang | Sohn, Min-Su | Jin, Hyun Jung | Lee, Dong-Won | Ahn, Jun-Hong | Chung, Jin Hong | Kim, Sae-in | Park, Han-Ki | Kim, Do-Yeon | Rho, Mina | Choi, Jun-Pyo | Kim, Yoon-Keun | Kamchaisatian, Wasu | Hiranras, Thitikul | Wongpun, Surinda | Chiraphorn, Phornthip | Tantachun, Anupan | Wongrassamee, Wannipa | Vatanasurkitt, Planee | Somboonkul, Naratip | Juthacharoenwong, Nattipat | Techapaitoon, Surangkana | Tuchinda, Montri | An, Sejin | Lee, Jae Ho | Shin, Ji-Hyeon | Kim, Soo Whan | Kim, Si Won | Kang, Jun Myung | Kim, Boo-Young | Kim, Byung-Guk | Kwon, Ji-Won | Kim, Woo Kyung | Kim, Hyung Young | Kim, Hyo-Bin | Seo, Ju-Hee | Lee, So-Yeon | Jang, Gwang-Cheon | Jung, Young-Ho | Hong, Soo-Jong | Kim, Byoung-Ju | Song, Dae-Jin | Shim, Jung Yeon | Lee, Jung-Won | Kim, Kyung Ho | Yoo, Young | Yoon, Won Suck | Seo, Sungchul | Kang, In Soon | Choi, Jae Won | Lim, Hye-Young | Choung, Ji Tae | Buela, Michelle | Nishimura, Koji | Park, Sang Chul | Chung, Hyo Jin | Kim, Chang-Hoon | Kang, Ju Wan | Hong, Seong-Chul | Lee, Keun-Hwa | Lee, Jaechun | Lee, Hye-Sook | Kim, Jeong Hong | Logii, Narantsetseg | Nyamdavaa, N. | Enkhbayar, B. | Oyuntsatsral, B. | Munkhbayarlakh, S. | Bazarsad, Enkhbayar | Sonomjamts, Munkhbayarlakh | Omarjee, Bashir | Li, Shuo | Hayashi, Miyuki | Pawankar, Ruby | Yamanishi, Shingo | Igarashi, Toru | Itoh, Yasuhiko | Gantulga, B. | Enkhbayar, B. | Munkhbayarlakh, S. | Narantsetseg, L. | Batsaikhan, Oyuntsatsral | Chen, Pei-Chi | Wang, Jiu-Yao | Leung, Nicki Y. H. | Wai, Christine Yee Yan | Leung, Patrick S. C. | Chu, Ka Hou | Doh, Eun Jin | Lee, Dong Hun | Choi, Mira | Yoon, Hyun-Sun | Kim, Kyu Han | Lim, Ji Soo | Baek, Ji Hyeon | Han, Man Yong | Lee, Seung Jin | Jeon, Youhoon | Lee, Kyung Suk | Jung, Young-Ho | Jee, Hye Mi | Shin, Youn Ho | Jiang, Yi | Liu, Miao | Naing, Chaw Su | Tan, Tze Chin | Chong, Yong Yeow | Kim, Young-Ho | Lee, Eun | Yang, Song-I | Cho, Hyun-Ju | Kim, Hyung Young | Kwon, Ji-Won | Jung, Young-Ho | Kim, Byoung-Ju | Seo, Ju-Hee | Kwon, Ho-Jang | Kim, Hyo-Bin | Lee, So-Yeon | Hong, Soo-Jong | Kim, Soo Hyun | Joseph, Jacqueline Elizabeth | Soumya, M. S. | Pawankar, Ruby | Kumar, Harshitha | Yang, Sohyoung | Woo, Sung-Il | Rezaei, Nima | Kose, Sukran | Serin, Basak Gol | Yalcin, Arzu Didem | Senger, Süheyla Serin | Erden, Mehmet | Serin, Ertan | Leung, Ting Fan | Leung, Agnes Sze-Yin | Kumar, Harshitha | Soumya, M. S. | Joseph, Jacqueline Elizabeth | Pawankar, Ruby | Chung, Eun Hee | Kim, Eunji | Yoo, Young | Yoo, Young | Choung, Ji Tae | Choung, Ji Tae | Seo, Sungchul | Seo, Sungchul | Kang, In Soon | Lee, Jue Seong | Hwang, Ji Hyen | Lee, Sang Min | Jung, Joo Hyun | Choi, Seung Joon | Joe, Eugene | Hwang, Hyunjung | Kang, Shin Myung | Kim, Yu Jin | Kyung, Sun Young | Park, Jeong-Woong | Jeong, Sung Hwan | Lee, Sang Pyo | Gaisina, Alina | Shilovskiy, Igor | Nikonova, Aleksandra | Kamyshnikov, Oleg | Khaitov, Musa | Mitin, Alexander | Viktoriya, Komogorova | Litvina, Marina | Sharova, Nina | Faiah, M. J. | Ismail, Intan H. | Miles, E. A. | Jamli, Faizah Mohamed | Choi, Jun-Pyo | Choi, Han-Byul | Kim, Yoon-Keun | Choi, Hyeon-Il | Yoon, Da-Il | Kang, Mingyu | Kim, Mi Yeoung | Kim, Sujeong | Jo, Eun-Jung | Lee, Seoung-Eun | Song, Woo-Jung | Lee, Sang Min | Park, Chansun | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Lee, Jaechun | Jee, Young-Koo | Choi, Inseon S. | Min, Kyung-up | Cho, Sang-Heon | Cho, Sang-Heon | Laskin, Anton | Kamyshnikov, Oleg | Babakhin, Alexander | Berzhets, Valentina | Khaitov, Musa | Lee, Jae Ho | An, Sejin | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Min, Kyung-up | Cho, Sang-Heon | Kim, Sae-Hoon | Kwon, Yong Eun | Jee, Young-Koo | Kim, Tae-Bum | Moon, Hee-Bom | Park, Hye-Kyung | Kang, Sung-Yoon | Choi, Jun-Pyo | Park, Han-Ki | Lee, Ji-Hyun | Kim, Yoon-Keun | Kim, Sang-Yoon | Hwang, Hyunjung | Joe, Eugene | Lee, Sang Min | Choi, Seung Joon | Jung, Joo Hyun | Seon, Yong Han | Kang, Shin Myung | Kim, Yu Jin | Kyung, Sun Young | Park, Jeong-Woong | Jeong, Sung Hwan | Lee, Sang Pyo | Khramykhoverchenko, Natalya | Sultana, Asma | Halwani, Rabih | Bahammam, Ahmed | Al Muhsen, Saleh | Kim, Sun Kyung | Nam, Kwang Il | Yang, Hyung Chae | Kim, Jeong-Eun | Lee, Ju Suk | Lee, Ji Hyun | Kang, Kyung Woo | Kim, Je-Kyung | Hahn, Youn-Soo | Jung, Jae-Yub | Baba, Yosuke | Yamazaki, Sususmu | Inage, Eisuke | Mori, Mari | Ohtsuka, Yoshikazu | Kantake, Masato | Shimizu, Toshiaki | Honjoh, Asuka | Yokokura, Tomoaki | Elhassan, Shaza Ali Mohammed | Beck, Caroline | Adeli, Mehdi | Baek, Heysung | Lee, Seung Jin | Baek, Ji Hyeon | Yoon, Jungwon | Choi, Sun Hee | Jung, Young-Ho | Shin, Youn Ho | Han, Man Yong | Na, Min Sun | Compalati, Enrico | Marogna, Maurizio | Huang, Huimin | Sun, Baoqing | Bai, Mingyu | Huo, Yiting | Zheng, Peiyan | Wei, Nili | Luo, Wenting | Andiappan, Anand | Minisini, Rosalba | Rötzschke, Olaf | Boggio, Elena | Gigliotti, Luca | Clemente, Nausicaa | Chiocchetti, Annalisa | Dianzani, Umberto | Pirisi, Mario | Villa, Elisa | Yamaide, Fumiya | Yonekura, Syuji | Shimojo, Naoki | Inoue, Yuzaburo | Okamoto, Yoshitaka | Setyoningrum, Retno Asih | Setiawati, Landia | Sumei, Sri | Iskandar, Deddy | Kompiyang, Indriyani Sang Ayu | Oguma, Tsuyoshi | Tanaka, Jun | Tomomatsu, Katsuyoshi | Asano, Koichiro | Uno, Keisuke | Matsuwaki, Yoshinori | Omura, Kazuhiro | Hayashi, Eika | Tatsumi, Norifumi | Kita, Hirohito | Otori, Nobuyoshi | Kojima, Hiromi | Khorasgani, Mohammadreza Fatemi | Lew, Dukhee/Betty | Lemessurier, Kim/S. | Moore, Joseph/a | Park, Jeoung-Eun | Yi, Ae-Kyung | Song, Chi/Young | Malik, Kafait/U | Kim, Ja Kyoung | Yang, Hyeon-Jong | Kim, Bong-Seong | Shin, Youn Ho | Lee, So-Yeon | Park, Geunhwa | Kim, Woo Kyung | Kim, Hyo-Bin | Baek, Heysung | Lim, Dae Hyun | Lim, Dae Hyun | Kim, Jin Tack | Suh, Dongin | Nano, Aimee Lou Manalo | Sun, Baoqing | Luo, Wenting | Nacaroglu, Hikmet Tekin | Erdem, Semiha Bahceci | Sumer, Ozlem | Karaman, Sait | Karkiner, Canan Sule Unsal | Asilsoy, Suna | Gunay, Ilker | Can, Demet | Kiers, Danielle | Wang, Jiu-Yao | Yin, Hsu Han | Kaplan, Allen | Joseph, Kusumam | Tholanikunnel, Baby G. | Dudek, Radim | Bilgin, Gulden | Surer, Hatice | Kilinc, Aytun Sadan | Yucel, Dogan | Lee, Ji Young | Kim, Jihyun | Yang, Hea-Kyoung | Kim, Minji | Lee, Sang-Il | Ahn, Kangmo | Moon, Sung Do | Kim, Byung-Keun | Cho, Sang-Heon | Min, Kyung-up | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Park, Heung Woo | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Song, Woo-Jung | Kang, Min-Koo | Kim, Ju-Young | Sohn, Kyonghee | Won, Ha Kyung | Lee, Seoung-Eun | Kim, Kyung-Mook | Bachert, Claus | Hsieh, Miao-Hsi | Wang, Jiu-Yao | Smith, Helen | Brown, Clare | Jones, Christina | Davies, Mark | Yoon, Won Suck | Lee, Hemin | Chu, Howard | Lee, Jungsoo | Shin, Jung U. | Park, Chang Ook | Lee, Kwang Hoon | Lee, Kwang Hoon | Kim, Seo Hyeong | Kim, Seo Hyeong | Noh, Ji Yeon | Kim, Ji Hye | Kim, Ji Hye | Yoon, Won Suck | L’huillier, Jean-Pierre | Autegarden, Jean-Eric | Bertrand, Catherine | Tardy, Dominique | Ismail, Intan Hakimah | Tang, Mimi | Licciardi, Paul | Oppedisano, Frances | Boyle, Robert | Robins-Browne, Roy | Yagi, Hisako | Koyama, Harumi | Nishida, Yutaka | Takizawa, Takumi | Arakawa, Hirokazu | Kang, Hong Kyu | Lee, Hemin | Lee, Jungsoo | Shin, Jung U. | Lee, Kwang Hoon | Lee, Kwang Hoon | Chu, Howard | Park, Chang Ook | Yoon, Na Young | Lee, Hyeyoung | Seo, Seong Jun | Choi, Eunhee | Wang, Hye-Young | Jung, Minyoung | Choi, Eung Ho | Kim, Dong Hye | Kim, Joo-Hee | Jang, Young-Sook | Choi, Jeong-Hee | Park, Sunghoon | Hwang, Young Il | Jang, Seung Hun | Jung, Ki-Suck | Kang, Mi-Jin | Suh, Dongin | Lee, Eun | Choi, Kil Yong | Jung, Young-Ho | Yang, Song-I | Kim, Bong-Soo | Kim, Ha-Jung | Koh, Juneyoung | Kim, Hyun-Jin | Ahn, Kangmo | Shin, Youn Ho | Cho, Hyun-Ju | Kim, Byoung-Ju | Kim, Young-Ho | Jung, Yean | Mamura, Mizuko | Yoon, Jeong-Hwan | Nakae, Susumu | Lee, Inkyu | Matsumoto, Isao | Sumida, Takayuki | Han, Jin Soo | Sudo, Katsuko | Ju, Ji Hyeon | Yap, Gaik Chin | Liu, Wen Tso | Oh, Seungdae | Hong, Pei Ying | Huang, Chiung Hui | Aw, Marion | Shek, Lynette | Lee, Bee Wah | Byun, Young Seok | Kim, Sung Wan | Koh, Tae Kyung | Jo, Joong-Saeng | Lee, Kun Hee | Kwon, Chul | Dong, Sung-Hwa | Kim, Myung Shin | Park, Chansun | Cho, Han Seok | Kim, Min-Ju | Kim, Min Ji | Park, Young Ok | Lee, Hye Yeong | Kim, Hee Seong | Lee, Eun | Cho, Hyun-Ju | Yu, Jinho | Hong, Soo-Jong | Hwang, Keum Hee | Kim, Jung-Hyun | Cho, You Sook | Kim, Sae-Hoon | Kwon, Hyouk-Soo | Yoo, Mira | Kim, Hyo-Jung | Park, So-Young | Shin, Bomi | Park, So Young | Seo, Bomi | Kim, Min-Gu | Moon, Hee-Bom | Park, Jin-Ah | Kim, Tae-Bum | Lee, Jaemoon | Jeong, Jin Hyeok | Kang, Tae Wook | Yoo, Han Seok | Cho, Yong Hee | Cho, Seok Hyun | Kim, Kyung Rae | Lee, Jue Seong | Kee, Sun-Ho | Kim, Sewon | Yoo, Young | Na, Heung Sik | Back, Seung Keun | Lee, Seung Jin | Seo, Bo Seon | Baek, Ji Hyeon | Lee, Kyung Suk | Jung, Young-Ho | Jee, Hye Mi | Shin, Youn Ho | Han, Man Yong | Kim, Mi-Ae | Nam, Young-Hee | Jeon, Dong Sub | Lee, Soo-Keol | Park, Jisun | Moon, Seung Hyun | Lin, Rong Jun | Guan, Ren Zheng | Park, Gyeong Yul | Yoon, Hyun-Sun | Choi, Woo-Hyeok | Baek, Heysung | Park, Jin-Sung | Kwon, Eunmi | Callaway, Zac | Kim, Chang-Keun | Fujisawa, Takao | Zhang, Qingling | Qiu, Rihuang | Li, Naijian | Yang, Zhaowei | Li, Jing | Chung, Kian Fan | Zhong, Nanshan | Hon, Kam Lun E. | Tsang, Yin Ching K. | Leung, Ting Fan | Jang, Yoon Young | Chung, Hai Lee | Lee, Seung Gook | Na, Ji Hyun | Lee, Jong Hoon | Nam, Young-Hee | Jeon, Dong Sub | Lee, Soo-Keol | Yamamoto, Mikita | Sato, Sakura | Yanagida, Noriyuki | Ogawa, Ayako | Ogura, Kanako | Takahashi, Kyohei | Nagakura, Kenichi | Emura, Shigehito | Asaumi, Tomoyuki | Iikura, Katsuhito | Ebisawa, Motohiro | Okada, Yu | Luo, Jiaying | Lan, Xiao | Sun, Baoqing | Chen, Zhao | Sun, Guiyuan | Li, Shimin | Hu, Jiaqing | Choi, Woo-Hyeok | Baek, Heysung | Nam, Young-Hee | Jeon, Dong Sub | Nam, Hee-Joo | Noh, Yeo Myeong | Kim, Sang Hee Kim | Park, Ye Suel | Lee, Soo-Keol | Choi, Yean Jung | Lee, Si Hyeon | Kim, Young-Ho | Kang, Mi-Jin | Cho, Hyun-Ju | Lee, Eun | Yang, Song-I | Shin, Youn Ho | Ahn, Kangmo | Kim, Kyung Won | Kim, Yoon Hee | Lee, So-Yeon | Chang, Hyoung Yoon | Choi, In Ae | Lee, Kyung-Sook | Shin, Yee-Jin | Kim, Yoon Hee | Kim, Min Jung | Sol, In Suk | Yoon, Seo Hee | a Park, Young | Kim, Kyung Won | Sohn, Myung Hyun | Kim, Kyu-Earn | Lee, Yong Ju | Sol, In Suk | Kim, Kyu-Earn | Kim, Yoon Hee | Kim, Min Jung | Yoon, Seo Hee | Lee, Yong Ju | Kim, Kyung Won | a Park, Young | Sohn, Myung Hyun | Park, Sung Joo | Kwon, Ji-Won | Kim, Woo Kyung | Kim, Hyung Young | Kim, Hyo-Bin | Seo, Ju-Hee | Lee, So-Yeon | Jang, Gwang-Cheon | Jung, Young-Ho | Hong, Soo-Jong | Kim, Byoung-Ju | Song, Dae-Jin | Yang, Yun Seok | Shim, Jung Yeon | Jang, Yoon Young | Chung, Hai Lee | Kim, Ji Hye | Lee, Hyun Seok | Lee, Chang Ho | Cho, Changbum | Lim, Yun-Kyu | Kim, Kyu Rang | Kim, Mijin | Kim, Baek-Jo | Kim, Young-Min | Han, Youngshin | Kim, Jihyun | Cheong, Hae-Kwan | Jeon, Byoung-Hak | Ahn, Kangmo | Ming, Chuang/Yao | Wang, Jiu-Yao | Ling, Ye/Yi | Huang, Huimin | Sun, Baoqing | Chen, Yun | Zheng, Peiyan | Wei, Nili | Luo, Wenting | Lee, Do Hyeong | Choi, Gil-Soon | Kim, Hee-Kyoo | Park, Han Su | Park, So-Young | Kim, Hyo-Jung | Seo, Bomi | Kim, Jung-Hyun | Kim, Min-Gu | Kwon, Hyouk-Soo | Cho, You Sook | Moon, Hee-Bom | Kim, Tae-Bum | Lee, Yoon Su | Shin, Eun-Soon | Tanaka, Akio | Morioke, Satoshi | Ohya, Yukihiro | Shimojo, Naoki | Akasawa, Akira | Hide, Michihiro | Shizukawa, Hiroko | Watanabe, Naoto | Shin, Meeyong | Jang, Myeong Sun | Nam, Young-Hee | Noh, Yeo Myeong | Jeon, Dong Sub | Nam, Hee-Joo | Kim, Sang Hee Kim | Park, Ye Suel | Lee, Soo-Keol | Jung, Ji-in | Kim, Ha-Su | Kim, Hyun-a | Jung, Jin-a | Goh, Anne | Rao, Rajeshwar | Nandanan, Bindu | Van Elburg, Ruurd | Chien, Chua Mei | Jo, Juandy | Garssen, Johan | Garssen, Johan | Knippels, Leon | Sandalova, Elena | Chiang, Wen Chin | Nam, Young-Hee | Juong, Ji Young | Kim, Soo Jin | Kim, Eun Young | Lee, Su Mi | Son, Young Ki | Nam, Hee-Joo | Kim, Ki-Ho | Lee, Soo-Keol | Park, Da-Eun | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Park, Heung Woo | Lee, Hyun Seung | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Park, Jung-Won | Cho, Sang-Heon | Min, Kyung-up | Song, Woo-Jung | Lim, Hyunwook | Seo, Sungchul | Choung, Ji Tae | Yoo, Young | Park, Jun-Sik | Kim, Byung Kwan | Won, Ha Kyeong | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Kim, Byung-Keun | Moon, Sung Do | Kim, Ju-Young | Lee, So-Hee | Song, Woo-Jung | Park, Heung Woo | Kang, Min-Koo | Kim, Sun-Sin | Cho, Sang-Heon | Min, Kyung-up | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Sohn, Kyoung Hee | Kim, Kyung-Mook | Kim, Ki-Woong | Jang, Hak Chul | Nam, Young-Hee | Jeon, Dong Sub | Nam, Hee-Joo | Noh, Yeo Myeong | Kim, Sang Hee Kim | Park, Ye Suel | Lee, Soo-Keol | Leung, Ting Fan | Tang, Man Fung | Sy, Hing Yee | Chan, Wa Cheong | Tam, Wilson Wai San | Chung, Seung Kyu | Kim, Sujin | Hong, Sang Duk | Kim, Hyo Yeol Kim Hyo Yeol | Dhong, Hun-Jong | Jeong, Jong in | Nam, Young-Hee | Jeon, Dong Sub | Lee, Soo-Keol | Lee, Ji Won | Kang, Mingyu | Kim, Soon-Hee | Bae, Boram | Kim, Sujeong | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Song, Woo-Jung | Park, Da-Eun | Lee, Hyun Seung | Park, Heung Woo | Park, Han-Ki | Park, Jung-Won | Nam, Young-Hee | Jeon, Dong Sub | Nam, Hee-Joo | Noh, Yeo Myeong | Kim, Sang Hee Kim | Park, Ye Suel | Lee, Soo-Keol | Hou, Yung-I | Wang, Jiu-Yao | Kim, Ja Hyeong | Hee, Seol Jae | Ha, Eun-Hee | Park, Hyesook | Ha, Mina | Hong, Yun-Chul | Kim, Yangho | Chang, Namsoo | Soma, Yuta | Watanabe, So | Pawankar, Ruby | Suzaki, Harumi | Kobayashi, Hitome | Nam, Young-Hee | Park, Chansun | Lee, Soo-Keol | Lee, Jongrok | Roh, Jooyoung | Ryu, Haryeong | Kim, Cheol-Woo | Cho, Jae Hwa | Eom, Mi Ra | Kang, Ji Young | Lee, Hye Gyeung | Choi, Hae Young | Lee, Hye Jin | Woo, Ju Yun | Byun, Ji Yeon | Choi, You Won | Kim, Ja Hyeong | Ha, Eun-Hee | Park, Hyesook | Ha, Mina | Hong, Yun-Chul | Kim, Yangho | Chang, Namsoo | Kwon, Jae-Woo | Chang, Hun Soo | Heo, Jeong-Seok | Lee, Jong-Uk | Park, Jong-Sook | Kim, Eusom | Kim, Soo Hyun | Park, Choon-Sik | Choi, Hae Young | Byun, Ji Yeon | Woo, Ju Yun | Choi, You Won | Jin, Hyun-Ju | Son, Jin-Hwa | Kim, Jeong-Min | Kim, Gun-Wook | Mun, Je-Ho | Song, Margaret | Ko, Hyun-Chang | Kim, Moon-Bum | Kim, Hoon-Soo | Kim, Byung Soo | Van Nunen, Sheryl | Van Nguyen, Dinh | Elias, Anthony | Lauer, Susannah Olivia | Lee, Seung-Chul | Lee, Ho-June | Bae, Jung Min | Ono, Emi | Dong, Sung-Hwa | Koh, Tae Kyung | Byun, Young Seok | Kim, Sung Wan | Jo, Joong-Saeng | Kwon, Chul | Lee, Kun Hee | Liu, Li-Fan | Lee, Sunghee | Chen, Wei-Leng | Wang, Jiu-Yao | Bae, Youin | Park, Gyeong-Hun | Kim, Suk Yeon | Lee, Hyun Seung | Song, Woo-Jung | Kang, Mingyu | Park, Han-Ki | Park, Da-Eun | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Park, Heung Woo | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Kim, Hye-Young | Min, Kyung-up | Cho, Sang-Heon | Lee, Ji-Won | Bae, Boram | Park, Jung-Won | Suzuki, Yasuhiro | Bulut, Ismet | Ozseker, Zeynep Ferhan | Ismail, Intan Hakimah | Boyle, Robert | Licciardi, Paul | Oppedisano, Frances | Robins-Browne, Roy | Tang, Mimi | Lee, Ji Won | Lee, Hyun Seung | Kang, Mingyu | Park, Da-Eun | Park, Han-Ki | Kim, Soon-Hee | Song, Woo-Jung | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Park, Heung Woo | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Park, Chang-Han | Chang, Suk-Il | Song, Sook-Hee | Min, Kyung-up | Cho, Sang-Heon | Bae, Boram | Shieh, Grace | Kim, Min Jung | Hong, Jung Yeon | Yoon, Seo Hee | Shim, Doo Hee | Sol, In Suk | Kim, Yoon Hee | Kim, Mi Na | Lee, Kyung Eun | Kim, Kyung Won | Sohn, Myung Hyun | Kim, Kyu-Earn | Lee, Jae Myun | Chng, Hiok Hee | Kim, Dong Chan | Yang, Song-I | Lee, Hae Ran | Seo, An Deok | Lee, So Yeon | Artesani, Maria Cristina | Francalanci, Paola | Dahdah, Lamia | Schreiner, Thomas | Fiocchi, Alessandro | Chakraborty, Kaushik | Won, Ha Kyeong | Kim, Ju-Young | Jo, Eun-Jung | Sohn, Kyoung Hee | Kim, Kyung-Mook | Park, Heung Woo | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Cho, Sang-Heon | Song, Woo-Jung | Kim, Byung-Keun | Yonekura, Syuji | Okamoto, Yoshitaka | Hur, Gyu Young | Ye, Young Min | Kim, Joo-Hee | Jung, Ki-Suck | Kim, Junga | Shim, Jae Jeong | Park, Hae-Sim | Sekimoto, Kazuhiro | Sugai, Kazuko | Tsuchimoto, Keiji | Uehara, Hiromi | Ikeda, Masanori | Chung, Euncho | Park, Kang Seo | Choi, Yean Jung | Park, Jeewon | Hong, Soo-Jong | Lee, So Yeon | Jacquet, Alain | Buaklin, Arun | Malainual, Nat | Roopashree, S. | Kim, Kyu Rang | Kim, Mijin | Cho, Changbum | Kim, Baek-Jo | Oh, Jae-Won | Han, Mae Ja | Cho, Hyun-Ju | Shin, Youn Ho | Lee, Eun | Kim, Young-Ho | Lee, Darae | Kang, Mi-Jin | Yang, Song-I | Ahn, Kangmo | Kim, Kyung Won | Kim, Yoon Hee | Won, Hye-Sung | Kim, Soo Hyun | Choi, Suk-Joo | Kim, Young Han | Jun, Jong Kwan | Kim, Eun-Jin | Lee, Jeom Gyu | Lee, So-Yeon | Hong, Soo-Jong | Suh, Dongin | Amagai, Yosuke | Tanaka, Akane | Matsuda, Hiroshi | Mösges, Ralph | Dieterich, Pauline | Astvatsatourov, Anatoli | Hüser, Christoph | Singh, Jaswinder | Shah-Hosseini, Kija | Allekotte, Silke | Compalati, Enrico | Sohn, Kyoung Hee | Song, Woo-Jung | Kim, Byung-Keun | Kim, Ju-Young | Yang, Min Suk | Lee, So-Hee | Kim, Sae-Hoon | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Park, Heung Woo | Kim, Sun-Sin | Min, Kyung-up | Cho, Sang-Heon | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Chang, Woo-Sung | Do, Ji-Hye | Kim, Yeon-Seop | Yoon, Dankyu | Lim, Hye-Sun | Lee, Jeom-Kyu | Kim, Eun-Jin | Thong, Bernard | Cheng, Yew Kuang | Hou, Jinfeng | Leong, Khai Pang | Tan, Justina | Chia, Faith | Chan, Grace | Tan, Sze-Chin | Tan, Teck Choon | Tang, Chwee Ying | Chng, Hiok Hee | Park, Chan-Sun | Kim, Mi Yeoung | Kim, Eun-Young | Shin, Jae-Gook | Choi, Jae-Hyeog | Park, Saegwang | Kim, Yeonye | Lim, Kyung-Hwan | Jung, Jae Woo | Kang, Mingyu | Kim, Ju-Young | Kim, Ju-Young | Kim, Hyun Jeong | Woo, Yeon-Ju | Jung, Soo-Youn | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Porée, Thierry | Boukhettala, Nabile | Furon, Emeline | Bullimore, Alan David | Heath, Matthew | Hewings, Simon | Skinner, Murray | Kurowski, Marcin | Krysztofiak, Hubert | Wardzynska, Aleksandra | Jarzebska, Marzanna | Jurczyk, Janusz | Kowalski, Marek L. | Kim, So Ri | Lee, Yong Chul | Kim, Dong Im | Rhee, Yang Keun | Lee, Heung Bum | Park, Seoung Ju | Choe, Yeong Hun Choe | Park, Seung Yong | Kim, Joo-Hee | Park, Sunghoon | Hwang, Young Il | Jang, Seung Hun | Jung, Ki-Suck | Min, Jiang | Guang-Min, Nong | Nag, Nalin | Indawati, Wahyuni | Bullimore, Alan David | Heath, Matthew | Skinner, Murray | Seo, Seong Jun | Oh, Won Jong | Bullimore, Alan David | Skinner, Murray | Heath, Matthew | Bell, Andrew | Hasanzadeh, Hournaz | Sadeghzade, Salman | Rezaei, Nima | Zarebidoki, Alireza | Cho, Kyu-Sup | Oh, Moo-Young | Kim, Sung-Woo | Koizumi, Munemitsu | Kuzume, Kazuyo | Park, Kui Young | Oh, Won Jong | Babaie, Delara | Nabavi, Mohammad | Zandieh, Fariborz | Moini, Mehrdad Amir | Chavoshzadeh, Zahra | Seifi, Hamideh | Sahragard, Mitra | Mesdaghi, Mehrnaz | Bemanian, Mohammad Hassan | Choi, Sun Young | No, Yeon a | Kiedik, Dorota | Muszynska, Agnieszka | Pirogowicz, Iwona | Fal, Andrzej M. | Motomura, Chikako | Wakatsuki, Masatoshi | Akamine, Yuko | Iwata, Mihoko | Matsuzaki, Hiroshi | Taba, Naohiko | Murakami, Yoko | Odajima, Hiroshi | Ghrahani, Reni | Takaoka, Yuri | Lee, Jong-Uk | Heo, Jeong-Seok | Bae, Da-Jeong | Song, Hyun Ji | Park, Choon-Sik | Park, Jong-Sook | Cho, Jae Hoon | Choi, Ji Ho | Febriana, Fiska | Ghrahani, Reni | Sapartini, Gartika | Setiabudiawan, Budi | Nam, Young-Hee | Kim, Mi Yeoung | Choi, Gil-Soon | Park, Chan-Sun | Huang, Chiung-Hui | Soh, Jian Yi | Shek, Lynette | Shek, Lynette | Delsing, Dianne J. | Lee, Bee Wah | Lee, Bee Wah | Goh, Si Hui | Chiang, Wen Chin | Loh, Wenyin | Yang, Hea-Kyoung | Lee, Ji Young | Kim, Minji | Ahn, Kangmo | Kim, Jihyun | Kim, Young-Min | Kim, Hye-Young | Park, Yong Mean | Kim, Woo Kyung | Lee, So-Yeon | Jeong, Jongin | Hong, Sang Duk | Chung, Seung Kyu | Dhong, Hun-Jong | Kim, Hyo Yeol | Kim, Sujin | Bak, Hana | Son, Hye-Rim | Lee, Si-Eun | Kim, Kwang-Jin | Lim, Young-Wook | Kim, Ho-Hyun | Lee, Yong-Won | Han, Man Yong | Jung, Young-Ho | Jee, Hye Mi | Lee, Seung Jin | Lee, Kyung Suk | Kim, Mi-Ae | Lee, Jaechun | Lee, Eunkyoung | Golez, Jasmina | Bae, Da-Jeong | Min, Chang-Gi | Lee, Jong-Uk | Park, Jong-Sook | Chang, Hun Soo | Park, Choon-Sik | Jang, An-Soo | Kim, Ha-Jung | Kim, Young-Joon | Jung, Bok Kyoung | Lee, Seung-Hwa | Kang, Mi-Jin | Jeong, Sekyoo | Lee, Eun | Cho, Hyun-Ju | Kim, Young-Ho | Yang, Song-I | Kim, Seo Hee | Hong, Soo-Jong | Halwani, Rabih | Al Muhsen, Saleh | Sultana, Asma | Al-Faraj, Achraf | Kanana, Rosan | Afzal, Sibtain | Al Kufaidi, Roaa | Kim, Hee-Kyoo | Oak, Chul-Ho | Choi, Gil-Soon | Moon, Ye-Jin | Park, Eun-Kee | Abrari, Mina | Amirzargar, Ali Akbar | Zarebidoki, Alireza | Ha, Mina | Hong, Soo-Jong | Seo, Ju-Hee | Kang, Mingyu | Cho, Byung-Ha | Park, Han-Ki | Park, Han-Ki | Kim, Kyung-Mook | Park, Chang-Han | Park, Heung Woo | Park, Heung Woo | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Song, Sook-Hee | Kim, Mi-Kyeong | Kim, Mi-Kyeong | Cho, Sang-Heon | Chang, Suk-Il | Min, Kyung-up | Min, Kyung-up | Morice, Alyn | Choi, Jungi | Han, Yusok | Park, Jin-Sung | Kwon, Eunmi | Kim, Chang-Keun | Sapartini, Gartika | Kim, Ji-Na | Shin, Seungwoo | Chang, Hun Soo | Shim, Eun-Young | Jun, Ji Ah | Lee, Hyeonju | Park, Jong-Sook | Park, Choon-Sik | Sepiashvili, Revaz | Khachapuridze, Darejan | Gamkrelidze, Sofio | Chikhladze, Manana | Lee, Seung-Eun | Kim, Yun-Seong | Jeon, Doo-Soo | Cho, Woo-Hyun | Yeo, Hye-Ju | Yoon, Seong-Hoon | Kim, Seung-Hyun | Lee, Taehyeong | Song, Hyun Ji | Park, Choon-Sik | Jun, Ji Ah | Park, Jong-Sook | Yoon, Dankyu | Kim, Yeon-Seop | Chang, Woo-Sung | Kang, Mi-Jin | Hong, Soo-Jong | Lee, Jeom-Kyu | Kim, Eun-Jin | Park, Minkee | Lee, Nanju Alice | Rost, Johanna | Muralidharan, Sridevi | Campbell, Dianne | Mehr, Sam | Lee, Seung-Hwa | Yoon, Seon-Joo | Kim, Ha-Jung | Lee, Eun | Yang, Song-I | Jung, Young-Ho | Yu, Ho-Sung | Kim, Hee-Suk | Park, Yeon Hee | Lee, So-Yeon | Park, Jun-Sung | Jun, Hyun Ok | Won, Ha Kyeong | Kang, Min-Koo | Moon, Sung Do | Kim, Byung-Keun | Kim, Ju-Young | Cho, Sang-Heon | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Shim, Ji-Su | Chung, Soo Jie | Choi, Jaehee | Ahn, Kangmo | Kim, Kwanghoon | Kim, Jihyun | Lee, Jiyoung | Park, Bo Bae | Nho, In Young | Park, Chang-Han | Kim, Jang Min | Chang, Suk-Il | Kim, Sun Kyung | Yang, Hyung Chae | Nam, Kwang Il | Lee, Jeongmin | Lee, Sooyoung | Jeong, Kyunguk | Jeon, Se-Ah | Fujiwara, Midori | Shindo, Shoko | Murota, Hiroyuki | Tahara, Mayuko | Takahashi, Aya | Katayama, Ichiro | Jung, Jae Woo | Song, Hyun Ji | Lee, Taehyeong | Jang, An-Soo | Park, Jong-Sook | Chang, Hun Soo | Park, Choon-Sik | Choi, Byoung Whui | Kim, Min-Hye | Bae, Da-Jeong | Song, Hyun Ji | Lee, Taehyeong | Jun, Ji Ah | Park, Jong-Sook | Jang, An-Soo | Chang, Hun Soo | Cho, Young Joo | Park, Choon-Sik | Mun, Sue Jean | Kuroda, Etsushi | Ozasa, Koji | Ishii, Ken | Kim, Sunmi | Park, Gyeong-Hun | Song, Hyun Ji | Lee, Taehyeong | Jun, Ji Ah | Chang, Hun Soo | Park, Jong-Sook | Park, Choon-Sik | Kim, Mi-Ae | Shin, Seungwoo | Park, Jong-Sook | Chang, Hun Soo | Cho, You Sook | Park, Hae-Sim | Park, Choon-Sik | Min, Zhang | Yoon, Seo Hee | Sol, In Suk | a Park, Young | Kim, Yoon Hee | Kim, Min Jung | Kim, Kyung Won | Sohn, Myung Hyun | Kim, Kyu-Earn | Shiquan, Wu | Lee, Yongwon | Bak, Hana | Ching, Maricar Wisco | Ramos, John Donnie | Jeong, Kyunguk | Lee, Sooyoung | Ahn, Kangmo | Sohn, Myung Hyun | Kim, Kyung Won | Lee, So-Yeon | Song, Tae Won | Jeon, Youhoon | Kim, Jihyun | Min, Taek Ki | Kim, Kyu-Earn | Pyun, Bok-Yang | Yang, Hyeon-Jong | Lee, Hae Ran | Ahn, Youngmin | Kwon, Ji-Won | Lim, Dae Hyun | Kim, Jeong Hee | Suh, Dongin | Ki, Hyung Young | Jeong, Kyunguk | Park, Byeong Sub | Lee, Sooyoung | Jeon, Se-Ah | Park, Kyu Jung | Yang, Song-I | Lee, Eun | Cho, Hyun-Ju | Kim, Young-Ho | Kang, Mi-Jin | Choi, Yean Jung | Choi, Kil Yong | Shin, Youn Ho | Ahn, Kangmo | Kim, Kyung Won | Kim, Byoung-Ju | Lee, So-Yeon | K, Eun-Jin | Dario, Roccatello | Liao, Jing | Feng, Yong | Shang, Yunxiao | Lee, Yongwon | Bak, Hana | Kim, Hyung Young | Kim, Byoung-Ju | Kwon, Ji-Won | Seo, Ju-Hee | Lee, Eun | Lee, So-Yeon | Yang, Song-I | Jung, Young-Ho | Kim, Hyo-Bin | Kwon, Ho-Jang | Park, Hee Ju | Min, Zhang | Guang-Min, Nong | Min, Jiang | Hur, Gyu Young | Sim, Eun Jung | Yoon, Sora | Choi, Juwhan | Kim, Junga | Sim, Jae Keom | Oh, Jee Youn | Jeong, Kyunguk | Park, Byeong Sub | Lee, Jeong-Min | Lee, Sooyoung | Cheon, Eunjae | Na, Youngjoo | Park, Kyu Jung | Lee, Eunjoo | Yang, William | Kelly, Suzanne | Perrins, Rob | Yang, Jimmy | Yang, William | Kelly, Suzanne | Perrins, Rob | Karsh, Jacob | Yang, Jimmy | Badellino, Hector | Teijeiro, Alvaro | Cuello, Mabel | Pereira, Marilyn Urrutia | Egues, Gustavo | Aktas, Ayse | Chun, Jin-Kyong | Mujuru, Hilda Angela | Sibanda, Elopy N. | Popescu, Andreea Ioana | Greblescu, Raluca | Rahman, Suheyla | Aktas, Ayse | Tataurshchikova, Nataly | Dissanayake, Eishika | Inoue, Yuzaburo | Shimojo, Naoki | Nakano, Taiji | Tanjung, Conny | Jensen-Jarolim, Erika | Fazekas, Judit | Singer, Josef | Lukschal, Anna | Horvat, Reinhard | Achatz-Straussberger, Gertrude | Achatz, Gernot | Fujita, Yuji | Ikegami, Shuji | Nakamura, Yoshitaka | Inoue, Yuzaburo | Shimojo, Naoki | Kohno, Yoichi | Suzuki, Shuichi | Ozawa, Naoko | Kubota, Takayuki | Nonaka, Ken | Ohara, Osamu | Masuda, Kentaro | Rhee, Chin Kook | Lee, Sook Young | Lee, Hwa Young | Lee, Hea Yon | Kang, Ji Young | Kim, Sei Won | Kwon, Soon Seog | Kim, Young Kyoon | Kim, Gun-Woo | Kim, Ju-Young | Cho, Sang-Heon | Cho, Sang-Heon | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Kim, Hyo-Soo | Han, Jung Gyu | Lee, Jin | Lee, Ji Young | Go, Ji Young | Park, So Jung | Kim-Chang, Julie | Love, Cassandra | Lugar, Patricia | Citraresmi, Endah | Kaswandani, Nastiti | Utami, Cynthia | Said, Mardjanis | Jung, Young-Ho | Yang, Song-I | Kim, Byoung-Ju | Kwon, Ji-Won | Kim, Hwan-Cheol | Leem, Jong-Han | Seo, Ju-Hee | Kim, Hyung Young | Lee, So-Yeon | Kwon, Ho-Jang | Kim, Hyo-Bin | Cho, Hyun-Ju | Yamazaki, Susumu | Nakano, Nobuhiro | Honjoh, Asuka | Inage, Eisuke | Baba, Yosuke | Ohtsuka, Yoshikazu | Shimizu, Toshiaki | M., Ishaq | Khan, Sameera M. I. | Khan, Imran | Khan, Sabeen | Loo, Evelyn Xiu Ling | Goh, Anne | Teoh, Oon Hoe | Chan, Yiong Huak | Saw, Seang Mei | Kwek, Kenneth | Gluckman, Peter D | Godfrey, Keith M | Van Bever, Hugo | Chong, Yap Seng | Lee, Bee Wah | Shek, Lynette | Lee, Alison Joanne | Rossi, Daniela | Nemeth, Agnes | Sehlinger, Torsten | Bergmann, Karl-Christian | Goergen, Frank | Ehlayel, Mohammad S. | Bener, Abdul Bari | Chu, Hieu Chi | Do, Nga Thi Quynh | Van Nguyen, Dinh | Nguyen, Ha Thi Thu | Le, Huong Thi Minh | Van Nunen, Sheryl | Vidal, Christopher | Fernando, Suran | Psarros, Fotis | Syrigou, Ekaterini | Politi, Ekaterini | Chrysoulakis, Spyridon | Vourdas, Dimitrios | Petalas, Konstantinos | Saha, Mouli | Bhattacharya, Kashinath | Jain, Subir | Song, Xiaolian | Lin, Haiyan | Nishikawa, Kyohei | Shimada, Takashi | Yasueda, Hiroshi | Enomoto, Tadao | Aizawa, Daisuke | Kobayashi, Takayoshi | R., Chellaa | Jain, Subir | Jain, Subir | Yudina, Marina | M., Ishaq | Khan, Sameera M. I. | Khan, Imran | Khan, Sabeen | Saito, Mayako | Sari, Nurul Iman Nilam | Kim, Jae Young | Song, Jaechul | Kim, Inah | Lee, Kyeong Joon | Park, Soo Jin | Roh, Soo Yong | Billamay, Somxay | Udin, Muchammad Fahrul | Han, Mae Ja | Oh, Jae-Won | Kim, Kyu Rang | Kim, Baek-Jo | Mazza, Jorge A. | Ko, Jason Kangeun | Huang, David J. T. | Furuya, Kanae | Kainuma, Keigo | Ito, Takahiro | Nagao, Mizuho | Fujisawa, Takao | Hirayama, Junya | Kuwahara, Yu | Qualizza, Rosanna | Incorvaia, Cristoforo | Maraschini, Anna | Hasnain, Syed Mohammed | Al-Frayh, Abdulrahman | Hartog, Anita | Bastiaans, Jacqueline | Loonstra, Reinilde | Rutten, Lieke | Harthoorn, Lucien | Van Bergenhenegouwen, Jeroen | Garssen, Johan | Yoo, Kwang-Ha | Cho, Sang-Heon | Ghoshal, AG | Muttalif, Abdul Razak Bin Abdul | Lin, Horng- Chyuan | Thanaviratananich, Sanguansak | Bagga, Shalini | Faruqi, Rab | Baidya, Santwona | Taylor, Colman | Wang, De Yun | Ahn, Hae-Ryun | Hong, Soon-Kwan | Kim, Jong-Woong | Nam, Gui-Hyun | Kim, Mee-Ja | Park, Jae-Kyoung | Yi, Myung-Hee | Jeong, Kyoung Yong | Kim, Ju-Yeong | Yong, Tai-Soon | Kim, Bum Joon | Joo, Hs | Lim, Kj | Lee, Jae-Hyun | Park, Jung-Won | Yoon, Kh | Choi, DS | Joo, Hanseung | Kim, Bum Joon | Lim, Kj | Kim, MJ | Choi, DS | Yoon, Kh | Kim, Bum Joon | Joo, Hanseung | Jung, Woo Sang | Lim, Kj | Choi, DS | Lee, Ji-Hoon | Kwon, Soon-Chan | Lee, Soo-Jin | Roh, Soo Yong | Kim, Hogil | Lee, Kyeong Joon | Van De Loo, Aurora | Fernstrand, Amanda | Garssen, Johan | Verster, Joris | Van De Loo, Aurora | Garssen, Johan | Verster, Joris | Golez, Jasmina | Ozasa, Koji | Kuroda, Etsushi | Ishii, Ken | Imran, Muhammad | Gierer, Selina | Martinez, John | Wong, Lydia | Lee, Bee Wah | Yap, Gaik Chin | Llanora, Genevieve | Thong, Bernard | Shek, Lynette | Ehlayel, Mohammad S. | Soliman, Ashraf | Martins, Pedro | Marques, João | Gomes-Belo, Joana | Palmeiro, Teresa | Caires, Iolanda | Belo, Joana | Botelho, Maria Amália | Leiria-Pinto, Paula | Neuparth, Nuno | Suratannon, Narissara | Mekaroonkamol, Jaichat | Ngamphaiboon, Jarungchit | Lertchanaruengrith, Piyawadee | Chatchatee, Pantipa | Kardar, Gholamali | Majd, Ahmad | Shahali, Youcef | Ghahremaninejad, Farrokh | Pourpak, Zahra | Mousavi, Fateme | Sadeghi-Shabestari, Mahnaz | Van Bilsen, K. | Manusama, O. | Dik, W.a. | Van Der Burg, M. | Van Der Velden, V. H. J. | Dalm, V.a.S. H. | Van Hagen, P. M. | Liu, Yongping | Jeong, Yi Yeong | Kim, Ji Hye | Yoon, Moon Gyeong | Ye, Young Min | Shin, Yoo Seob | Ban, Ga Young | Park, Hae-Sim | Jung, Hye Min | Roh, Soo Yong | Song, Jaechul | Lee, Ji-Hoon | Kim, Hogil | Kim, Jae Young | Lee, Kyeong Joon | Wong, Lydia | Rajakulendran, Mohana | Santhanam, Haripriya | Shek, Lynette | Lim, Tow Keang | Kim, Hogil | Lee, Soo-Jin | Lee, Ji-Hoon | Roh, Soo Yong | Kwon, Soon-Chan | Wistiani, Ani | H, Galuh | Kardar, Gholam Ali | Sharifshoushtari, Maryam | Majd, Ahmad | Nejadsattari, Taher | Pourpak, Zahra | Moin, Mostafa | Kim, Ji Hye | Seo, Daehong | Ye, Young Min | Park, Hae-Sim | Park, Jung-Won | Lee, Jae-Hyun | Shin, Yoo Seob | Kowalski, Marek L. | Wardzynska, Aleksandra | Kurowski, Marcin | Pawelczyk, Malgorzata/Ewa | Wysokinski, Adam | Kloszewska, Iwona | Grzegorczyk, Janina | Piotrowski, Wojciech | Makowska, Joanna | Kwon, Soon-Chan | Song, Jaechul | Kim, Yong-Kyu | Bostanci, Ilknur | Emeksiz, Zeynep Sengul | Ertugrul, Aysegul | Ozmen, Serap | Sahin, Soner | Kim, Sang-Ha | Lee, Myoung Kyu | Lee, Won Yeon | Yong, Suk Joong | Lee, Seok Jeong | Jung, Ye-Ryung | Kim, Myung Shin | Park, Jong-Sook | Jang, An-Soo | Park, Choon-Sik | Wulandari, Diah Asri | Kartasasmita, Cissy | Yani, Finny Fitry | Machmud, Rizanda | Lestari, Dhina Lydia | Rusdi, Rusdi | Yurmalina, Yurmalina | Darwin, Eryati | Bostanci, Ilknur | Karacan, Gulin | Ercan, Nazli | Colak, Asuman | Alisik, Murat | Basarir, Gulay | Erel, Ozcan | Bostanci, Ilknur | Keskin, Yasemin | Lopata, Andreas/Ludwig | Zenger, Kyall | Nugraha, Roni | Kamath, Sandip | Bielory, Leonard | Georgopoulos, Panos | Zhang, Yong | Mi, Wheat | Cai, Ting | Xian, MO | Li, Jing | Feng, Mulin
Table of Contents
A1 Pirfenidone inhibits TGF-b1-induced extracellular matrix production in nasal polyp-derived fibroblasts
Jae-Min Shin, Heung-Man Lee, Il-Ho Park
A2 The efficacy of a 2-week course of oral steroid in the treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria refractory to antihistamines
Hyun-Sun Yoon, Gyeong Yul Park
A3 The altered distribution of follicular t helper cells may predict a more pronounced clinical course of primary sjögren’s syndrome
Margit Zeher
A4 Betamethasone suppresses Th2 cell development induced by langerhans cell like dendritic cells
Katsuhiko Matsui, Saki Tamai, Reiko Ikeda
A5 An evaluation of variousallergens in cases of allergic bronchial asthma at lucknow and neighbouring districts by intradermal skintest
Drsushil Suri, Dranu Suri
A6 Evaluation ferqency of ADHD in childhood asthma
Marzieh Heidarzadeh Arani
A7 Steven johnson syndrome caused by typhoid fever in a child
Azwin Lubis, Anang Endaryanto
A8 Chronic Bronchitis with Radio Contrast Media Hypersensitivity: A Case with Hypothesized GINA Step 1 Asthma
Shinichiro Koga
A9 The association between asthma and depression in Korean adult : An analysis of the fifth korea national health and nutrition examination survey (2010-2012)
Lee Ju Suk
A10 Management of allergic disease exacerbations in pregnancy
Yasunobu Tsuzuki
A11 Subcutaneous immunotherapy mouse model for atopic dermatitis
Seo Hyeong Kim, Jung U Shin, Ji Yeon Noh, Shan Jin, Shan Jin, Hemin Lee, Jungsoo Lee, Chang Ook Park, Kwang Hoon Lee, Kwang Hoon Lee
A12 Atopic disease and/or atopy are risk factors for local anesthetic allergy in patients with history of hypersensitivity reactions to drugs?
Fatma Merve Tepetam
A13 Food hypersensitivity in patients with atopic dermatitis in Korea
Chun Wook Park, Jee Hee Son, Soo Ick Cho, Yong Se Cho, Yun Sun Byun, Yoon Seok Yang, Bo Young Chung, Hye One Kim, Hee Jin Cho
A14 Anaphylaxis caused by an ant (Brachyponera chinensis) in Japan
Yoshinori Katada, Toshio Tanaka, Akihiko Nakabayashi, Koji Nishida, Kenichi Aoyagi, Yuki Tsukamoto, Kazushi Konma, Motoo Matsuura, Jung-Won Park, Yoshinori Harada, Kyoung Yong Jeong, Akiko Yura, Maiko Yoshimura
A15 Anti-allergic effect of anti-IL-33 by suppression of immunoglobulin light chain and inducible nitric oxide synthase
Tae-Suk Kyung, Young Hyo Kim, Chang-Shin Park, Tae Young Jang, Min-Jeong Heo, Ah-Yeoun Jung, Seung-Chan Yang
A16 Food hypersensitivity in patients with chronic urticaria in Korea
Hye One Kim, Yong Se Cho, Yun Sun Byun, Yoon Seok Yang, Bo Young Chung, Jee Hee Son, Chun Wook Park, Hee Jin Cho
A17 Dose optimizing study of a depigmented polymerized allergen extract of phleum pollen by means of conjunctival provocation test (CPT)
Angelika Sager, Oliver Pfaar
A18 Correlation of cutaneous sensitivity and cytokine response in children with asthma
Amit Agarwal, Meenu Singh, Bishnupda Chatterjee, Anil Chauhan
A19 Colabomycin E, a Streptomycete-Derived Secondary Metabolite, Inhibits Proinflammatory Cytokines in Human Monocytes/Macrophages
Ilja Striz, Eva Cecrdlova, Katerina Petrickova, Libor Kolesar, Alena Sekerkova, Veronika Svachova, Miroslav Petricek
A20 Intravenous immunoglobluin treatment in a child with resistant atopic dermatitis: A brief review on this therapeutic regimen
Hyuck Hoon Kwon, Kyu Han Kim
A21 Wheat allergy is difficult to diagnose then other food allergens
Suman Kumar
A22 The effects of spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) dietary supplement as an adjunct therapy for children aged 7 to 14 years old with asthma: A randomized - double blind placebo controlled clinical trial
Lou Ver Leigh Arciaga Manzon, Pilar Agnes Gonzalez Andaya
A23 The study about cause and clinicopathological findings of injection induced dermatitis
Bark-Lynn Lew, Youngjun Oh, Dongwoo Suh, Woo-Young Sim
A24 IgE reactivity of recombinant allergen pac c 3 of the Asian needle ant pachycondyla chinensis
Kyoung Yong Jeong, Myung-Hee Yi, Mina Son, Dongpyo Lyu, Jae-Hyun Lee, Tai-Soon Yong, Chein-Soo Hong, Jung-Won Park
A25 Characterization of specific IgE antibody related to antigen 5 of echinococcus granulosus
Mohammadreza Siavashi
A26 Development of binary forecast model of asthma exacerbation: Asthma index
Hey Suk Yun, Ha-Na Kang, Jae-Won Oh, Young Jin Choi
A27 Different levels in rantes, IL-5 and TNF-á between the nasal polyps of adolescents with allergic, local allergic and non-allergic rhinitis
Ha-Na Kang, Jae-Won Oh, Young Jin Choi
A28 Tgfβ1 level is associated with VDR gene polymorphism in children with allergy diseases
Tatiana Sentsova, Ilya Vorozhko, Olga Chernyak, Vera Revyakina, Anna Timopheeva, Andrey Donnikov
A29 Dynamics of immunological biomarkers in children with food allergy fed goat milk formula
Tatiana Sentsova, Ilya Vorozhko, Olga Chernyak, Vera Revyakina, Anna Timopheeva
A30 Association between obesity, abdominal obesity and adiposity and the prevalence of atopic dermatitis in young Korean adults: The korea national health and nutrition examination survey, 2008–2010
Ji Hyun Lee, Young Min Park, Sang Soo Choi, Kyung Do Han, Han Mi Jung, Young Hoon Youn, Jun Young Lee, Yong Gyu Park, Seung-Hwan Lee
A31 Associations of natural history and environmental factors with asthma among children in rural and urban areas of guangdong, China
Zhaowei Yang, Jing Li, Mulin Feng, Marjut Roponen, Bianca Schaub, Gary WK Wong
A32 The effect of CO2-enriched atmospheres to producing of allergenic pollen by ragweed
Young Jin Choi, Ha-Na Kang, Jae-Won Oh
A33 Application evaluation of house dust mite and components specific-IgE and IgG4 in specific immunotherapy with allergic diseases
Baoqing Sun, Peiyan Zheng
A34 Effect of Asian dust events on asthma according to the socioeconomic status using claim data in KOREA
Yoon-Sung Park
A35 TSLP downregulates human â-defensin 2 through STAT3-dependent pathway in keratinocytes
Sang Wook Son
A36 Effects of anti-IgE on IL-4, IL-5, IL-17, and CD19,20,200 in a case of netherton syndrome (SPINK5 mutation)
Arzu Didem Yalcin, Sukran Kose, Kemal Kiraz
A37 Augmentation of arginase 1 expression exacerbates airway inflammation in murine asthma models
Jin-Young Lee, Sehyo Yune, Jae-Won Paeng, Mi-Jung Oh, Byung-Jae Lee, Dong-Chull Choi, Young Hee Lim, Kyoung Won Ha
A38 Caregivers of children with no food allergy – their experiences and perception of the condition
Kiwako Yamamoto-Hanada, Masami Narita, Masaki Futamura, Yukihiro Ohya
A39 Evaluation of Drug Provocation Tests in Korean Children: A Single Center Experience
Jihyun Kim, Jinwha Choi, Kwanghoon Kim, Jaehee Choi, Kangmo Ahn
A40 Danyoung classification 2015 update by digital HD endoscopic evaluation
SUN-HO/Brian Chang
A41 Effect on quality of life of the mixed house dust mite/weed pollen extract immunotherapy in polysensitized patients
Lisha Li
A42 Ambient desert dust and allergic symptoms: A time series analysis from a national birth cohort (JECS)
Kumiko Tsuji Kanatani, Yu-Ichi Adachi
A43 Individuals Allergic to Cow’s Milk Should be Vigilant When Consuming Beef Because It May be Injected Beef
Shigeyuki Narabayashi, Ikuo Okafuji, Yuya Tanaka, Satoru Tsuruta, Nobue Takamatsu
A44 Quality of life of chronic rhinosinusitis patients with or without nasal polyps in Korea
Soo Whan Kim, Do Hyun Kim
A45 House dust mite sensitization and exacerbation of asthma in the fall in children
Jong-Seo Yoon, Jin Tack Kim, Hwan Soo Kim, Yoon Hong Chun, Hyun Hee Kim, Sul Mui Won
A46 Evidence-based health advice for childhood eczema and household pets
Kam Lun E. Hon, Chung Mo Chow, Ting Fan Leung
A47 Relationship between allergic rhinitis and mental health in korea
Do Hyun Kim, Soo Whan Kim
A48 Oscillometric bronchodilator response in 3 to 5 years old healthy and asthmatic Filipino children
Gemmalyn Esguerra, Emily Resurreccion, Kristine Elisa Kionisala, Jenni Rose Dela Cruz
A49 The use of aeroallergen immunotherapy to treat eosinophilic esophagitis
Muhammad Imran
A50 A study of the eczema herpeticum in Korean
Yun Seon Choe, Kyu Han Kim, Mira Choi
A51 Specific sublingual immunotherapy in Korean patients with atopic dermatitis
Byung Soo Kim, Hyun-Joo Lee, Jeong-Min Kim, Jeong-Min Kim, Gun-Wook Kim, Je-Ho Mun, Je-Ho Mun, Hoon-Soo Kim, Margaret Song, Hyun-Chang Ko, Hyun-Chang Ko, Moon-Bum Kim
A52 Association between polymorphisms in bitter taste receptors genes and clinical features in Korean asthmatics
Sun-Young Yoon
A53 Effect of glycosides based standardized fenugreek seed extract in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats
Amit Kandhare
A54 A kampo formula, ogi-kenchu-to, decreases side-effects of steroid ointment for infantile atopic dermatitis: Three cases report
Noriko Yahiro
A55 To test use of jet nebulizers NE-C802 as a drug delivery system in the children with asthma
Amit Agarwal, Meenu Singh, Jasleen Kaur, Ruby Pawankar, Pankaj Pant, Sukhmanjeet Singh
A56 Immunoglobulin e to allergen components of house dust mite in Korean children with allergic disease
Hwan Soo Kim, Jong-Seo Yoon, Sul Mui Won, Yoon Hong Chun, Jin Tack Kim, Hyun Hee Kim
A57 Effectiveness of premedication and rapid desensitization in hypersensitivity to l-asparaginase
Hwan Soo Kim, Sul Mui Won, Yoon Hong Chun, Jong-Seo Yoon, Hyun Hee Kim, Jin Tack Kim
A58 Angioedema with Eosinophilia: The First Report from Thailand
Thatchai Kampitak
A59 Evaluation of anti-pruritic and anti-inflammatory effects of Korean red ginseng extract on atopic dermatitis murine model
So Min Kim, Hyun Joo Lee, Hei Sung Kim, Jeong Deuk Lee, Sang Hyun Cho
A60 Subcutaneous autologous serum therapy in chronic urticaria
Kiran Godse
A61 Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in asthma and lung tuberculosis
Juwita Soekarno, Sarie Ratnasari, E. Alwi Datau, Eko Surachmanto, JC Matheos
A62 Infantile eczema is associated with campylobacter and roseburia subpopulations but not microbial diversity in stool samples of Chinese newborns
Ting Fan Leung, Jamie Sui-Lam Kwok, Christine Kit-Ching Tung, Man Fung Tang, Stephen Kwok-Wing Tsui, Gary WK Wong, Kam Lun Ellis Hon, Wing Hung Tam, Hing Yee Sy
A63 Association between serum chitinase level and toll-like receptor polymorphisms in bakery workers
Sohee Lee
A64 IFN-gamma contributes to nasal polypogenesis by inducing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via non-smad pathway
Hyun-Woo Shin, Mingyu Lee, Dae Woo Kim, Roza Khalmuratova
A65 Management and education status of anaphylaxis patients who visit our emergency room (ER)
Mi Yeoung Kim, Jaewon Jeong, Chansun Park
A66 Hypoallergen-Encoding DNA Plasmids As Immunoprophylactic Vaccines of Shrimp Tropomyosin Hypersensitivity
Christine Yee Yan Wai, Patrick S.C. Leung, Nicki Y.H. Leung, Ka Hou Chu
A67 The relationship between sputum pentraxin 3 levels and childhood asthma
Hee Seon Lee, Kyung Eun Lee, Jung Yeon Hong, Mi Na Kim, Min Jung Kim, Yoon Hee Kim, In Suk Sol, Seo Hee Yoon, Kyung Won Kim, Myung Hyun Sohn, Kyu-Earn Kim
A68 The role of local antibody responses in the nasal inflammation of allergic rhinitis (AR) patients
Ji Hye Kim, Hae-Sim Park, Yoo Seob Shin, Young Min Ye, Daehong Seo, Moon Gyeong Yoon, Young Mok Lee
A69 A case of ofloxacin-induced anaphylaxis by non-IgE, but specific IgG4-mediated responses
Daehong Seo, Ji Hye Kim, Young-Mok Lee, Young Min Ye, Hae-Sim Park
A70 Serum LTE4 metabolite as a biomarker for aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease
Ga Young Ban, Kumsun Cho, Seung-Hyun Kim, Yong Eun Kwon, Moon Gyeong Yoon, Ji Hye Kim, Yoo Seob Shin, Young Min Ye, Dong-Ho Nahm, Hae-Sim Park
A71 Local and systemic reactions of dust mite subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) among children in a tertiary care hospital
Pilar Agnes Gonzalez Andaya
A72 Effects of carboxymethyl glucan (CM-glucan) in children with allergic rhinitis and asthma: A randomized controlled trial
Pilar Agnes Gonzalez Andaya
A73 Autophagy mechanisms in patients with severe asthma: A new therapeutic target
Ga Young Ban, Chang Gyu Jung, Seung-Ihm Lee, Duy Le Pham, Dong-Hyeon Suh, Eun-Mi Yang, Young Min Ye, Yoo Seob Shin, Hae-Sim Park
A74 Aggravation of airway inflammation and hypperresponsiveness following nasal challenge with dermatophagoides pteronyssinus in perennial allergic rhinitis patients without symptoms of asthma
Wan Jun Wang, MO Xian, Yan Qing Xie, Jing Ping Zheng, Jing Li
A75 Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d in early childhood is non-linearly associated with allergy
Emma Merike Savilahti, Outi Mäkitie, Anna Kaarina Kukkonen, Sture Andersson, Heli Viljakainen, Erkki Savilahti, Mikael Kuitunen
A76 Fric test in dermographism
Kiran Godse
A77 Neutrophil autophagy and extracellular trap could contribute to asthma severity
Duy Le Pham, Ga Young Ban, Seung-Hyun Kim, Eun-Mi Yang, Hae-Sim Park, Ji-Ho Lee, Yong-Joon Chwae
A78 Redox Modulation for the Treatment of Toluene Diisocyanates-Induced Lung Inflammation
Li-Ming Chin, Chi-Chang Shieh
A79 A case of occupational asthma and rhinitis with anaphylaxis to Korean ginseng and sanyak
Ji Hye Kim, Hye-Soo Yoo, Moon Gyeong Yoon, Ga Young Ban, Ga Young Ban, Yoo Seob Shin, Young Min Ye, Hae-Sim Park
A80 Factors of influencing epidermal permeability barrier defects in atopic dermatitis children
Myong Soon Sung, Jin Uck Choi, Sung Won Kim, Yong Jin Hwang
A81 Innate type 2 response to aspergillusfumigatus in a murine model of atopic dermatitis-like skin inflammation
Arum Park, Eun Lee, Song-I Yang, Hyun-Ju Cho, Jinho Yu
A82 Activin a receptor 1C may implicate in the development of sensitive skin
Dong Hun Lee, Eun Ju Kim, Yeon Kyung Kim, Eun Jin Doh, Hee Chul Eun, Jin Ho Chung, Young Mee Lee, Seon Pil Jin
A83 Genetic association and eQTL analyses of genes associated with allergy in atopic/non-atopic asthma
Xingnan Li, Naftali Kaminski, Sally Wenzel, Eugene Bleecker, Deborah Meyers
A84 Gastroscope feature and clinical characteristics in 172 cases of children with henoch-schonlein purpura
Zeng Huasong
A85 The role of TRPV1 in CD4+ t cell mediated inflammatory response of allergic rhinitis
Ji-Hun Mo, Ramachandran Samivel, Eun-Hee Kim, Ji-Hye Kim, Jun-Sang Bae, Young-Jun Chung, Dae Woo Kim
A86 A Phenotype of Rhinitis from School Children Is Associated with the Development of Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness
Eun Lee, Si Hyeon Lee, Young-Ho Kim, Hyun-Ju Cho, Ho-Sung Yu, Mi-Jin Kang, Song-I Yang, Young-Ho Jung, Hyung Young Kim, Ju-Hee Seo, Byoung-Ju Kim, Hyo-Bin Kim, So-Yeon Lee, Ho-Jang Kwon, Soo-Jong Hong
A87 Increased basal activation status was noted in adult anaphylaxis patients
Sailesh Palikhe, Hae-Sim Park, Seung-Hyun Kim, Ji Hye Kim, Eun-Mi Yang
A88 Clinical values of interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assays for management of antibiotic hypersensitivity in hospitalized patients
Suda Sibunruang, Jettanong Klaewsongkram
A89 VDR gene polymorphism and 25-hydroxy vitamin d levels in children with food allergy
Tatiana Sentsova, Ilya Vorozhko, Anna Timopheeva, Olga Chernyak, Vera Revyakina, Andrey Sokolnikov
A90 An analysis of 145 oral almond challenge tests
Makoto Nisihino, Yu Okada, Noriyuki Yanagida, Motohiro Ebisawa, Sakura Sato, Kiyotake Ogura, Tomoyuki Asaumi, Kenichi Nagakura, Tetsuharu Manabe, Hirotoshi Unno
A91 Effect of creatine supplementation in fish allergenic potential; A proteomics study
Pedro M Rodrigues, Denise Schrama, Gadija Mohamed, Lizex Hüsselmann, Lizex Hüsselmann, Bongani Ndimba
A92 Flagellin modulates the function of invariant NKT cells via dendritic cells in asthma patients
Jae-Uoong Shim, Young Il Koh, Joon Haeng Rhee, Ji-Ung Jeong
A93 Clinical and subclinical manifestations of allopurinol – induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions in Vietnam
Dinh Van Nguyen, Hieu Chi Chu, Mui Thi Tran, Christopher Vidal, Suran Fernando, Sheryl Van Nunen, Sy Van Than
A94 Time course of serum inhibitory activity for facilitated allergen-IgE binding during house dust mite immunotherapy
Mulin Feng, Jing Li
A95 Periostin is a novel biomarker in eosinophilic nasal polyps of chronic rhinosinusitis
Dong-Kyu Kim, Seung-No Hong, Kyoung Mi Eun, Hong Ryul Jin, Dae Woo Kim
A96 Dominance of Th1-response in children with refractory mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia
Jun Bao, Yi-Xiao Bao
A97 Studies on the role of CD14 polymorphism among pollen and mold induced asthmatics of kolkata, India
Sanjoy Podder, Goutam Kumar, Shampa Dutta, Amlan Ghosh
A98 House dust mite allergy – Indian perspective
Goutam Kumar Saha, Sanjoy Podder, Salil Kumar Gupta
A99 Increased expression of purinergic (P2Y12) receptor and cysteinyl leukotriene receptors in the lung tissue of a mouse model of allergic asthma
Tu/Hoang Kim Trinh, Yoo Seob Shin, Hae-Sim Park, Jing-Nan Liu, Duy Le Pham
A100 Autologous serum skin test in chronic idiopathic urticaria - relationship with autoimmune markers and disease severity
Hyun-Chang Ko, Byung Soo Kim, Moon-Bum Kim
A101 Anxiety and depression levels in severe asthma patients treated with omalizumab
Ömer Özbudak, Fatih Üzer
A102 Economic burden of refractory chronic spontaneous urticaria on Kuwait health system
Mona Al-Ahmad, Maryam Alowayesh, Norman Carroll
A103 IgE-mediated maize allergy in India: A 28 kd protein responsible for food-induced allergic reaction
Anand Bahadur Singh
A104 Liposomal encapsulation of house dust mite allergens and dexamethasone modulates allergic response in a murine model of asthma
Yordanis Pérez-Llano, María Del Carmen Luzardo Lorenzo, Wendy Ramírez González, Carlos Calcines Cruz, Rady Laborde Quintana, Alain Morejón, Virgilio Bourg, Marilé Hechavarría Stoker
A105 Immune Suppressive Effects of Tonsil-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Eosinophilic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps in a Mouse Model
Jun-Sang Bae, Ramachandran Samivel, Eun-Hee Kim, Ji-Hye Kim, Ji-Hun Mo
A106 Second line treatments of dermographic urticaria refractory to antihistamines
Keiko Hanaoka, Michihiro Hide, Akio Tanaka, Makiko Hiragun, Mikio Kawai
A107 Diagnostic Value of Specific IgE to Peanut and Ara h 2 in Korean Children with Peanut Allergy
Kwanghoon Kim, Kwanghoon Kim, Hye-Young Kim, Jihyun Kim, Kangmo Ahn, Youngshin Han
A108 Inappropriate amounts of topical tacrolimus applied on Korean patients with eczema
Gun-Wook Kim, Hyun-Chang Ko, Byung Soo Kim, Moon-Bum Kim, Margaret Song
A109 Identification of an IgG1-mediated anaphylaxis marker and its application in evaluating the antigenicity of infant formulas
Takeshi Matsubara, Hiroshi Iwamoto, Yuki Nakazato, Kazuyoshi Namba, Yasuhiro Takeda
A110 Nitric oxide as a screening tool for evaluation of postoperative state of chronic rhinosinusitis
Jae Hoon Lee, Woo Yong Bae
A111 Comparison of different medical treatment options for crswnp: Doxycycline, methylprednisolone, mepolizumab, omalizumab
Els De Schryver, Lien Calus, Philippe Gevaert, Thibaut Van Zele, Claus Bachert
A112 Successful treatment of steroid resistant asthma model by blocking CD28 signal
Akio Mori, Satoshi Kouyama, Miyako Yamaguchi, Yo Iijima, Akemi Abe-Ohtomo, Hiroaki Hayashi, Kentaroh Watai, Chihiro Mitsui, Chiyako Oshikata, Kiyoshi Sekiya, Takahiro Tsuburai, Mamoru Ohtomo, Yuma Fukutomi, Masami Taniguchi
A113 Serum periostin levels was not associated with allergic rhinitis and allergic sensitization in Korean children
Ju Wan Kang, Jeong Hong Kim, Jeong Hong Kim, Keun-Hwa Lee, Hye-Sook Lee, Seong-Chul Hong, Jaechun Lee
A114 Roles of ADAM10 and ADAM17 in allergic rhinitis
Ji Won Seo, Jae Hoon Lee, Woo Yong Bae
A115 Mechanism of oral and topical polyprenol action in atopic dermatitis
Ivans Sergejs Kuznecovs, Galina Kuznecova
A116 Technical and clinical validation of a mobile chamber for allergen exposure tests
Karl-Christian Bergmann, Torsten Zuberbier, Joseph Salame, Torsten Sehlinger, Georg Bölke
A117 The association between serum lead level and total immunoglobulin e according to allergic sensitization
Yoo Suk Kim, Jung Hyun Chang, Jeong Hong Kim, Ju Wan Kang
A118 Clinical and laboratory characteristics of nasal obstruction dominant allergic sensitization
Seung-No Hong, Doo Hee Han, Chae-Seo Rhee
A119 Nasal provocation test is useful for the diagnoses of allergic, non- allergic, and local allergic rhinitis
Young-Joo Ko, Young Hyo Kim, Dae-Young Kim, Tae Young Jang
A120 Aspirin facilitates the intestinal absorption and oral sensitization of food allergens in rats
Tomoharu Yokooji, Taiki Hirano, Hiroaki Matsuo
A121 Gestational Secondhand Smoke Exposure Could Affect Maternal n-Glycosylation and Cause Filaggrin Loss in Children with Atopic Dermatitis
Galina Kuznecova, Ivans Sergejs Kuznecovs
A122 Allergen specific immunotherapy in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma--a randomized prospective study from kashmir valley-north of India
Roohi Rasool Wani, Shafia Alam Syed, Ghulam Hassan, Ayaz Gul, Saniya Nissar, Zaffar Amin Shah
A123 Sleep disorders in latin-American children with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and normal controls
Marilyn Urrutia Pereira, Carmen Fernandez, Dirceu Sole, Herberto Jose Chong Neto, Veronica Acosta, Alfonso Mario Cepeda, Mirta Alvarez Castello, Claudia Almendarez, Jose Santos Lozano Saenz, Juan C. Sisul, Nelson Rosario Filho, Antonio Castillo, Marylin Valentin Rostan, Jennifer Avila, Hector Badellino, Maria Carolina Manotas, Raúl Lázaro Castro Almarales, Mayda González León
A124 Association between respiratory symptoms and exhaled nitric oxide in Afghanistan
Woo Kyung Kim, Hae-Sun Yoon
A125 ATP, a danger signal, activates human eosinophils via P2 purinergic receptors
Takehito Kobayashi, Tooru Noguchi, Tomoyuki Soma, Kazuyuki Nakagome, Hidetomo Nakamoto, Hirohito Kita, Makoto Nagata
A126 Atopic dermatitis and sleep disorders in latin American children
Marilyn Urrutia Pereira, Dirceu Sole, Herberto Jose Chong Neto, Alfonso Mario Cepeda, Raúl Lázaro Castro Almarales, Juan C. Sisul, Marylin Valentin Rostan, Hector Badellino, Miguel Alejandro Medina Avalos, Antonio Castillo, Claudia Almendarez, Nelson Rosario Filho, Caridad Sanchez Silot, Jennifer Avila, Felicia Berroa Rodriguez, Jose Santos Lozano Saenz, Mirta Alvarez Castello, Carmen Fernandez
A127 Der p 23: A Major House Dust Mite Allergen in Spite of Limited Release from Fecal Pellets and Prominent Protease Sensitivity
Wai Tuck Soh, Alain Jacquet, Kiat Ruxrungtham, Emmanuel Nony, Maxime Le Mignon
A128 Anaphylactic Reaction After Inhalation of Budesonide
Mary Lee-Wong, Suzanne McClelland, Suzanne McClelland, Nanette B. Silverberg, Christian E. Song
A129 Lipidomic analysis of mattress dust from urban and rural schoolchildren in China
Zhaowei Yang, Jiukai Zhang, Wentao Zheng, Nanshan Zhong, Jing Li
A130 Improvements in quality of life in children with allergic rhinitis after adenotonsillectomy
Jung Ho Bae, Young Joo Cho, Joo Yeon Kim
A131 The seasonal variation of asthma exacerbations in patients allergic to pollens in Greece
Konstantinos Petalas, Dimitrios Vourdas, Christos Grigoreas
A132 Whole-genome sequencing study in allergic rhinitis nuclear families
Yuan Zhang
A133 Effect of the production of extracellular matrix from nasal fibroblasts by eosinophils activated with airborne fungi
Seung-Heon Shin, Mi-Kyung Ye, Jeong-Kyu Kim
A134 The study of clinical characteristics, lung function and bronchodilator responsiveness in infants with RSV bronchiolitis
Yong Feng, Yunxiao Shang
A135 GIS-based association between PM10 and allergic diseases in seoul: Implication for health and environmental policy
Sungchul Seo, Ji Tae Choung, Dohyeong Kim, Young Yoo, Hyunwook Lim
A136 The relationship between rhinovirus and recurrent wheezing
Wenjing Zhu, Chuanhe Liu, Li Sha, Li Chang, Min Zhao, Linqing Zhao, Yuan Qian, Yuzhi Chen
A137 Dominancy of Staphylcoccus Aureus in the Skin of Atopic Dermatitis Patients Compared to Healthy Subjects through Metagenomic Analysis
Min-Hye Kim, Young Joo Cho, Mina Rho, Jung-Won Kim, Yeon-Mi Kang, Kyung-Eun Yum, Hyeon-Il Choi, Jun-Pyo Choi, Han-Ki Park, Taek-Ki Min, Bok-Yang Pyun, Yoon-Keun Kim
A138 Micronized Cellulose Powder Reduces the Dose of Locally Applied Glucocorticoids in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis
Xueyan Wang
A139 New strategy for atopic dermatitis therapy with modulation of calcium ion channels
Woo Kyung Kim, Yu Ran Nam, Joo Hyun Nam
A140 Difference in the Systemic Bacterial Composition of Atopic Dermatitis Patients Compared to Healthy Subjects through Metagenomic Analysis of Urine
Jung-Won Kim, Min-Hye Kim, Mina Rho, Yeon-Mi Kang, Kyung-Eun Yum, Hyeon-Il Choi, Jun-Pyo Choi, Han-Ki Park, Taek-Ki Min, Young Joo Cho, Bok-Yang Pyun, Yoon-Keun Kim
A141 Occurrence and physiological function of immune complexes of food proteins and IgA in human saliva
Hiroshi Narita, Junko Hirose, Kumiko Kizu, Ayu Matsunaga
A142 Association between DNA hypomethylation at IL13 gene and allergic rhinitis in house dust mite-sensitized subjects
Jingyun Li, Yuan Zhang, Luo Zhang
A143 Effect of dietary methyl donors on asthma and atopy is modified by MTHFR polymorphism
Yean Jung Choi, Hye Lim Shin, Song-I Yang, So-Yeon Lee, Sung-Ok Kwon, Young-Ho Jung, Ji-Won Kwon, Hyung Young Kim, Ju-Hee Seo, Byoung-Ju Kim, Hyo-Bin Kim, Se-Young Oh, Ho-Jang Kwon, Eun Lee, Mi-Jin Kang, Soo-Jong Hong, Yun-Jeong Lee, Joonil Kim
A144 The effect of TSLP in a murine model of allergic asthma
Joon Young Choi, Ji Young Kang, Seok Chan Kim, Sei Won Kim, Seung Joon Kim, Young Kyoon Kim, Chin Kook Rhee, Hea Yon Lee, Hwa Young Lee, Sook Young Lee
A145 Evaluation of Aspirin Hypersensitivity in Chronic Rhinosinusitis Patients
Tae Kyung Koh, Sung Wan Kim, Kun Hee Lee, Chul Kwon, Joong-Saeng Jo, Sung-Hwa Dong, Young Seok Byun
A146 Chronic cough without wheezing in young children as a manifestation of chronic sinusitis
Charles Song
A147 Expression of muscarinic receptors and effect of tiotropium bromide on chronic asthma according to age in a murine model
Ji Young Kang, Hwa Young Lee, In Kyoung Kim, Sei Won Kim, Chin Kook Rhee, Seung Joon Kim, Seok Chan Kim, Sook Young Lee, Young Kyoon Kim, Soon Seog Kwon, Joon Young Choi
A148 Discrimination between non-eosinophilic and eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps
Pona Park, Hong Ryul Jin, Dong-Kyu Kim, Dae Woo Kim
A149 Significant reduction in allergic features in the offspring of mice supplemented with specific non-digestible oligosaccharides during lactation
Astrid Hogenkamp
A150 Allergenicity assessment of hydrolysed infant formula; A multicenter comparison of a mouse model and a Guinea pig model for cow’s milk allergy
Leon Knippels, Betty C.a.m. Van Esch, Jolanda Van Bilsen, Prescilla V. Jeurink; Marjan Gros, Johan Garssen, Joost J Smit, Raymond H.H. Pieters
A151 Clinical significance between the allergic test and serum eosinophil cationic protein
Boo-Young Kim, Soo Whan Kim
A152 Hydroclorothiazide-induced acute non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema
Ramon Lleonart
A153 A Synbiotic Mixture of Scgos/Lcfos and Bifidobacterium Breve M-16V Is Able to Restore the Delayed Colonization of Bifidobacterium Observed in C-Section Delivered Infants
Christophe Lay, Kaouther Benamor, Chua Mei Chen, Jan Knol, Charmaine Chew, Voranush Chongsrisawat, Anne Goh, Wen Chin Chiang, Rajeshwar Rao, Surasith Chaithongwongwatthana, Nipon Khemapech
A154 Atopic characteristics of patients with asthma-COPD overlap syndrome
Ji Young Yhi, Sang-Heon Kim, Dong Won Park, Ji-Yong Moon, Tae Hyung Kim, Jang Won Sohn, Dong Ho Shin, Ho Joo Yoon, Seok Hyun Cho
A155 Perceptions and practices of severe asthma and asthma-COPD overlap syndrome among specialists: A questionnaire survey
Sang-Heon Kim, Ji-Yong Moon, Jae-Hyun Lee, Ga Young Ban, Sujeong Kim, Mi-Ae Kim, Joo-Hee Kim, Min-Hye Kim, Chan-Sun Park, Hyouk-Soo Kwon, Jae-Woo Kwon, Jae Woo Jung, Hye-Ryun Kang, Jong-Sook Park, Tae-Bum Kim, Heung Woo Park, You Sook Cho, Kwang-Ha Yoo, Yeon-Mok Oh
A156 A case of surgical diagnosed eosinophilic enteritis with intussusception in adult patient
Sang-Rok Lee
A157 Reference values of total IgE in estonian children
Kaja Julge, Maire Vasar, Tiia Voor, Tiina Rebane
A158 A case of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis accompanied by rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
Yu Jin Kim, Sang Min Lee, Shin Myung Kang, Sojeong Kim, Sun Young Kyung, Sung Hwan Jeong, Jeong-Woong Park, Hyunjung Hwang, Yong Han Seon, Sanghui Park, Sang Pyo Lee
A159 Associations Between Infectious Diseases and Urticaria
Marius Iordache
A160 Sleep in infants in korea – finding of bisq survey
Yeongsang Jeong, Sohee Eun, Byung Min Choi, Ji Tae Choung, Wonhee Seo
A161 Increased Expression of Filaggrin, TSLP, Periostin, IL13 and IL-33 in Nasal Polyps
Liang Zhang, Ruby Pawankar, Manabu Nonaka, Miyuki Hayashi, Shingo Yamanishi, Harumi Suzaki, Yasuhiko Itoh, So Watanabe, Hitome Kobayashi
A162 Asymptomatic bacteruria increases the risk of edematous attacks in patients with hereditary angioedema due to C1 inhibitor deficency (C1-INH-HAE)
Zsuzsanna Zotter, Henriette Farkas, Lilian Varga, Nora Veszeli, Eva Imreh, Gabor Kovacs, Marsel Nallbani
A163 Gastric Erosions Cause Spontaneous Urticaria Independent of Helicobacter Pylori
Semen Zheleznov, Galina Urzhumtseva, Natalia Petrova, Zhanna Sarsaniia, Nikolai Didkovskii, Torsten Zuberbier
A164 The Effect of G2 Vaccine on the Gene Expression NKG2D and Receptor Presenting on the Surface of NK Cells in Peripheral Blood
Nader Dashti Gerdabi, Ali Khodadadi, Zahra Abdoli, Mehri Ghafourian, Mohammad Ali Assarehzadegan, Khodayar Ghorban
A165 Ethnic differences in lifetime prevalence and indoor environmental factors for childhood eczema
Hyo-Bin Kim, Hui Zhou, Jeong Hee Kim, Rima Habre, Theresa Bastain, Frank Gilliland
A166 A case of methazolamide-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis
Jong-Wook Bae, Kyu-Hyung Han, Young-Koo Jee, Misoo Choi, Seung-Phil Hong, Seung-Hyun Kim
A167 Inflammatory responses of human adipose-tissue derived stem cells to LPS and nanoparticles
Hee-Kyoo Kim, Gil-Soon Choi, Jeonghoon Heo, Young-Ho Kim, Eun-Kee Park
A168 Analysis of 71 Cashew Nut Oral Challenge Tests
Takashi Inoue, Kiyotake Ogura, Noriyuki Yanagida, Hirotoshi Unno, Kenichi Nagakura, Tetsuharu Manabe, Tomoyuki Asaumi, Sakura Sato, Yu Okada, Motohiro Ebisawa
A169 Fungal sensitization is associated with asthma exacerbation
Min-Gu Kim, You Sook Cho, Tae-Bum Kim, Hee-Bom Moon, Jung-Hyun Kim, Hyo-Jung Kim, So-Young Park, Bomi Seo, Hyouk-Soo Kwon, Jaemoon Lee, Taehoon Lee
A170 Individual therapeutic patient education and consultation in children with atopic dermatitis
Hye-Soo Yoo, Jieun Kim, Inok Kim, Haejin Kim, Younhee Chang, Hae-Sim Park, Sooyoung Lee
A171 Utility of Alpha-Lactalbumin Specific IgE Levels Using Immulite 2000 3gAllergy in Predicting Clinical Severity of Milk Allergy
Kazuyo Kuzume, Munemitsu Koizumi, Koji Nishimura, Michiko Okamoto
A172 Isoniazid/rifampicin-specific t-cell responses in patients with anti-tuberculosis –induced dress syndrome
Seung-Hyun Kim, Young Min Ye, Gyu Young Hur, Hae-Sim Park, Sang-Heon Kim, Young-Koo Jee
A173 Genetic biomarkers associated with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) phenotype based on genome-wide association study
Seung-Hyun Kim, Hyunna Choi, Young Min Ye, Hae-Sim Park
A174 Assessment of ORAL drug provocation test in the diagnosis of NON-steroidal ANTI-inflammatory drugs hypersensitivity
Bui VAN Khanh, Hieu Chi Chu, Nguyen Nhu Nguyet, Nguyen Hoang Phuong
A175 Korean treatment guideline of atopic dermatitis
Joo Young Roh, Hyun Jeong Kim, Jung Eun Kim, Bark-Lynn Lew, Kyung Ho Lee, Seung-Phil Hong, Yong Hyun Jang, Kui Young Park, Seong Jun Seo, Jung Min Bae, Eung Ho Choi, Ki Beom Suhr, Seung Chul Lee, Hyun-Chang Ko, Young Lip Park, Sang Wook Son, Young Jun Seo, Yang Won Lee, Sang Hyun Cho, Chun Wook Park
A176 Systemic side reaction of subcutaneous immunotherapy(SCIT) for perennial allergic rhinitis
Kun Hee Lee, Sung Wan Kim
A177 Clinical baseline characteristics of Asian patients suffering from refractory chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) in three phase 3 omalizumab clinical trials
Chia-Yu CHU, Derrick Aw, Young-Min Ye, Giovanni Bader, Fabrizio Dolfi, Nathalie Oliveira
A178 A metagenomic approach through t-RFLP to the microbiome of asthma
Jae Chol Choi, Jae Woo Jung, Hye-Ryun Kang, Kijeong Kim, Byoung Whui Choi
A179 Clinical characteristics and ten-year trend of peripheral blood eosinophilia among health screening program recipients at a tertiary hospital of South Korea
Jong Wook Shin, Jae Woo Jung, Jae Chol Choi, In Won Park, Byoung Whui Choi, Jae Yeol Kim
A180 The prevalence of toxocariasis and diagnostic value of serologic tests in asymptomatic Korean adults
Jin-Young Lee, Kyoung Won Ha, Yun-Jin Jeung, Sehyo Yune, Byung-Jae Lee, Dong-Chull Choi, Mi-Jung Oh, Young Hee Lim
A181 Cutaneous Drug Hypersensitivity Reaction in Korean Children: An Analysis of KAERS Database on 2012-2013
Eui Jun Lee, Dongin Suh, Sung-Il Woo, Hwa Jin Cho, Eun Hee Chung, Soo Youn Chung
A182 Comparison of clinical characteristics, quality of life and sleep in patients with allergic rhinitis when categorised as “sneezers and runners” and “blockers”
Kamal Gera, Ashok Shah
A183 Role of s-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) in the murine strain differences of airway hyperresponsiveness
Jin-Young Lee, Kyoung Won Ha, Mi-Jung Oh, Young Hee Lim, Sehyo Yune, Jae-Won Paeng, Mi-Jin Jang, Byung-Jae Lee, Dong-Chull Choi
A184 Protection from airway bronchoconstriction by gsno
Jin-Young Lee, Mi-Jin Jang, Jae-Won Paeng, Yun-Jin Jeung, Young Hee Lim, Mi-Jung Oh, Kyoung Won Ha, Byung-Jae Lee, Dong-Chull Choi, Sehyo Yune
A185 Does EIA-targeted asthma treatment improve daily physical activity of children?
Takahiro Ito
A186 Wheezing as a clue to the diagnosis of cough variant asthma and nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis
Jihye Kim, Jin-Young Lee, Sehyo Yune, Byung-Jae Lee, Dong-Chull Choi, Mi-Jin Jang, Jae-Won Paeng, Young Eun Kim, Young Nam Kim, Yongseok Lee
A187 Antagonism of microRNA-21 suppressed the airway inflammation in a mouse model of bronchial asthma
Hwa Young Lee, Sook Young Lee, Soon Seog Kwon, Young Kyoon Kim, Chin Kook Rhee, Sei Won Kim, Hea Yon Lee, Joon Young Choi, In Kyoung Kim
A188 Chlorhexidine anaphylaxis: A report of two cases
Jose Antonio Navarro, Maria Ascension Aranzabal, Alejandro Joral, Susana Lizarza, Miguel Echenagusia, EVA Maria Lasa
A189 Effects of Particulate Matter on Respiratory Allergic Diseases Considering Meteorological Factors in Busan, Korea
Eun-Jung Jo, Sun-Mi Jang, Seung-Eon Song, Hae-Jung Na, Chang-Hoon Kim, Woo-Seop Lee, Hye-Kyung Park
A190 Clinical characteristics of neutrophilic asthma
Sachiko Miyauchi, Yoshitaka Uchida, Tomoyuki Soma, Susumu Yamazaki, Toru Noguchi, Takehito Kobayashi, Kazuyuki Nakagome, Makoto Nagata
A191 Current Practice of Infants and Children with Acute Urticaria at a Single Wide Regional Emergency Medical Center
Hea Lin Oh, Do Kyun Kim, Dongin Suh, Young Yull Koh
A192 Discordance between sputum eosinophilia and exhaled nitric oxide
Sehyo Yune, Jin-Young Lee, Byung-Jae Lee, Dong-Chull Choi, Jae-Won Paeng, Mi-Jin Jang, Jihye Kim, Young Nam Kim
A193 Association between genetic polymorphisms of costimulatory molecules and antituberculosis drugs induced hepatitis
Sang-Heon Kim, Sang-Hoon Kim, Jang Won Sohn, Ho Joo Yoon, Dong Ho Shin, Jae Hyung Lee, Byoung Hoon Lee, Youn-Seup Kim, Jae-Seuk Park, Young-Koo Jee
A194 The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in chronic unexplained cough
Sehyo Yune, Jin-Young Lee, Jae-Won Paeng, Mi-Jin Jang, Dong-Chull Choi, Byung-Jae Lee, Yongseok Lee, Young Eun Kim
A195 Risk Factors of Allergic Rhinitis in Preschool Children and Clinical Utility of Feno
Jisun Yoon
A196 Relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d and asthma exacerbation severity in children
Yong Feng, Li Zhang, Xuxu Cai
A197 Usefulness of Specific IgE Antibody Levels to Wheat, Gluten and Ï-5 Gliadin for Wheat Allergy in Korean Children
Jong-Seo Yoon, Kyunguk Jeong, Hye-Soo Yoo, Sooyoung Lee, Sooyoung Lee
A198 Neutralization of stratum corneum accelerates the progress from atopic dermatitis to asthma-like lesion in flaky tail mice treated by house dust mite allergen
Hae-Jin Lee, Noo Ri Lee, Bo-Kyung Kim, Minyoung Jung, Dong Hye Kim, Catharina S. Moniaga, Kenji Kabashima, Eung Ho Choi
A199 Trends in oral food challenges in Japan: A six-year prospective study
Noriyuki Yanagida, Sakura Sato, Chizuko Sugizaki, Motohiro Ebisawa
A200 The Gut Microbiome in the Food Allergic Host
Jamie Kiehm, Punita Ponda, Sherry Farzan, Jared Weiss, Claudia Elera, Catherine Destio, Cristina Sison, Annette Lee
A201 Cord blood cytokines and maternal environmental exposure during pregnancy
Soo Hyun Ri, Chang Hoon Lim
A202 Rupatadine pharmacokinetics in Japanese healthy volunteers after single and repeated oral doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg
Iñaki Izquierdo Pulido, Jorg Taubel, Georg Ferber, Eva Santamaria Masdeu
A203 A safe and effective method to desensitize patients with wheat allergy
Alireza Khayatzadeh, Masoud Movahedi, Motohiro Ebisawa, Mohammad Gharagozlou
A204 RNA Binding Protein Hur Regulates CD4+ T Cell Differentiation and Is Required for Allergic Airway Inflammation and Normal IL-2 Homeostasis
Ulus Atasoy, Patsharaporn Techasintana, Matt Gubin, Jacqueline Glascock, Suzanne Ridenhour, Joseph Magee
A205 Time Trends in the Epidemiology of Recurrent Wheezing in Infants from South America
Nelson Rosario Filho; Herberto Jose Chong Neto, Gustavo Falbo Wandalsen, Ana Caroline Dela Bianca, Carolina Aranda, Dirceu Sole, Javier Mallol, Luis Garcia-Marcos, Luis Garcia-Marcos
A206 Successful Cyclophosphamide Desensitization in a Pediatric Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Jennifer Toh, Yoomie Lee, Joyce Huang, Elina Jerschow, Jenny Shliozberg
A207 The Fatty Acid Binding Protein Der p 13 Is a Minor House Dust Mite Allergen Able to Activate Innate Immunity
Pattraporn Satitsuksanoa, Narissara Suratannon, Jongkonnee Wongpiyabovorn, Pantipa Chatchatee, Kiat Ruxrungtham, Alain Jacquet
A208 Epidemiology of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidemal Necrolysis: An Administrative Database Study
Min Suk Yang; Jin Yong Lee, Ja Yeun Kim, Han-Ki Park, Ju-Young Kim, Woo-Jung Song, Hye-Ryun Kang, Heung Woo Park, Yoon-Seok Chang, Sang-Heon Cho, Kyung-up Min, Chang-Han Park, Suk-Il Chang, Sook-Hee Song
A209 Regional Differences of Vitamin D and Food-Induced Anaphylaxis in Korea
Si-Heon Kim, Gil-Soon Choi, Su-Chin Kim, Ji Hye Kim, Ga Young Ban, Yoo Seob Shin, Hae-Sim Park, Young Min Ye
A210 Triggering Factors of Atopic Dermatitis By Severity
Yoon Ha Hwang
A211 Clinical Features of Adverse Drug Reactions of Monoclonal Antibodies in Korea
Da Woon Sim, Kyung Hee Park, Kyung Hee Park, Hye Jung Park, Hye Jung Park, Jung-Won Park, Jung-Won Park, Jae-Hyun Lee, Jae-Hyun Lee
A212 Food Allergy with Eczema Is Associated with Reduced Growth in the First Four Years of Life
Katrina Allen, Cara Beck, Jennifer Koplin, Melanie Matheson, Mimi Tang, Anne-Louise Ponsonby, Lyle Gurrin, Shyamali Dharmage, Melissa Wake, Vicki Mcwilliam
A213 The Preliminary Study on Clinical Efficacy and Impact Factors of One Year’s Dust Mite Specific Immunotherapy in Allergic Asthma and Rhinitis Children Sensitized to Dust Mite
Xiaoying Liu, Jing Wang, Li Xiang, Qun Wang
A214 Lipopolysaccharide Signaling through Toll- like Receptor 4 Could be Augmented By Dermatophagoides Farinae in the Human Middle Ear Epithelial Cell
Ji-Eun Lee, Dong-Young Kim, Chae-Seo Rhee, Chae-Seo Rhee
A215 Drug Allergy in Pregnant Adolescents: Relation with Familial and Personal Atopy, and Substances Use
Francisco Vazquez-Nava
A216 Patients and Physicians Concept of Well-Controlled Asthma: Findings from Realise Asia
Sang-Heon Cho, Jaewon Jeong, Diahn-Warng Perng, David Price, Glenn Neira, Jiangtao Lin
A217 The Role of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide in the Pathophysiology of Acute Asthma
Olga Semernik
A218 Comparison of Serum Cytokine Levels According to the Severity in Atopic Dermatitis
Ha-Su Kim, Jin-a Jung, Ji-in Jung
A219 The Different Influence on the Regulatory T Cell Response Between Subcutanous Immnuotherapy(SCIT) and Sublingual Immunotherapy(SLIT) in Children with Asthma
Qing Miao, Li Xiang
A220 Asthma State of Affairs in Asia: Seeing through Physicians’ and Patients’ Lenses
Sang-Heon Cho, Jaewon Jeong, Diahn-Warng Perng, Jiangtao Lin, David Price
A221 Identification of Aspirin Exacerbated Respiratory Disease (AERD) Phenotypes Using Two Step Cluster Analysis
Hyun Young Lee, Hae-Sim Park, Young Min Ye, Su Chin Kim
A222 Dusty Air Pollution Are Associated with an Increase Risk of Allergic Diseases in General Population
Shokrollah Farrokhi, Mohammadkazem Gheiby
A223 A Genome-Wide Association Study of Antituberculosis Drugs-Induced Hepatitis
Sang-Heon Kim; Heung Woo Park, Sang-Hoon Kim, Young-Koo Jee
A224 The Role of peroxiredoxin6 of Bronchial Epithelial Cells in Regulating Mitochondrial Function Under Oxidative Stress By Translocation to Outside Mitochondrial Membrane
Sunjoo Park, Keun Ai Moon, Hyouk-Soo Kwon, Tae-Bum Kim, You Sook Cho, Hee-Bom Moon, Kyoung Young Lee, Gyong Hwa Hong, Eun Hee Ha
A225 Toxic and Adjuvant Effects of 3 Types of Silica Nanoparticles on Airway System
Heejae Han, Hye Jung Park, Yoon Hee Park, Yoon-Jo Kim, Kangtaek Lee, Jung-Won Park, Jae-Hyun Lee
A226 Procedure for Diagnostic and Selection of Immunotherapy Method for Children with Different Immunopathogenetic Phenotypes of Atopic Dermatitis
Tatiana Slavyanskaya, Vladislava Derkach
A227 Prediction of the Success of Our Desensitization Protocol with Symptoms and Results of a Skin Prick Test in Patients with Hypersensitivity to Platinum-Based Chemotherapy
Hye Jung Park, Chein-Soo Hong, Jae-Hyun Lee, Jae-Hyun Lee, Sungryeol KIM, Sungryeol KIM, Kyung Hee Park, Kyung Hee Park, Choong-Kun Lee, Beodeul Kang, Seung-Hoon Beom, Sang Joon Shin, Minku Jung, Jung-Won Park, Jung-Won Park
A228 Anti-Allergic Effect of Intralymphatic Injection of OVA-Flagelin Mixture in Mouse Model of Allergic Rhinitis
Eun-Hee Kim, Ji-Hye Kim, Ji-Hun Mo, Young-Jun Chung
A229 Serum Periostin Level Is Higher in Respiratory Type of NSAID Hypersensitivity Than Cutaneous Type
Mi-Ae Kim, Hae-Sim Park, Moon Gyeong Yoon, Young-Soo Lee, Ji Hye Kim, Ga Young Ban, Hye-Soo Yoo, Yoo Seob Shin, Young Min Ye, Dong-Ho Nahm
A230 A Retrospective Analysis of Allergy Blood Testing in Beijing Children’s Hospital in the Year of 2013: A Single-Center Research
Qing Miao, Li Xiang
A231 Role of Nrf2 in the Allergic Airway Inflammation Differ Between BALB/c and C57BL/6 Mice
Ying-Ji Li, Takako Shimizu, Hirofumi Inagaki, Yukiyo Hirata, Hajime Takizawa, Arata Azuma, Masayuki Yamamoto, Tomoyuki Kawada
A232 Effect of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell on Neutrophilic Asthma Model
Min-Gu Kim, Gyong Hwa Hong, Kyoung Young Lee, Eun Hee Ha, Keun Ai Moon, Sunjoo Park, Hyouk-Soo Kwon, Tae-Bum Kim, Hee-Bom Moon, You Sook Cho, Jung-Hyun Kim, Hyo-Jung Kim, So-Young Park, Bomi Seo
A233 Immunomodulatory Effect of Tonsil Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Mouse Model of Allergic Rhinitis
Ji-Hye Kim, Ramachandran Samivel, Eun-Hee Kim, Young-Jun Chung, Ji-Hun Mo
A234 Alternative Therapy Such As Yoga May be a Low Cost Tool for Improving the Quality of Life of Patient’s with Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma
Soumya M. S., G. Inbaraj, R. Chellaa, Ruby Pawankar
A235 Substantial Impairment of the Quality of Life in Adult Patients with Chronic Urticaria
Wonsun Choi, Hae-Sim Park, Young Min Ye, Ji Hye Kim, Ga Young Ban, Yoo-Seob Shin
A236 Dietary Galacto-Oligosaccharides Reduce Airway Eosinophilia and Enhance the Th2 Suppressive Effect of Budesonide in House Dust Mite-Induced Asthma in Mice
Saskia Braber, Kim Verheijden, Aletta Kraneveld, Johan Garssen, Linette Willemsen, Gert Folkerts
A237 Production and Characterization of Recombinant Periplaneta americana Allergens for Component Resolved Diagnosis
Stephanie Eichhorn, Fatima Ferreira, Isabel Pablos, Bianca Kastner, Bettina Schweidler, Sabrina Wildner, Peter Briza, Jung-Won Park, Naveen Arora, Stefan Vieths, Gabriele Gadermaier
A238 Assessment of Characteristics of Itch in Patients with Hand Eczema
Sung-Min Park, Won-Ku Lee, Jeong-Min Kim, Gun-Wook Kim, Je-Ho Mun, Hoon-Soo Kim, Margaret Song, Hyun-Chang Ko, Moon-Bum Kim, Byung Soo Kim
A239 The Hidden Culprit: A Case of Repeated Anaphylaxis from Cremophor Hypersensitivity.
Young Nam Kim, Sehyo Yune, Jin-Young Lee, Jihye Kim, Young Eun Kim, Jae-Won Paeng, Mi-Jin Jang, Dong-Chull Choi, Byung-Jae Lee, Yongseok Lee
A240 Spectrum of Anaphylaxis in Children and Adults at Emergency Departments in Singapore
Si Hui Goh, Bee Wah Lee, Jian Yi Soh
A241 Improved Quality of Life through an Integrated Health Care Service for Children with Atopic Dermatitis
Hyungoo Kang; Hyunhee Kim; Hye-Yung Yum
A242 Criteria Combining Autologous Serum Skin Test and Clusterin for Predicting Antihistamine-Refractoriness in Patients with Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria
Young Min Ye; Hae-Sim Park; Ga-Young Ban; Ji Hye Kim; Yoo Seob Shin
A243 Urinary Leukotriene E4 Levels in Wheezing Infants
Takumi Takizawa, Masahiko Tabata, Akira Aizawa, Hisako Yagi, Yutaka Nishida, Hirokazu Arakawa, Akihiro Morikawa, Solongo Orosoo
A244 Allergic Sensitization to Whey in Mice Is Facilitated By the Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol (DON)
Saskia Braber, Marianne Bol-Schoenmakers, Peyman Akbari, Prescilla V. Jeurink, Prescilla V. Jeurink, Priscilla De Graaff, Joost J. Smit, Betty C. A. M. Van Esch, Johan Garssen, Johan Garssen, Johanna Fink-Gremmels, Raymond H. H. Pieters
A245 How to Define Chronic Cough: Based on a Systematic Review of the Epidemiological Literature
Gun-Woo Kim, Eun-Jung Jo, Sujeong Kim, Woo-Jung Song, Yoon-Seok Chang, Shoaib Faruqi, Ju-Young Kim, Mingyu Kang, Min-Hye Kim, Jana Plevkova, Heung Woo Park, Sang-Heon Cho, Alyn Morice, So-Hee Lee, Sun-Sin Kim, Seoung-Eun Lee
A246 Asko Study: Comparison of Behavior and Habits in Diagnosis and Treatment of Adult Asthma and COPD Patients
Bilun Gemicioglu, Zeynep Misirligil, Arif Hikmet Cimrin, Hakan Gunen, Tevfik Ozlu, Aykut Cilli, Levent Akyildiz, Hasan Bayram, Esra Uzaslan, Oznur Abadoglu, Mecit Suerdem
A247 Changes in Pulmonary Function in the Treatment of Obesity in Children
Keigo Kainuma
A248 Changes of Feno and Nasal Feno Levels after Treatment in Pediatric Allergic Rhinitis
Hyun-a Kim, Ha-Su Kim, Woo Yong Bae, Jin-a Jung
A249 Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Exclusively Breastfed Infants in Kenya
Rose Kamenwa, William Macharia, Nusrat Said
A250 In-Vitro Screening of Atopy in the Indian Population: Are Current Methods Adequate, Keeping Local IgE Seroprevalence for Common Food & Inhalant Allergens in Mind?
Vidya Nerurkar, Meenal Patel, Simi Bhatia
A251 Usefulness of House Dust Mites Nasal Provocation Test in Asthma
Inseon S Choi, Soo-Jeong Kim, Joo-Min Won, Myeong-Soo Park
A252 Biomarker-Based Treatment Option for Preschool Children with Recurrent Wheeze
Mizuho Nagao
A253 Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs-Induced Liver Injury in Patients with Connective Tissue Diseases
Dong Won Park, Jang Won Sohn, Ji Young Yhi, Ji-Yong Moon, Sang-Heon Kim, Tae Hyung Kim, Dong Ho Shin, Ho Joo Yoon
A254 Ocular Symptoms of Cedar Pollinosis in Otolaryngology Patients
Yukiyoshi Hyo
A255 The Clinical Characteristics of Adverse Drug Reactions Reported in a Regional University Hospital for 6 Years and the Suggestions for the Reporting System
Jaechun Lee, Su Hee Kim, Eunkyoung Lee
A256 Changes in Skin Prick Test Results over 3 Years in School-Aged Children
Hahn Jin Jung, Jaehyun Lim, Seung-No Hong, Doo Hee Han, Chae-Seo Rhee
A257 The Analysis of Risk Factors and Features of Food Allergy in Korean Children: Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey
Kun Song Lee
A258 A Sequential Indirect-Direct Bronchial Provocation Test for Diagnosis of Asthma: A Pilot Study
Jaechun Lee, Sun Young Yang, Mi Young Ahn, Jong Hoo Lee, Jasmina Golez
A259 Association of VDR and CYP2R1 Polymorphisms with Persistent Allergic Rhinitis in a Han Chinese Population
Hui-Qin Tian, Lei Cheng, Xin-Yuan Chen
A260 Associations of Metabolic Syndrome with Asthma and Atopy in Korean Adults
Ji-Yong Moon, Sang-Heon Kim, Tae Hyung Kim, Ji Young Yhi, Ho Joo Yoon, Jang Won Sohn, Dong Ho Shin, Dong Won Park
A261 Clinical Manifestation and Treatment Outcome of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis in Korean Children
Won Im Cho, Jong Sub Choi, Dongin Suh, Gyeong Hoon Kang, Jin Soo Moon, Jae Sung Ko, Kyung Jae Lee, Shin Jie Choi
A262 The Sensitization Model and Correlation of Bermuda and Timothy Grass Pollen Allergen in Allergic Patients in Southern China
Wenting Luo, Baoqing Sun
A263 A Pilot Study on the Outcomes of Respiratory Allergic Diseases at Pre-School Age in Chinese Infants with Atopic Dermatitis
Qi Gao, Li Xiang, Kunling Shen
A264 Activation of Toll like Receptor 1 and 6 By House Dust Mite Enhances the Expression of Tight Junction Protein in Epidermal Keratinocytes
Yong Hyun Jang
A265 Pollen Exposure in a Mobile Exposure Chamber: Comparing Real-Life Symptoms with Exposure Symptoms
Karl-Christian Bergmann, Torsten Sehlinger, Georg Bölke, Uwe Berger, Torsten Zuberbier
A266 Retrospective Analysis of the Incidence of Allergy in Patients with Contact Eczema
Joanna Kolodziejczyk, Milena Wojciechowska, Anna Hnatyszyn-Dzikowska, Micha Chojnacki, Zbigniew Bartuzi
A267 Effect of Fungal Sensitization in Patients with Severe Asthma
Katsunori Masaki, Koichi Fukunaga, Takashi Kamatani, Kengo Ohtsuka, Takae Tanosaki, Masako Matsusaka, Takao Mochimaru, Hiroki Kabata, Soichiro Ueda, Yusuke Suzuki, Katsuhiko Kamei, Koichiro Asano, Tomoko Betsuyaku
A268 SCIg Patient Preference Pump Versus Push
Karlee Trafford
A269 Fixed Drug Eruption Induced By Ornidazole and Diclofenac
Ismet Bulut, Zeynep Ferhan Ozseker
A270 Transepidermal Water Loss Measurement during Infancy Can Predict the Subsequent Development of Atopic Dermatitis
Kenta Horimukai, Hideaki Morita, Masami Narita, Hironori Niizeki, Kenji Matsumoto, Yukihiro Ohya, Hirohisa Saito, Shigenori Kabashima, Mai Kondo, Eisuke Inoue
A271 Inhalant Allergens on Soft Toys: A Literature Review
Robert Siebers, Francis FS Wu
A272 Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Elderly Asthmatics
Robert Siebers, Francis FS Wu, Ming-Hui Ting, Hung-En Laio, Tsung-Huai Kuo, Pei-Yuan Lee
A273 Dye and Preservative Challenge in Meal-Associated Urticaria and Angioedema: A Low-Yield Diagnostic Maneuver
Daniel Eugene Maddox
A274 The Changes of Allergic Sensitization with Age in Children with Allergic Rhinitis
Gwanghui RyuHyo Yeol Kim, Hun-Jong Dhong, Sang Duk Hong, Seung-Kyu Chung
A275 Component-Specific IgE and IgG4 Levels in Milk Allergy Children Tolerated Baked Milk Products
Osamu Higuchi, Yu-Ichi Adachi, Toshiko Itazawa, Yoko Adachi, Miki Hamamichi, Motokazu Nakabayashi, Yasunori Ito, Takuya Wada, Gyoukei Murakami, Miki Takao, Junko Yamamoto
A276 Serum Surfactant Protein(SP)-D Level: A Potential Biomarker for Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease
Hyun Jung Jin, Moon Gyeong Yoon, Young Min Ye, Yoo-Seob Shin, Seung-Hyun Kim, Hae-Sim Park
A277 Clinical Characteristics of Anaphylaxis in Korean Children
Taek-Ki Min, Bok-Yang Pyun, So-Yeon Lee, Hyun Hee Kim, Gwang-Cheon Jang, Jinho Yu, Dongin Suh, Sooyoung Lee, Yong Mean Park, Jeong Hee Kim, Hye-Yung Yum, Kyung Won Kim, Hyeon-Jong Yang, Kangmo Ahn, Ji-Won Kwon, Myung Hyun Sohn, Hae Ran Lee, Jung Hyun Kwon, Kyu-Earn Kim, Soo-Jong Hong
A278 Immunological Changes Induced By Intramuscular Injections of Autolologous Immunoglobulin in Patients with Severe Atopic Dermatitis
Su-Mi Cho
A279 Identification of Subtypes in Subjects with Mild to Moderate Airflow Limitation and Their Clinical and Socioeconomic Implications
Jin Hwa Lee, Chin Kook Rhee, Hye Yun Park, Woo Jin Kim, Yong Bum Park, Kwang-Ha Yoo
A280 Cephalosporin-Induced Dress (Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms) Syndrome in a 7-Year-Old Boy
Heejeong Kang, Hyeon-Jong Yang, Taek-Ki Min, Bok-Yang Pyun
A281 Maternal Depression Is Associated with Children’s Asthma : An Analysis of the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012)
Lee Ju Suk, Cheol Hong Kim
A282 Increased Length of Hospitalization Associated with Infiltration on Chest Radiography in Pediatric Asthma Patients
Jung Hyun Kwon, Sang Hyun Lee, Wonhee Seo
A283 A Case of 16-Year-Old Boy with Smoking-Induced Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia
Kang-in Kim, Young Cheon Park, Hyeon-Jong Yang, Taek-Ki Min; Bok-Yang Pyun
A284 A Case of Pranlukast Induced Anaphylactic Shock
Sujeong Kim, Sun Jin, Jong-Myung Lee, Hye-Jin Jung, Jung-Wha Park
A285 Comparison of Asthma-Related Outcomes Between Metabolically Healthy Obese and Metabolically Unhealthy Obese Asthma Patients
Hyo-Jung Kim, Tae-Bum Kim, You Sook Cho, Hee-Bom Moon, Hyouk-Soo Kwon, So Young Park, So-Young Park, Jung-Hyun Kim, Bomi Seo, Min-Gu Kim, Youn Yee Kim
A286 Rick Factors Associated with Longer Length of Stay in Infants Hospitalized with Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis
Yena Lee, Taek-Ki Min, Hyeon-Jong Yang, Bok-Yang Pyun, Suk Hee Han, Suyeon Park, Jeongho Lee, Won-Ho Hahn
A287 Urinary Excretion of 9α, 11Î2-Prostaglandin F2 and Leukotriene E4 in Patients with Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction
Youhoon Jeon, Joo-Hee Kim, Tae-Rim Shin, Cheol-Hong Kim, In-Gyu Hyun, Jeong-Hee Choi
A288 The Aeroallergen Sensitization Pattern and Effect on Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Busan, Korea
Sun-Mi Jang, Hae-Jung Na, Seung-Eon Song, Hye-Kyung Park, Eun-Jung Jo
A289 Multicenter Questionnaires on Current Management of Atopic Dermatitis Among Korean Patients and Caregivers
Dong Hun Lee, Jin-Young Lee, Yang Park, Jae-Won Oh, Mi Hee Lee, Soo-Jong Hong, Soo-Jong Hong, So-Yeon Lee, Joon Soo Park, Dong-Ho Nahm, Hye-Yung Yum, Hye-Yung Yum
A290 Der p 1, Der p 2 and Der p 10 IgE Reactivities in Allergic Rhinitis Patients in Korea
Kyu Young, Dong-Young Kim
A291 De-Labeling Beta-Lactam Hypersensitivity: An Experience from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Thailand
Sirinoot Palapinyo; Jettanong Klaewsongkram
A292 Sonic Hedgehog Signaling: Evidence for Its Protective Role in Endotoxin Induced Acute Lung Injury Mouse Model
Xing Chen, Yuting Jin, Xiaoming Hou, Fengqin Liu, Chunyan Guo, Yulin Wang
A293 Analyses of the Factors behind the Negative Attitudes Toward the Administration of Adrenaline Auto-Injectors in School Settings
Ikuo Okafuji, Yuya Tanaka, Shegeyuki Narabayashi, Satoru Tsuruta
A294 Low Vitamin D Levels Are Related to High House Dust Mite Sensitization in Patients with Severe Atopic Dermatitis
Yong Hyun Jang
A295 Appendicular Skeletal Muscle Mass Index: A Potential Predictor of Skeletal Muscle Abnormality According to the Severity Airflow Limitation of COPD
Jun-Hong Ahn, Dong-Won Lee, Jin Hong Chung, Hyun Jung Jin, Min-Su Sohn
A296 Etiology and Clinical Feature of Oral Allergy Syndrome in Children
Young a Park, Kyunguk Jeong, Yoon Hee Kim, In Suk Sol, Seo Hee Yoon, Kyung Won Kim, Myung Hyun Sohn, Kyu-Earn Kim, Sooyoung Lee
A297 Traffic-Related Pollution Levels and Poorly Controlled Asthma in Adults
Ho Kim, Ja Yeun Kim
A298 Anaphylaxis in Korean Children, 2009-2013 : Triggers of Anaphylaxis By Age Groups
So-Yeon Lee, Taek-Ki Min, Tae-Won Song, Kangmo Ahn, Jihyun Kim, Gwang-Cheon Jang, Hyeon-Jong Yang, Bok-Yang Pyun, Ji-Won Kwon, Myung Hyun Sohn, Kyu-Earn Kim, Jinho Yu, Soo-Jong Hong, Jung-Hyun Kwon, Sung-Won Kim, Sooyoung Lee, Woo Kyung Kim, Hyung Young Kim, Hye-Young Kim, Youhoon Jeon
A299 Maternal Allergy Is Associated with Acute Bronchiolitis Severity in Infant
Chang Hoon Lim, Yeongsang Jeong, Su Jung Kim
A300 Evaluation of Inflammatory Mediator Profiles in Sputum of Asthmatics As an Endotype for Refractory Asthma
Hun Soo Chang, Jeong-Seok Heo, Da-Jeong Bae, Jong-Uk Lee, Ji-Na Kim, Chang-Gi Min, Hyun Ji Song, Jong-Sook Park, Soo Hyun Kim, Choon-Sik Park
A301 Autophagy Is Associated with the Severity of Asthma in an Ovalbumin-Specific Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma
Jing-Nan Liu, Youngwoo Choi, Yoo Seob Shin, Hae-Sim Park
A302 Interleukin-9 and Interleukin-33 Levels in Children with Asthma
Nima Rezaei, Sedigheh Bahrami Mahneh, Arezou Rezaei, Maryam Sadr, Masoud Movahedi
A303 Pediatric Anaphylaxis at a University Hospital in Cheonan, Korea, 2013~2014
Jun Seak Gang, Joon Soo Park, Seung Soo Kim, Hyun Ho Bang, Kyeong Bae Park, Hye Sun Kim, Tae Ho Kim, Young Hwangbo, Hyun Jung Lee, Gyeong Hee Yoo, Young Chang Kim
A304 Initial Antigen-Specific IgE Levels Predict Clinical Outcome of Rush Oral Immunotherapy for Food Anaphylaxis
Sakura Sato, Noriyuki Yanagida, Motohiro Ebisawa
A305 ABCC4 gene Polymorphism Is Associated with High Periostin Levels in Asthmatic Patients
Sailesh Palikhe, Hae-Sim Park, Seung-Hyun Kim, Ri-Yeon Kim, Eun-Mi Yang
A306 The Role of Clinical Phenotype and Allergen Sensitization at 2 Years As Predictors of Atopic Disorders at 5 Years
Li Yuan Gabriella Nadine Lee, Marion Aw, Marion Aw, Bee Wah Lee, Bee Wah Lee, Evelyn Xiu Ling Loo, Yiong Huak Chan, Lynette Shek, Lynette Shek, I-Chun Kuo, I-Chun Kuo, Phaik Ling Quah, Phaik Ling Quah, Genevieve Llanora, Gerez Irvin
A307 The Effect of Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) on Rhinovirus Infection in Human Nasal Epithelial Cells
Joo Hyun Jung, Il Gyu Kang, Seon Tae Kim, Hyoungmin Park
A308 The Effect of Korean Red Ginseng on the Symptoms and Allergic Inflammation in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis
Seon Tae Kim, Joo Hyun Jung, Il Gyu Kang, Hyoungmin Park, Kwang-Pil Ko
A309 Validation of the Newly Developed Multiple Allergen Simultaneous Test in Korea
Jungsoo Lee, Howard Chu, Hemin Lee, Jung U Shin, Chang Ook Park, Kwang Hoon Lee, Kwang Hoon Lee, Hong Kyu Kang
A310 Assessment of Symptoms Severities of Allergic Rhinitis Patients Sensitive to Multiple Allergens in Skin Prick Test
Dong Chang Lee, Geun Jeon Kim, Jae Hyung Hwang, Jin Bu Ha, Su Hee Jeong
A311 Diurnal Temperature Range and Emergency Department Visits for Asthma in Korea 6 Cities
Ho Kim, Shinha Hwang, Whahee Lee
A312 Mannan-Binding Lectin Serum Levels in Atopic Mongolian Adults
Enkhbayar Bazarsad, Logii Narantsetseg, Munkhbayarlakh Sonomjamts
A313 Prevalence of Doctor Diagnosed Atopic Eczema, during 2003-2014 in KOREA ; Using Big Data of 48.1 Million South Korean Health-Care Records
Gwang-Cheon Jang, Hyun-Hee Lee, Chang-Jong Lee, Huynsun Lim
A314 Association of Recurrent Wheeze with Lung Function and Airway Inflammation in Preschool Children
Ji-Eun Soh, Dae-Jin Song, Ji-Won Kwon, Hyung Young Kim, Ju-Hee Seo, Byoung-Ju Kim, Hyo-Bin Kim, So-Yeon Lee, Gwang-Cheon Jang, Woo Kyung Kim, Young-Ho Jung, Soo-Jong Hong, Jung Yeon Shim
A315 Mannan-Binding Lectin Serum Levels in Healthy Mongolian Adults
Enkhbayar Bazarsad, Logii Narantsetseg, Munkhbayarlakh Sonomjamts
A316 Rotanebuliser
Prabhakarrao Pv, Ranjitha Nadendla
A317 The Level of Serum Interleukin 13 and Interleukin 17A and Its Effect Factors in Children with Asthma
Juan Fang, Jing Zhao
A318 Is Vitamin D Insufficiency Also Involved in Childhood Asthma in South Korea?
Dae-Jin Song, Sungchul Seo, Young Yoo, Yu-Ri Kim, Ji Tae Choung, Jee Hoo Lee
A319 Collection of Nasal Secretions for Measurement of Local IgE: A Quest for the Best Method
Margot Berings, Natalie De Ruyck, Claus Bachert, Philippe Gevaert, Gabriële Holtappels
A320 The Role of Claudin 5 in a Murine Model of Asthma
Pureun-Haneul Lee, Byeong-Gon Kim, Choon-Sik Park, George D Leikauf, An-Soo Jang
A321 Claudin-4 in a Murine Model of Asthma: Modulation By Acrolein, a Highly Reactive Unsaturated Aldehyde
Byeong-Gon Kim, Pureun-Haneul Lee, Choon-Sik Park, An-Soo Jang
A322 Efficacy and Safety of Sublingual Immunotherapy in House Dust Mite Sensitized Children with Allergic Rhinitis
Yang Park
A323 The Association of Vitamine D Deficiency and Skeletal Muscle Dysfunction in Chronic Airway Disease
Min-Su Sohn, Hyun Jung Jin, Dong-Won Lee, Jun-Hong Ahn, Jin Hong Chung
A324 Bacteria Derived Extracellular Vesicles in Indoor Dust Is Closely Associated with Airway Disease and Lung Cancer: Analysis of Indoor Dust’s Microbiome and IgG Sensitization of Indoor Bacteria Derived Extracellular Vesicles
Sae-in Kim, Han-Ki Park, Do-Yeon Kim, Mina Rho, Jun-Pyo Choi, Yoon-Keun Kim
A325 Clinical Care Program for Childhood Asthma (CCP-Childhood Asthma); A Multidisciplinary Team Care at Samitivej International Children’s Hospital
Wasu Kamchaisatian, Thitikul Hiranras, Surinda Wongpun, Phornthip Chiraphorn, Anupan Tantachun, Wannipa Wongrassamee, Planee Vatanasurkitt, Naratip Somboonkul, Nattipat Juthacharoenwong, Surangkana Techapaitoon, Montri Tuchinda
A326 Continuous B Cell Stimulation with CD40 Ligand Induce IgE Isotype Switching
Jae Ho Lee, Sejin An
A327 Effects of Interleukin-9 on Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy in a Mouse Model of Allergic Rhinitis
Ji-Hyeon Shin, Soo Whan Kim, Si Won Kim, Jun Myung Kang, Boo-Young Kim, Byung-Guk Kim
A328 Usefulness of Exhaled Nitric Oxide for Evaluating Wheeze and Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Preschool Children
Jung-Won Lee, Ji-Won Kwon, Woo Kyung Kim, Hyung Young Kim, Hyo-Bin Kim, Ju-Hee Seo, So-Yeon Lee, Gwang-Cheon Jang, Young-Ho Jung, Soo-Jong Hong, Byoung-Ju Kim, Dae-Jin Song, Jung Yeon Shim
A329 Systemic Cyclosporine Treatment in Hand Eczema Patients
Kyung Ho Kim
A330 Lipid Profiles and Adipokines in Korean Children with Atopic Dermatitis
Young Yoo, Won Suck Yoon, Sungchul Seo, In Soon Kang, Jae Won Choi, Hye-Young Lim, Ji Tae Choung
A331 Validation of Montelukast and Levocetirizine Combination Tablet Versus Individual Tablets in the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Persistent Allergic Rhinitis Among Adult Filipinos Seen at the Philippine General Hospital-Outpatient Department
Michelle Buela
A332 Efficacy of Makyokansekito on Treatment of Wheezing Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Children: A Retrospective Study of 68 Patients
Koji Nishimura
A333 Serum Eosinophilia and Total IgE Are Associated with the Risk of Allergic Sensitization and Allergic Symptoms in Two Years Follow-up, Respectively
Sang Chul Park, Hyo Jin Chung, Chang-Hoon Kim, Ju Wan Kang, Seong-Chul Hong, Keun-Hwa Lee, Jaechun Lee, Hye-Sook Lee, Jeong Hong Kim
A334 The Sensitization to Russian Thistle on Mongolian Patients
Narantsetseg Logii
A335 The Association Between Air Pollution, Allergic Sensitization to Inhalant Allergens and Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Munkhbayarlakh Sonomjamts, Enkhbayar Bazarsad
A336 Pre-Coseasonal Treatment with a 5-Grass Pollen Sublingual Tablet in Adults Demonstrated a Reduction on Asthma Symptoms in Réunion Island
Bashir Omarjee
A337 Peak Expiratory Flow Rate Reference Values for Children Aged 5-14 Years Old in Beijing Urban Area
Shuo LI
A338 Soybean Storage Proteins As the Main Allergen in a Patient with Food-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis Due to Tofu
Miyuki Hayashi, Ruby Pawankar, Shingo Yamanishi, Toru Igarashi, Yasuhiko Itoh
A339 A Study of Allergy Skin Prick Test with Weed Pollen
Oyuntsatsral Batsaikhan, B. Gantulga, B. Enkhbayar, S. Munkhbayarlakh, L.Narantsetseg
A340 The Role of Neurotrophin in a Murine Model of House Dust Mite Induced Allergic Rhinitis
Pei-Chi Chen, Jiu-Yao Wang
A341 Mimotopes of the Major Shellfish Allergen Tropomyosin Suppress Splenocyte Proliferation and Local Cytokine Expression in a Mouse Model of Shellfish Allergy
Nicki Y. H. Leung, Christine Yee Yan Wai, Patrick S.C. Leung, Ka Hou Chu
A342 A Questionnaire Survey on Understanding of Atopic Dermatitis Among Korean Patients and Caregivers
Eun Jin Doh, Dong Hun Lee, Mira Choi, Hyun-Sun Yoon, Kyu Han Kim, Ji Soo Lim
A343 Comparison of the Dosage of Bronchodilators in the Bronchodilator Response Test in Children
Ji Hyeon Baek, Man Yong Han, Seung Jin Lee, Youhoon Jeon, Kyung Suk Lee, Young-Ho Jung, Hye Mi Jee, Youn Ho Shin
A344 The Expression and Effect of Natural Killer T Lymphocytes in Chidren with Asthma
Yi Jiang, Miao Liu
A345 Oral Provocation Test in Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Hypersensitive Patients Referred to Singapore General Hospital
Chaw Su Naing, Tze Chin Tan, Yong Yeow Chong
A346 Different Phenotypes of Bhr (bronchial hyperresponsiveness) By Natural Course in Children and It’s Characteristics
Young-Ho Kim, Eun Lee, Song-I Yang, Hyun-Ju Cho, Hyung Young Kim, Ji-Won Kwon, Young-Ho Jung, Byoung-Ju Kim, Ju-Hee Seo, Ho-Jang Kwon, Hyo-Bin Kim, So-Yeon Lee, Soo-Jong Hong, Soo Hyun Kim
A347 Spectrum of Allergens Causing Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma in Urban Bangalore, India − a Study of 120 Patients
Jacqueline Elizabeth Joseph, Soumya M. S, Ruby Pawankar, Harshitha Kumar
A348 High Prevalence of Wheezing Illness and Risk Factor of Atopic Asthma Progression in Korean Preschool Children
Sohyoung Yang, Sung-Il Woo
A349 Clinical and Laboratory Screening of Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases: International Effects
Nima Rezaei
A350 The Effect of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Atopic Individuals
Sukran Kose, Basak Gol Serin, Arzu Didem Yalcin, Süheyla Serin Senger, Mehmet Erden, Ertan Serin
A351 Clinical Spectrum and Natural History of Chronic Urticaria in Hong Kong Children
Agnes Sze-Yin Leung, Ting Fan Leung
A352 Skin Prick Test Reactivity to Common Pollen Aeroallergens in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis − in Urban Bangalore, India
Harshitha Kumar, Soumya M.S., Jacqueline Elizabeth Joseph, Ruby Pawankar
A353 Seasonal Patterns of Asthma-Related ED Visits and Admissions in Children and Adolescents Who Visited Emergency Rooms of Korea in 2007-2012
Eun Hee Chung
A354 Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis and Its Associated Risk Factors in Elementary School Children: A Cross-Sectional Study in Gyeonggi-Do, South Korea
Eunji Kim, Young Yoo, Ji Tae Choung, Sungchul Seo, In Soon Kang, Jue Seong Lee, Ji Hyen Hwang
A355 Intralymphatic Immunotherapy for Dermatophagoides Farinae, Dermatophagoides Pteronyssinus, Cat, and/or Dog Allergy in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis: 1 Year Follow-up
Sang Min Lee, Joo Hyun Jung, Seung Joon Choi, Eugene Joe, Hyunjung Hwang, Shin Myung Kang, Yu Jin Kim, Sun Young Kyung, Jeong-Woong Park, Sung Hwan Jeong, Sang Pyo Lee
A356 Respiratory Syncytial Virus Regulates IL-33 Expression in Bronchoalveolar Cells and Lung Tissue in Vivo
Alina Gaisina, Igor Shilovskiy, Aleksandra Nikonova, Oleg Kamyshnikov, Musa Khaitov, Alexander Mitin, Komogorova Viktoriya, Marina Litvina, Nina Sharova
A357 The Prevalence of Parent-Perceived Food Hypersensitivity in Pre-School Children Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Malaysia
Faizah Mohamed Jamli
A358 Th2 Dominant Airway Inflammation Induced By House Dust Mite Chitin Is Dependent on TNF-a and NKT Cell
Da-Il Yoon, Jun-Pyo Choi, Han-Byul Choi, Yoon-Keun Kim, Hyeon-Il Choi
A359 Geographic Variations in the Patterns of Sensitization to Aeroallergens in Korean Adults: A Multi-Center Study
Mingyu Kang, Mi Yeoung Kim, Sujeong Kim, Eun-Jung Jo, Seoung-Eun Lee, Woo-Jung Song, Sang Min Lee, Chansun Park, Yoon-Seok Chang, Jaechun Lee, Young-Koo Jee, Inseon S Choi, Kyung-up Min, Sang-Heon Cho
A360 Experimental Mouse Model of Asthma Induced By Dust Mite Dermatophagoides Pteronyssinus allergenic Extract
Anton Laskin, Oleg Kamyshnikov, Alexander Babakhin, Valentina Berzhets, Musa Khaitov
A361 Severe Refractory Pulmonary Complications in Children with Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Pneumonia
Sejin An, Jae Ho Lee
A362 Usefulness of Interactive e-Learning Education Program for Asthma Guideline
Sung-Yoon Kang, Yoon-Seok Chang, Kyung-up Min, Sang-Heon Cho, Sae-Hoon Kim, Yong Eun Kwon, Young-Koo Jee, Tae-Bum Kim, Hee-Bom Moon, Hye-Kyung Park
A363 Airway Inflammation Induced By House Dust Mite Derived Vesicles Is Mainly Induced By LPS Derived from Gram Negative Bacteria in Dust Mite.
Sang-Yoon Kim, Jun-Pyo Choi, Han-Ki Park, Ji-Hyun Lee, Yoon-Keun Kim
A364 Changes in the Recognition of Causal Allergen, Its Avoidance, and Allergen Specific Immunotherapy after Skin Prick Test / Intradermal Test, Nasal Provocation Test, and Intralymphatic Immunotherapy in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis: 1 Year Follow-up
Hyunjung Hwang, Eugene Joe, Sang Min Lee, Seung Joon Choi, Joo Hyun Jung, Yong Han Seon, Shin Myung Kang, Yu Jin Kim, Sun Young Kyung, Jeong-Woong Park, Sung Hwan Jeong, Sang Pyo Lee
A365 Laboratory Diagnostic of Staphylococcal Sensitization
Natalya Khramykhoverchenko
A366 Th-17 Regulatory Cytokines Enhance Neutrophil Production of IL-17 during Asthma
Saleh Al Muhsen, Asma Sultana, Rabih Halwani, Ahmed Bahammam
A367 Diagnostic Value of Serum Total IgE and Prediction of Cut-Off Value to Recommend Mast in Allergic Rhinitis
Hyung Chae Yang, Sun Kyung Kim, Kwang Il Nam
A368 Diagnostic Value of an Increase in FEV1 and/or FVC >12% and >200 mL from Baseline after Bronchodilators for Diagnosis of Asthma
Jeong-Eun Kim, Ju Suk Lee, Ji Hyun Lee, Kyung Woo Kang
A369 Combined Use of Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Bronchodilator Response in Predicting Future Loss of Asthma Control Among Children with Atopic Asthma
Je-Kyung Kim, Youn-Soo Hahn, Jae-Yub Jung
A370 Antigen-Specific IgA Plays an Important Role in Mucosal Immune Response in Allergic Children : Measurement of Secretory IgA and Antigen-Specific IgA
Yosuke Baba, Sususmu Yamazaki, Eisuke Inage, Mari Mori, Yoshikazu Ohtsuka, Masato Kantake, Toshiaki Shimizu, Asuka Honjoh, Tomoaki Yokokura
A371 Why Teaching Pediatrics Trainees about Anaphylaxis and Its Acute Management Is Essential: Cross Sectional Survey.
Mehdi Adeli, Shaza Ali Mohammed Elhassan, Caroline Beck
A372 Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Local Allergic Rhinitis in Children
Min Sun Na, Heysung Baek, Seung Jin Lee, Ji Hyeon Baek, Jungwon Yoon, Sun Hee Choi, Young-Ho Jung, Youn Ho Shin, Man Yong Han
A373 House Dust Mites Sublingual Immunotherapy Can Influence the Long-Term Evolution of Severe Atopic Dermatitis and the Progression to Respiratory Allergy.
Enrico Compalati, Maurizio Marogna
A374 The Positive Distribution Characteristics of 90 Food Specific IgG in Patients with Allergic Diseases
Huimin Huang, Baoqing Sun, Mingyu BAI, Yiting Huo, Peiyan Zheng, Nili Wei, Wenting Luo
A375 Evaluation of Serum Levels of Osteopontin As a Potential Biomarker of Immune Activation in Patients with Allergic Diseases
Elisa Villa, Anand Andiappan, Rosalba Minisini, Olaf Rötzschke, Elena Boggio, Luca Gigliotti, Nausicaa Clemente, Annalisa Chiocchetti, Umberto Dianzani, Mario Pirisi
A376 Prevalence of Allergic Rhinitis in 3-6-Year-Old (preschool) Children in Chiba City (urban area), Japan
Fumiya Yamaide, Syuji Yonekura, Naoki Shimojo, Yuzaburo Inoue, Yoshitaka Okamoto
A377 Comparative Efficacy of Combination Nebulized Salbutamol and Fluticasone Propionate and Nebulized Salbutamol in Children with Mild Moderate Asthma Attack
Retno Asih Setyoningrum, Landia Setiawati, Sri Sumei, Deddy Iskandar
A378 Characteristics of Children Hospitalized with Asthma in West Nusa Tenggara General Hospital Mataram Indonesia
Indriyani Sang Ayu Kompiyang
A379 Identification of Phenotypes in Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis Using Cluster Analysis
Tsuyoshi Oguma, Jun Tanaka, Katsuyoshi Tomomatsu, Koichiro Asano
A380 The Roles of Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells (ILC2) in Chronic Rhinosinusitis (CRS)
Keisuke Uno, Yoshinori Matsuwaki, Kazuhiro Omura, Eika Hayashi, Norifumi Tatsumi, Hirohito Kita, Nobuyoshi Otori, Hiromi Kojima
A381 Respiratory Symptoms, Signs and Spirometry Indexes Comparision in 7-12 Years Old Girls in Esfahan Metropolis and Its Far Suburb
Mohammadreza Fatemi Khorasgani
A382 Induction of Kruppel-like Transcription Factor (KLF4&5) By Baker’s Yeast Mannan in Human Bronchial Epithelial and Smooth Muscle Cells
Dukhee/Betty Lew, Kim/S. Lemessurier, Joseph/a Moore, Jeoung-Eun Park, Ae-Kyung Yi, Chi/Young Song, Kafait/U Malik
A383 Korean Profile in Childhood Asthma Severity Classification
Dongin Suh, Ja Kyoung Kim, Hyeon-Jong Yang, Bong-Seong Kim, Youn Ho Shin, So-Yeon Lee, Geunhwa Park, Woo Kyung Kim, Hyo-Bin Kim, Heysung Baek, Dae Hyun Lim, Dae Hyun Lim, Jin Tack Kim
A384 Prevalence of Food Sensitization, IgE-Mediated and Non-IgE-Mediated Food Allergy Among Pediatric Patients Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Aimee Lou Manalo Nano
A385 Component-Resolved Diagnostic Study of Dermatophagoides Pteronyssinus Major Allergen Molecules in a Southern China
Wenting Luo, Baoqing Sun
A386 Risk Factors for Systemic and Local Reactions to Subcutaneous Allergen Immunotherapy
Hikmet Tekin Nacaroglu, Semiha Bahceci Erdem, Ozlem Sumer, Sait Karaman, Canan Sule Unsal Karkiner, Suna Asilsoy, Ilker Gunay, Demet Can
A387 Literature Review and Current Treatment Options for Cyclical Anaphylaxis
Danielle Kiers
A388 The Effect of Surfactant Protein D in Acute Lung Injury and Pulmonary Fibrosis Induced By Bleomycin
Hsu Han Yin, Jiu-Yao Wang
A389 Activation of Endothelial Cells to Release Hsp90, an Activator of the Prekallikrein-High Molecular Weight Kininogen (HK) Complex
Allen Kaplan, Kusumam Joseph, Baby G. Tholanikunnel
A390 The Effect of Climatic Treatment in 51 Asthmatic Children from Areas Severely Polluted Environment of Northern Moravia, Czech Republic
Radim Dudek
A391 Comparison of Some Vitamin Groups in Asthmatic Patients
Gulden Bilgin, Hatice Surer, Aytun Sadan Kilinc, Dogan Yucel
A392 Sensitization in Children with Atopic Dermatitis: A Single Center Study
Ji Young Lee, Jihyun Kim, Hea-Kyoung Yang, Minji Kim, Sang-Il Lee, Kangmo Ahn
A393 Staphylococcal Enterotoxin IgE Sensitization: A Risk Factor for COPD Overlap in the Elderly Asthma?
Sung Do Moon, Byung-Keun Kim, Sang-Heon Cho, Kyung-up Min, Yoon-Seok Chang, Heung Woo Park, Hye-Ryun Kang, Woo-Jung Song, Min-Koo Kang, Ju-Young Kim, Kyonghee Sohn, Ha Kyung Won, Seoung-Eun Lee, Kyung-Mook Kim, Claus Bachert
A394 The Effects of Probiotics and PparÎ3 on the Murine Model of Allergic Asthma
Miao-Hsi Hsieh, Jiu-Yao Wang
A395 Adult Patients’ Views on the Design of Adrenaline Autoinjectors
Helen Smith, Clare Brown, Christina Jones, Mark Davies
A396 CCL22 miRNA modulated Th1 responses and induced therapeutic effects on OVA-induced mouse model of asthma
Won Suck Yoon
A397 Clinical, Histological, and Skin Microbiome Characteristics of Head and Neck Dermatitis in Atopic Dermatitis
Hemin Lee, Howard Chu, Jungsoo Lee, Jung U Shin, Chang Ook Park, Kwang Hoon Lee, Seo Hyeong Kim, Ji Yeon Noh, Ji Hye Kim
A398 MicroRNA-432 modulates Th1 responses and induced therapeutic effects in atopic like murine model.
Won Suck Yoon
A399 Case Report of Near-Fatal Asthma Due to Snail Allergy in a House Dust Mite-Allergic Adult
Jean-Pierre L’huillier, Jean-Eric Autegarden, Catherine Bertrand, Dominique Tardy
A400 Relationship Between Gut Microbiota in the First 3 Months of Life and Infant Immune Function at Age 12 Months
Intan Hakimah Ismail, Mimi Tang, Paul Licciardi, Frances Oppedisano, Robert Boyle, Roy Robins-Browne
A401 A Pediatric Case of Food-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis Due to Spice Allergy
Hisako Yagi, Harumi Koyama, Yutaka Nishida, Takumi Takizawa, Hirokazu Arakawa
A402 Correlations Between Objective Severity Score and Each of the Subjective Severity Intensity in Atopic Dermatitis
Hong Kyu Kang, Hemin Lee, Jungsoo Lee, Jung U Shin, Kwang Hoon Lee, Kwang Hoon Lee, Howard Chu, Chang Ook Park
A403 Barrier Related Gene Mutations in Atopic Dermatitis
Na Young Yoon, Hyeyoung Lee, Seong Jun Seo, Eunhee Choi, Hye-Young Wang, Minyoung Jung, Eung Ho Choi, Dong Hye Kim
A404 Clinical Utility of Basophil Activation Test (BAT) in the Diagnosis of Drug Induced Anaphylaxis
Joo-Hee KimYoung-Sook Jang, Jeong-Hee Choi, Sunghoon Park, Young Il Hwang, Seung Hun Jang, Ki-Suck Jung
A405 Feeding Shapes the Colonization of Gut Microbiota and Associated with Total IgE in Infant
Mi-Jin KangDongin Suh, Eun Lee, Kil Yong Choi, Young-Ho Jung, Song-I Yang, Bong-Soo Kim, Ha-Jung Kim, Juneyoung Koh, Hyun-Jin Kim, Kangmo Ahn, Youn Ho Shin, Hyun-Ju Cho, Byoung-Ju Kim, Young-Ho Kim, Yean Jung
A406 CD8+T Cell-Intrinsic Smad4 Suppresses Th2 Responses in the Pathogenesis of Contact Hypersensitivity
Mizuko Mamura, Jeong-Hwan Yoon, Susumu Nakae, Inkyu Lee, Isao Matsumoto, Takayuki Sumida, Jin Soo Han, Katsuko Sudo, Ji Hyeon Ju
A407 Immune-Modulatory Genomic Properties Differentiate Gut Microbiotas of Infants with and without Eczema
Gaik Chin Yap, Wen Tso Liu, Seungdae Oh, Pei Ying Hong, Chiung Hui Huang, Marion Aw, Lynette Shek, Bee Wah Lee
A408 The Effect of Medication in OSA Patients with Allergic Rhinitis
Young Seok Byun, Sung Wan Kim, Tae Kyung Koh, Joong-Saeng Jo, Kun Hee Lee, Chul Kwon, Sung-Hwa Dong
A409 A Case of Generalized Pustular Psoriasis Mimicking Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis
Myung Shin Kim, Chansun Park
A410 Anaphylaxis Caused By Gummy Jelly Ingestion: A Case Report
Han Seok Cho, Min-Ju Kim, Min Ji Kim, Young Ok Park, Hye Yeong Lee, Hee Seong Kim, Eun Lee, Hyun-Ju Cho, Jinho Yu, Soo-Jong Hong, Keum Hee Hwang
A411 Serum Folliculin As a Novel Biomarker for Asthma
Jung-Hyun Kim, You Sook Cho, Sae-Hoon Kim, Hyouk-Soo Kwon, Mira Yoo, Hyo-Jung Kim, So-Young Park, Bomi Shin, So Young Park, Bomi Seo, Min-Gu Kim, Hee-Bom Moon, Jin-Ah Park, Tae-Bum Kim, Jaemoon Lee
A412 Corticosteroid Nasal Irrigations after Endoscopic Sinus Surgery in the Management of Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Asthma
Jin Hyeok Jeong, Tae Wook Kang, Han Seok Yoo, Yong Hee Cho, Seok Hyun Cho, Kyung Rae Kim
A413 Capsaicin Injection in Neonatal Period Potentiates Intensity and Duration of Atopic Dermatitis of Rats.
Jue Seong Lee, Sun-Ho Kee, Sewon Kim, Young Yoo, Heung Sik Na, Seung Keun Back
A414 Comparison Between the Impulse Oscillometry System, Spirometry, Feno, Lung Clearance Index and Asthma Control and Exacerbation Status.
Seung Jin Lee, Bo Seon Seo, Ji Hyeon Baek, Kyung Suk Lee, Young-Ho Jung, Hye Mi Jee, Youn Ho Shin, Man Yong Han, Mi-Ae Kim
A415 The Association of Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Patients with and without Asthma
Young-Hee Nam, Dong Sub Jeon, Soo-Keol Lee
A416 Effects of Air Pollution on Allergic Rhinitis in Korea
Jisun Park
A417 Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Korean Children with Allergic Rhinitis
Seung Hyun Moon
A418 A Questionnaire of Children with Asthma or Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis
Rong Jun Lin, Ren Zheng Guan
A419 A Case of Trimebutine-Induced Morbilliform Skin Eruption
Gyeong Yul Park, Hyun-Sun Yoon
A420 Comparison of Methacholine and Mannitol to Predict Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction in Children with Asthma
Woo-Hyeok Choi, Heysung Baek
A421 Different Inflammatory Mechanisms of Human Metapneumovirus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Jin-Sung Park, Eunmi Kwon, Zac Callaway, Chang-Keun Kim, Takao Fujisawa
A422 Sputum Microbiota in Chinese Adults with Eosinophilic Versus Non-Eosinophilic Asthma
Qingling Zhang, Rihuang Qiu, Naijian Li, Zhaowei Yang, Jing Li, Kian Fan Chung, Nanshan Zhong
A423 Which Clinical Features Are Useful in Predicting Presence of Staphylococcus Aureus colonization/Infection in Childhood Atopic Dermatitis?
Kam Lun E. Hon, Yin Ching K. Tsang, Ting Fan Leung
A424 Clinical Significance of Increased VEGF, TGF-Î21, and YKL-40, a Chitinase like Protein, in Serum of the Children with Asthma
Yoon Young Jang, Hai Lee Chung, Seung Gook Lee, Ji Hyun Na, Jong Hoon Lee
A425 Analysis of Follow-up Results of Mannitol Challenge Test in Asthma Patients
Young-Hee Nam, Dong Sub Jeon, Soo-Keol Lee
A426 Analysis of 68 Oral Walnut Challenge Tests
Mikita Yamamoto, Sakura Sato, Noriyuki Yanagida, Ayako Ogawa, Kanako Ogura, Kyohei Takahashi, Kenichi Nagakura, Shigehito Emura, Tomoyuki Asaumi, Katsuhito Iikura, Motohiro Ebisawa, Yu Okada
A427 Effectiveness of Air Filters Intervention in Allergic Rhinitis
Jiaying Luo, Xiao Lan, Baoqing Sun, Zhao Chen, Guiyuan Sun, Shimin Li, Jiaqing Hu
A428 The Relationship Between Airway Hyperresponsiveness to Mannitol and Atopy in Asthmatic Children
Woo-Hyeok Choi, Heysung Baek
A429 Anaphylactoid Reactions to N-Acetylcysteine in the Treatment of Aacetaminophen Overdose
Young-Hee Nam, Dong Sub Jeon, Hee-Joo Nam, Yeo Myeong Noh, Sang Hee Kim Kim, Ye Suel Park, Soo-Keol Lee
A430 Effect of Prenatal Maternal Distress and GSDMB Polymorphism on the Development of Recurrent Wheezing in Early Childhood: COCOA Study
Yean Jung Choi, Si Hyeon Lee, Young-Ho Kim, Mi-Jin Kang, Hyun-Ju Cho, Eun Lee, Song-I Yang, Youn Ho Shin, Kangmo Ahn, Kyung Won Kim, Yoon Hee Kim, So-Yeon Lee, Hyoung Yoon Chang, In Ae Choi, Kyung-Sook Lee, Yee-Jin Shin
A431 Vitamin D Level in Allergic Rhinitis: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis
Yoon Hee Kim, Min Jung Kim, In Suk Sol, Seo Hee Yoon, Young a Park, Kyung Won Kim, Myung Hyun Sohn, Kyu-Earn Kim, Yong Ju Lee
A432 Implication of Inspiratory and Expiratory Resistance and Reactance in Children with Asthma
In Suk Sol, Kyu-Earn Kim, Yoon Hee Kim, Min Jung Kim, Seo Hee Yoon, Yong Ju Lee, Kyung Won Kim, Young a Park, Myung Hyun Sohn
A433 The Association of Asthma Predictive Index with Asthma in Preschool Children with Recurrent Wheeze
Sung Joo Park, Ji-Won Kwon, Woo Kyung Kim, Hyung Young Kim, Hyo-Bin Kim, Ju-Hee Seo, So-Yeon Lee, Gwang-Cheon Jang, Young-Ho Jung, Soo-Jong Hong, Byoung-Ju Kim, Dae-Jin Song, Yun Seok Yang, Jung Yeon Shim
A434 Clinical Significance of Serum Total IgE Levels in Children with RSV-Associated Lower Respiratory Illness
Yoon Young Jang, Hai Lee Chung, Ji Hye Kim, Hyun Seok Lee, Chang Ho Lee
A435 Development of a Oak Pollen Emission and Transport Modeling Framework in South Korea
Changbum Cho, Yun-Kyu Lim, Kyu Rang Kim, Mijin Kim, Baek-Jo Kim
A436 Temperature, Humidity, and Air Pollution Affect Atopic Dermatitis Symptoms in Infants and Young Children
Young-Min Kim, Youngshin Han, Jihyun Kim, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Byoung-Hak Jeon, Kangmo Ahn
A437 Effects of Compound V on Pulmonary Fibrosis Model
Chuang/Yao Ming, Jiu-Yao Wang, Ye/Yi Ling
A438 Vitamin D Level and the Correlation with IgE in Children with Allergic Respiratory Diseases in Guangzhou China
Huimin Huang, Baoqing Sun, Yun Chen, Peiyan Zheng, Nili Wei, Wenting Luo
A439 Two Case Reports of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Associated with Allergic Disease
Do Hyeong Lee, Gil-Soon Choi, Hee-Kyoo Kim, Han Su Park
A440 Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) May Identify Common Genetic Variations Both in Immediate and Delayed Drug
So-Young Park, Hyo-Jung Kim, Bomi Seo, Jung-Hyun Kim, Min-Gu Kim, Hyouk-Soo Kwon, You Sook Cho, Hee-Bom Moon, Tae-Bum Kim, Yoon Su Lee
A441 Development of a Questionnaire for Secular Change of Atopic Dermatitis from Birth to 19-Year-Old.
Akio Tanaka, Satoshi Morioke, Yukihiro Ohya, Naoki Shimojo, Akira Akasawa, Michihiro Hide, Hiroko Shizukawa
A442 Evaluation of the Adherence Starts with Knowledge-20 (ASK-20) to Inhaled Drug in Patients with Bronchial Asthma
Naoto Watanabe
A443 The Epidemiology and Clinical Manifestation of Hmpv Infection in Children during Recent 4 Years: 2011-2014
Meeyong Shin, Myeong Sun Jang
A444 Neutropenia Induced By Intravenous Immunoglobulin
Young-Hee Nam, Yeo Myeong Noh, Dong Sub Jeon, Hee-Joo Nam, Sang Hee Kim Kim, Ye Suel Park, Soo-Keol Lee
A445 A First Case of Lymphocytic Interstitial Pneumonitis in Healthy Child
Ji-in Jung, Ha-Su Kim, Hyun-a Kim, Jin-a Jung
A446 Cytokine Production upon House Dust Mite Stimulation of Cord Blood Mononuclear Cells from Caesarean Section-Delivered Singaporean Infants
Anne Goh, Rajeshwar Rao, Bindu Nandanan, Ruurd Van Elburg, Chua Mei Chien, Juandy Jo, Johan Garssen, Johan Garssen, Leon Knippels, Elena Sandalova, Wen Chin Chiang
A447 Dress Syndrome with Acute Interstitial Nephritis Caused By Quinolone and Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
Young-Hee Nam, Ji Young Juong, Soo Jin Kim, Eun Young Kim, Su Mi Lee, Young Ki Son, Hee-Joo Nam, Ki-Ho Kim, Soo-Keol Lee
A448 IL-23 Roles in the Development of House Dust Mite Allergic Sensitization and Asthma
Da-Eun Park, Hye-Ryun Kang, Heung Woo Park, Hyun Seung Lee, Yoon-Seok Chang, Jung-Won Park, Sang-Heon Cho, Kyung-up Min, Woo-Jung Song
A449 Exposure Profile of Indoor Risk Factors in Dwellings of Children with Atopic Dermatitis
Hyunwook Lim, Sungchul Seo, Ji Tae Choung, Young Yoo, Jun-Sik Park, Byung Kwan Kim
A450 Epidemiological Characterization of Blood Eosinophils in the Elderly Population
Ha Kyeong Won, Hye-Ryun Kang, Byung-Keun Kim, Sung Do Moon, Ju-Young Kim, So-Hee Lee, Woo-Jung Song, Heung Woo Park, Min-Koo Kang, Sun-Sin Kim, Sang-Heon Cho, Kyung-up Min, Yoon-Seok Chang, Kyoung Hee Sohn, Kyung-Mook Kim, Ki-Woong Kim, Hak Chul Jang
A451 Stevens-Johnson Syndrome Caused By Methotrexate in the Treatment of Psoriasis
Young-Hee Nam, Dong Sub Jeon, Hee-Joo Nam, Yeo Myeong Noh, Sang Hee Kim Kim, Ye Suel Park, Soo-Keol Lee
A452 Genetic Determinants for Lung Function Growth in Asthmatic Children
Ting Fan Leung, Man Fung Tang, Hing Yee Sy, Wa Cheong Chan, Wilson Wai San Tam
A453 The Power of Allergen Specific Ig E in the Classification of Rhinitis, Korean National Hanes 2010
Seung Kyu Chung, Sujin Kim, Sang Duk Hong, Hyo Yeol Kim Hyo Yeol Kim, Hun-Jong Dhong, Jong in Jeong
A454 Analysis of Allergen Immunotherapy Practice and Patients’ Knowledge and Attitude about Allergen Immunotherapy in a Single Tertiary Hospital in Korea
Young-Hee Nam, Dong Sub Jeon, Soo-Keol Lee
A455 Roles of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B in House Dust Mite-Induced Acute Asthma Models
Ji Won Lee, Mingyu Kang, Soon-Hee Kim
A456 A Clinical Comparison of Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms Syndrome in a Single Tertiary Hospital in Korea
Young-Hee Nam, Dong Sub Jeon, Hee-Joo Nam, Yeo Myeong Noh, Sang Hee Kim Kim, Ye Suel Park, Soo-Keol Lee
A457 The Beneficial Effect of Lactobacillus Gasseri PM-A0005 and Its Immunoregulatory Protein PMA5P40 on Milk-Induced Allergic Enteritis
Yung-I Hou, Jiu-Yao Wang
A458 Relationship Between Serum Folate Levels and Risks of Allergic and Respiratory Diseases in Early Childhood: The Mothers and Children’s Environmental Health Study
Ja Hyeong Kim, Seol Jae Hee, Eun-Hee Ha, Hyesook Park, Mina Ha, Yun-Chul Hong, Yangho Kim, Namsoo Chang
A459 Effects of Vitamin D in Patients with Chronic Rhinosinusitis
Yuta Soma, So Watanabe, Ruby Pawankar, Ruby Pawankar, Harumi Suzaki, Harumi Suzaki, Hitome Kobayashi
A460 Clinical Features of Systemic Contact Dermatitis from Ingestion of Rhus
Young-Hee Nam, Chansun Park, Soo-Keol Lee
A461 Sublingual Immunotherapy Efficacy in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis in Korea
Jongrok Lee, Jooyoung Roh, Haryeong Ryu
A462 Characteristics of Serious Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary University Hospital
Cheol-Woo Kim, Jae Hwa Cho, Mi Ra Eom, Ji Young Kang, Hye Gyeung Lee
A463 Eyelid Dermatitis: Patch Test Results during a 15-Year Period in Korea and Evaluation of Metal Contents in Eye Shadows
Hae Young Choi, Hye Jin Lee, Ju Yun Woo, Ji Yeon Byun, You Won Choi
A464 Relationship Between Lipid Levels and Risks of Allergic and Respiratory Diseases in Early Childhood: The Mothers and Children’s Environmental Health Study
Ja Hyeong Kim, Eun-Hee Ha, Hyesook Park, Mina Ha, Yun-Chul Hong, Yangho Kim, Namsoo Chang
A465 IL-32 in the Induced Sputum of Patients with Asthma
Jae-Woo Kwon, Hun Soo Chang, Jeong-Seok Heo, Jong-Uk Lee, Jong-Sook Park, Eusom Kim, Soo Hyun Kim, Choon-Sik Park
A466 Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Chromium Allergy in a Single University Hospital in Korea
Hae Young Choi, Ji Yeon Byun, Ju Yun Woo, You Won Choi
A467 Efficacy and Safety of Oral Acitretin in Chronic Hand Eczema
Hyun-Ju Jin, Jin-Hwa Son, Jeong-Min Kim, Gun-Wook Kim, Je-Ho Mun, Margaret Song, Hyun-Chang Ko, Moon-Bum Kim, Hoon-Soo Kim, Byung Soo Kim
A468 Atypical Antipsychotics and Anticholinergic Agents Mimicking Anaphylaxis
Sheryl Van Nunen, Dinh Van Nguyen, Anthony Elias, Susannah Olivia Lauer
A469 Introducing Reach (Reliable Estimation of Atopic dermatitis in ChildHood): Novel, Questionnaire-Based Diagnostic Criteria for Childhood Atopic Dermatitis
Seung-Chul Lee, Ho-June Lee, Jung Min Bae
A470 Comprehensive Assessment to Identify the Causative Factors in Oral Allergy Syndrome
Emi Ono
A471 Comparison of Interpretation Methods in Allergic Skin Test
Sung-Hwa Dong, Tae Kyung Koh, Young Seok Byun, Sung Wan Kim, Joong-Saeng Jo, Chul Kwon, Kun Hee Lee
A472 Refraining Aminophylline Use Increases Hospitalization Among Children with Acute Asthma: A 10-Years Retrospective Cohort Study
Li-Fan Liu
A473 The Prevalence and Risk Factors of Atopic Dermatitis from Nationwide Study for Korean School Students
Sunghee Lee
A474 Probiotic Recombination Protein Effect on Atopic Dermatitis
Wei-Leng Chen, Jiu-Yao Wang
A475 Allergic Sensitization Status in Various Inflammatory Skin Diseases
Youin Bae, Gyeong-Hun Park
A476 Two Cases of Good’s Syndrome: A Rare Acquired Immunodeficiency Associated with Thymoma
Suk Yeon Kim
A477 IL-23 Has a Role to Play in the Development of Asthma in Short-Term Cigarette Smoke Exposure-Induced House-Dust Mite Allergic Model
Hyun Seung Lee, Woo-Jung Song, Mingyu Kang, Han-Ki Park, Da-Eun Park, Hye-Ryun Kang, Heung Woo Park, Yoon-Seok Chang, Hye-Young Kim, Kyung-up Min, Sang-Heon Cho, Ji-Won Lee, Boram Bae, Jung-Won Park
A478 The Relationship Between the Relevance of Allergic Disease and the Value of Non-Specific IgE
Yasuhiro Suzuki
A479 Two Caces of Prawn Allergy in Adult Patients
Ismet Bulut, Zeynep Ferhan Ozseker
A480 Early Gut Bifidobacterium Breve and B. Catenulatum Colonisation Differentially Modulate Eczema Risk in Children at High-Risk of Developing Allergic Disease
Intan Hakimah Ismail, Robert Boyle, Paul Licciardi, Frances Oppedisano, Roy Robins-Browne, Mimi Tang
A481 Effects of Chronic Repeated Exposure of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B on Allergic Asthma Model in Mice
Ji Won Lee, Hyun Seung Lee, Mingyu Kang, Da-Eun Park, Han-Ki Park, Soon-Hee Kim, Woo-Jung Song, Hye-Ryun Kang, Heung Woo Park, Yoon-Seok Chang, Chang-Han Park, Suk-Il Chang, Sook-Hee Song, Kyung-up Min, Sang-Heon Cho, Boram Bae
A482 Skin Prick Test Result and Allergen Immunotherapy in Children with Allergic Rhinitis
Grace Shieh
A483 Role of Brp-39 in RSV-Induced Airway Inflammation in Mice
Min Jung Kim, Jung Yeon Hong, Seo Hee Yoon, Doo Hee Shim, In Suk Sol, Yoon Hee Kim, Mi Na Kim, Kyung Eun Lee, Kyung Won Kim, Myung Hyun Sohn, Kyu-Earn Kim, Jae Myun Lee
A484 Long-Term Outcomes of Twenty-Four Adults with Primary Immunodeficiency from a Single Centre in Singapore
Hiok Hee Chng
A485 Breast Feeding Increases the Risk of Food Sensitization but Does Not Affect Food Allergy in Young Children with Atopic Dermatitis
Dong Chan Kim, Song-I Yang, Hae Ran Lee, An Deok Seo, So Yeon Lee
A486 IgE Immunoadsorption Knocks Down Anaphylaxis.
Alessandro Fiocchi, Maria Cristina Artesani, Paola Francalanci, Lamia Dahdah, Thomas Schreiner
A487 Burden and Correlates of Cigarette Smoking and Respiratory Airway Obstruction: An Observation in Urban Adult Population of West Bengal (India)
Kaushik Chakraborty
A488 Blood Eosinophils Could Predict Sputum Eosinophilia? : A Comparison Between Asthma and Non-Asthmatic Chronic Cough in the Elderly
Ha Kyeong Won, Ju-Young Kim, Eun-Jung Jo, Kyoung Hee Sohn, Kyung-Mook Kim, Heung Woo Park, Yoon-Seok Chang, Sang-Heon Cho, Woo-Jung Song, Byung-Keun Kim
A489 Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Allergic Rhinitis in Japan
Syuji Yonekura, Yoshitaka Okamoto
A490 Impact of Cognitive Impairment on Asthma Control Status in Elderly Asthmatics
Gyu Young Hur, Young Min Ye, Joo-Hee Kim, Ki-Suck Jung, Junga Kim, Jae Jeong Shim, Hae-Sim Park
A491 The Association Between Respiratory Tract Infection and Reactive Oxygen Stress
Kazuhiro Sekimoto, Kazuko Sugai, Keiji Tsuchimoto, Hiromi Uehara, Masanori Ikeda
A492 The Risk Factors and Lung Function of Current Allergic Rhinitis Due to Dust Mite Sensitization
Euncho Chung, Kang Seo Park, Yean Jung Choi, Jeewon Park, Soo-Jong Hong, So Yeon Lee
A493 Cloning and Expression of Recombinant Blomia Tropicalis Dust Mite Allergen Blo t 7
Alain Jacquet, Arun Buaklin, Nat Malainual
A494 Seasonal Variations of Airborne Pollen in Bangalore, India
Roopashree S
A495 Pollen Observation and Use of Data
Kyu Rang Kim, Mijin Kim, Changbum Cho, Baek-Jo Kim, Jae-Won Oh, Mae Ja Han
A496 The Effect of Cord Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) on the Development of Atopic Dermatitis in First 3 Years of Life : Cocoa Study
Hyun-Ju Cho, Youn Ho Shin, Eun Lee, Young-Ho Kim, Darae Lee, Mi-Jin Kang, Song-I Yang, Kangmo Ahn, Kyung Won Kim, Yoon Hee Kim, Hye-Sung Won, Soo Hyun Kim, Suk-Joo Choi, Young Han Kim, Jong Kwan Jun, Eun-Jin Kim, Jeom Gyu Lee, So-Yeon Lee, Soo-Jong Hong, Dongin Suh
A497 Contribution of Stem Cell Factor Autocrine/Paracrine Mechanism to Aberrant Proliferation of Mast Cells
Yosuke Amagai, Akane Tanaka, Hiroshi Matsuda
A498 A Randomized Dbpc Dose-Finding Multicenter Trial of Sublingual Immunotherapy (SLIT) Allergoid Tablets in House Dust Mites (HDM) Allergic Patients
Ralph Mösges, Pauline Dieterich, Anatoli Astvatsatourov, Christoph Hüser, Jaswinder Singh, Kija Shah-Hosseini, Silke Allekotte, Enrico Compalati
A499 Depression and Allergy in the Elderly: A Community Population Analysis
Kyoung Hee Sohn, Woo-Jung Song, Byung-Keun Kim, Ju-Young Kim, Min Suk Yang, So-Hee Lee, Sae-Hoon Kim, Hye-Ryun Kang, Heung Woo Park, Sun-Sin Kim, Kyung-up Min, Sang-Heon Cho, Yoon-Seok Chang
A500 The Integrated Analysis of Correlation Between Total IgE and Other Immunological Factors in Allergic Diseases
Woo-Sung Chang, Ji-Hye Do, Yeon-Seop Kim, Dankyu Yoon, Hye-Sun Lim, Jeom-Kyu Lee, Eun-Jin Kim
A501 Pattern of Allergic Diseases Among Military Servicemen Referred to a Clinical Immunology/Allergy Service in Singapore
Bernard Thong, Yew Kuang Cheng, Jinfeng Hou, Khai Pang Leong, Justina Tan, Faith Chia, Grace Chan, Sze-Chin Tan, Teck Choon Tan, Chwee Ying Tang, Hiok Hee Chng
A502 A Case of Rifampicin-Induced Hypersensitivity Diagnosed By the Lymphocyte Activation Test with Successful Desensitization
Chan-Sun Park, Mi Yeoung Kim, Eun-Young Kim, Jae-Gook Shin, Jae-Hyeog Choi, Saegwang Park, Yeonye Kim
A503 Analysis of Individual Case Safety Reports of Drug-Induced Anaphylaxis Based on Korea Adverse Event Reporting System Database
Kyung-Hwan Lim, Jae Woo Jung, Mingyu Kang, Ju-Young Kim, Ju-Young Kim, Hyun Jeong Kim, Yeon-Ju Woo, Soo-Youn Jung, Hye-Ryun Kang, Hye-Ryun Kang
A504 Impact of Processes Certification on the Liability of Anti-Dust Mites Bed Covers
Thierry Porée, Nabile Boukhettala, Emeline Furon
A505 Localisation Kinetics of Aluminium after Subcutaneous Injection in a Rat Model
Alan David Bullimore, Matthew Heath, Simon Hewings, Murray Skinner
A506 Periostin Levels in Exhaled Breath Condensate of Competitive Athletes, Asthmatics and Healthy Subjects - Associations with Outdoor Ambient Conditions
Marcin Kurowski, Hubert Krysztofiak, Aleksandra Wardzynska, Marzanna Jarzebska, Janusz Jurczyk, Marek L. Kowalski
A507 The Role of PKR Pathway in Acute Exacerbation of Severe Bronchial Asthma
So Ri Kim, Yong Chul Lee, Dong Im Kim, Yang Keun Rhee, Heung Bum Lee, Seoung Ju Park, Yeong Hun Choe Choe, Seung Yong Park
A508 Diversity of Clinical Manifestations and Treatment Responses for Idiopathic Hypereosinophilic Syndrome
Joo-Hee Kim, Sunghoon Park, Young Il Hwang, Seung Hun Jang, Ki-Suck Jung
A509 Effect of Dexamethasone in Th17 Cell Mediating Neutrophilic Asthma
Nong Guang-Min, Jiang Min
A510 Allergen Profile for Asthma/Rhinitis and Eczema Among Patients in North India: An Immunocap Allergen Specific IgE Antibodies Assay Based Study
Nalin Nag
A511 Clinical Profile of Allergic Rhinitis in Children in Jakarta
Wahyuni Indawati
A512 Preclinical Study on the Use of Micro Crystalline Tyrosine (MCT) Adjuvants in Allergy Immunotherapy
Alan David Bullimore, Matthew Heath, Murray Skinner
A513 Genetic Diversity of Filaggrin Mutation and Its Clinical Implication in East Asian Atopic Dermatitis Patients
Seong Jun Seo, Won Jong Oh
A514 Protein and MPL Adsorption Capacities for MCT in Candidate Therapeutic Formulations for Use in Immunotherapy, Compared Against Existing Adjuvants
Alan David Bullimore, Murray Skinner, Matthew Heath, Andrew Bell
A515 Interleukin-22 Gene Variation in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Alireza Zarebidoki, Hournaz Hasanzadeh, Salman Sadeghzade, Nima Rezaei
A516 Immunomodulatory Effects of Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Secretome in a Mouse Model of Asthma
Kyu-Sup Cho
A517 Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage with Positive Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody in a Child : A Case Report
Sung-Woo Kim, Moo-Young Oh
A518 Clinical Analys the Serum TARC Levels As the Condition Index of Atopic Dermatitis in the Early Infancy
Munemitsu Koizumi, Kazuyo Kuzume
A519 An Analysis of the Filaggrin Gene Polymorphism in Korean Atopic Dermatitis Patients
Kui Young Park, Won Jong Oh
A520 A New Protocol for Wheat Oral Immunotherapy in Patients with Anaphylaxis
Delara Babaie, Mohammad Nabavi, Fariborz Zandieh, Mehrdad Amir Moini, Zahra Chavoshzadeh, Hamideh Seifi, Mitra Sahragard, Mehrnaz Mesdaghi, Mohammad Hassan Bemanian
A521 Clinical Characteristics of Filaggrin-Related Atopic Dermatitis Patients in Korea
Sun Young Choi, Yeon a No
A522 Early Allergy Diagnosis in Children - Self- Administered Questionnaire Vs Medical Verification
Andrzej M. Fal, Dorota Kiedik, Agnieszka Muszynska, Iwona Pirogowicz
A523 Asthma Impact on Children with Food Induced Anaphylaxis
Chikako Motomura, Masatoshi Wakatsuki, Yuko Akamine, Mihoko Iwata, Hiroshi Matsuzaki, Naohiko Taba, Yoko Murakami, Hiroshi Odajima
A524 Case Reports of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Stevens-Johnson Syndrome-Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Reni Ghrahani
A525 The Effectiveness of Oral Tolerance Induction for Wheat Allergy Using Two Different Intake Levels
Yuri Takaoka
A526 Association of Plasma Interleukin-25 Levels with Development of Aspirin Induced Airway Spasm in Asthma
Jong-Uk Lee, Jeong-Seok Heo, Da-Jeong Bae, Hyun Ji Song, Choon-Sik Park, Jong-Sook Park
A527 Transition of Allergic and Nonallergic Rhinitis after 2 Years in Korean Children: Preliminary Study
Jae Hoon Cho, Ji Ho Choi
A528 Early Onset of Psoriasis Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis
Budi Setiabudiawan, Fiska Febriana, Reni Ghrahani, Gartika Sapartini
A529 Clinical Features of Immediate Hypersensitivity to Histamine H2 Antagonists and Their Cross Reactivity
Chan-Sun Park, Young-Hee Nam, Mi Yeoung Kim, Gil-Soon Choi
A530 Detection of Galacto-Oligosaccharide Specific IgE in Vitro
Chiung-Hui Huang, Chiung-Hui Huang, Jian Yi Soh, Lynette Shek, Lynette Shek, Dianne J. Delsing, Bee Wah Lee, Bee Wah Lee, Si Hui Goh, Wen Chin Chiang, Wenyin Loh
A531 The Association Between Serum Vitamin D Levels and Allergic Diseases in Elementary Schoolchildren
Hea-Kyoung Yang, Ji Young Lee, Minji Kim, Kangmo Ahn, Jihyun Kim, Young-Min Kim, Hye-Young Kim, Yong Mean Park, Woo Kyung KIM, So-Yeon Lee
A532 Serum Levels Specific IgE to Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin Type 1 in Eosinophilic Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyp in Korean
Jongin Jeong, Sang Duk Hong, Seung Kyu Chung, Hun-Jong Dhong, Hyo Yeol Kim Hyo Yeol Kim, Sujin KIM
A533 Impacts of Rhizosphere Cleaning Effects of Potted Indoor Plants on the Symptoms and Stress of Students with Allergic Rhinitis in Newly Built Schools
Yong-Won Lee, Hana Bak, Hye-Rim Son, Si-Eun Lee, Kwang-Jin Kim, Young-Wook Lim, Ho-Hyun Kim
A534 A Case of Multiple Food Allergies with Recurrent Anaphylaxis Successively Controlled By Omalizumab
Mi-Ae Kim, Man Yong Han, Young-Ho Jung, Hye Mi Jee, Seung Jin Lee, Kyung Suk Lee
A535 Bepotastine-Induced Urticaria, Cross-Reactive with Other Antihistamines
Jasmina Golez, Jaechun Lee, Eunkyoung Lee
A536 Role of SLC26a4 in Ozone - Induced Airway Reactivity and Inflammation
Da-Jeong Bae, Chang-Gi Min, Jong-Uk Lee, Jong-Sook Park, Hun Soo Chang, Choon-Sik Park, An-Soo Jang
A537 PAR2-Antagonist Suppresses Protease-Induced Allergic Inflammation Mediated By Degradation of Lung Epithelial Tight Junction and Generation of ROS
Young-Joon Kim, Bok Kyoung Jung, Seung-Hwa Lee, Mi-Jin Kang, Sekyoo Jeong, Eun Lee, Hyun-Ju Cho, Young-Ho Kim, Song-I Yang, Seo Hee Kim, Soo-Jong Hong
A538 Novel Anti-IL-4Ra Nanocarrier Approach for the Efficient Control of Lung Tissue Inflammation during Asthma
Rabih Halwani, Saleh Al Muhsen, Asma Sultana, Achraf Al-Faraj, Rosan Kanana, Sibtain Afzal, Roaa Al Kufaidi
A539 Clinical Factors for Improved Allergen Reactivities Induced By Subcutaneous Allergen Specific Immunotherapy with House Dust Mites during 1 Year Period
Hee-Kyoo Kim, Chul-Ho Oak, Gil-Soon Choi, Ye-Jin Moon, Eun-Kee Park
A540 Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms in Iranian Patients with Kidney Acute Rejection
Alireza Zarebidoki, Mina Abrari, Ali Akbar Amirzargar
A541 Phthalate Exposure and Obesity in Atopic Dermatitis of Korean Children and Adolescents
Ju-Hee Seo, Mina Ha, Soo-Jong Hong
A542 Which Drives Chronicity of Cough in Adults: Based on the Knhanes 2010-2012
Mingyu Kang, Byung-Ha Cho, Han-Ki Park, Han-Ki Park, Kyung-Mook Kim, Chang-Han Park, Heung Woo Park, Heung Woo Park, Yoon-Seok Chang, Yoon-Seok Chang, Yoon-Seok Chang, Sook-Hee Song, Mi-Kyeong Kim, Mi-Kyeong Kim, Sang-Heon Cho, Suk-Il Chang, Kyung-up Min, Kyung-up Min, Alyn Morice
A543 Elevated Airway CD45RO Memory Cells in Wheezing Children with Lower Respiratory Infection
Jungi Choi, Yusok Han, Jin-Sung Park, Eunmi Kwon, Chang-Keun Kim
A544 Quality of Life in Obese Children with or without Atopic Disease
Gartika Sapartini
A545 Relation of Human microRNA in Sputum of Asthma with Influenza A Virus Infection-Induced Exacerbation
Ji-Na Kim, Seungwoo Shin, Hun Soo Chang, Eun-Young Shim, Ji Ah Jun, Hyeonju Lee, Jong-Sook Park, Choon-Sik Park
A546 Aeropolinologic Monitoring and Distribution of Allergoallergens in Western Georgia
Revaz Sepiashvili, Darejan Khachapuridze, Sofio Gamkrelidze, Manana Chikhladze
A547 Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation As Emergency Treatment for Patients with Near-Fatal Status Asthmaticus
Seung-Eun Lee, Yun-Seong Kim, Doo-Soo Jeon, Woo-Hyun Cho, Hye-Ju Yeo, Seong-Hoon Yoon, Seung-Hyun Kim
A548 Relationship of S100calcium Binding Protein A9 with Neutophilic Inflammation in Murine Asthma Model
Taehyeong Lee, Hyun Ji Song, Choon-Sik Park, Ji Ah Jun, Jong-Sook Park
A549 Whole-Exome Sequencing of Aatopic Dermatitis in Korean Childhood
Dankyu Yoon, Yeon-Seop Kim, Woo-Sung Chang, Mi-Jin Kang, Soo-Jong Hong, Jeom-Kyu Lee, Eun-Jin Kim
A550 A Case of Generalized Molluscum Contagiosum in an Adult Patient with Severe Atopic Dermatitis
Minkee Park
A551 Discovery of Putative Macadamia Nut Allergens By Patient IgE Binding and a Label-Free Shotgun Proteomics Approach
Nanju Alice Lee, Johanna Rost, Sridevi Muralidharan, Dianne Campbell, Sam Mehr
A552 Anti-FcÎμri Antibody Inhibits Allergic March in Mice By Suppressing Th17 Pathway Via Suppression of FcÎμri-Mediated Mast Cells Activation
Seung-Hwa Lee, Seon-Joo Yoon, Ha-Jung Kim, Eun Lee, Song-I Yang, Young-Ho Jung, Ho-Sung Yu, Hee-Suk Kim, Yeon Hee Park, So-Yeon Lee, Jun-Sung Park
A553 Clinical Characteristics and the Associated Factors of ATG Hypersensitivity Reaction
Ha Kyeong Won, Min-Koo Kang, Sung Do Moon, Byung-Keun Kim, Ju-Young Kim, Sang-Heon Cho, Hye-Ryun Kang, Ji-Su Shim, Soo Jie Chung
A554 Reference Value and Utility of Total Serum Immunoglobulin E in Korean Schoolchildren
Jaehee Choi, Kangmo Ahn, Kwanghoon Kim, Jihyun Kim, Jiyoung Lee
A555 Two-Step Prescreening Skin Testing May be Useful for Reducing Immediate Hypersensitivity Reaction to Nonionic Contrast Media: Results of 7-Year Period in a Secondary Hospital
Bo Bae Park, In Young Nho, Chang-Han Park, Jang Min Kim, Suk-Il Chang
A556 Prevalence of Allergic Sensitization in Patients with Allergy Rhinitis; Gwangju, Jeonnam State Study
Sun Kyung Kim, Hyung Chae Yang, Kwang Il Nam
A557 Analysis of IgE Binding Components of Walnut in Korean Children Effect of Cooking Methods on the Allergenicity of Walnut Proteins
Jeongmin Lee, Jeongmin Lee, Sooyoung Lee, Kyunguk Jeong, Se-Ah Jeon
A558 Assessment of Autonomic Nervous Function in Subjects with Cholinergic Urticaria Associated with Acquired Idiopathic Generalized Anhidrosis
Midori Fujiwara, Shoko Shindo, Hiroyuki Murota, Mayuko Tahara, Aya Takahashi, Ichiro Katayama
A559 Interleukin 1 Beta in Sputum of Patients with Asthma: Relation with Airway Obstruction and Neutrophilc Inflammation
Jae Woo Jung, Hyun Ji Song, Taehyeong Lee, An-Soo Jang, Jong-Sook Park, Hun Soo Chang, Choon-Sik Park, Byoung Whui Choi
A560 Interleukin 8 in Sputum of Patients with Asthma: Relation with Neutrophilc Inflammation and Exacerbation
Min-Hye Kim, Da-Jeong Bae, Hyun Ji Song, Taehyeong Lee, Ji Ah Jun, Jong-Sook Park, An-Soo Jang, Hun Soo Chang, Young Joo Cho, Choon-Sik Park
A561 Prostaglandin E2 and Transforming Growth Factor-Î2 Play a Critical Role in Suppression of Allergic Airway Inflammation By Adipose-Derived Stem Cells
Sue Jean Mun
A562 Inhalation of Fine Particles Kill Alveolar Macrophages to Release IL-1alpha That Promote Inducible Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (iBALT) Formation
Etsushi Kuroda, Koji Ozasa, Ken Ishii
A563 Association Between Smoking and Allergic Diseases in the Korean Adult General Population
Sunmi Kim, Gyeong-Hun Park
A564 Relationship of S100 Calcium Binding Protein A9 with Inflammasome Activation in Murine Asthma Model
Hyun Ji Song, Taehyeong Lee, Ji Ah Jun, Hun Soo Chang, Jong-Sook Park, Choon-Sik Park
A565 Cluster Analysis of Asthma Phenotypes to Predict Exacerbation in Korean Population
Mi-Ae Kim, Seungwoo Shin, Jong-Sook Park, Hun Soo Chang, You Sook Cho, Hae-Sim Park, Choon-Sik Park
A566 Effect of AG490 on the Expression of TH17 CELLS and Tregs in the MOUSE MODEL of Neutrophilic Asthma
Zhang Min
A567 Association Between the Clinical Characteristics and Disease Severity in Hospitalized Bronchiolitis Patients Younger Than Two Years Old
Seo Hee Yoon, In Suk Sol, Young a Park, Yoon Hee Kim, Min Jung Kim, Kyung Won Kim, Myung Hyun Sohn, Kyu-Earn Kim
A568 Comparison Between House Dust Mite and Aspergillosis Sensitization in Patients with High Level of Tige
Wu Shiquan
A569 The Prevalence of Metal Allergy in the Patients with Orthodontic Appliance
Yongwon Lee, Hana Bak
A570 Component Resolved Diagnosis and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Analyses: Towards the Development of Specific Immunotherapy for Allergy
Maricar Wisco Ching, John Donnie Ramos
A571 Clinical Features of Anaphylaxis Caused By Peanut, Tree Nuts and Seeds in Children and Adolescents: Multi-Center Study with 126 Patients
Kyunguk Jeong, Sooyoung Lee, Kangmo Ahn, Myung Hyun Sohn, Kyung Won Kim, So-Yeon Lee, Tae Won Song, Youhoon Jeon, Jihyun Kim, Taek Ki Min, Kyu-Earn Kim, Bok-Yang Pyun, Hyeon-Jong Yang, Hae Ran Lee, Youngmin Ahn, Ji-Won Kwon, Dae Hyun Lim, Jeong Hee Kim, Dongin Suh, Hyung Young Ki
A572 A Report of Two Cases of Anaphylaxis Caused By Perilla Seed in Children
Kyunguk Jeong, Byeong Sub Park, Sooyoung Lee, Se-Ah Jeon, Kyu Jung Park
A573 Prenatal Fine Particulate Matter Affects Wheezing in Children with TLR4 Polymorphism: Cocoa Study
Song-I Yang, Eun Lee, Hyun-Ju Cho, Young-Ho Kim, Mi-Jin Kang, Yean Jung Choi, Kil Yong Choi, Youn Ho Shin, Kangmo Ahn, Kyung Won Kim, Byoung-Ju Kim, So-Yeon Lee, Eun-Jin K
A574 Intensified B Lymphocyte Depletion (IBLD) without Immunosuppressive Maintenance Treatment As a Rescue Therapy in Refractory Lupus Nephritis (LN): a 4-Year Observation.
Roccatello Dario
A575 Relationship Between Th17 Cells and Neutrophilic Airway Inflammation in Childhood Neutrophilic Asthma
Jing Liao
A576 Clinical Applications of Impulse Oscillometry in Asthma Management after Exacerbation in Preschool Children
Yong Feng, Yunxiao Shang
A577 Contact Allergy to Sodium Sulfite and Its Relationship to Facial Cosmetic Contact Dermatitis
Yongwon Lee, Hana Bak
A578 Effect of Exposure to Air Pollution on Asthma and Lung Function Development
Hyung Young Kim, Byoung-Ju Kim, Ji-Won Kwon, Ju-Hee Seo, Eun Lee, So-Yeon Lee, Song-I Yang, Young-Ho Jung, Hyo-Bin Kim, Ho-Jang Kwon, Hee Ju Park
A579 Role and Relational Mechanism of AG490 in Airwayinflammation in the Mouse Model of Neutrophilic Asthma
Zhang Min, Nong Guang-Min, Jiang Min
A580 Incidence of Adverse Reaction to Radioconstrast Media in a Single Tertiary Hospital
Gyu Young Hur, Eun Jung Sim, Sora Yoon, Juwhan Choi, Junga Kim, Jae Keom Sim, Jee Youn Oh
A581 Cow’s Milk Oral Food Challenge: Clinical and Laboratory Features in Korean Children
Kyunguk Jeong, Byeong Sub Park, Jeong-Min Lee, Sooyoung Lee, Eunjae Cheon, Youngjoo Na, Kyu Jung Park, Eunjoo Lee
A582 Validation of the Red Maple Trials Allergen Challenge Theatre for Ragweed Pollen Challenge
William Yang, Suzanne Kelly, Rob Perrins, Jimmy Yang
A583 Preliminary Evaluation of the Red Maple Trials Allergen Challenge Theatre for Grass Pollen
William Yang, Suzanne Kelly, Rob Perrins, Jacob Karsh, Jimmy Yang
A584 The Association Between Tobacco and the Risk of Asthma in Urban and Rural Children in San Francisco, Argentina
Hector Badellino, Alvaro Teijeiro, Mabel Cuello, Marilyn Urrutia Pereira, Gustavo Egues
A585 The Prevalence of Allergic Rhinitis in University Students in Manisa
Ayse Aktas
A586 Allergen Sensitization in Zimbabwean Children with Atopic Dermatitis
Jin-Kyong Chun, Hilda Angela Mujuru, Elopy N Sibanda
A587 Vitamin D Insufficiency in Asthmatic Patients
Andreea Ioana Popescu, Raluca Greblescu
A588 The Prevalence of Hypersensitivity Reactions Against Drugs Among University Students.
Suheyla Rahman, Ayse Aktas
A589 Sublingual Immunotherapy Among Problematic Patients, Suffering from Allergic Rhinitis.
Nataly Tataurshchikova
A590 A Novel Biomarker for Wheezing and Atopy in Early Infancy
Eishika Dissanayake, Yuzaburo Inoue, Naoki Shimojo, Taiji Nakano
A591 Prognostic Factors for Atopic Dermatitis in Spontaneously Born Babies from Low Socioeconomic Background
Conny Tanjung
A592 Higher IgE Antibody Levels Mediate Anti-Cancer Immunity in Transgenic KN1 Hyper-IgE Mice
Erika Jensen-Jarolim, Judit Fazekas, Josef Singer, Anna Lukschal, Reinhard Horvat, Gertrude Achatz-Straussberger, Gernot Achatz
A593 Fructooligosaccharides Intake during Pregnancy and Lactation Increases Gut Bifidobacterium and IL-27 in Breast Milk
Yuji Fujita, Shuji Ikegami, Yoshitaka Nakamura, Yuzaburo Inoue, Naoki Shimojo, Yoichi Kohno, Shuichi Suzuki, Naoko Ozawa, Takayuki Kubota, Ken Nonaka, Osamu Ohara, Kentaro Masuda
A594 Effect of Nintedanib on Asthma in Mouse Model
Chin Kook Rhee, Sook Young Lee, Hwa Young Lee, Hea Yon Lee, Ji Young Kang, Sei Won Kim, Soon Seog Kwon, Young Kyoon Kim
A595 Delayed Contrast Media Hypersensitivity after Coronary Angiography
Gun-Woo Kim, Ju-Young Kim, Sang-Heon Cho, Hye-Ryun Kang, Hyo-Soo Kim, Jung Gyu Han, Jin Lee, Ji Young Lee, Ji Young Go, So Jung Park
A596 Gene Expression Profiling in Patients with Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria Reveals Unique Gene Signature Distinct from Healthy Controls
Julie Kim-Chang, Cassandra Love, Patricia Lugar
A597 Failure to Recognize Lymphopenia in Newborn Leads to Undetectable Primary Immunodeficiency
Endah Citraresmi
A598 The Concordance Between Lung Function Test and Indonesian Version of Childhood Asthma Control Test (CACT)
Nastiti Kaswandani, Cynthia Utami, Mardjanis Said
A599 Synergistic Interaction Between Bronchiolitis and PM10 Is Modified By IL-13 Polymorphism on Asthma Development: Replication from Cheer Study
Young-Ho Jung, Song-I Yang, Byoung-Ju Kim, Ji-Won Kwon, Hwan-Cheol Kim, Jong-Han Leem, Ju-Hee Seo, Hyung Young Kim, So-Yeon Lee, Ho-Jang Kwon, Hyo-Bin Kim, Hyun-Ju Cho
A600 The Transcription Factor Ehf Is Involved in TGF-b-Induced Suppression of Fceri and c-Kit Expression and Fceri-Mediated Activation in Mast Cells
Susumu Yamazaki, Nobuhiro Nakano, Asuka Honjoh, Eisuke Inage, Yosuke Baba, Yoshikazu Ohtsuka, Toshiaki Shimizu
A601 The Follow up of the Potential Immunosuppressant Effects of Marijuana (MJA)
Ishaq M, Sameera MI Khan, Imran Khan, Sabeen Khan
A602 Risk Factors of Allergen Sensitization at 3 Years: Results from the Gusto Study
Evelyn Xiu Ling Loo, Anne Goh, Oon Hoe Teoh, Yiong Huak Chan, Seang Mei Saw, Kenneth Kwek, Peter D Gluckman, Keith M Godfrey, Hugo Van Bever, Yap Seng Chong, Bee Wah Lee, Lynette Shek, Alison Joanne Lee
A603 IL-6 Blockade As a Steroid-Sparing Treatment for Rhupus Patients
Daniela Rossi
A604 Examination of Late Pulmonary Toxicity in Children Treated for Malignancies
Agnes Nemeth
A605 Technical Validation of the Repurposing of a Personal Particle Sampler to Determine House Dust Mite Exposure in the Ambient Air
Torsten Sehlinger, Karl-Christian Bergmann, Frank Goergen
A606 Zinc Deficiency in Children with Severe Atopic Dermatitis: More Common Than Generally Thought
Mohammad S. Ehlayel, Abdul Bari Bener
A607 Strong Association Between HLA-B*5801 Allele and Allopurinol – Induced Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions in Vietnamese
Hieu Chi Chu, Nga Thi Quynh Do, Dinh Van Nguyen, Ha Thi Thu Nguyen, Huong Thi Minh Le, Sheryl Van Nunen, Christopher Vidal, Suran Fernando
A608 Successful Rapid Desensitization to Glatiramer Acetate: Report of 2 Cases
Fotis Psarros, Ekaterini Syrigou, Ekaterini Politi, Spyridon Chrysoulakis
A609 Asthma Exacerbations Seasonal Variation in Two Perennial Phenotypes during Twenty Years (1995-2014): House Dust Mite Monosensitized and Non Atopic Patients
Dimitrios Vourdas, Konstantinos Petalas
A610 Occupational Allergy to Fungal Spores Among the Farmers of Paddy Fields in West Bengal, India: An Aeromycological and Immunological Approach
Mouli SAHA, Kashinath Bhattacharya
A611 Study of Efficacy of Sublingual Immunotherapy (SLIT) in Cases of Severe Persistent Allergic Rhinitis
Subir Jain
A612 Mesenchymal Stem Cells Suppress Lung Inflammation and Airway Remodeling in Chronic Asthma Rat Model Via PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway Mesenchymal Stem Cells Suppress Lung Inflammation and Airway Remodeling in Chronic Asthma Rat Model Via PI3K/Akt Signaling
Xiaolian Song, Haiyan Lin
A613 Development of Allergen ELISA Kits for Dust Mites, Pollen, and Pet Dander
Kyohei Nishikawa, Takashi Shimada, Hiroshi Yasueda, Tadao Enomoto, Daisuke Aizawa, Takayoshi Kobayashi
A614 Yoga As a Lifestyle Modification to Improve the Quality of Life in Smokers with Allergic Rhinitis
Chellaa R
A615 Study of Incidence of Severe Persistent Allergic Rhinitis in Different Age Groups,Sex Prevalance and Type of Allergen” Aeroallergen or Food Allergen” Responsible for Severe Persistent Allergic Rhinitis in Central India
Subir Jain
A616 Causative Allergens in Cases of Severe Persistent Allergic Rhinitis in Central India
Subir Jain
A617 Atopic Dermatitis: A New Data on the Mechanisms of Chronic Pruritus
Marina Yudina
A618 The Efficacy and Safety of Peanut Oral Immunotherapy in High-Dose with Predicting Factors
Ishaq M, Sameera MI Khan, Imran Khan, Sabeen Khan
A619 Evaluation of Long-Term Prognosis and Topical Corticosteroid Usage after One Year of Proactive Treatment for Children with Moderate-to-Severe Atopic Dermatitis
Mayako Saito
A620 Allergy Symptoms in the First Two Months of Life
Nurul Iman Nilam Sari
A621 Factors Related to the Seasonal Variation of Allergic Rhinitis
Jae Young Kim, Jaechul Song, Inah Kim, Kyeong Joon Lee, Soo Jin Park, Soo Yong Roh
A622 Allergic Risk Survey in Lao Children at out-Patient Department, Children’s Hospital, Vientiane Capital, Lao PDR
Somxay Billamay
A623 Correlation Between Food Allergy, Aeroinhalant Allergy, Allergic Rhinitis, Atopic Dermatitis, and Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infections and Levels of Severity of Asthma in Pediatric Medicine Department Saiful Anwar Hospital Indonesia
Muchammad Fahrul Udin
A624 Comparative Study of Pine, Oak, and Ginkgo Pollen Counts in Korea during Last Four Years
Mae Ja Han, Jae-Won Oh, Kyu Rang Kim, Baek-Jo Kim
A625 Effectiveness of Allergy-Test Directed Elimination Diets in Eosinophilic Esophagitis
Jorge A Mazza, Jason Kangeun Ko, David JT Huang
A626 Comparison of Cut-Off Values and Probability Curves for Egg Specific IgE in Diagnosis of Egg Allergy in Young Children
Kanae Furuya, Keigo Kainuma, Takahiro Ito, Mizuho Nagao, Takao Fujisawa, Junya Hirayama, Yu Kuwahara
A627 A Case of Persistent Atopic Dermatitis Associated with Parasitic Infection
Rosanna Qualizza, Cristoforo Incorvaia, Anna Maraschini
A628 Aeroallergenic Profile of Indoor Allergens and Their Clinical Relevance in Allergy and Asthma Patients in Saudi Arabia
Syed Mohammed Hasnain, Abdulrahman Al-Frayh
A629 Oral Exposure to the Amino Acid Glycine Inhibits the Onset of Allergic Disorders
Anita Hartog, Jacqueline Bastiaans, Reinilde Loonstra, Lieke Rutten, Lucien Harthoorn, Jeroen Van Bergenhenegouwen, Johan Garssen, Johan Garssen
A630 Cough As a Key Symptom in Asthma, Allergic Rhinitis, COPD and Rhinosinusitis and Its Impact in Korea
Kwang-Ha Yoo, Sang-Heon Cho, AG Ghoshal, Abdul Razak Bin Abdul Muttalif, Horng- Chyuan Lin, Sanguansak Thanaviratananich, Shalini Bagga, Rab Faruqi, Santwona Baidya, Colman Taylor, De Yun Wang, Hae-Ryun Ahn, Soon-Kwan Hong, Jong-Woong Kim, Gui-Hyun Nam, Mee-Ja Kim, Jae-Kyoung Park
A631 Cysteine Protease Allergen Def f 1 Induces Th2 Cytokines in Mouse Bone Marrow Derived Basophils Via ERK and JNK Dependent Pathways
Myung-Hee Yi, Kyoung Yong Jeong, Ju-Yeong Kim, Tai-Soon Yong
A632 Novel Multiple Allergy Testing Kit Using Parallel Lines Array (PLA) Technology
Bum Joon Kim, Hs Joo, Kj Lim, Jae-Hyun Lee, Jung-Won Park, Kh Yoon, DS Choi
A633 Quantitative Rapid Kit for Human Immunoglobulin
Hanseung Joo, Bum Joon Kim, Kj Lim, MJ KIM, DS Choi, Kh Yoon
A634 Total IgE Measurement By Protia Allergy-Q: Comparison Study with Immunocap
Bum Joon Kim, Hanseung Joo, Woo Sang Jung, Kj Lim, DS Choi
A635 Prevalence and Risk Factors of Asthma Among Korean Farmers
Ji-Hoon Lee, Soon-Chan Kwon, Soo-Jin Lee, Soo Yong Roh, Hogil Kim, Kyeong Joon Lee
A636 Dietary Intake and Perceived Immune Status in Young Dutch Women
Aurora Van De Loo, Amanda Fernstrand, Johan Garssen, Joris Verster
A637 The Effects of Antihistamine Drugs on on-Road Driving Performance
Aurora Van De Loo, Johan Garssen, Joris Verster
A638 Grass Is Guilty: A Case of Anaphylactic Shock and Asthmatic Status in the Same Time in an Individual
Jasmina Golez
A639 Cyclic Gamp-AMP(cGAMP) Induces Allergic Inflammation
Koji Ozasa, Etsushi Kuroda, Ken Ishii, Ken Ishii
A640 Role of Omalizumab in the Setting of Recalcitrate Dermatitis with Extremely Elevated IgE Levels
Muhammad Imran, Selina Gierer, John Martinez
A641 Follow-up Study on the Natural History of Prawn Allergy
Lydia Wong, Bee Wah Lee, Gaik Chin Yap, Genevieve Llanora, Bernard Thong, Lynette Shek
A642 Protein-Losing Dermopathy Impairing Growth in Children with Severe Atopic Dermatitis
Mohammad S. Ehlayel, Ashraf Soliman
A643 Airways Assessment of Aged Nursing Homes Residents
Pedro Martins, João Marques, Joana Gomes-Belo, Teresa Palmeiro, Iolanda Caires, Joana Belo, Maria Amália Botelho, Paula Leiria-Pinto, Nuno Neuparth
A644 Use of Skin Prick Test, Specific IgE to Shrimp and Rpen a1 to Determine Clinical Reaction to Shrimp in Area with High Prevalence of House Dust Mite Sensitization
Narissara Suratannon, Jaichat Mekaroonkamol, Jarungchit Ngamphaiboon, Piyawadee Lertchanaruengrith, Pantipa Chatchatee
A645 Identification of Specific IgE-Binding Proteins in Tree of Heaven (Ailanthus altissima) Pollen
Gholamali Kardar, Ahmad Majd, Youcef Shahali, Farrokh Ghahremaninejad, Zahra Pourpak, Fateme Mousavi
A646 Allergy Immunotherapy Well Tolerated in Children
Mahnaz Sadeghi-Shabestari
A647 Steinert (DM1) Patients Have IgG1 Deficiency and Should be Screened for Immune Deficiency
K. Van Bilsen, O. Manusama, W.a. Dik, M. Van Der Burg, V. H. J. Van Der Velden, V.a.S. H. Dalm, P. M. Van Hagen
A648 The Change of Serous Sige and Three Evaluation before and after Sublingual Immunotherapy with Dermatophagoides Farinae for Persistent Allergic Rhinitis
Yongping Liu
A649 Garlic Extracts Reduce Histamine-Induced Proliferation and Migration of Human Asthmatic Bronchial Smooth Muscle Cells
Yi Yeong Jeong
A650 A Case of Occupational Contact Dermatitis Caused By N-Acetylcysteine
Ji Hye Kim, Moon Gyeong Yoon, Young Min Ye, Yoo Seob Shin, Ga Young Ban, Hae-Sim Park, Hye Min Jung
A651 The Association Between Pollen Change and Asthma Attacks
Soo Yong Roh, Jaechul Song, Ji-Hoon Lee, Hogil Kim, Jae Young Kim, Kyeong Joon Lee
A652 Incidence of Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalizations for Asthma Exacerbations during the Lunar Month in Singapore
Lydia Wong, Mohana Rajakulendran, Haripriya Santhanam, Lynette Shek, Tow Keang Lim
A653 The Prevalence of Positive Reaction for Skin Prick Test in Korean Farmers and Its Occupational Risk Factors
Hogil Kim, Soo-Jin Lee, Ji-Hoon Lee, Soo Yong Roh, Soon-Chan Kwon
A654 Drug Allergy in Children: A Three-Years Experience at Dr. Kariadi Hospital Semarang Indonesia
Wistiani, Galuh H, Ani Wistiani
A655 The Identification of Morphology, Structure and Study of Seasonal Variation of Airborne Fraxinus Excelsior Pollen Grains in the Tehran
Gholam Ali Kardar, Maryam Sharifshoushtari, Ahmad Majd, Taher Nejadsattari, Zahra Pourpak, Mostafa Moin
A656 Sublingual Immunotherapy in Elderly Rhinitis Patients Sensitized to House Dust Mites
Ji Hye Kim, Daehong Seo, Young Min Ye, Hae-Sim Park, Jung-Won Park, Jae-Hyun Lee, Yoo Seob Shin
A657 Healthy Ageing Research Center (HARC) As a Platform for Multidisciplinary Approaches to Respiratory Research in the Elderly
Marek L. Kowalski, Aleksandra Wardzynska, Marcin Kurowski, Malgorzata / Ewa Pawelczyk, Adam Wysokinski, Iwona Kloszewska, Janina Grzegorczyk, Wojciech Piotrowski, Joanna Makowska
A658 Estimation of Cases of Work-Related Asthma Using Capture-Recapture Methods
Soon-Chan Kwon, Jaechul Song, Yong-Kyu Kim
A659 Primary School Students’ Parents Reported ISAAC Questionnaire in a Low Income Area of Ankara
Ilknur Bostanci, Zeynep Sengul Emeksiz, Aysegul Ertugrul, Serap Ozmen, Soner Sahin
A660 Usefulness of PC20 Adenosine Monophosphate in Diagnosis and Treatment in Bronchial Asthma
Sang-Ha Kim, Myoung Kyu Lee, Won Yeon Lee, Suk Joong Yong, Seok Jeong Lee, Ye-Ryung Jung
A661 S100 Calcium Binding Protein A9 in Sputum of Patients with Steroid Naive Asthma: Relation with Airway Obstruction and Nneutrophilc Inflammation
Myung Shin Kim, Jong-Sook Park, An-Soo Jang, Choon-Sik Park
A662 Risk Factor Asthma in Pediatric Pneumonia Patients
Diah Asri Wulandari, Cissy Kartasasmita
A663 Prevalence and Risk Factors of Childhood Asthma and Allergic Disease at Exposed Area By Emission of Cement Padang Factory
Finny Fitry Yani, Rizanda Machmud, Dhina Lydia Lestari
A664 Association Between Serum Level of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D with Atopic Dermatitis Occurrence and Severity in Children
Rusdi Rusdi, Yurmalina Yurmalina, Eryati Darwin
A665 Thiol-Disulfide Balance in Children with Atopic Dermatitis
Ilknur Bostanci, Gulin Karacan, Nazli Ercan, Asuman Colak, Murat Alisik, Gulay Basarir, Ozcan Erel
A666 Recurrent Mouth Ulsers Caused By Braces after Developing a Nickel Allergy in Children
Ilknur Bostanci, Yasemin Keskin
A667 Anaphylactic Reaction to Famotidine with Pheniramine Hypersensitivity
Ilkay Koca Kalkan
A668 Novel Transcriptomic and Immunoproteotomic Approaches in Identifying Cross-Reactive Allergens Between Crustacean and Molluscs
Andreas/Ludwig Lopata, Kyall Zenger, Roni Nugraha, Sandip Kamath
A669 Pollen Season and Climate Change in the Continental United States (CONUS)
Leonard Bielory, Panos Georgopoulos, Yong Zhang, Wheat Mi, Ting Cai
A670 Differences of Change in Der p IgG4 and CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg Cells Between Sublingual and Subcutaneous Immunotherapy with House Dust Mite in Chinese Patients with Allergic Rhinitis
MO Xian, Jing Li, Mulin Feng
doi:10.1186/s40413-016-0096-1
PMCID: PMC4896250
2.  Impact of Endoscopic Sinus Surgery on Symptom Manifestation of Chronic Rhinosinusitis 
Background
Rhinosinusitis is a significant health problem which results in large financial burden on society. The study evaluated the prevalence and severity of individual symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and the impact of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) on the symptoms and medication used in patients with CRS.
Methods
Patients with refractory CRS were assessed prospectively with ESS intervention. We studied the symptoms, change in medical therapy, complications of surgery and effect of other factors like smoking, polyposis and asthma on endoscopy and computed tomography scan scores.
Result
A total of 81 patients underwent ESS for CRS. Post nasal drip (95%), headache (91%), nasal discharge (90%) and nasal obstruction (86%) were the commonest symptoms. Postoperatively, the highest improvement was seen in nasal blockage (87.2%), postnasal drip (84.4%) and headache (82.4%). Endoscopy scores were significantly worse in patients with polyps, asthma and smoking. A significant reduction in use of antibiotic and antihistaminics was seen post surgery. Seven patients who had extensive polyposis preoperatively, had recurrence and required revision surgery. Nasal synechiae formation and mild bleeding were the minor complications.
Conclusion
Endoscopic sinus surgery results in significant improvement in the symptoms of patients with CRS alongwith a definitive decrease in antibiotic and antihistaminic requirement. We conclude that ESS is an effective treatment for CRS in those who fail to respond to medical treatment.
doi:10.1016/S0377-1237(10)80091-7
PMCID: PMC4920906  PMID: 27365703
Chronic rhinosinusitis; Endoscopic sinus surgery
3.  Atopic profile of patients failing medical therapy for chronic rhinosinusitis 
Background
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is an inflammatory condition of the nasal airway and paranasal sinuses that can broadly be classified into Chronic rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps (CRSwNP) and Chronic rhinosinusitis without Nasal Polyps (CRSsNP). The relationship between CRS and atopy to inhalant allergens remains unclear. We sought to examine the presence of atopy in patients failing medical therapy for both types of CRS.
Objective
To analyze the frequency and distribution of allergen sensitivity in patients failing medical therapy for CRSwNP and CRSsNP in comparison to rhinitis patients without CRS and the general population.
Methods
A prospectively collected database of 334 consecutive CRS patients who had surgery after failing maximal medical therapy was queried to identify those who met inclusion criteria: a Sinus Computed Tomography(CT), an endoscopy consistent with CRS and skin-prick testing with 24 common inhalant allergens in 8 classes at our institution (n=125). Additionally, data from these CRS patients were compared to a group of 50 patients diagnosed with rhinitis who had similar symptoms but radiologically normal CT scans, as well as published normative population skin prick testing data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study III (NHANES III). The relationship between atopy, as assessed by the frequency of skin test positivity, and radiological disease severity was assessed for several allergen classes in CRSwNP, CRSsNP and rhinitis patients.
Results
One or more positive skin results were observed in 103/125 (82.4%) CRS patients who underwent surgery- a prevalence significantly higher than that found in the NHANES III study (p<0.05) but not different from the rhinitis control group (36/50 -72.0 %). The most prevalent positive skin test results were to dust mites and ragweed in CRSwNP, CRSsNP and rhinitis patients. Comparing these three patient groups, there were no significant differences in the rates of positive skin test results to any single allergen. However, the median number of skin test positive results was higher in CRSwNP patients compared to CRSsNP and rhinitis patients. Consistent with other studies, we found that CRSwNP patients were more likely to be male and have concurrent asthma.
Conclusions
In our series of patients failing medical therapy for CRS, we found higher rates of atopy compared with the general population but not compared with rhinitis patients. CRSwNP patients with medically refractory sinusitis were more likely to have multiple positive skin tests and asthma as compared to the general population or patients with either CRSsNP or rhinitis. Host barrier dysfunction may play a role in enabling multisensitization.
doi:10.1002/alr.20025
PMCID: PMC3124760  PMID: 21731824
Endoscopic Sinus Surgery; Atopy; Asthma; Upper Airway; Chronic Rhinosinusitis; Nasal Polyposis
4.  Biventricular Pacing (Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy) 
Executive Summary
Issue
In 2002, (before the establishment of the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee), the Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a health technology policy assessment on biventricular (BiV) pacing, also called cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The goal of treatment with BiV pacing is to improve cardiac output for people in heart failure (HF) with conduction defect on ECG (wide QRS interval) by synchronizing ventricular contraction. The Medical Advisory Secretariat concluded that there was evidence of short (6 months) and longer-term (12 months) effectiveness in terms of cardiac function and quality of life (QoL). More recently, a hospital submitted an application to the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee to review CRT, and the Medical Advisory Secretariat subsequently updated its health technology assessment.
Background
Chronic HF results from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to act as a pump. It is estimated that 1% to 5% of the general population (all ages) in Europe have chronic HF. (1;2) About one-half of the patients with HF are women, and about 40% of men and 60% of women with this condition are aged older than 75 years.
The incidence (i.e., the number of new cases in a specified period) of chronic HF is age dependent: from 1 to 5 per 1,000 people each year in the total population, to as high as 30 to 40 per 1,000 people each year in those aged 75 years and older. Hence, in an aging society, the prevalence (i.e., the number of people with a given disease or condition at any time) of HF is increasing, despite a reduction in cardiovascular mortality.
A recent study revealed 28,702 patients were hospitalized for first-time HF in Ontario between April 1994 and March 1997. (3) Women comprised 51% of the cohort. Eighty-five percent were aged 65 years or older, and 58% were aged 75 years or older.
Patients with chronic HF experience shortness of breath, a limited capacity for exercise, high rates of hospitalization and rehospitalization, and die prematurely. (2;4) The New York Heart Association (NYHA) has provided a commonly used functional classification for the severity of HF (2;5):
Class I: No limitation of physical activity. No symptoms with ordinary exertion.
Class II: Slight limitations of physical activity. Ordinary activity causes symptoms.
Class III: Marked limitation of physical activity. Less than ordinary activity causes symptoms. Asymptomatic at rest.
Class IV: Inability to carry out any physical activity without discomfort. Symptoms at rest.
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute estimates that 35% of patients with HF are in functional NYHA class I; 35% are in class II; 25%, class III; and 5%, class IV. (5) Surveys (2) suggest that from 5% to 15% of patients with HF have persistent severe symptoms, and that the remainder of patients with HF is evenly divided between those with mild and moderately severe symptoms.
Overall, patients with chronic, stable HF have an annual mortality rate of about 10%. (2) One-third of patients with new-onset HF will die within 6 months of diagnosis. These patients do not survive to enter the pool of those with “chronic” HF. About 60% of patients with incident HF will die within 3 years, and there is limited evidence that the overall prognosis has improved in the last 15 years.
To date, the diagnosis and management of chronic HF has concentrated on patients with the clinical syndrome of HF accompanied by severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Major changes in treatment have resulted from a better understanding of the pathophysiology of HF and the results of large clinical trials. Treatment for chronic HF includes lifestyle management, drugs, cardiac surgery, or implantable pacemakers and defibrillators. Despite pharmacologic advances, which include diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, spironolactone, and digoxin, many patients remain symptomatic on maximally tolerated doses.
The Technology
Owing to the limitations of drug therapy, cardiac transplantation and device therapies have been used to try to improve QoL and survival of patients with chronic HF. Ventricular pacing is an emerging treatment option for patients with severe HF that does not respond well to medical therapy. Traditionally, indications for pacing include bradyarrhythmia, sick sinus syndrome, atrioventricular block, and other indications, including combined sick sinus syndrome with atrioventricular block and neurocardiogenic syncope. Recently, BiV pacing as a new, adjuvant therapy for patients with chronic HF and mechanical dyssynchrony has been investigated. Ventricular dysfunction is a sign of HF; and, if associated with severe intraventricular conduction delay, it can cause dyssynchronous ventricular contractions resulting in decreased ventricular filling. The therapeutic intent is to activate both ventricles simultaneously, thereby improving the mechanical efficiency of the ventricles.
About 30% of patients with chronic HF have intraventricular conduction defects. (6) These conduction abnormalities progress over time and lead to discoordinated contraction of an already hemodynamically compromised ventricle. Intraventricular conduction delay has been associated with clinical instability and an increased risk of death in patients with HF. (7) Hence, BiV pacing, which involves pacing left and right ventricles simultaneously, may provide a more coordinated pattern of ventricular contraction and thereby potentially reduce QRS duration, and intraventricular and interventricular asynchrony. People with advanced chronic HF, a wide QRS complex (i.e., the portion of the electrocardiogram comprising the Q, R, and S waves, together representing ventricular depolarization), low left ventricular ejection fraction and contraction dyssynchrony in a viable myocardium and normal sinus rhythm, are the target patients group for BiV pacing. One-half of all deaths in HF patients are sudden, and the mode of death is arrhythmic in most cases. Internal cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) combined with BiV pacemakers are therefore being increasingly considered for patients with HF who are at high risk of sudden death.
Current Implantation Technique for Cardiac Resynchronization
Conventional dual-chamber pacemakers have only 2 leads: 1 placed in the right atrium and the other in the right ventricle. The technique used for BiV pacemaker implantation also uses right atrial and ventricular pacing leads, in addition to a left ventricle lead advanced through the coronary sinus into a vein that runs along the ventricular free wall. This permits simultaneous pacing of both ventricles to allow resynchronization of the left ventricle septum and free wall.
Mode of Operation
Permanent pacing systems consist of an implantable pulse generator that contains a battery and electronic circuitry, together with 1 (single-chamber pacemaker) or 2 (dual-chamber pacemaker) leads. Leads conduct intrinsic atrial or ventricular signals to the sensing circuitry and deliver the pulse generator charge to the myocardium (muscle of the heart).
Complications of Biventricular Pacemaker Implantation
The complications that may arise when a BiV pacemaker is implanted are similar to those that occur with standard pacemaker implantation, including pneumothorax, perforation of the great vessels or the myocardium, air embolus, infection, bleeding, and arrhythmias. Moreover, left ventricular pacing through the coronary sinus can be associated with rupture of the sinus as another complication.
Conclusion of 2003 Review of Biventricular Pacemakers by the Medical Advisory Secretariat
The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) the Medical Advisory Secretariat retrieved analyzed chronic HF patients that were assessed for up to 6 months. Other studies have been prospective, but nonrandomized, not double-blinded, uncontrolled and/or have had a limited or uncalculated sample size. Short-term studies have focused on acute hemodynamic analyses. The authors of the RCTs reported improved cardiac function and QoL up to 6 months after BiV pacemaker implantation; therefore, there is level 1 evidence that patients in ventricular dyssynchrony who remain symptomatic after medication might benefit from this technology. Based on evidence made available to the Medical Advisory Secretariat by a manufacturer, (8) it appears that these 6-month improvements are maintained at 12-month follow-up.
To date, however, there is insufficient evidence to support the routine use of combined ICD/BiV devices in patients with chronic HF with prolonged QRS intervals.
Summary of Updated Findings Since the 2003 Review
Since the Medical Advisory Secretariat’s review in 2003 of biventricular pacemakers, 2 large RCTs have been published: COMPANION (9) and CARE-HF. (10) The characteristics of each trial are shown in Table 1. The COMPANION trial had a number of major methodological limitations compared with the CARE-HF trial.
Characteristics of the COMPANION and CARE-HF Trials*
COMPANION; (9) CARE-HF. (10)
BiV indicates biventricular; ICD, implantable cardioverter defibrillator; EF, ejection fraction; QRS, the interval representing the Q, R and S waves on an electrocardiogram; FDA, United States Food and Drug Administration.
Overall, CARE-HF showed that BiV pacing significantly improves mortality, QoL, and NYHA class in patients with severe HF and a wide QRS interval (Tables 2 and 3).
CARE-HF Results: Primary and Secondary Endpoints*
BiV indicates biventricular; NNT, number needed to treat.
Cleland JGF, Daubert J, Erdmann E, Freemantle N, Gras D, Kappenberger L et al. The effect of cardiac resynchronization on morbidity and mortality in heart failure (CARE-HF). New England Journal of Medicine 2005; 352:1539-1549; Copyright 2003 Massachusettes Medical Society. All rights reserved. (10)
CARE H-F Results: NYHA Class and Quality of Life Scores*
Minnesota Living with Heart Failure scores range from 0 to 105; higher scores reflect poorer QoL.
European Quality of Life–5 Dimensions scores range from -0.594 to 1.000; 1.000 indicates fully healthy; 0, dead
Cleland JGF, Daubert J, Erdmann E, Freemantle N, Gras D, Kappenberger L et al. The effect of cardiac resynchronization on morbidity and mortality in heart failure (CARE-HF). New England Journal of Medicine 2005; 352:1539-1549; Copyright 2005 Massachusettes Medical Society. All rights reserved.(10)
GRADE Quality of Evidence
The quality of these 3 trials was examined according to the GRADE Working Group criteria, (12) (Table 4).
Quality refers to criteria such as the adequacy of allocation concealment, blinding, and follow-up.
Consistency refers to the similarity of estimates of effect across studies. If there is an important unexplained inconsistency in the results, confidence in the estimate of effect for that outcome decreases. Differences in the direction of effect, the size of the differences in effect, and the significance of the differences guide the decision about whether important inconsistency exists.
Directness refers to the extent to which the people interventions and outcome measures are similar to those of interest. For example, there may be uncertainty about the directness of the evidence if the people of interest are older, sicker, or have more comorbid conditions than do the people in the studies.
As stated by the GRADE Working Group, (12) the following definitions were used in grading the quality of the evidence:
High: Further research is very unlikely to change our confidence on the estimate of effect.
Moderate: Further research is likely to have an important impact on our confidence in the estimate of effect and may change the estimate.
Low: Further research is very likely to have an important impact on our confidence in the estimate of effect and is likely to change the estimate.
Very low: Any estimate of effect is very uncertain.
Quality of Evidence: CARE-HF and COMPANION
Conclusions
Overall, there is evidence that BiV pacemakers are effective for improving mortality, QoL, and functional status in patients with NYHA class III/IV HF, an EF less than 0.35, a QRS interval greater than 120 ms, who are refractory to drug therapy.
As per the GRADE Working Group, recommendations considered the following 4 main factors:
The tradeoffs, taking into account the estimated size of the effect for the main outcome, the confidence limits around those estimates, and the relative value placed on the outcome
The quality of the evidence (Table 4)
Translation of the evidence into practice in a specific setting, taking into consideration important factors that could be expected to modify the size of the expected effects such as proximity to a hospital or availability of necessary expertise
Uncertainty about the baseline risk for the population of interest
The GRADE Working Group also recommends that incremental costs of health care alternatives should be considered explicitly alongside the expected health benefits and harms. Recommendations rely on judgments about the value of the incremental health benefits in relation to the incremental costs. The last column in Table 5 shows the overall trade-off between benefits and harms and incorporates any risk/uncertainty.
For BiV pacing, the overall GRADE and strength of the recommendation is moderate: the quality of the evidence is moderate/high (because of some uncertainty due to methodological limitations in the study design, e.g., no blinding), but there is also some risk/uncertainty in terms of the estimated prevalence and wide cost-effectiveness estimates (Table 5).
For the combination BiV pacing/ICD, the overall GRADE and strength of the recommendation is weak—the quality of the evidence is low (because of uncertainty due to methodological limitations in the study design), but there is also some risk/uncertainty in terms of the estimated prevalence, high cost, and high budget impact (Table 5). There are indirect, low-quality comparisons of the effectiveness of BiV pacemakers compared with the combination BiV/ICD devices.
A stronger recommendation can be made for BiV pacing only compared with the combination BiV/ICD device for patients with an EF less than or equal to 0.35, and a QRS interval over or equal to 120 ms, and NYHA III/IV symptoms, and refractory to optimal medical therapy (Table 5).
There is moderate/high-quality evidence that BiV pacemakers significantly improve mortality, QoL, and functional status.
There is low-quality evidence that combined BiV/ICD devices significantly improve mortality, QoL, and functional status.
To date, there are no direct comparisons of the effectiveness of BiV pacemakers compared with the combined BiV/ICD devices in terms of mortality, QoL, and functional status.
Overall GRADE and Strength of Recommendation
BiV refers to biventricular; ICD, implantable cardioverter defibrillator; NNT, number needed to treat.
PMCID: PMC3382419  PMID: 23074464
5.  Balloon Kyphoplasty 
Executive Summary
Objective
To review the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of balloon kyphoplasty for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures (VCFs).
Clinical Need
Vertebral compression fractures are one of the most common types of osteoporotic fractures. They can lead to chronic pain and spinal deformity. They are caused when the vertebral body (the thick block of bone at the front of each vertebra) is too weak to support the loads of activities of daily living. Spinal deformity due to a collapsed vertebral body can substantially affect the quality of life of elderly people, who are especially at risk for osteoporotic fractures due to decreasing bone mass with age. A population-based study across 12 European centres recently found that VCFs have a negative impact on health-related quality of life. Complications associated with VCFs are pulmonary dysfunction, eating disorders, loss of independence, and mental status change due to pain and the use of medications. Osteoporotic VCFs also are associated with a higher rate of death.
VCFs affect an estimated 25% of women over age 50 years and 40% of women over age 80 years. Only about 30% of these fractures are diagnosed in clinical practice. A Canadian multicentre osteoporosis study reported on the prevalence of vertebral deformity in Canada in people over 50 years of age. To define the limit of normality, they plotted a normal distribution, including mean and standard deviations (SDs) derived from a reference population without any deformity. They reported a prevalence rate of 23.5% in women and a rate of 21.5% in men, using 3 SDs from the mean as the limit of normality. When they used 4 SDs, the prevalence was 9.3% and 7.3%, respectively. They also found the prevalence of vertebral deformity increased with age. For people older than 80 years of age, the prevalence for women and men was 45% and 36%, respectively, using 3 SDs as the limit of normality.
About 85% of VCFs are due to primary osteoporosis. Secondary osteoporosis and neoplasms account for the remaining 15%. A VCF is operationally defined as a reduction in vertebral body height of at least 20% from the initial measurement. It is considered mild if the reduction in height is between 20% and 25%; moderate, if it is between 25% and 40%; and severs, if it is more than 40%. The most frequently fractured locations are the third-lower part of the thorax and the superior lumbar levels. The cervical vertebrae and the upper third of the thorax are rarely involved.
Traditionally, bed rest, medication, and bracing are used to treat painful VCFs. However, anti-inflammatory and narcotic medications are often poorly tolerated by the elderly and may harm the gastrointestinal tract. Bed rest and inactivity may accelerate bone loss, and bracing may restrict diaphragmatic movement. Furthermore, medical treatment does not treat the fracture in a way that ameliorates the pain and spinal deformity.
Over the past decade, the injection of bone cement through the skin into a fractured vertebral body has been used to treat VCFs. The goal of cement injection is to reduce pain by stabilizing the fracture. The secondary indication of these procedures is management of painful vertebral fractures caused by benign or malignant neoplasms (e.g., hemangioma, multiple myeloma, and metastatic cancer).
The Technology
Balloon kyphoplasty is a modified vertebroplasty technique. It is a minimally invasive procedure that aims to relieve pain, restore vertebral height, and correct kyphosis. During this procedure, an inflatable bone tamp is inserted into the collapsed vertebral body. Once inflated, the balloon elevates the end plates and thereby restores the height of the vertebral body. The balloon is deflated and removed, and the space is filled with bone cement. Creating a space in the vertebral body enables the application of more viscous cement and at a much lower pressure than is needed for vertebroplasty. This may result in less cement leakage and fewer complications. Balloons typically are inserted bilaterally, into each fractured vertebral body. Kyphoplasty usually is done under general anesthesia in about 1.5 hours. Patients typically are observed for only a few hours after the surgery, but some may require an overnight hospital stay.
Health Canada has licensed KyphX Xpander Inflatable Bone Tamp (Kyphon Inc., Sunnyvale, CA), for kyphoplasty in patients with VCFs. KyphX is the only commercially available device for percutaneous kyphoplasty. The KyphX kit uses a series of bone filler device tubes. Each bone filler device must be loaded manually with cement. The cement is injected into the cavity by pressing an inner stylet.
In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration cleared the KyphX Inflatable Bone Tamp for marketing in July 1998. CE (Conformité European) marketing was obtained in February 2000 for the reduction of fracture and/or creation of a void in cancellous bone.
Review Strategy
The aim of this literature review was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of balloon kyphoplasty in the treatment of painful VCFs.
INAHTA, Cochrane CCTR (formerly Cochrane Controlled Trials Register), and DSR were searched for health technology assessment reports. In addition, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations were searched from January 1, 2000 to September 21, 2004. The search was limited to English-language articles and human studies.
The positive end points selected for this assessment were as follows:
Reduction in pain scores
Reduction in vertebral height loss
Reduction in kyphotic (Cobb) angle
Improvement in quality of life scores
The search did not yield any health technology assessments on balloon kyphoplasty. The search yielded 152 citations, including those for review articles. No randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on balloon kyphoplasty were identified. All of the published studies were either prospective cohort studies or retrospective studies with no controls. Eleven studies (all case series) met the inclusion criteria. There was also a comparative study published in German that had been translated into English.
Summary of Findings
The results of the 1 comparative study (level 3a evidence) that was included in this review showed that, compared with conservative medical care, balloon kyphoplasty significantly improved patient outcomes.
Patients who had balloon kyphoplasty reported a significant reduction in pain that was maintained throughout follow-up (6 months), whereas pain scores did not change in the control group. Patients in the balloon kyphoplasty group did not need pain medication after 3 days. In the control group, about one-half of the patients needed more pain medication in the first 4 weeks after the procedure. After 6 weeks, 82% of the patients in the control group were still taking pain medication regularly.
Adjacent fractures were more frequent in the control group than in the balloon kyphoplasty group.
The case series reported on several important clinical outcomes.
Pain: Four studies on osteoporosis patients and 1 study on patients with multiple myeloma/primary cancers used the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) to measure pain before and after balloon kyphoplasty. All of these studies reported that patients had significantly less pain after the procedure. This was maintained during follow-up. Two other studies on patients with osteoporosis also used the VAS to measure pain and found a significant improvement in pain scores; however, they did not provide follow-up data.
Vertebral body height: All 5 studies that assessed vertebral body height in patients with osteoporosis reported a significant improvement in vertebral body height after balloon kyphoplasty. One study had 1-year follow-up data for 26 patients. Vertebral body height was significantly better at 6 months and 1 year for both the anterior and midline measurements.
Two studies reported that vertebral body height was restored significantly after balloon kyphoplasty for patients with multiple myeloma or metastatic disease. In another study, the researchers reported complete height restoration in 9% of patients, a mean 56% height restoration in 60% of patients, and no appreciable height restoration in 31% of the patients who received balloon kyphoplasty.
Kyphosis correction: Four studies that assessed Cobb angle before and after balloon kyphoplasty in patients with osteoporosis found a significant reduction in degree of kyphosis after the procedure. In these studies, the differences between preoperative and postoperative Cobb angles were 3.4°, 7°, 8.8°, and 9.9°.
Only 1 study investigated kyphosis correction in patients with multiple myeloma or metastatic disease. The authors reported a significant improvement (5.2°) in local kyphosis.
Quality of life: Four studies used the Short Form 36 (SF-36) Health Survey Questionnaire to measure the quality of life in patients with osteoporosis after they had balloon kyphoplasty. A significant improvement in most of the domains of the SF-36 (bodily pain, social functioning, vitality, physical functioning, mental health, and role functioning) was observed in 2 studies. One study found that general health declined, although not significantly, and another found that role emotional declined.
Both studies that used the Oswestry Disability Index found that patients had a better quality of life after balloon kyphoplasty. In one study, this improvement was statistically significant. In another study, researchers found that quality of life after kyphoplasty improved significantly, as measured with the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. Yet another study used a quality of life questionnaire and found that 62% of the patients that had balloon kyphoplasty had returned to normal activities, whereas 2 patients had reduced mobility.
To measure quality of life in patients with multiple myeloma or metastatic disease, one group of researchers used the SF-36 and found significantly better scores on bodily pain, physical functioning, vitality, and social functioning after kyphoplasty. However, the scores for general health, mental health, role physical, and role emotional had not improved. A study that used the Oswestry Disability Index reported that patients’ scores were better postoperatively and at 3 months follow-up.
These were the main findings on complications in patients with osteoporosis:
The bone cement leaked in 37 (6%) of 620 treated fractures.
There were no reports of neurological deficits.
There were no reports of pulmonary embolism due to cement leakage.
There were 6 cases of cardiovascular events in 362 patients:
3 (0.8%) patients had myocardial infarction.
3 (0.8%) patients had cardiac arrhythmias.
There was 1 (0.27%) case of pulmonary embolism due to deep venous thrombosis.
There were 20 (8.4%) cases of new fractures in 238 patients.
For patients with multiple myeloma or metastatic disease, these were the main findings:
The bone cement leaked in 12 (9.6%) of 125 procedures.
There were no reports of neurological deficits.
Economic Analysis
Balloon kyphoplasty requires anesthesia. Standard vertebroplasty requires sedation and an analgesic. Based on these considerations, the professional fees (Cdn) for each procedure is shown in Table 1.
Professional Fees for Standard Vertebroplasty and Balloon Kyphoplasty
Balloon kyphoplasty has a sizable device cost add-on of $3,578 (the device cost per case) that standard vertebroplasty does not have. Therefore, the up-front cost (i.e., physician’s fees and device costs) is $187 for standard vertebroplasty and $3,812 for balloon kyphoplasty. (All costs are in Canadian currency.)
There are also “downstream costs” of the procedures, based on the different adverse outcomes associated with each. This includes the risk of developing new fractures (21% for vertebroplasty vs. 8.4% for balloon kyphoplasty), neurological complications (3.9% for vertebroplasty vs. 0% for balloon kyphoplasty), pulmonary embolism (0.1% for vertebroplasty vs. 0% for balloon kyphoplasty), and cement leakage (26.5% for vertebroplasty vs. 6.0% for balloon kyphoplasty). Accounting for these risks, and the base costs to treat each of these complications, the expected downstream costs are estimated at less than $500 per case. Therefore, the expected total direct medical cost per patient is about $700 for standard vertebroplasty and $4,300 for balloon kyphoplasty.
Kyphon, the manufacturer of the inflatable bone tamps has stated that the predicted Canadian incidence of osteoporosis in 2005 is about 29,000. The predicted incidence of cancer-related vertebral fractures in 2005 is 6,731. Based on Ontario having about 38% of the Canadian population, the incidence in the province is likely to be about 11,000 for osteoporosis and 2,500 for cancer-related vertebral fractures. This means there could be as many as 13,500 procedures per year in Ontario; however, this is highly unlikely because most of the cancer-related fractures likely would be treated with medication. Given a $3,600 incremental direct medical cost associated with balloon kyphoplasty, the budget impact of adopting this technology could be as high as $48.6 million per year; however, based on data from the Provider Services Branch, about 120 standard vertebroplasties are done in Ontario annually. Given these current utilization patterns, the budget impact is likely to be in the range of $430,000 per year. This is because of the sizable device cost add-on of $3,578 (per case) for balloon kyphoplasty that standard vertebroplasty does not have.
Policy Considerations
Other treatments for osteoporotic VCFs are medical management and open surgery. In cases without neurological involvement, the medical treatment of osteoporotic VCFs comprises bed rest, orthotic management, and pain medication. However, these treatments are not free of side effects. Bed rest over time can result in more bone and muscle loss, and can speed the deterioration of the underlying condition. Medication can lead to altered mood or mental status. Surgery in these patients has been limited because of its inherent risks and invasiveness, and the poor quality of osteoporotic bones. However, it may be indicated in patients with neurological deficits.
Neither of these vertebral augmentation procedures eliminates the need for aggressive treatment of osteoporosis. Osteoporotic VCFs are often under-diagnosed and under-treated. A survey of physicians in Ontario (1) who treated elderly patients living in long-term care homes found that although these physicians were aware of the rates of osteoporosis in these patients, 45% did not routinely assess them for osteoporosis, and 26% did not routinely treat them for osteoporosis.
Management of the underlying condition that weakens the vertebral bodies should be part of the treatment plan. All patients with osteoporosis should be in a medical therapy program to treat the underlying condition, and the referring health care provider should monitor the clinical progress of the patient.
The main complication associated with vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty is cement leakage (extravertebral or vascular). This may result in more patient morbidity, longer hospitalizations, the need for open surgery, and the use of pain medications, all of which have related costs. Extravertebral cement leakage can cause neurological complications, like spinal cord compression, nerve root compression, and radiculopathy. In some cases, surgery is required to remove the cement and release the nerve. The rate of cement leakage is much lower after balloon kyphoplasty than after vertebroplasty. Furthermore, the neurological complications seen with vertebroplasty have not seen in the studies of balloon kyphoplasty. Rarely, cement leakage into the venous system will cause a pulmonary embolism. Finally, compared with vertebroplasty, the rate of new fractures is lower after balloon kyphoplasty.
Diffusion – International, National, Provincial
In Canada, balloon kyphoplasty has not yet been funded in any of the provinces. The first balloon kyphoplasty performed in Canada was in July 2004 in Ontario.
In the United States, the technology is considered by some states as medically reasonable and necessary for the treatment of painful vertebral body compression fractures.
Conclusion
There is level 4 evidence that balloon kyphoplasty to treat pain associated with VCFs due to osteoporosis is as effective as vertebroplasty at relieving pain. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that it restores the height of the affected vertebra. It also results in lower fracture rates in other vertebrae compared with vertebroplasty, and in fewer neurological complications due to cement leakage compared with vertebroplasty. Balloon kyphoplasty is a reasonable alternative to vertebroplasty, although it must be reiterated that this conclusion is based on evidence from level 4 studies.
Balloon kyphoplasty should be restricted to facilities that have sufficient volumes to develop and maintain the expertise required to maximize good quality outcomes. Therefore, consideration should be given to limiting the number of facilities in the province that can do balloon kyphoplasty.
PMCID: PMC3387743  PMID: 23074451
6.  Identification of chronic rhinosinusitis phenotypes using cluster analysis 
Introduction
Current clinical classifications of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) have been largely defined based upon preconceived notions of factors thought to be important, such as polyp or eosinophil status. Unfortunately, these classification systems have little correlation with symptom severity or treatment outcomes. Unsupervised clustering can be used to identify phenotypic subgroups of CRS patients, describe clinical differences in these clusters and define simple algorithms for classification.
Methods
A multi-institutional, prospective study of 382 patients with CRS who had failed initial medical therapy completed the SinoNasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22), Rhinosinusitis Disability Index (RSDI), Short Form-12 (SF-12), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2). Objective measures of CRS severity included Brief Smell Identification Test (B-SIT), CT and endoscopy scoring. All variables were reduced and unsupervised hierarchical clustering was performed. After clusters were defined, variations in medication usage were analyzed. Discriminant analysis was performed to develop a simplified, clinically useful algorithm for clustering.
Results
Clustering was largely determined by age, severity of patient reported outcome measures, depression and fibromyalgia. CT and endoscopy varied somewhat among clusters. Traditional clinical measures including polyp/atopic status, prior surgery, B-SIT and asthma did not vary among clusters. A simplified algorithm based upon productivity loss, SNOT-22 score and age predicted clustering with 89% accuracy. Medication usage among clusters did vary significantly.
Discussion
A simplified algorithm based upon hierarchical clustering is able to classify CRS patients and predict medication usage. Further studies are warranted to determine if such clustering predicts treatment outcomes.
doi:10.1002/alr.21496
PMCID: PMC4428937  PMID: 25694390
phenotype; sinusitis; cluster analysis; quality of life; staging
7.  Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) 
Executive Summary
In July 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) evidentiary framework, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding treatment strategies for patients with COPD. This project emerged from a request by the Health System Strategy Division of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care that MAS provide them with an evidentiary platform on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions.
After an initial review of health technology assessments and systematic reviews of COPD literature, and consultation with experts, MAS identified the following topics for analysis: vaccinations (influenza and pneumococcal), smoking cessation, multidisciplinary care, pulmonary rehabilitation, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute and chronic respiratory failure, hospital-at-home for acute exacerbations of COPD, and telehealth (including telemonitoring and telephone support). Evidence-based analyses were prepared for each of these topics. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed where appropriate. In addition, a review of the qualitative literature on patient, caregiver, and provider perspectives on living and dying with COPD was conducted, as were reviews of the qualitative literature on each of the technologies included in these analyses.
The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mega-Analysis series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: http://www.hqontario.ca/en/mas/mas_ohtas_mn.html.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Evidentiary Framework
Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Smoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Community-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Long-term Oxygen Therapy for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Chronic Respiratory Failure Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Hospital-at-Home Programs for Patients With Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Home Telehealth for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Using an Ontario Policy Model
Experiences of Living and Dying With COPD: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of the Qualitative Empirical Literature
For more information on the qualitative review, please contact Mita Giacomini at: http://fhs.mcmaster.ca/ceb/faculty_member_giacomini.htm.
For more information on the economic analysis, please visit the PATH website: http://www.path-hta.ca/About-Us/Contact-Us.aspx.
The Toronto Health Economics and Technology Assessment (THETA) collaborative has produced an associated report on patient preference for mechanical ventilation. For more information, please visit the THETA website: http://theta.utoronto.ca/static/contact.
Objective
The objective of this evidence-based analysis was to examine the effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in the following patient populations: patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) due to acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); weaning of COPD patients from invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV); and prevention of or treatment of recurrent respiratory failure in COPD patients after extubation from IMV.
Clinical Need and Target Population
Acute Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure
Respiratory failure occurs when the respiratory system cannot oxygenate the blood and/or remove carbon dioxide from the blood. It can be either acute or chronic and is classified as either hypoxemic (type I) or hypercapnic (type II) respiratory failure. Acute hypercapnic respiratory failure frequently occurs in COPD patients experiencing acute exacerbations of COPD, so this is the focus of this evidence-based analysis. Hypercapnic respiratory failure occurs due to a decrease in the drive to breathe, typically due to increased work to breathe in COPD patients.
Technology
There are several treatment options for ARF. Usual medical care (UMC) attempts to facilitate adequate oxygenation and treat the cause of the exacerbation, and typically consists of supplemental oxygen, and a variety of medications such as bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and antibiotics. The failure rate of UMC is high and has been estimated to occur in 10% to 50% of cases.
The alternative is mechanical ventilation, either invasive or noninvasive. Invasive mechanical ventilation involves sedating the patient, creating an artificial airway through endotracheal intubation, and attaching the patient to a ventilator. While this provides airway protection and direct access to drain sputum, it can lead to substantial morbidity, including tracheal injuries and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).
While both positive and negative pressure noninvasive ventilation exists, noninvasive negative pressure ventilation such as the iron lung is no longer in use in Ontario. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation provides ventilatory support through a facial or nasal mask and reduces inspiratory work. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation can often be used intermittently for short periods of time to treat respiratory failure, which allows patients to continue to eat, drink, talk, and participate in their own treatment decisions. In addition, patients do not require sedation, airway defence mechanisms and swallowing functions are maintained, trauma to the trachea and larynx are avoided, and the risk for VAP is reduced. Common complications are damage to facial and nasal skin, higher incidence of gastric distension with aspiration risk, sleeping disorders, and conjunctivitis. In addition, NPPV does not allow direct access to the airway to drain secretions and requires patients to cooperate, and due to potential discomfort, compliance and tolerance may be low.
In addition to treating ARF, NPPV can be used to wean patients from IMV through the gradual removal of ventilation support until the patient can breathe spontaneously. Five to 30% of patients have difficultly weaning. Tapering levels of ventilatory support to wean patients from IMV can be achieved using IMV or NPPV. The use of NPPV helps to reduce the risk of VAP by shortening the time the patient is intubated.
Following extubation from IMV, ARF may recur, leading to extubation failure and the need for reintubation, which has been associated with increased risk of nosocomial pneumonia and mortality. To avoid these complications, NPPV has been proposed to help prevent ARF recurrence and/or to treat respiratory failure when it recurs, thereby preventing the need for reintubation.
Research Questions
What is the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and safety of NPPV for the treatment of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure due to acute exacerbations of COPD compared with
usual medical care, and
invasive mechanical ventilation?
What is the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and safety of NPPV compared with IMV in COPD patients after IMV for the following purposes:
weaning COPD patients from IMV,
preventing ARF in COPD patients after extubation from IMV, and
treating ARF in COPD patients after extubation from IMV?
Research Methods
Literature Search
A literature search was performed on December 3, 2010 using OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, OVID EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Wiley Cochrane, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination/International Agency for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) for studies published from January 1, 2004 until December 3, 2010. Abstracts were reviewed by a single reviewer and, for those studies meeting the eligibility criteria, full-text articles were obtained. Reference lists were also examined for any additional relevant studies not identified through the search.
Since there were numerous studies that examined the effectiveness of NPPV for the treatment of ARF due to exacerbations of COPD published before 2004, pre-2004 trials which met the inclusion/exclusion criteria for this evidence-based review were identified by hand-searching reference lists of included studies and systematic reviews.
Inclusion Criteria
English language full-reports;
health technology assessments, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and randomized controlled trials (RCTs);
studies performed exclusively in patients with a diagnosis of COPD or studies performed with patients with a mix of conditions if results are reported for COPD patients separately;
patient population: (Question 1) patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure due to an exacerbation of COPD; (Question 2a) COPD patients being weaned from IMV; (Questions 2b and 2c) COPD patients who have been extubated from IMV.
Exclusion Criteria
< 18 years of age
animal studies
duplicate publications
grey literature
studies examining noninvasive negative pressure ventilation
studies comparing modes of ventilation
studies comparing patient-ventilation interfaces
studies examining outcomes not listed below, such as physiologic effects including heart rate, arterial blood gases, and blood pressure
Outcomes of Interest
mortality
intubation rates
length of stay (intensive care unit [ICU] and hospital)
health-related quality of life
breathlessness
duration of mechanical ventilation
weaning failure
complications
NPPV tolerance and compliance
Statistical Methods
When possible, results were pooled using Review Manager 5 Version 5.1, otherwise, the results were summarized descriptively. Dichotomous data were pooled into relative risks using random effects models and continuous data were pooled using weighted mean differences with a random effects model. Analyses using data from RCTs were done using intention-to-treat protocols; P values < 0.05 were considered significant. A priori subgroup analyses were planned for severity of respiratory failure, location of treatment (ICU or hospital ward), and mode of ventilation with additional subgroups as needed based on the literature. Post hoc sample size calculations were performed using STATA 10.1.
Quality of Evidence
The quality of each included study was assessed taking into consideration allocation concealment, randomization, blinding, power/sample size, withdrawals/dropouts, and intention-to-treat analyses.
The quality of the body of evidence was assessed as high, moderate, low, or very low according to the GRADE Working Group criteria. The following definitions of quality were used in grading the quality of the evidence:
Summary of Findings
NPPV for the Treatment of ARF due to Acute Exacerbations of COPD
NPPV Plus Usual Medical Care Versus Usual Medical Care Alone for First Line Treatment
A total of 1,000 participants were included in 11 RCTs1; the sample size ranged from 23 to 342. The mean age of the participants ranged from approximately 60 to 72 years of age. Based on either the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) COPD stage criteria or the mean percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), 4 of the studies included people with severe COPD, and there was inadequate information to classify the remaining 7 studies by COPD severity. The severity of the respiratory failure was classified into 4 categories using the study population mean pH level as follows: mild (pH ≥ 7.35), moderate (7.30 ≤ pH < 7.35), severe (7.25 ≤ pH < 7.30), and very severe (pH < 7.25). Based on these categories, 3 studies included patients with a mild respiratory failure, 3 with moderate respiratory failure, 4 with severe respiratory failure, and 1 with very severe respiratory failure.
The studies were conducted either in the ICU (3 of 11 studies) or general or respiratory wards (8 of 11 studies) in hospitals, with patients in the NPPV group receiving bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) ventilatory support, except in 2 studies, which used pressure support ventilation and volume cycled ventilation, respectively. Patients received ventilation through nasal, facial, or oronasal masks. All studies specified a protocol or schedule for NPPV delivery, but this varied substantially across the studies. For example, some studies restricted the amount of ventilation per day (e.g., 6 hours per day) and the number of days it was offered (e.g., maximum of 3 days); whereas, other studies provided patients with ventilation for as long as they could tolerate it and recommended it for much longer periods of time (e.g., 7 to 10 days). These differences are an important source of clinical heterogeneity between the studies. In addition to NPPV, all patients in the NPPV group also received UMC. Usual medical care varied between the studies, but common medications included supplemental oxygen, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, antibiotics, diuretics, and respiratory stimulators.
The individual quality of the studies ranged. Common methodological issues included lack of blinding and allocation concealment, and small sample sizes.
Need for Endotracheal Intubation
Eleven studies reported the need for endotracheal intubation as an outcome. The pooled results showed a significant reduction in the need for endotracheal intubation in the NPPV plus UMC group compared with the UMC alone group (relative risk [RR], 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28−0.50). When subgrouped by severity of respiratory failure, the results remained significant for the mild, severe, and very severe respiratory failure groups.
GRADE: moderate
Inhospital Mortality
Nine studies reported inhospital mortality as an outcome. The pooled results showed a significant reduction in inhospital mortality in the NPPV plus UMC group compared with the UMC group (RR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.35−0.81). When subgrouped by severity of respiratory failure, the results remained significant for the moderate and severe respiratory failure groups.
GRADE: moderate
Hospital Length of Stay
Eleven studies reported hospital length of stay (LOS) as an outcome. The pooled results showed a significant decrease in the mean length of stay for the NPPV plus UMC group compared with the UMC alone group (weighted mean difference [WMD], −2.68 days; 95% CI, −4.41 to −0.94 days). When subgrouped by severity of respiratory failure, the results remained significant for the mild, severe, and very severe respiratory failure groups.
GRADE: moderate
Complications
Five studies reported complications. Common complications in the NPPV plus UMC group included pneumonia, gastrointestinal disorders or bleeds, skin abrasions, eye irritation, gastric insufflation, and sepsis. Similar complications were observed in the UMC group including pneumonia, sepsis, gastrointestinal disorders or bleeds, pneumothorax, and complicated endotracheal intubations. Many of the more serious complications in both groups occurred in those patients who required endotracheal intubation. Three of the studies compared complications in the NPPV plus UMC and UMC groups. While the data could not be pooled, overall, the NPPV plus UMC group experienced fewer complications than the UMC group.
GRADE: low
Tolerance/Compliance
Eight studies reported patient tolerance or compliance with NPPV as an outcome. NPPV intolerance ranged from 5% to 29%. NPPV tolerance was generally higher for patients with more severe respiratory failure. Compliance with the NPPV protocol was reported by 2 studies, which showed compliance decreases over time, even over short periods such as 3 days.
NPPV Versus IMV for the Treatment of Patients Who Failed Usual Medical Care
A total of 205 participants were included in 2 studies; the sample sizes of these studies were 49 and 156. The mean age of the patients was 71 to 73 years of age in 1 study, and the median age was 54 to 58 years of age in the second study. Based on either the GOLD COPD stage criteria or the mean percent predicted FEV1, patients in 1 study had very severe COPD. The COPD severity could not be classified in the second study. Both studies had study populations with a mean pH less than 7.23, which was classified as very severe respiratory failure in this analysis. One study enrolled patients with ARF due to acute exacerbations of COPD who had failed medical therapy. The patient population was not clearly defined in the second study, and it was not clear whether they had to have failed medical therapy before entry into the study.
Both studies were conducted in the ICU. Patients in the NPPV group received BiPAP ventilatory support through nasal or full facial masks. Patients in the IMV group received pressure support ventilation.
Common methodological issues included small sample size, lack of blinding, and unclear methods of randomization and allocation concealment. Due to the uncertainty about whether both studies included the same patient population and substantial differences in the direction and significance of the results, the results of the studies were not pooled.
Mortality
Both studies reported ICU mortality. Neither study showed a significant difference in ICU mortality between the NPPV and IMV groups, but 1 study showed a higher mortality rate in the NPPV group (21.7% vs. 11.5%) while the other study showed a lower mortality rate in the NPPV group (5.1% vs. 6.4%). One study reported 1-year mortality and showed a nonsignificant reduction in mortality in the NPPV group compared with the IMV group (26.1% vs. 46.1%).
GRADE: low to very low
Intensive Care Unit Length of Stay
Both studies reported LOS in the ICU. The results were inconsistent. One study showed a statistically significant shorter LOS in the NPPV group compared with the IMV group (5 ± 1.35 days vs. 9.29 ± 3 days; P < 0.001); whereas, the other study showed a nonsignificantly longer LOS in the NPPV group compared with the IMV group (22 ± 19 days vs. 21 ± 20 days; P = 0.86).
GRADE: very low
Duration of Mechanical Ventilation
Both studies reported the duration of mechanical ventilation (including both invasive and noninvasive ventilation). The results were inconsistent. One study showed a statistically significant shorter duration of mechanical ventilation in the NPPV group compared with the IMV group (3.92 ± 1.08 days vs. 7.17 ± 2.22 days; P < 0.001); whereas, the other study showed a nonsignificantly longer duration of mechanical ventilation in the NPPV group compared with the IMV group (16 ± 19 days vs. 15 ± 21 days; P = 0.86). GRADE: very low
Complications
Both studies reported ventilator-associated pneumonia and tracheotomies. Both showed a reduction in ventilator-associated pneumonia in the NPPV group compared with the IMV group, but the results were only significant in 1 study (13% vs. 34.6%, P = 0.07; and 6.4% vs. 37.2%, P < 0.001, respectively). Similarly, both studies showed a reduction in tracheotomies in the NPPV group compared with the IMV group, but the results were only significant in 1 study (13% vs. 23.1%, P = 0.29; and 6.4% vs. 34.6%; P < 0.001).
GRADE: very low
Other Outcomes
One of the studies followed patients for 12 months. At the end of follow-up, patients in the NPPV group had a significantly lower rate of needing de novo oxygen supplementation at home. In addition, the IMV group experienced significant increases in functional limitations due to COPD, while no increase was seen in the NPPV group. Finally, no significant differences were observed for hospital readmissions, ICU readmissions, and patients with an open tracheotomy, between the NPPV and IMV groups.
NPPV for Weaning COPD Patients From IMV
A total of 80 participants were included in the 2 RCTs; the sample sizes of the studies were 30 and 50 patients. The mean age of the participants ranged from 58 to 69 years of age. Based on either the GOLD COPD stage criteria or the mean percent predicted FEV1, both studies included patients with very severe COPD. Both studies also included patients with very severe respiratory failure (mean pH of the study populations was less than 7.23). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients receiving IMV were enrolled in the study if they failed a T-piece weaning trial (spontaneous breathing test), so they could not be directly extubated from IMV.
Both studies were conducted in the ICU. Patients in the NPPV group received weaning using either BiPAP or pressure support ventilation NPPV through a face mask, and patients in the IMV weaning group received pressure support ventilation. In both cases, weaning was achieved by tapering the ventilation level.
The individual quality of the studies ranged. Common methodological problems included unclear randomization methods and allocation concealment, lack of blinding, and small sample size.
Mortality
Both studies reported mortality as an outcome. The pooled results showed a significant reduction in ICU mortality in the NPPV group compared with the IMV group (RR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.23−0.97; P = 0.04).
GRADE: moderate
Intensive Care Unit Length of Stay
Both studies reported ICU LOS as an outcome. The pooled results showed a nonsignificant reduction in ICU LOS in the NPPV group compared with the IMV group (WMD, −5.21 days; 95% CI, −11.60 to 1.18 days).
GRADE: low
Duration of Mechanical Ventilation
Both studies reported duration of mechanical ventilation (including both invasive and noninvasive ventilation) as an outcome. The pooled results showed a nonsignificant reduction in duration of mechanical ventilation (WMD, −3.55 days; 95% CI, −8.55 to 1.44 days).
GRADE: low
Nosocomial Pneumonia
Both studies reported nosocominal pneumonia as an outcome. The pooled results showed a significant reduction in nosocomial pneumonia in the NPPV group compared with the IMV group (RR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.03−0.71; P = 0.02).
GRADE: moderate
Weaning Failure
One study reported a significant reduction in weaning failure in the NPPV group compared with the IMV group, but the results were not reported in the publication. In this study, 1 of 25 patients in the NPPV group and 2 of 25 patients in the IMV group could not be weaned after 60 days in the ICU.
NPPV After Extubation of COPD Patients From IMV
The literature was reviewed to identify studies examining the effectiveness of NPPV compared with UMC in preventing recurrence of ARF after extubation from IMV or treating acute ARF which has recurred after extubation from IMV. No studies that included only COPD patients or reported results for COPD patients separately were identified for the prevention of ARF postextubation.
One study was identified for the treatment of ARF in COPD patients that recurred within 48 hours of extubation from IMV. This study included 221 patients, of whom 23 had COPD. A post hoc subgroup analysis was conducted examining the rate of reintubation in the COPD patients only. A nonsignificant reduction in the rate of reintubation was observed in the NPPV group compared with the UMC group (7 of 14 patients vs. 6 of 9 patients, P = 0.67). GRADE: low
Conclusions
NPPV Plus UMC Versus UMC Alone for First Line Treatment of ARF due to Acute Exacerbations of COPD
Moderate quality of evidence showed that compared with UMC, NPPV plus UMC significantly reduced the need for endotracheal intubation, inhospital mortality, and the mean length of hospital stay.
Low quality of evidence showed a lower rate of complications in the NPPV plus UMC group compared with the UMC group.
NPPV Versus IMV for the Treatment of ARF in Patients Who Have Failed UMC
Due to inconsistent and low to very low quality of evidence, there was insufficient evidence to draw conclusions on the comparison of NPPV versus IMV for patients who failed UMC.
NPPV for Weaning COPD Patients From IMV
Moderate quality of evidence showed that weaning COPD patients from IMV using NPPV results in significant reductions in mortality, nosocomial pneumonia, and weaning failure compared with weaning with IMV.
Low quality of evidence showed a nonsignificant reduction in the mean LOS and mean duration of mechanical ventilation in the NPPV group compared with the IMV group.
NPPV for the Treatment of ARF in COPD Patients After Extubation From IMV
Low quality of evidence showed a nonsignificant reduction in the rate of reintubation in the NPPV group compared with the UMC group; however, there was inadequate evidence to draw conclusions on the effectiveness of NPPV for the treatment of ARF in COPD patients after extubation from IMV
PMCID: PMC3384377  PMID: 23074436
8.  Deep brain stimulation plus best medical therapy versus best medical therapy alone for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD SURG trial): a randomised, open-label trial 
Lancet Neurology  2010;9(6):581-591.
Summary
Background
Surgical intervention for advanced Parkinson's disease is an option if medical therapy fails to control symptoms adequately. We aimed to assess whether surgery and best medical therapy improved self-reported quality of life more than best medical therapy alone in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease.
Methods
The PD SURG trial is an ongoing randomised, open-label trial. At 13 neurosurgical centres in the UK, between November, 2000, and December, 2006, patients with Parkinson's disease that was not adequately controlled by medical therapy were randomly assigned by use of a computerised minimisation procedure to immediate surgery (lesioning or deep brain stimulation at the discretion of the local clinician) and best medical therapy or to best medical therapy alone. Patients were analysed in the treatment group to which they were randomised, irrespective of whether they received their allocated treatment. The primary endpoint was patient self-reported quality of life on the 39-item Parkinson's disease questionnaire (PDQ-39). Changes between baseline and 1 year were compared by use of t tests. This trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials, number ISRCTN34111222.
Findings
366 patients were randomly assigned to receive immediate surgery and best medical therapy (183) or best medical therapy alone (183). All patients who had surgery had deep brain stimulation. At 1 year, the mean improvement in PDQ-39 summary index score compared with baseline was 5·0 points in the surgery group and 0·3 points in the medical therapy group (difference −4·7, 95% CI −7·6 to −1·8; p=0·001); the difference in mean change in PDQ-39 score in the mobility domain between the surgery group and the best medical therapy group was −8·9 (95% CI −13·8 to −4·0; p=0·0004), in the activities of daily living domain was −12·4 (−17·3 to −7·5; p<0·0001), and in the bodily discomfort domain was −7·5 (−12·6 to −2·4; p=0·004). Differences between groups in all other domains of the PDQ-39 were not significant. 36 (19%) patients had serious surgery-related adverse events; there were no suicides but there was one procedure-related death. 20 patients in the surgery group and 13 in the best medical therapy group had serious adverse events related to Parkinson's disease and drug treatment.
Interpretation
At 1 year, surgery and best medical therapy improved patient self-reported quality of life more than best medical therapy alone in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. These differences are clinically meaningful, but surgery is not without risk and targeting of patients most likely to benefit might be warranted.
Funding
UK Medical Research Council, Parkinson's UK, and UK Department of Health.
doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(10)70093-4
PMCID: PMC2874872  PMID: 20434403
9.  Physiotherapy Rehabilitation After Total Knee or Hip Replacement 
Executive Summary
Objective
The objective of this health technology policy analysis was to determine, where, how, and when physiotherapy services are best delivered to optimize functional outcomes for patients after they undergo primary (first-time) total hip replacement or total knee replacement, and to determine the Ontario-specific economic impact of the best delivery strategy. The objectives of the systematic review were as follows:
To determine the effectiveness of inpatient physiotherapy after discharge from an acute care hospital compared with outpatient physiotherapy delivered in either a clinic-based or home-based setting for primary total joint replacement patients
To determine the effectiveness of outpatient physiotherapy delivered by a physiotherapist in either a clinic-based or home-based setting in addition to a home exercise program compared with a home exercise program alone for primary total joint replacement patients
To determine the effectiveness of preoperative exercise for people who are scheduled to receive primary total knee or hip replacement surgery
Clinical Need
Total hip replacements and total knee replacements are among the most commonly performed surgical procedures in Ontario. Physiotherapy rehabilitation after first-time total hip or knee replacement surgery is accepted as the standard and essential treatment. The aim is to maximize a person’s functionality and independence and minimize complications such as hip dislocation (for hip replacements), wound infection, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism.
The Therapy
The physiotherapy rehabilitation routine has 4 components: therapeutic exercise, transfer training, gait training, and instruction in the activities of daily living. Physiotherapy rehabilitation for people who have had total joint replacement surgery varies in where, how, and when it is delivered. In Ontario, after discharge from an acute care hospital, people who have had a primary total knee or hip replacement may receive inpatient or outpatient physiotherapy. Inpatient physiotherapy is delivered in a rehabilitation hospital or specialized hospital unit. Outpatient physiotherapy is done either in an outpatient clinic (clinic-based) or in the person’s home (home-based). Home-based physiotherapy may include practising an exercise program at home with or without supplemental support from a physiotherapist.
Finally, physiotherapy rehabilitation may be administered at several points after surgery, including immediately postoperatively (within the first 5 days) and in the early recovery period (within the first 3 months) after discharge. There is a growing interest in whether physiotherapy should start before surgery. A variety of practises exist, and evidence regarding the optimal pre- and post-acute course of rehabilitation to obtain the best outcomes is needed.
Review Strategy
The Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy, which included searching the databases of Ovid MEDLINE, CINHAL, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and PEDro from 1995 to 2005. English-language articles including systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-RCTs, and studies with a sample size of greater than 10 patients were included. Studies had to include patients undergoing primary total hip or total knee replacement, aged 18 years of age or older, and they had to have investigated one of the following comparisons: inpatient rehabilitation versus outpatient (clinic- or home-based therapy) rehabilitation, land-based post-acute care physiotherapy delivered by a physiotherapist compared with patient self-administered exercise and a land-based exercise program before surgery. The primary outcome was postoperative physical functioning. Secondary outcomes included the patient’s assessment of therapeutic effect (overall improvement), perceived pain intensity, health services utilization, treatment side effects, and adverse events
The quality of the methods of the included studies was assessed using the criteria outlined in the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group Quality Assessment Tool. After this, a summary of the biases threatening study validity was determined. Four methodological biases were considered: selection bias, performance bias, attrition bias, and detection bias. A meta-analysis was conducted when adequate data were available from 2 or more studies and where there was no statistical or clinical heterogeneity among studies. The GRADE system was used to summarize the overall quality of evidence.
Summary of Findings
The search yielded 422 citations; of these, 12 were included in the review including 10 primary studies (9 RCTs, 1 non-RCT) and 2 systematic reviews.
The Medical Advisory Secretariat review included 2 primary studies (N = 334) that examined the effectiveness of an inpatient physiotherapy rehabilitation program compared with an outpatient home-based physiotherapy program on functional outcomes after total knee or hip replacement surgery. One study, available only as an abstract, found no difference in functional outcome at 1 year after surgery (TKR or THR) between the treatments. The other study was an observational study that found that patients who are younger than 71 years of age on average, who do not live alone, and who do not have comorbid illnesses recover adequate function with outpatient home-based physiotherapy. However results were only measured up to 3 months after surgery, and the outcome measure they used is not considered the best one for physical functioning.
Three primary studies (N = 360) were reviewed that tested the effectiveness of outpatient home-based or clinic-based physiotherapy in addition to a self-administered home exercise program, compared with a self-administered exercise program only or in addition to using another therapy (phone calls or continuous passive movement), on postoperative physical functioning after primary TKR surgery. Two of the studies reported no difference in change from baseline in flexion range of motion between those patients receiving outpatient or home-based physiotherapy and doing a home exercise program compared with patients who did a home exercise program only with or without continuous passive movement. The other study reported no difference in the Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores between patients receiving clinic-based physiotherapy and practising a home exercise program and those who received monitoring phone calls and did a home exercise program after TKR surgery.
The Medical Advisory Secretariat reviewed two systematic reviews evaluating the effects of preoperative exercise on postoperative physical functioning. One concluded that preoperative exercise is not effective in improving functional recovery or pain after TKR and any effects after THR could not be adequately determined. The other concluded that there was inconclusive evidence to determine the benefits of preoperative exercise on functional recovery after TKR. Because 2 primary studies were added to the published literature since the publication of these systematic reviews the Medical Advisory Secretariat revisited the question of effectiveness of a preoperative exercise program for patients scheduled for TKR ad THR surgery.
The Medical Advisory Secretariat also reviewed 3 primary studies (N = 184) that tested the effectiveness of preoperative exercise beginning 4-6 weeks before surgery on postoperative outcomes after primary TKR surgery. All 3 studies reported negative findings with regard to the effectiveness of preoperative exercise to improve physical functioning after TKR surgery. However, 2 failed to show an effect of the preoperative exercise program before surgery in those patients receiving preoperative exercise. The third study did not measure functional outcome immediately before surgery in the preoperative exercise treatment group; therefore the study’s authors could not document an effect of the preoperative exercise program before surgery. Regarding health services utilization, 2 of the studies did not find significant differences in either the length of the acute care hospital stay or the inpatient rehabilitation care setting between patients treated with a preoperative exercise program and those not treated. The third study did not measure health services utilization.
These results must be interpreted within the limitations and the biases of each study. Negative results do not necessarily support a lack of treatment effect but may be attributed to a type II statistical error.
Finally, the Medical Advisory Secretariat reviewed 2 primary studies (N = 136) that examined the effectiveness of preoperative exercise on postoperative functional outcomes after primary THR surgery. One study did not support the effectiveness of an exercise program beginning 8 weeks before surgery. However, results from the other did support the effectiveness of an exercise program 8 weeks before primary THR surgery on pain and functional outcomes 1 week before and 3 weeks after surgery.
Conclusions
Based on the evidence, the Medical Advisory Secretariat reached the following conclusions with respect to physiotherapy rehabilitation and physical functioning 1 year after primary TKR or THR surgery:
There is high-quality evidence from 1 large RCT to support the use of home-based physiotherapy instead of inpatient physiotherapy after primary THR or TKR surgery.
There is low-to-moderate quality evidence from 1 large RCT to support the conclusion that receiving a monitoring phone call from a physiotherapist and practising home exercises is comparable to receiving clinic-based physiotherapy and practising home exercises for people who have had primary TKR surgery. However, results may not be generalizable to those who have had THR surgery.
There is moderate evidence to suggest that an exercise program beginning 4 to 6 weeks before primary TKR surgery is not effective.
There is moderate evidence to support the effectiveness of an exercise program beginning 8 weeks before surgery to improve physical functioning 3 weeks after THR surgery.
PMCID: PMC3382414  PMID: 23074477
10.  Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder 
Executive Summary
Objective
This review was conducted to assess the effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD).
The Technology
rTMS is a noninvasive way to stimulate nerve cells in areas of the brain. During rTMS, an electrical current passes through a wire coil placed over the scalp. The current induces a magnetic field that produces an electrical field in the brain that then causes nerve cells to depolarize, resulting in the stimulation or disruption of brain activity.
Researchers have investigated rTMS as an option to treat MDD, as an add-on to drug therapy, and, in particular, as an alternative to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for patients with treatment-resistant depression.
The advantages of rTMS over ECT for patients with severe refractory depression are that general anesthesia is not needed, it is an outpatient procedure, it requires less energy, the simulation is specific and targeted, and convulsion is not required. The advantages of rTMS as an add-on treatment to drug therapy may include hastening of the clinical response when used with antidepressant drugs.
Review Strategy
The Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy to locate international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles published from January 1996 to March 2004.
Summary of Findings
Some early meta-analyses suggested rTMS might be effective for the treatment of MDD (for treatment-resistant MDD and as an add-on treatment to drug therapy for patients not specifically defined as treatment resistant). There were, however, several crucial methodological limitations in the included studies that were not critically assessed. These are discussed below.
Recent meta-analyses (including 2 international health technology assessments) have done evidence-based critical analyses of studies that have assessed rTMS for MDD. The 2 most recent health technology assessments (from the Oxford Cochrane Collaboration and the Norwegian Centre for Health Technology Assessment) concluded that there is no evidence that rTMS is effective for the treatment of MDD, either as compared with a placebo for patients with treatment-resistant or nontreatment-resistant MDD, or as an alternative to ECT for patients with treatment-resistant MDD. This mainly due to the poor quality of the studies.
The major methodological limitations were identified in older meta-analyses, recent health technology assessments, and the most recently published trials (Level 2–4 evidence) on the effectiveness of rTMS for MDD are discussed below.
Small sample size was a limitation acknowledged by many of the authors. There was also a lack of a priori sample size calculation or justification.
Biased randomization may have been a problem. Generally, the published reports lacked detailed information on the method of allocation concealment used. This is important because it is impossible to determine if there was a possible influence (direct or indirect) in the allocation of the patients to different treatment groups.
The trials were single blind, evaluated by external blinded assessors, rather than double blind. Double blinding is more robust, because neither the participants nor the investigators know which participants are receiving the active treatment and which are getting a placebo. Those administering rTMS, however, cannot be blinded to whether they are administering the active treatment or a placebo.
There was patient variability among the studies. In some studies, the authors said that patients were “medication resistant,” but the definitions of resistant, if provided, were inconsistent or unclear. For example, some described “medication resistant” as failing at least one trial of drugs during the current depressive episode. Furthermore, it was unclear if the term “medication resistant” referred to antidepressants only or to combinations of antidepressants and other drug augmentation strategies (such as neuroleptics, benzodiazepine, carbamazepine, and lithium). Also variable was the type of depression (i.e., unipolar and/or bipolar), if patients were inpatients or outpatients, if they had psychotic symptoms or no psychotic symptoms, and the chronicity of depression.
Dropouts or withdrawals were a concern. Some studies reported that patients dropped out, but provided no further details. Intent-to-treat analysis was not done in any of the trials. This is important, because ignoring patients who drop out of a trial can bias the results, usually in favour of the treatment. This is because patients who withdraw from trials are less likely to have had the treatment, more likely to have missed their interim checkups, and more likely to have experienced adverse effects when taking the treatment, compared with patients who do not withdraw. (1)
Measurement of treatment outcomes using scales or inventories makes interpreting results and drawing conclusions difficult. The most common scale, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) is based on a semistructured interview. Some authors (2) reported that rating scales based on semistructured interviews are more susceptible to observation bias than are self-administered questionnaires such as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Martin et al. (3) argued that the lack of consistency in effect as determined by the 2 scales (a positive result after 2 weeks of treatment as measured by the HDRS and a negative result for the BDI) makes definitive conclusions about the nature of the change in mood of patients impossible. It was suggested that because of difficulties interpreting results from psychometric scales, (4) and the subjective or unstable character of MDD, other, more objective, outcome measures such as readmission to hospital, time to hospital discharge, time to adjunctive treatment, and time off work should be used to assess rTMS for the treatment of depression.
A placebo effect could have influenced the results. Many studies reported response rates for patients who received placebo treatment. For example, Klein et al. (5) reported a control group response rate as high as 25%. Patients receiving placebo rTMS may receive a small dose of magnetic energy that may alter their depression.
Short-term studies were the most common. Patients received rTMS treatment for 1 to 2 weeks. Most studies followed-up patients for 2 to 4 weeks post-treatment. Dannon et al. (6) followed-up patients who responded to a course of ECT or rTMS for up to 6 months; however, the assessment procedure was not blinded, the medication regimen during follow-up was not controlled, and initial baseline data for the patient groups were not reported. The long-term effectiveness of rTMS for the treatment of depression is unknown, as is the long-term use, if any, of maintenance therapy. The cost-effectiveness of rTMS for the treatment of depression is also unknown. A lack of long-term studies makes cost-effectiveness analysis difficult.
The complexity of possible combinations for administering rTMS makes comparing like with like difficult. Wasserman and Lisanby (7) have said that the method for precisely targeting the stimulation in this area is unreliable. It is unknown if the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is the optimal location for treatment. Further, differences in rTMS administration include number of trains per session, duration of each train, and motor threshold.
Clinical versus statistical significance. Several meta-analyses and studies have found that the degree of therapeutic change associated with rTMS across studies is relatively modest; that is, results may be statistically, but not necessarily clinically, significant. (8-11). Conventionally, a 50% reduction in the HDRS scores is commonly accepted as a clinically important reduction in depression. Although some studies have observed a statistically significant reduction in the depression rating, many have not shows the clinically significant reduction of 50% on the HDRS. (11-13) Therefore, few patients in these studies would meet the standard criteria for response. (9)
Clinical/methodological diversity and statistical heterogeneity. In the Norwegian health technology assessment, Aarre et al. (14) said that a formal meta-analysis was not feasible because the designs of the studies varied too much, particularly in how rTMS was administered and in the characteristics of the patients. They noted that the quality of the study designs was poor. The 12 studies that comprised the assessment had small samples, and highly variable inclusion criteria and study designs. The patients’ previous histories, diagnoses, treatment histories, and treatment settings were often insufficiently characterized. Furthermore, many studies reported that patients had treatment-resistant MDD, yet did not listclear criteria for the designation. Without this information, Aarre and colleagues suggested that the interpretation of the results is difficult and the generalizability of results is questionable. They concluded that rTMS cannot be recommended as a standard treatment for depression: “More, larger and more carefully designed studies are needed to demonstrate convincingly a clinically relevant effect of rTMS.”
In the Cochrane Collaboration systematic review, Martin et al. (3;15) said that the complexity of possible combinations for administering rTMS makes comparison of like versus like difficult. A statistical test for heterogeneity (chi-square test) examines if the observed treatment effects are more different from each other than one would expect due to random error (or chance) alone. (16) However, this statistical test must be interpreted with caution because it has low power in the (common) situation of a meta-analysis when the trials have small sample sizes or are few. This means that while a statistically significant result may indicate a problem with heterogeneity, a nonsignificant result must not be taken as evidence of no heterogeneity.
Despite not finding statistically significant heterogeneity, Martin et al. reported that the overall mean baseline depression values for the severity of depression were higher in the treatment group than in the placebo group. (3;15) Although these differences were not significant at the level of each study, they may have introduced potential bias into the meta-analysis of pooled data by accentuating the tendency for regression to the mean of the more extreme values. Individual patient data from all the studies were not available; therefore, an appropriate adjustment according to baseline severity was not possible. Martin et al. concluded that the findings from the systematic review and meta-analysis provided insufficient evidence to suggest that rTMS is effective in the treatment of depression. Moreover, there were several confounding factors (e.g., definition of treatment resistance) in the studies, thus the authors concluded, “The rTMS technique needs more high quality trials to show its effectiveness for therapeutic use.”
Conclusion
Due to several serious methodological limitations in the studies that have examined the effectiveness of rTMS in patients with MDD, it is not possible to conclude that rTMS either is or is not effective as a treatment for MDD (in treatment-resistant depression or in nontreatment-resistant depression).
PMCID: PMC3387754  PMID: 23074457
11.  Enhanced External Counterpulsation (EECP) 
Executive Summary
Objective
To assess the effectiveness, and cost effectiveness of EECP in patients with severe anginal symptoms, secondary to chronic coronary disease, who are unresponsive to exhaustive pharmacotherapy and not candidates for surgical/percutaneous revascularization procedures (e.g., angioplasty, coronary bypass surgery).
To assess the effectiveness, and cost effectiveness of EECP in patients with heart failure.
Clinical Need
Angina
Angina is a clinical syndrome characterized by discomfort in the chest, jaw, shoulder, back or arm. Angina usually occurs in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) involving ≥1 large epicardial artery. However it can also occur in people with valvular heart disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and uncontrolled hypertension.
Conventional approaches to restoring the balance between oxygen supply and demand focus on the disruption of the underlying disease through: drug therapy (β blockers, calcium channel blockers, nitrates, antiplatelet agents, ACE inhibitors, statins); life-style modifications (smoking cessation, weight loss); or revascularization techniques such as coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) or percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). (1) Limitations of each of these approaches include: adverse drug effects, procedure-related mortality and morbidity, restenosis after PCI, and time dependent graft attrition after CABG. Furthermore, an increasing number of patients are not appropriate candidates for standard revascularization options, due to co-morbid conditions (HF, peripheral vascular disease), poor distal coronary artery targets, and patient preference. The morbidity and mortality associated with repeat surgical revascularization procedures are significantly higher, and often excludes these patients from consideration for further revascularizations. (2)
Patients with CAD who have chronic ischemic symptoms that are unresponsive to both conventional medical therapy and revascularization techniques have refractory angina pectoris. It has been estimated that greater than 100,000 patients each year in the US may be diagnosed as having this condition. (3) Patients with refractory angina have marked limitation of ordinary physical activity or are unable to perform any ordinary physical activity without discomfort (CCS functional class III/IV). Also, there must be some objective evidence of ischemia as demonstrated by exercise treadmill testing, stress imaging studies or coronary physiologic studies. (1)
Dejongste et al. (4)estimated that the prevalence of chronic refractory angina is about 100,000 patients in the United States. This would correspond to approximately 3,800 (100,000 x 3.8% [Ontario is approximately 3.8% of the population of the United States]) patients in Ontario having chronic refractory angina.
Heart Failure
Heart failure results from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to act as a pump.
A recent study (5) revealed 28,702 patients were hospitalized for first-time HF in Ontario between April 1994 and March 1997. Women comprised 51% of the cohort. Eighty-five percent were aged 65 years or older, and 58% were aged 75 years or older.
Patients with chronic HF experience shortness of breath, a limited capacity for exercise, high rates of hospitalization and rehospitalization, and die prematurely. (6) The New York Heart Association (NYHA) has provided a commonly used functional classification for the severity of HF (7):
Class I: No limitation of physical activity. No symptoms with ordinary exertion.
Class II: Slight limitations of physical activity. Ordinary activity causes symptoms.
Class III: Marked limitation of physical activity. Less than ordinary activity causes symptoms. Asymptomatic at rest.
Class IV: Inability to carry out any physical activity without discomfort. Symptoms at rest.
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (7) estimates that 35% of patients with HF are in functional NYHA class I; 35% are in class II; 25%, class III; and 5%, class IV. Surveys (8) suggest that from 5% to 15% of patients with HF have persistent severe symptoms, and that the remainder of patients with HF is evenly divided between those with mild and moderately severe symptoms.
To date, the diagnosis and management of chronic HF has concentrated on patients with the clinical syndrome of HF accompanied by severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Major changes in treatment have resulted from a better understanding of the pathophysiology of HF and the results of large clinical trials. Treatment for chronic HF includes lifestyle management, drugs, cardiac surgery, or implantable pacemakers and defibrillators. Despite pharmacologic advances, which include diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, spironolactone, and digoxin, many patients remain symptomatic on maximally tolerated doses. (6)
The Technology
Patients are typically treated by a trained technician in a medically supervised environment for 1 hour daily for a total of 35 hours over 7 weeks. The procedure involves sequential inflation and deflation of compressible cuffs wrapped around the patient’s calves, lower thighs and upper thighs. In addition to 3 sets of cuffs, the patient has finger plethysmogram and electrocardiogram (ECG) attachments that are connected to a control and display console.
External counterpulsation was used in the United States to treat cardiogenic shock after acute myocardial infarction. (9;10) More recently, an enhanced version namely “enhanced external counterpulsation” (EECP) was introduced as a noninvasive procedure for outpatient treatment of patients with severe, uncontrollable cardiac ischemia. EECP is said to increase coronary perfusion pressure and reduce the myocardial oxygen demand. Currently, EECP is not applicable for all patients with refractory angina pectoris. For example, many patients are considered ineligible for therapy due to co-morbidities, including those with severe pulmonary vascular disease, deep vein thrombosis, phlebitis and irregular heart rhythms, and heart failure. (1)
Very recently, investigation began into EECP as an adjunctive treatment for patients with HF. Anecdotal reports suggested that EECP may benefit patients with coronary disease and left ventricular dysfunction. The safety and effectiveness of EECP in patients with symptomatic heart failure and coronary disease and its role in patients with nonischemic heart failure secondary to LV dysfunction is unclear. Furthermore, the safety and effectiveness of EECP in the different stages of HF and whether it is only for patients who are refractive to pharmacotherapy is unknown.
2003 Health Technology Assessment by the Medical Advisory Secretariat
The Medical Advisory Secretariat health technology assessment (originally published in February 2003) reported on the effectiveness of EECP for patients with angina and HF. The report concluded that there was insufficient evidence to support the use of EECP in patients with refractory stable CCS III/IV angina as well as insufficient evidence to support the use of EECP in patients with HF.
Review Strategy
The aim of this literature review was to assess the effectiveness, safety, and cost effectiveness of EECP for the treatment of refractory stable CCS III/IV angina or HF.
The standard search strategy used by the Medical Advisory Secretariat was used. This included a search of all international health technology assessments as well as a search of the medical literature from December 2002 to March 2006.
A modification of the GRADE approach (11) was used to make judgments about the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations systematically and explicitly. GRADE provides a framework for structured reflection and can help to ensure that appropriate judgments are made. GRADE takes into account a study’s design, quality, consistency, and directness in judging the quality of evidence for each outcome. The balance between benefits and harms, quality of evidence, applicability, and the certainty of the baseline risks are considered in judgments about the strength of recommendations.
Summary of Findings
The Cochrane and INAHTA databases yielded 3 HTAs or systematic reviews on EECP treatment (Blue Cross Blue Shield Technology Evaluation Center [BCBS TEC], ECRI, and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services [CMS]). A search of Medline and Embase December 2005 – March 2006 (after the literature search cutoff from the most recent HTA) was conducted using key words enhanced external counterpulsation, EECP, angina, myocardial ischemia, congestive heart failure. This search produced 1 study which met the inclusion criteria. This level 4a study was inferior in quality to the RCT which formed the basis of the 2003 Medical Advisory Secretariat recommendation.
BCBS reviewed the evidence through November 2005 to determine if EECP improves health outcomes for refractory chronic stable angina pectoris or chronic stable HF. (12) BCBS concluded that the available evidence is not sufficient to permit conclusions of the effect of EECP on health outcomes. Both controlled trials had methodologic flaws (MUST EECP and MUST EECP quality of life studies). The case series and observational studies for both indications while suggestive of a treatment benefit from EECP have shortcomings as well.
On March 20 2006, CMS posted their proposed coverage decision memorandum for external counterpulsation therapy. (13) Overall, CMS stated that the evidence is not adequate to conclude that external counterpulsation therapy is reasonable and necessary for:
Canadian Cardiovascular Society Classification (CCSC) II angina
Heart failure
NYHA class II/III stable HF symptoms with an EF≤35%
NYHA class II/III stable HF symptoms with an EF≤40%
NYHA class IV HF
Acute HF
Cardiogenic shock
Acute MI
In January 2005, ECRI (14) stated that there was insufficient evidence available to draw conclusions about the long-term effectiveness of EECP, with respect to morbidity, survival, or quality of life, for any coronary indication (refractory angina, congestive heart failure, cardiogenic shock and acute MI).
GRADE Quality of the Studies
According to the GRADE Working Group criteria, the quality of the trials was examined (Table 1). (11)
Quality refers to the criteria such as the adequacy of allocation concealment, blinding and followup.
Consistency refers to the similarity of estimates of effect across studies. If there is important unexplained inconsistency in the results, our confidence in the estimate of effect for that outcome decreases. Differences in the direction of effect, the size of the differences in effect and the significance of the differences guide the decision about whether important inconsistency exists.
Directness refers to the extent to which the people interventions and outcome measures are similar to those of interest. For example, there may be uncertainty about the directness of the evidence if the people of interest are older, sicker or have more comorbidity than those in the studies.
As stated by the GRADE Working Group, the following definitions were used in grading the quality of the evidence. (11)
GRADE Quality of Studies
Economic Analysis - Literature Review
No economic analysis of EECP was identified in the published literature.
Estimated Prevalence of Angina in Ontario
3,800 patients with chronic refractory angina:
The number of patients with chronic refractory angina in the US is estimated to be approximately 100,000 (4), this corresponds to about 3,800 patients in Ontario (3.8% × 100,000) with refractory angina.
3,800 patients × $7,000 Cdn (approximate cost for a full course of therapy) ~ $26.6M Cdn.
Estimated Prevalence of Heart Failure in Ontario
23,700 patients EF ≤ 0.35:
This estimate is from an expert (personal communication) at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES), where they examined a sample of echocardiography studies drawn from a diagnostic lab in 2001. They found that the prevalence of EF ≤ 0.35 was 8.3%, and if generalized to all patients undergoing echocardiography, there would be 23,700 patients.
23,700 patients with EF ≤35% × $7,000 Cdn ~ $166 M Cdn.
Conclusions
There is insufficient evidence to support the effectiveness and safety of EECP treatment for patients with refractory stable CCS III-IV angina or HF.
As per the GRADE Working Group, overall recommendations consider 4 main factors. (11)
The tradeoffs, taking into account the estimated size of the effect for the main outcome, the confidence limits around those estimates and the relative value placed on the outcome.
The quality of the evidence.
Translation of the evidence into practice in a specific setting, taking into consideration important factors that could be expected to modify the size of the expected effects such as proximity to a hospital or availability of necessary expertise.
Uncertainty about the baseline risk for the population of interest.
The GRADE Working Group also recommends that incremental costs of healthcare alternatives should be considered explicitly alongside the expected health benefits and harms. (11) Recommendations rely on judgments about the value of the incremental health benefits in relation to the incremental costs. The last column in Table 2 is the overall trade-off between benefits and harms and incorporates any risk/uncertainty.
For angina and heart failure, the overall GRADE and strength of the recommendations is “weak” – the quality of the evidence is “low” (uncertainties due to methodological limitations in the study design in terms of study quality and directness), and the corresponding risk/uncertainty is increased due to a budget impact of approximately $26.6 M Cdn or $166 M Cdn respectively while the cost-effectiveness of EECP is unknown and difficult to estimate considering that there are no high quality studies of effectiveness.
Overall GRADE and Strength of Recommendation (Including Uncertainty)
PMCID: PMC3379533  PMID: 23074496
12.  Extracorporeal Photophoresis 
Executive Summary
Objective
To assess the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of extracorporeal photophoresis (ECP) for the treatment of refractory erythrodermic cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) and refractory chronic graft versus host disease (cGvHD).
Background
Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma
Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a general name for a group of skin affecting disorders caused by malignant white blood cells (T lymphocytes). Cutaneous T cell lymphoma is relatively uncommon and represents slightly more than 2% of all lymphomas in the United States. The most frequently diagnosed form of CTCL is mycosis fungoides (MF) and its leukemic variant Sezary syndrome (SS). The relative frequency and disease-specific 5-year survival of 1,905 primary cutaneous lymphomas classified according to the World Health Organization-European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (WHO-EORTC) classification (Appendix 1). Mycosis fungoides had a frequency of 44% and a disease specific 5-year survival of 88%. Sezary syndrome had a frequency of 3% and a disease specific 5-year survival of 24%.
Cutaneous T cell lymphoma has an annual incidence of approximately 0.4 per 100,000 and it mainly occurs in the 5th to 6th decade of life, with a male/female ratio of 2:1. Mycosis fungoides is an indolent lymphoma with patients often having several years of eczematous or dermatitic skin lesions before the diagnosis is finally established. Mycosis fungoides commonly presents as chronic eczematous patches or plaques and can remain stable for many years. Early in the disease biopsies are often difficult to interpret and the diagnosis may only become apparent by observing the patient over time.
The clinical course of MF is unpredictable. Most patients will live normal lives and experience skin symptoms without serious complications. Approximately 10% of MF patients will experience progressive disease involving lymph nodes, peripheral blood, bone marrow and visceral organs. A particular syndrome in these patients involves erythroderma (intense and usually widespread reddening of the skin from dilation of blood vessels, often preceding or associated with exfoliation), and circulating tumour cells. This is known as SS. It has been estimated that approximately 5-10% of CTCL patients have SS. Patients with SS have a median survival of approximately 30 months.
Chronic Graft Versus Host Disease
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a treatment used for a variety of malignant and nonmalignant disease of the bone marrow and immune system. The procedure is often associated with serious immunological complications, particularly graft versus host disease (GvHD). A chronic form of GvHD (cGvHD) afflicts many allogeneic HCT recipients, which results in dysfunction of numerous organ systems or even a profound state of immunodeficiency. Chronic GVHD is the most frequent cause of poor long-term outcome and quality of life after allogeneic HCT. The syndrome typically develops several months after transplantation, when the patient may no longer be under the direct care of the transplant team.
Approximately 50% of patients with cGvHD have limited disease and a good prognosis. Of the patients with extensive disease, approximately 60% will respond to treatment and eventually be able to discontinue immunosuppressive therapy. The remaining patients will develop opportunistic infection, or require prolonged treatment with immunosuppressive agents.
Chronic GvHD occurs in at least 30% to 50% of recipients of transplants from human leukocyte antigen matched siblings and at least 60% to 70% of recipients of transplants from unrelated donors. Risk factors include older age of patient or donor, higher degree of histoincompatibility, unrelated versus related donor, use of hematopoietic cells obtained from the blood rather than the marrow, and previous acute GvHD. Bhushan and Collins estimated that the incidence of severe cGvHD has probably increased in recent years because of the use of more unrelated transplants, donor leukocyte infusions, nonmyeloablative transplants and stem cells obtained from the blood rather than the marrow. The syndrome typically occurs 4 to 7 months after transplantation but may begin as early as 2 months or as late as 2 or more years after transplantation. Chronic GvHD may occur by itself, evolve from acute GvHD, or occur after resolution of acute GvHD.
The onset of the syndrome may be abrupt but is frequently insidious with manifestations evolving gradually for several weeks. The extent of involvement varies significantly from mild involvement limited to a few patches of skin to severe involvement of numerous organ systems and profound immunodeficiency. The most commonly involved tissues are the skin, liver, mouth, and eyes. Patients with limited disease have localized skin involvement, evidence of liver dysfunction, or both, whereas those with more involvement of the skin or involvement of other organs have extensive disease.
Treatment
 
Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma
The optimal management of MF is undetermined because of its low prevalence, and its highly variable natural history, with frequent spontaneous remissions and exacerbations and often prolonged survival.
Nonaggressive approaches to therapy are usually warranted with treatment aimed at improving symptoms and physical appearance while limiting toxicity. Given that multiple skin sites are usually involved, the initial treatment choices are usually topical or intralesional corticosteroids or phototherapy using psoralen (a compound found in plants which make the skin temporarily sensitive to ultraviolet A) (PUVA). PUVA is not curative and its influence on disease progression remains uncertain. Repeated courses are usually required which may lead to an increased risk of both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer. For thicker plaques, particularly if localized, radiotherapy with superficial electrons is an option.
“Second line” therapy for early stage disease is often topical chemotherapy, radiotherapy or total skin electron beam radiation (TSEB).
Treatment of advanced stage (IIB-IV) MF usually consists of topical or systemic therapy in refractory or rapidly progressive SS.
Bone marrow transplantation and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation have been used to treat many malignant hematologic disorders (e.g., leukemias) that are refractory to conventional treatment. Reports on the use of these procedures for the treatment of CTCL are limited and mostly consist of case reports or small case series.
Chronic Graft Versus Host Disease
Patients who develop cGvHD require reinstitution of immunosuppressive medication (if already discontinued) or an increase in dosage and possibly addition of other agents. The current literature regarding cGvHD therapy is less than optimal and many recommendations about therapy are based on common practices that await definitive testing. Patients with disease that is extensive by definition but is indolent in clinical appearance may respond to prednisone. However, patients with more aggressive disease are treated with higher doses of corticosteroids and/or cyclosporine.
Numerous salvage therapies have been considered in patients with refractory cGvHD, including ECP. Due to uncertainty around salvage therapies, Bhushan and Collins suggested that ideally, patients with refractory cGvHD should be entered into clinical trials.
Two Ontario expert consultants jointly estimated that there may be approximately 30 new erythrodermic treatment resistant CTCL patients and 30 new treatment resistant cGvHD patients per year who are unresponsive to other forms of therapy and may be candidates for ECP.
Extracorporeal photopheresis is a procedure that was initially developed as a treatment for CTCL, particularly SS.
Current Technique
Extracorporeal photopheresis is an immunomodulatory technique based on pheresis of light sensitive cells. Whole blood is removed from patients followed by pheresis. Lymphocytes are separated by centrifugation to create a concentrated layer of white blood cells. The lymphocyte layer is treated with methoxsalen (a drug that sensitizes the lymphocytes to light) and exposed to UVA, following which the lymphocytes are returned to the patient. Red blood cells and plasma are returned to the patient between each cycle.
Photosensitization is achieved by administering methoxsalen to the patient orally 2 hours before the procedure, or by injecting methoxsalen directly ino the leucocyte rich fraction. The latter approach avoids potential side effects such as nausea, and provides a more consistent drug level within the machine.
In general, from the time the intravenous line is inserted until the white blood cells are returned to the patient takes approximately 2.5-3.5 hours.
For CTCL, the treatment schedule is generally 2 consecutive days every 4 weeks for a median of 6 months. For cGvHD, an expert in the field estimated that the treatment schedule would be 3 times a week for the 1st month, then 2 consecutive days every 2 weeks after that (i.e., 4 treatments a month) for a median of 6 to 9 months.
Regulatory Status
The UVAR XTS Photopheresis System is licensed by Health Canada as a Class 3 medical device (license # 7703) for the “palliative treatment of skin manifestations of CTCL.” It is not licensed for the treatment of cGvHD.
UVADEX (sterile solution methoxsalen) is not licensed by Health Canada, but can be used in Canada via the Special Access Program. (Personal communication, Therakos, February 16, 2006)
According to the manufacturer, the UVAR XTS photopheresis system licensed by Health Canada can also be used with oral methoxsalen. (Personal communication, Therakos, February 16, 2006) However, oral methoxsalen is associated with side effects, must be taken by the patient in advance of ECP, and has variable absorption in the gastrointestinal tract.
According to Health Canada, UVADEX is not approved for use in Canada. In addition, a review of the Product Monographs of the methoxsalen products that have been approved in Canada showed that none of them have been approved for oral administration in combination with the UVAR XTS photophoresis system for “the palliative treatment of the skin manifestations of cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma”.
In the United States, the UVAR XTS Photopheresis System is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for “use in the ultraviolet-A (UVA) irradiation in the presence of the photoactive drug methoxsalen of extracorporeally circulating leukocyte-enriched blood in the palliative treatment of the skin manifestations of CTCL in persons who have not been responsive to other therapy.”
UVADEX is approved by the FDA for use in conjunction with UVR XTS photopheresis system for “use in the ultraviolet-A (UVA) irradiation in the presence of the photoactive drug methoxsalen of extracorporeally circulating leukocyte-enriched blood in the palliative treatment of the skin manifestations of CTCL in persons who have not been responsive to other therapy.”
The use of the UVAR XTS photopheresis system or UVADEX for cGvHD is an off-label use of a FDA approved device/drug.
Summary of Findings
The quality of the trials was examined.
As stated by the GRADE Working Group, the following definitions were used in grading the quality of the evidence.
Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma
Overall, there is low-quality evidence that ECP improves response rates and survival in patients with refractory erythrodermic CTCL (Table 1).
Limitations in the literature related to ECP for the treatment of refractory erythrodermic CTCL include the following:
Different treatment regimens.
Variety of forms of CTCL (and not necessarily treatment resistant) - MF, erythrodermic MF, SS.
SS with peripheral blood involvement → role of T cell clonality reporting?
Case series (1 small crossover RCT with several limitations)
Small sample sizes.
Retrospective.
Response criteria not clearly defined/consistent.
Unclear how concomitant therapy contributed to responses.
Variation in definitions of concomitant therapy
Comparison to historical controls.
Some patients were excluded from analysis because of progression of disease, toxicity and other reasons.
Unclear/strange statistics
Quality of life not reported as an outcome of interest.
The reported CR range is ~ 16% to 23% and the overall reported CR/PR range is ~ 33% to 80%.
The wide range in reported responses to ECP appears to be due to the variability of the patients treated and the way in which the data were presented and analyzed.
Many patients, in mostly retrospective case series, were concurrently on other therapies and were not assessed for comparability of diagnosis or disease stage (MF versus SS; erythrodermic versus not erythrodermic). Blood involvement in patients receiving ECP (e.g., T cell clonality) was not consistently reported, especially in earlier studies. The definitions of partial and complete response also are not standardized or consistent between studies.
Quality of life was reported in one study; however, the scale was developed by the authors and is not a standard validated scale.
Adverse events associated with ECP appear to be uncommon and most involve catheter related infections and hypotension caused by volume depletion.
GRADE Quality of Studies – Extracorporeal Photopheresis for Refractory Erythrodermic Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma
Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease
Overall, there is low-quality evidence that ECP improves response rates and survival in patients with refractory cGvHD (Table 2).
Patients in the studies had stem cell transplants due to a variety of hematological disorders (e.g., leukemias, aplastic anemia, thalassemia major, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, non Hodgkin’s lymphoma).
In 2001, The Blue Cross Blue Shield Technology Evaluation Centre concluded that ECP meets the TEC criteria as treatment of cGvHD that is refractory to established therapy.
The Catalan health technology assessment (also published in 2001) concluded that ECP is a new but experimental therapeutic alternative for the treatment of the erythrodermal phase of CTCL and cGvHD in allogenic HPTC and that this therapy should be evaluated in the framework of a RCT.
Quality of life (Lansky/Karnofsky play performance score) was reported in 1 study.
The patients in the studies were all refractory to steroids and other immunosuppressive agents, and these drugs were frequently continued concomitantly with ECP.
Criteria for assessment of organ improvement in cGvHD are variable, but PR was typically defined as >50% improvement from baseline parameters and CR as complete resolution of organ involvement.
Followup was variable and incomplete among the studies.
GRADE Quality of Studies – ECP for Refractory cGvHD
Conclusion
As per the GRADE Working Group, overall recommendations consider 4 main factors.
The tradeoffs, taking into account the estimated size of the effect for the main outcome, the confidence limits around those estimates and the relative value placed on the outcome.
The quality of the evidence (Tables 1 and 2).
Translation of the evidence into practice in a specific setting, taking into consideration important factors that could be expected to modify the size of the expected effects such as proximity to a hospital or availability of necessary expertise.
Uncertainty about the baseline risk for the population of interest.
The GRADE Working Group also recommends that incremental costs of healthcare alternatives should be considered explicitly alongside the expected health benefits and harms. Recommendations rely on judgments about the value of the incremental health benefits in relation to the incremental costs. The last column in Table 3 is the overall trade-off between benefits and harms and incorporates any risk/uncertainty.
For refractory erythrodermic CTCL, the overall GRADE and strength of the recommendation is “weak” – the quality of the evidence is “low” (uncertainties due to methodological limitations in the study design in terms of study quality and directness), and the corresponding risk/uncertainty is increased due to an annual budget impact of approximately $1.5M Cdn (based on 30 patients) while the cost-effectiveness of ECP is unknown and difficult to estimate considering that there are no high quality studies of effectiveness. The device is licensed by Health Canada, but the sterile solution of methoxsalen is not licensed.
With an annual budget impact of $1.5 M Cdn (based on 30 patients), and the current expenditure is $1.3M Cdn (for out of country for 7 patients), the potential cost savings based on 30 patients with refractory erythrodermic CTCL is about $3.8 M Cdn (annual).
For refractory cGvHD, the overall GRADE and strength of the recommendation is “weak” – the quality of the evidence is “low” (uncertainties due to methodological limitations in the study design in terms of study quality and directness), and the corresponding risk/uncertainty is increased due to a budget impact of approximately $1.5M Cdn while the cost-effectiveness of ECP is unknown and difficult to estimate considering that there are no high quality studies of effectiveness. Both the device and sterile solution are not licensed by Health Canada for the treatment of cGvHD.
If all the ECP procedures for patients with refractory erythrodermic CTCL and refractory cGvHD were performed in Ontario, the annual budget impact would be approximately $3M Cdn.
Overall GRADE and Strength of Recommendation (Including Uncertainty)
PMCID: PMC3379535  PMID: 23074497
13.  Sacral Nerve Stimulation For Urinary Urge Incontinence, Urgency-Frequency, Urinary Retention, and Fecal Incontinence 
Executive Summary
Objective
The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness, safety, and cost of sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) to treat urinary urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence.
Background: Condition and Target Population
Urinary urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence are prevalent, yet rarely discussed, conditions. They are rarely discussed because patients may be uncomfortable disclosing their symptoms to a health professional or may be unaware that there are treatment options for these conditions. Briefly, urge incontinence is an involuntary loss of urine upon a sudden urge. Urgency-frequency is an uncontrollable urge to void, which results in frequent, small-volume voids. People with urgency-frequency may or may not also experience chronic pelvic pain. Urinary retention refers to the inability to void despite having the urge to void. It can be caused by a hypocontractile detrusor (weak or no bladder muscle contraction) or obstruction due to urethral overactivity. Fecal incontinence is a loss of voluntary bowel control.
The prevalence of urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, and urinary retention in the general population is 3.3% to 8.2%, and the prevalence of fecal incontinence is 1.4% to 1.9%. About three-quarters of these people will be successfully treated by behaviour and/or drug therapy. For those who do not respond to these therapies, the options for treatment are management with diapers or pads, or surgery. The surgical procedures are generally quite invasive, permanent, and are associated with complications. Pads and/or diapers are used throughout the course of treatment as different therapies are tried. Patients who respond successfully to treatment may still require pads or diapers, but to a lesser extent.
The Technology Being Reviewed: Sacral Nerve Stimulation
Sacral nerve stimulation is a procedure where a small device attached to an electrode is implanted in the abdomen or buttock to stimulate the sacral nerves in an attempt to manage urinary urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence. The device was originally developed to manage urinary urge incontinence; however, it has also been used in patients with urgency-frequency, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence. SNS is intended for patients who are refractory to behaviour, drug, and/or interventional therapy.
There are 2 phases in the SNS process: first, patients must undergo a test stimulation phase to determine if they respond to sacral nerve stimulation. If there is a 50% or greater improvement in voiding function, then the patient is considered a candidate for the next phase, implantation.
Review Strategy
The standard Medical Advisory Secretariat search strategy was used to locate international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles published from 2000 to November 2004. The Medical Advisory Secretariat also conducted Internet searches of Medscape (1) and the manufacturer’s website (2) to identify product information and recent reports on trials that were unpublished but that were presented at international conferences. In addition, the Web site Current Controlled Trials (3) was searched for ongoing randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the role of sacral nerve stimulation in the management of voiding conditions.
Summary of Findings
Four health technology assessments were found that reviewed SNS in patients with urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, and/or urinary retention. One assessment was found that reviewed SNS in patients with fecal incontinence. The assessments consistently reported that SNS was an effective technology in managing these voiding conditions in patients who did not respond to drug or behaviour therapy. They also reported that there was a substantial complication profile associated with SNS. Complication rates ranged from 33% to 50%. However, none of the assessments reported that they found any incidences of permanent injury or death associated with the device.
The health technology assessments for urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, and urinary retention included (RCTs (level 2) as their primary source of evidence for their conclusions. The assessment of fecal incontinence based its conclusions on evidence from case series (level 4). Because there was level 2 data available for the use of SNS in patients with urinary conditions, the Medical Advisory Secretariat chose to review thoroughly the RCTs included in the assessments and search for publications since the assessments were released. However, for the health technology assessment for fecal incontinence, which contained only level 4 evidence, the Medical Advisory Secretariat searched for studies on SNS and fecal incontinence that were published since that assessment was released.
Urge Incontinence
Two RCTs were identified that compared SNS to no treatment in patients with refractory urge incontinence. Both RCTs reported significant improvements (> 50% improvement in voiding function) in the SNS group for number of incontinence episodes per day, number of pads used per day, and severity of incontinence episodes.
Urgency-Frequency (With or Without Chronic Pelvic Pain)
One RCT was identified that compared SNS to no treatment in patients with refractory urgency-frequency. The RCT reported significant improvements in urgency-frequency symptoms in the SNS group (average volume per void, detrusor pressure). In addition to the RCT, 1 retrospective review and 2 prospective case series were identified that measured pelvic pain associated with urgency-frequency in patients who underwent SNS. All 3 studies reported a significant decrease in pain at median follow-up.
Urinary Retention
One RCT was identified that compared SNS to no treatment in patients with refractory urinary retention. The RCT reported significant improvements in urinary retention in the SNS group compared to the control group for number of catheterizations required and number of voids per day. In addition to this RCT, 1 case series was also identified investigating SNS in women with urinary retention. This study also found that there were significant improvements in urinary retention after the women had received the SNS implants.
Fecal Incontinence
Three case series were identified that investigated the role of SNS in patients with fecal incontinence. All 3 reported significant improvements in fecal incontinence symptoms (number of incontinent episodes per week) after the patients received the SNS implants.
Long-Term Follow-up
None of the studies identified followed patients until the point of battery failure. Of the 6 studies identified describing the long-term follow-up of patients with SNS, follow-up periods ranged from 1.5 years to over 5 years. None of the long-term follow-up studies included patients with fecal incontinence. All of the studies reported that most of the patients who had SNS had at least a 50% improvement in voiding function (range 58%–77%). These studies also reported the number of patients who had their device explanted in the follow-up period. The rates of explantation ranged from 12% to 21%.
Safety, Complications, and Quality of Life
A 33% surgical revision rate was reported in an analysis of the safety of 3 RCTs comparing SNS to no treatment in patients with urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, or urinary retention. The most commonly reported adverse effects were pain at the implant site and lead migration. Despite the high rate of surgical revision, there were no reports of permanent injury or death in any of the studies or health technology assessments identified. Additionally, patients consistently said that they would recommend the procedure to a friend or family member.
Economic Analysis
One health technology assessment and 1 abstract were found that investigated the costing factors pertinent to SNS. The authors of this assessment did their own “indicative analysis” and found that SNS was not more cost-effective than using incontinence supplies. However, the assessment did not account for quality of life. Conversely, the authors of the abstract found that SNS was more cost-effective than incontinence supplies alone; however, they noted that in the first year after SNS, it is much more expensive than only incontinence supplies. This is owing to the cost of the procedure, and the adjustments required to make the device most effective. They also noted the positive effects that SNS had on quality of life.
Conclusions and Implications
In summary, there is level 2 evidence to support the effectiveness of SNS to treat people with urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, or urinary retention. There is level 4 evidence to support the effectiveness of SNS to treat people with fecal incontinence.
To qualify for SNS, people must meet the following criteria:
Be refractory to behaviour and/or drug therapy
Have had a successful test stimulation before implantation; successful test stimulation is defined by a 50% or greater improvement in voiding function based on the results of a voiding diary. Test stimulation periods range from 3 to 7 days for patients with urinary dysfunctions, and from 2 to 3 weeks for patients with fecal incontinence.
Be able to record voiding diary data, so that clinical results of the implantation can be evaluated.
Patients with stress incontinence, urinary retention due to obstruction and neurogenic conditions (such as diabetes with peripheral nerve involvement) are ineligible for sacral nerve stimulation.
Physicians will need to learn how to use the InterStim System for Urinary Control. Requirements for training include these:
Physicians must be experienced in the diagnosis and treatment of lower urinary tract disorders and should be trained in the implantation and use of the InterStim System for Urinary Control.
Training should include the following:
Participation in a seminar or workshop that includes instructional and laboratory training on SNS. This seminar should include a review of the evidence on SNS with emphasis on techniques to prevent adverse events.
Completion of proctoring by a physician experienced in SNS for the first 2 test stimulations and the first 2 implants
PMCID: PMC3382408  PMID: 23074472
14.  Personalized Medicine for Management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia 
The Journal of urology  2014;192(1):16-23.
Purpose
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) affects over 50 percent of men by age 60 and is the cause of millions of dollars of healthcare expenditure for treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and urinary obstruction. Despite the widespread use of medical therapy, there is no universal therapy that treats all men with symptomatic BPH, and at least 30% of patients do not respond to medical management and a subset require surgery. Significant advances have been made in understanding the natural history and development of the prostate, such as elucidating the role of the enzyme 5α reductase Type 2 (5AR2), and advances in genomics and biomarker discovery offer the potential for a more targeted approach to therapy. We review the current understanding of BPH progression as well as key genes and signaling pathways implicated in the process such as 5α reductase. We also explore the potential of biomarker screening and gene-specific therapies as tools to risk stratify BPH patients and identify those with symptomatic or medically resistant forms.
Materials and Methods
A PubMed® literature search of current and past peer-reviewed literature on prostate development, lower urinary tract symptoms, BPH pathogenesis, targeted therapy, biomarkers, epigenetics, 5AR2 and personalized medicine was performed. An additional Google Scholar™ search was conducted to broaden the scope of the review. Relevant reviews and original research articles were examined as well as their cited references, and a synopsis of original data was generated with the goal of informing the practicing urologist of these advances and their implications.
Results
BPH is associated with a state of hyperplasia of both the stromal and epithelial compartments, with 5AR2 and androgen signaling playing key roles in development and maintenance of the prostate. Chronic inflammation, multiple growth factor and hormonal signaling pathways, and medical comorbidities play an intricate role in prostate tissue homeostasis as well as its evolution into the clinical state of BPH. Resistance to medical therapy with finasteride may occur through silencing of the 5AR2 gene by DNA methylation, leading to a state in which 30% of adult prostates do not express 5AR2. Novel biomarkers such as single nucleotide polymorshisms may be used to risk stratify patients with symptomatic BPH and identify those at risk of progression or failure of medical therapy. Several inhibitors of the androgen receptor and other signaling pathways have recently been identified which appear to attenuate BPH progression and may offer alternative targets for medical therapy.
Conclusions
Progressive worsening of LUTS and bladder outlet obstruction secondary to BPH is the result of multiple pathways including androgen receptor signaling, pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factor signals. New techniques in genomics, proteomics and epigenetics have led to the discovery of aberrant signaling pathways, novel biomarkers, DNA methylation signatures and potential gene-specific targets. As personalized medicine continues to grow, the ability to risk stratify patients with symptomatic BPH, identify those at higher risk of progression, and seek alternative therapies for those likely to fail conventional options will become the standard of targeted therapy.
doi:10.1016/j.juro.2014.01.114
PMCID: PMC4143483  PMID: 24582540
prostate; benign prostatic hyperplasia; 5-alpha reductase; finasteride; personalized medicine