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1.  The role of fungi in diseases of the nose and sinuses 
Background:
Human exposure to fungal elements is inevitable, with normal respiration routinely depositing fungal hyphae within the nose and paranasal sinuses. Fungal species can cause sinonasal disease, with clinical outcomes ranging from mild symptoms to intracranial invasion and death. There has been much debate regarding the precise role fungal species play in sinonasal disease and optimal treatment strategies.
Methods:
A literature review of fungal diseases of the nose and sinuses was conducted.
Results:
Presentation, diagnosis, and current management strategies of each recognized form of fungal rhinosinusitis was reviewed.
Conclusion:
Each form of fungal rhinosinusitis has a characteristic presentation and clinical course, with the immune status of the host playing a critical pathophysiological role. Accurate diagnosis and targeted treatment strategies are necessary to achieve optimal outcomes.
doi:10.2500/ajra.2012.26.3807
PMCID: PMC3904040  PMID: 23168148
Acute; chronic; fungal; invasive; review; rhinosinusitis; sinusitis
2.  Diagnostic tools in Rhinology EAACI position paper 
This EAACI Task Force document aims at providing the readers with a comprehensive and complete overview of the currently available tools for diagnosis of nasal and sino-nasal disease. We have tried to logically order the different important issues related to history taking, clinical examination and additional investigative tools for evaluation of the severity of sinonasal disease into a consensus document. A panel of European experts in the field of Rhinology has contributed to this consensus document on Diagnostic Tools in Rhinology.
doi:10.1186/2045-7022-1-2
PMCID: PMC3294630  PMID: 22410181
3.  Rhinosinusitis and asthma: the missing link 
Purpose of review
Disease of the nose and sinuses is the most common co-morbidity associated with asthma. Rhinitis, sinusitis and asthma may represent part of one disease process with manifestations at different sites. The purpose of this review is to highlight significant new findings on the epidemiological and pathophysiological link between the upper and lower airway. Finally we will review recent data assessing the impact of treating sinonasal disease on both the development of asthma, and asthma control.
Recent findings
Studies illustrate that rhinitis is very common in asthma, and associated with worse asthma control. Rhinitis typically precedes the development of asthma. Even in patients with rhinitis without asthma there is evidence of subclinical change in the lower airways as measured by physiological changes and the presence of inflammatory mediators. There is much interest on the impact of treating allergic rhinitis on the development of asthma.
Summary
Rhinitis, sinusitis and asthma are likely part of one disease process. Treatment of established rhinitis may have some impact on measures of airway obstruction, but an effect on lower airway inflammation is yet to be established. Prospective studies are required to determine if treatment of rhinitis can prevent the development of asthma, and/or decrease airway inflammation to improve asthma outcomes in those with established asthma.
doi:10.1097/MCP.0b013e32831da87e
PMCID: PMC2774711  PMID: 19077701
rhinitis sinusitis asthma
4.  Incidental sinonasal findings identified during preoperative evaluation for endoscopic transsphenoidal approaches 
Background:
The endoscopic transsphenoidal approach (eTSA) to lesions of the sellar region is typically performed jointly by neurosurgeons and otolaryngologists. Occasionally, the approach is significantly altered by sinonasal disease, anatomic variants, or previous surgery. However, there are no current guidelines that describe which physical or radiological findings should prompt a change in the plan of care. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of sinonasal pathology or anatomic variants noted endoscopically or by imaging that altered preoperative or intraoperative management.
Methods:
A retrospective review was performed of 355 consecutive patients who underwent combined neurosurgery–otolaryngology endoscopic sella approach from August 1, 2007 to April 1, 2011. Our practice in these patients involves preoperative otolaryngology clinical evaluation and MRI review. Intraoperative image guidance is not routinely used in uncomplicated eTSA.
Results:
The most common management alteration was the addition of image guidance based on anatomic variants on MRI, which occurred in 81 patients (35.0%). Eight patients (2.9%) were preoperatively treated with antibiotics and surgery was postponed secondary to acute or chronic purulent rhinosinusitis; two (0.7%) required functional endoscopic sinus surgery for medically refractory disease before eTSA. Five patients (1.8%) required anterior septoplasty intraoperatively for severe nasal septal deviation. Two patients (0.7%) had inverted papilloma and one patient had esthesioneuroblastoma identified preoperatively during rigid nasal endoscopy.
Conclusion:
This is one of the larger reviews of patients undergoing eTSA for sellar lesions and the only study that describes how intraoperative management may be altered by preoperative sinonasal evaluation. We found a significant incidence of sinonasal pathology and anatomic variants that altered routine operative planning; therefore, a thorough sinonasal evaluation is warranted in these cases.
doi:10.2500/ajra.2013.27.3871
PMCID: PMC3649855  PMID: 23710956
Endoscopic; image-guided surgery; incidental; preoperative; sella; sinonasal; transsphenoidal
5.  Sinonasal Tract Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma: A Clinicopathologic and Immunophenotypic Study of 19 Cases Combined with a Comprehensive Review of the Literature 
Head and Neck Pathology  2011;6(2):191-207.
Primary sinonasal tract mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC) are uncommon tumors that are frequently misclassified, resulting in inappropriate clinical management. The design of this study is retrospective. Nineteen cases of MEC included 10 females and 9 males, aged 15–75 years (mean, 52.7 years); males, on average were younger by a decade than females (47.2 vs. 57.7 years). Patients presented most frequently with a mass, obstructive symptoms, pain, and/or epistaxis present for a mean of 12.6 months. The majority of tumors involved the nasal cavity alone (n = 10), maxillary sinus alone (n = 6), or a combination of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses (n = 3) with a mean size of 2.4 cm. Most patients presented at a low clinical stage (n = 15, Stage I & II), with only 4 patients presenting with Stage III disease. Histologically, the tumors were often invasive (bone or perineural invasion), with invasion into minor mucoserous glands. Surface involvement was common. The neoplastic cells were composed of a combination of squamoid cells, intermediate cells, and mucocytes. Cystic spaces were occasionally large, but the majoritywere focal to small. Pleomorphism was generally low grade. Necrosis (n = 5) and atypical mitotic figures (n = 6) were seen infrequently. Over half of the tumors were classified as low grade (n = 11), with intermediate (n = 4) and high grade (n = 4) comprising the remainder. Mucicarmine was positive in all cases tested. Immunohistochemical studies showed positive reactions for keratin, CK5/6, p63, CK7, EMA, and CEA in all cases tested, while bcl-2 and CD117 were rarely positive. GFAP, MSA, TTF-1, and S100 protein were non-reactive. p53 and Ki-67 were reactive to a variable degree. MEC need to be considered in the differential diagnosis of a number of sinonasal lesions, particularly adenocarcinoma and necrotizing sialometaplasia. The patients were separated into stage I (n = 9), stage II (n = 6), and stage III (n = 4), without any patients in stage IV at presentation. Surgery occasionally accompanied by radiation therapy (n = 2) was generally employed. Six patients developed a recurrence, with 5 patients dying with disease (mean, 2.4 years), while 14 patients are either alive (n = 9) or had died (n = 5) of unrelated causes (mean, 14.6 years). MEC probably arises from the minor mucoserous glands of the upper aerodigestive tract, usually presenting in patients in middle age with a mass. Most patients present with low stage disease (stage I and II), although invasive growth is common. Recurrences develop in about a third of patients, who experience a shorter survival (mean, 6.5 years). The following parameters, when present, suggest an increased incidence of recurrence or dying with disease: size ≥4.0 cm (P = 0.034), high mitotic count (P = 0.041), atypical mitoses (P = 0.007), mixed anatomic site (P = 0.032), development of recurrence (P = 0.041), high tumor grade (P = 0.007), and higher stage disease (P = 0.027).
doi:10.1007/s12105-011-0320-9
PMCID: PMC3370018  PMID: 22183767
Sinonasal tract; Mucoepidermoid carcinoma; Nasal cavity; Maxillary sinus, ethmoid sinus; Frontal sinus; Review; Meta-analysis; Immunohistochemistry; Prognosis; Outcome; Staging; Differential diagnosis; Carcinoma
6.  An endonasal approach to the resection of a papillary seromucinous adenocarcinoma of the Eustacian tube 
Objectives
Papillary seromucinous adenocarcinoma of the sinonasal tract is exceedingly rare. The objectives of this case report are to describe a case of papillary seromucinous adenocarcinoma presenting in the nasopharynx and to review the literature pertaining to other similar cases.
Methods
A review of the patient's chart and a review of the English literature were conducted.
Results
We describe the case of a 64 year-old woman who presented with a 3-year history of epistaxis and right-sided otitis media with effusion. The patient had been followed for a known nasopharyngeal mass that had twice been biopsied and in both cases was considered a benign mass pathologically. A third biopsy was diagnosed as a low-grade papillary seromucinous adenocarcinoma. The patient was otherwise asymptomatic. The patient was referred to a multidisciplinary cancer clinic at which endoscopic resection was determined to be the preferred treatment modality. A literature review and approach to patients with nasopharyngeal masses will be presented.
Conclusions
Papillary seromucinous adenocarcinoma is a rare tumor that can present in the nasopharynx. We describe the endoscopic surgical management of one such patient that presented to our care.
doi:10.1186/1916-0216-42-12
PMCID: PMC3650951  PMID: 23663512
Nasopharynx; Seromucinous adenocarcinoma; Endoscopic resection; Eustacian tube
7.  Sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma: impact of differentiation status on response and outcome 
Head & Neck Oncology  2011;3:32.
Background
The impact of tumor differentiation on the behavior and response of sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma is unknown.
Methods
We performed a retrospective review of the patients treated for neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) of the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses from 1992 to 2008 at MDACC.
Results
The results of our study suggest that pathologic differentiation may not be a critical factor in the clinical management of patients with NEC of the sinonasal tract. This is in contrast to laryngeal and lung NEC for which pathological differentiation has traditionally guided clinical management.
Conclusion
Mutlimodality approach should be the cornerstone of treating sinonasal NEC regardless of their differentiation. Specifically, RT may provide durable local control for patients with moderately differentiated NEC if resection is not feasible or desirable, while surgical resection can benefit patients with chemo-resistant or radio-resistant disease.
doi:10.1186/1758-3284-3-32
PMCID: PMC3154852  PMID: 21794118
Neuroendocrine carcinoma; carcinoid tumor; poorly differentiated carcinoma; sinonasal tumor
8.  Sarcoidosis with involvement of the paranasal sinuses - a retrospective analysis of 12 biopsy-proven cases 
Background
Extrapulmonary involvement by sarcoidosis is observed in about 30–40% of patients with sarcoidosis. Little is known about the frequency and clinical characteristics of sinonasal sarcoidosis.
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed 12 cases of biopsy-proven sinonasal sarcoidosis. Patients were identified from a patient population of 1360 patients with sarcoidosis at the Outpatient Clinic for Sarcoidosis and Rare Lung Diseases at LungClinic Grosshansdorf, a tertiary care hospital for respiratory medicine.
Results
The most frequent signs and symptoms were nasal polyps (4 cases), epistaxis (3 cases), nasal crusts (8 cases) and anosmia (5 cases). Pulmonary sarcoidosis of the patients was staged as stage I (n = 1) and stage II (n = 11) on chest radiographs. Spirometry was normal in 11 patients. 7 patients had a diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide of less than 90% of predicted. Other organs were affected in 8 patients. All patients received systemic corticosteroid treatment and most patients received topical steroids. 5 patients received steroid sparing agents. Repeated sinus surgery had to be performed in 4 patients.
Conclusions
Sinonasal involvement is a rare disease manifestation of sarcoidosis with a frequency slightly lower than 1% in our patient population. The clinical course of sinonasal sarcoidosis can be complicated by relapse despite systemic immunosuppressive treatment and repeated sinus surgery.
doi:10.1186/1471-2466-13-59
PMCID: PMC3850727  PMID: 24070015
Sarcoidosis; Sinonasal involvement; Treatment of sarcoidosis
9.  Allergic rhinitis: evidence for impact on asthma 
BMC Pulmonary Medicine  2006;6(Suppl 1):S4.
Background
This paper reviews the current evidence indicating that comorbid allergic rhinitis may have clinically relevant effects on asthma.
Discussion
Allergic rhinitis is very common in patients with asthma, with a reported prevalence of up to 100% in those with allergic asthma. While the temporal relation of allergic rhinitis and asthma diagnoses can be variable, the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis often precedes that of asthma. Rhinitis is an independent risk factor for the subsequent development of asthma in both atopic and nonatopic individuals. Controlled studies have provided conflicting results regarding the benefits for asthma symptoms of treating comorbid allergic rhinitis with intranasal corticosteroids. Effects of other treatments for comorbid allergic rhinitis, including antihistamines, allergen immunotherapy, systemic anti-IgE therapy, and antileukotriene agents, have been examined in a limited number of studies; anti-IgE therapy and antileukotriene agents such as the leukotriene receptor antagonists have benefits for treating both allergic rhinitis and asthma. Results of observational studies indicate that treating comorbid allergic rhinitis results in a lowered risk of asthma-related hospitalizations and emergency visits. Results of several retrospective database studies in the United States and in Europe indicate that, for patients with asthma, the presence of comorbid allergic rhinitis is associated with higher total annual medical costs, greater prescribing frequency of asthma-related medications, as well as increased likelihood of asthma-related hospital admissions and emergency visits. There is therefore evidence suggesting that comorbid allergic rhinitis is a marker for more difficult to control asthma and worsened asthma outcomes.
Conclusion
These findings highlight the potential for improving asthma outcomes by following a combined therapeutic approach to comorbid allergic rhinitis and asthma rather than targeting each condition separately.
doi:10.1186/1471-2466-6-S1-S4
PMCID: PMC1698497  PMID: 17140422
10.  Treatment trends in allergic rhinitis and asthma: a British ENT survey 
Background
Allergic Rhinitis is a common Ear, Nose and Throat disorder. Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis are diseases with similar underlying mechanism and pathogenesis. The aim of this survey was to highlight current treatment trends for Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma.
Method
A questionnaire was emailed to all registered consultant members of the British Association of Otorhinolaryngologists - Head and Neck Surgeons regarding the management of patients with Allergic Rhinitis and related disorders.
Results
Survey response rate was 56%. The results indicate a various approach in the investigation and management of Allergic Rhinitis compatible with recommendations from the Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma guidelines in collaboration with the World Health Organisation.
Conclusion
A combined management approach for patients with Allergic Rhinitis and concomitant Asthma may reduce medical treatment costs for these conditions and improve symptom control and quality of life.
doi:10.1186/1472-6815-11-3
PMCID: PMC3090350  PMID: 21481237
Allergic Rhinitis; Asthma; Survey; Questionnaire; Atopy
11.  A rare case of breast cancer metastasising to the nasopharynx and paranasal sinuses 
INTRODUCTION
Metastatic spread from non-head and neck tumours to the sinonasal region is exceedingly rare. We present a case of breast cancer metastasis to the nasopharynx, ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses. To date there have been only two similar cases in the literature. We discuss the diagnosis and management of such cases and propose how they may be staged.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 75-year-old woman with past medical history of breast carcinoma, presented clinically as having a primary sinonasal malignancy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a lesion involving the spenoid and ethmoid sinuses, nasendoscopy revealed a mass in the nasopharynx. Biopsy from clinic pointed to inverted sinonasal papilloma, however this did not fit with the MRI or the clinical picture. Repeat biopsy under image guidance revealed the lesion to be a breast cancer metastasis.
DISCUSSION
An extensive literature review revealed few cases of spread to the sinonasal region from distant primary malignancy. When such cases do arise, most are from renal tumours. Breast cancer metastases usually present with signs and symptoms of disseminated disease, however our case represents a true isolated metastasis. We discuss the management of our case and suggest the use of the tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) system, in order to stage these rare isolated occurrences.
CONCLUSION
If discovered early, this rare manifestation may be managed by primary surgical resection. Metastases to the region may be more common than previously thought. A high index of suspicion should be employed, especially where there is past medical history of malignancy.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2012.05.016
PMCID: PMC3397298  PMID: 22743009
Breast cancer; Breast neoplasms; Metastases; Nasopharynx; Naopharyngeal neoplasms
12.  Blastomyces Antigen Detection for Monitoring Progression of Blastomycosis in a Pregnant Adolescent 
Although disseminated blastomycosis is a rare complication in pregnancy, delay in diagnosis and treatment can be fatal. We investigate the use of the Blastomyces urine antigen in diagnosis following disease progression in the intrapartum, postpartum, and neonatal periods. We describe a case of disseminated blastomycosis in a pregnant adolescent and review the pertinent literature regarding treatment and monitoring blastomycosis in pregnancy and the neonatal periods. This is the first reported case in which the Blastomyces urine antigen is utilized as a method of following disease activity during pregnancy confirming absence of clinically evident disease in a neonate. Urine antigen detection for blastomycosis can be useful for following progression of disease in patients with disseminated blastomycosis in both the intrapartum and postpartum periods.
doi:10.1155/2007/89059
PMCID: PMC1906866  PMID: 17641724
13.  Endoscopic Resection of Solitary Fibrous Tumors of the Nose and Paranasal Sinuses 
Skull Base  2011;21(2):129-134.
Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are uncommon neoplasms of mesenchymal origin that were first described as primary spindle-cell tumors of the pleura in 1931. Since then, infrequent case reports of extrapleural SFTs have been described including various subsites within the head and neck. Based on a review of the literature and a description of the endoscopic treatment of three patients with SFTs of the nasal cavity and ethmoid sinuses, the challenges associated with the management of sinonasal SFTs are discussed. Successful endoscopic resection was performed at a tertiary referral rhinology practice within a university center in three cases of sinonasal SFTs with no evidence of recurrence at 26, 35, and 49 months following resection. Summarized are the common presenting symptoms, appropriate diagnostic workup, and indicative computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging appearance of SFTs. Further discussed are the challenge associated with accurate histological and immunohistochemical diagnosis, the difficulty in assessing the aggressiveness and malignant potential of these lesions, and the appropriate treatment and follow-up duration that these neoplasms require.
doi:10.1055/s-0031-1275259
PMCID: PMC3312588  PMID: 22451814
Solitary fibrous tumor; endoscopic resection; sinus
14.  Chemotherapy-Induced Neuronal Maturation in Sinonasal Teratocarcinosarcoma—a Unique Observation 
Head and Neck Pathology  2008;3(1):31-36.
Sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma (SNTCS) is a rare and highly malignant tumour with combined features of a teratoma and carcinosarcoma. We report the first case of a SNTCS in 23 year old male treated with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by cranio-facial resection. The resection specimen displayed cellular maturation in the neuroectodermal component. The patient presented with a short history of nasal obstruction, epistaxis and headache. On imaging, a bone destroying lesion of left paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity was identified. The diagnosis of SNTCS could be offered only on the third biopsy which showed heterogeneous admixture of primitive neuroectodermal, epithelial and mesenchymal elements. An adequate sampling with high index of suspicion is needed to catch hold this rare tumor. Tumor was excised after 4 cycles of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. On microscopic examination, it showed similar epithelial and mesenchymal components as the pretreatment biopsies. However, the primitive neuroectodermal component displayed extensive neuronal maturation. The undifferentiated neuroectodermal cells were completely absent in the post chemotherapy specimen. This case throws light on the morphologic evidence of chemotherapy induced maturation in the neuroectodermal component within SNTCS, an event hitherto not reported in the literature in case of SNTCS.
doi:10.1007/s12105-008-0094-x
PMCID: PMC2807528  PMID: 20596986
Teratocarcinosarcoma; Sinonasal tumours; Neuronal maturation; Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy
15.  Endoscopic management of posterior epistaxis: a review 
SUMMARY
The paradigm for the management of epistaxis, specifically posterior epistaxis, has undergone significant changes in the recent past. Recent prospective and retrospective data has shown that the endonasal surgical management of posterior epistaxis is superior to posterior nasal packing and angiography/embolization with regards to various factors including pain, cost-effectiveness, risk and overall control of bleeding. Endonasal endoscopic surgical techniques for posterior epistaxis include direct cauterization and transnasal endoscopic sphenopalatine/ posterior nasal artery ligation or cauterization with or without control of the anterior ethmoidal artery. Despite the evidence provided by the current literature, a universal treatment protocol has not yet been established. This review article provides an up-to-date assessment of the available literature, and presents a structured paradigm for the management of posterior epistaxis.
PMCID: PMC3970224  PMID: 24711676
Epistaxis; Endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation; Posterior epistaxis; Sphenopalatine artery
16.  Facial necrosis after endovascular Onyx-18 embolization for epistaxis 
Background:
Evolution in techniques and equipment has expanded the role, effectiveness, and safety of endovascular transarterial embolization for the treatment of severe epistaxis. Risks from this treatment approach include major ischemic complications. To date, there have been only a few reports of soft tissue necrosis following endovascular embolization for severe epistaxis; none involve the use of Onyx-18.
Case Description:
We report the case of a 52-year-old woman who presented with epistaxis that was refractory to medical and surgical management, which lead to endovascular intervention and embolization with Onyx-18. The patient subsequently developed nasal ala and facial necrosis as a result of the procedure.
Conclusion:
We report the use of Onyx-18 for the endovascular embolization of a patient with severe epistaxis and subsequent complications. In cases of severe epistaxis that warrant intervention in the form of embolization, ischemic complications are rare; however, ischemic complications may be unavoidable and should factor into the discussion regarding procedural risks.
doi:10.4103/2152-7806.115388
PMCID: PMC3740618  PMID: 23956938
Endovascular embolization; epistaxis; Onyx; soft tissue necrosis
17.  Evaluation of Audio-Rhinological Changes During Pregnancy 
A number of physiological changes occur during pregnancy and amongst them, audiological and nasal changes are quite significant. These are mainly due to the changing levels of sex hormones and return to normal once the pregnancy is over. This study was conducted to document these changes. Forty (pregnant 40 and non-pregnant 40) consenting subjects in age group of 20–35 years were assigned to test and control groups. They underwent complete ENT and Obstetric examination. In test group Pure Tone Audiometry was performed in all trimesters of pregnancy and within 3 months of delivery. The subjects in the control group underwent pure tone audiometry only once. The nasal patency was measured by Gertner’s plate method. Results from each trimester and postpartum period were compared. A highly significant difference in pure tone thresholds was observed at frequencies ranging from 125 to 1000 Hz (P < 0.001). However frequencies higher than 1000 Hz demonstrated no significant correlation. Nasal patency as measured by mean area of vapour condensation in all trimesters and control groups was highly significant (P < 0.001). The results of this study confirm that these changes occur in the first trimester and gradually improve during the subsequent trimesters returning to normal in post partum period. However number of pregnancies bear no relationship with these changes
doi:10.1007/s12070-010-0103-8
PMCID: PMC3109969  PMID: 22319721
Pregnancy ;  Hearing loss; Nasal symptoms; Pure tone audiometry; Longitudinal study
18.  Etiological profile and treatment outcome of epistaxis at a tertiary care hospital in Northwestern Tanzania: a prospective review of 104 cases 
Background
Epistaxis is the commonest otolaryngological emergency affecting up to 60% of the population in their lifetime, with 6% requiring medical attention. There is paucity of published data regarding the management of epistaxis in Tanzania, especially the study area. This study was conducted to describe the etiological profile and treatment outcome of epistaxis at Bugando Medical Centre, a tertiary care hospital in Northwestern Tanzania.
Methods
This was a prospective descriptive study of the cases of epistaxis managed at Bugando Medical Centre from January 2008 to December 2010. Data collected were analyzed using SPSS computer software version 15.
Results
A total of 104 patients with epistaxis were studied. Males were affected twice more than the females (2.7:1). Their mean age was 32.24 ± 12.54 years (range 4 to 82 years). The modal age group was 31-40 years. The commonest cause of epistaxis was trauma (30.8%) followed by idiopathic (26.9%) and hypertension (17.3%). Anterior nasal bleeding was noted in majority of the patients (88.7%). Non surgical measures such as observation alone (40.4%) and anterior nasal packing (38.5%) were the main intervention methods in 98.1% of cases. Surgical measures mainly intranasal tumor resection was carried out in 1.9% of cases. Arterial ligation and endovascular embolization were not performed. Complication rate was 3.8%. The overall mean of hospital stay was 7.2 ± 1.6 days (range 1 to 24 days). Five patients died giving a mortality rate of 4.8%.
Conclusion
Trauma resulting from road traffic crush (RTC) remains the most common etiological factor for epistaxis in our setting. Most cases were successfully managed with conservative (non-surgical) treatment alone and surgical intervention with its potential complications may not be necessary in most cases and should be the last resort. Reducing the incidence of trauma from RTC will reduce the incidence of emergency epistaxis in our centre.
doi:10.1186/1472-6815-11-8
PMCID: PMC3175172  PMID: 21892930
Epistaxis; etiology; treatment outcome; Tanzania
19.  Epistaxis: an update on current management 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  2005;81(955):309-314.
Epistaxis is one of the commonest ENT emergencies. Although most patients can be treated within an accident and emergency setting, some are complex and may require specialist intervention. There are multiple risk factors for the development of epistaxis and it can affect any age group, but it is the elderly population with their associated morbidity who often require more intensive treatment and subsequent admission. Treatment strategies have been broadly similar for decades. However, with the evolution of endoscopic technology, new ways of actively managing epistaxis are now available. Recent evidence suggests that this, combined with the use of stepwise management plans, should limit patient complications and the need for admission. This review discusses the various treatment options and integrates the traditional methods with modern techniques.
doi:10.1136/pgmj.2004.025007
PMCID: PMC1743269  PMID: 15879044
20.  Olanzapine use in a manic patient during second and third trimester pregnancy 
Women with bipolar disorder have a high risk for symptom exacerbation during pregnancy and the risk is elevated further when mood stabilizers are discontinued. This report describes a 31-year-old bipolar woman who discontinued medication before pregnancy but had to resume her pharmacotherapy due to manic episodes that recurred during the second trimester. Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, was administered from week 25 of gestation and then replaced with quetiapine in week 35 of gestation. Even though a consensus on clinical interventions for pregnant patients with symptom relapse has not been reached, clinicians should still discuss pregnancy and therapeutic management with every female bipolar patient of childbearing age. This discussion is important because treatment can be managed most effectively in these individuals if pregnancy is planned. Ultimately, clinical decisions should be made on a case-by-case basis, weighing the risks to the mother and fetus between the disorder itself and the teratogenicity of pharmacotherapy.
doi:10.2147/NDT.S59481
PMCID: PMC3933713  PMID: 24570586
pregnancy; bipolar disorder; olanzapine; manic
21.  Orbital Cellulitis: A Rare Presentation of Metastatic Bronchial Carcinoma 
Case Reports in Otolaryngology  2011;2011:397451.
Objective. We report a rare and unusual case of bronchial carcinoma presenting with symptoms of complications of sinonasal disease. Case Report. A 66-year-old lady was referred with a 1-week history of progressive ocular pain, chemosis, and visual disturbance. Computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses revealed frontal and ethmoidal sinus opacification with orbital involvement consistent with a diagnosis of orbital cellulitis secondary to sinusitis. Surgical exploration revealed that the sinuses and right orbit were filled with soft tissue and subsequent histopathological examination of the biopsies indicating metastases from an adenosquamous bronchial carcinoma. Further imaging revealed a large, asymptomatic, bronchial primary with deposits in the brain and liver. The advanced presentation of the disease limited treatment to best supportive care. Conclusion. Orbital cellulitis and sinonasal malignancies have a similar pattern of clinical presentation, posing a potential diagnostic pitfall. There are only two previously reported cases of metastatic lung carcinoma in the frontal sinus with 15 cases of sinonasal tract involvement reported overall. There are no reported cases of adenosquamous carcinoma in the sinonasal tract.
doi:10.1155/2011/397451
PMCID: PMC3420758  PMID: 22937366
22.  Sinonasal Tract Angiosarcoma: A Clinicopathologic and Immunophenotypic Study of 10 Cases with a Review of the Literature 
Head and Neck Pathology  2007;1(1):1-12.
Background    Primary sinonasal tract angiosarcoma are rare tumors that are frequently misclassified, resulting in inappropriate clinical management. There are only a few reported cases in the English literature. Materials and Methods    Ten patients with sinonasal tract angiosarcoma were retrospectively retrieved from the Otorhinolaryngic Registry of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. Results    Six males and four females, aged 13 to 81 years (mean, 46.7 years), presented with epistaxis and bloody discharge. Females were on average younger than their male counterparts (37.8 vs. 52.7 years, respectively). The tumors involved the nasal cavity alone (n = 8) or the maxillary sinus (n = 2), with a mean size of 4.3 cm; the average size was different between the genders: males: 2.8 cm; females: 6.4 cm. Histologically, all tumors had anastomosing vascular channels lined by remarkably atypical endothelial cells protruding into the lumen, neolumen formation, frequent atypical mitotic figures, necrosis, and hemorrhage. All cases tested (n = 6) demonstrated immunoreactivity with antibodies to Factor VIII-RA, CD34, CD31, and smooth muscle actin, while non-reactive with keratin and S-100 protein. The principle differential diagnosis includes granulation tissue, lobular capillary hemangioma (pyogenic granuloma), and Kaposi’s sarcoma. All patients had surgery followed by post-operative radiation (n = 4 patients). Follow-up was available in all patients: Six patients died with disease (mean, 28.8 months); two patients had died without evidence of disease (mean, 267 months); and two are alive with no evidence of disease at last follow-up (mean, 254 months). Conclusions    Sinonasal tract angiosarcoma is a rare tumor, frequently presenting in middle-aged patients as a large mass usually involving the nasal cavity with characteristic histomorphologic and immunophenotypic features. Sinonasal tract angiosarcoma will often have a poor prognosis making appropriate separation from other conditions important.
doi:10.1007/s12105-007-0017-2
PMCID: PMC2807511  PMID: 20614274
Angiosarcoma; Sinonasal tract; Nasal cavity; Vascular; Hemangioma; Sarcoma; Immunohistochemistry; Prognosis; Survival; Differential diagnosis
23.  Pregnant women’s knowledge of weight, weight gain, complications of obesity and weight management strategies in pregnancy 
BMC Research Notes  2013;6:278.
Background
Obesity is increasingly common in the obstetric population. Maternal obesity and excess gestational weight gain (GWG) are associated with increased perinatal risk. There is limited published data demonstrating the level of pregnant women’s knowledge regarding these problems, their consequences and management strategies.
We aimed to assess the level of knowledge of pregnant women regarding: (i) their own weight and body mass index (BMI) category, (ii) awareness of guidelines for GWG, (iii) concordance of women’s own expectations with guidelines, (iv) knowledge of complications associated with excess GWG, and (v) knowledge of safe weight management strategies in pregnancy.
Methods
364 pregnant women from a single center university hospital antenatal clinic were interviewed by an obstetric registrar. The women in this convenience sample were asked to identify their weight category, their understanding of the complications of obesity and excessive GWG in pregnancy and safe and/or effective weight management strategies in pregnancy.
Results
Nearly half (47.8%) of the study population were overweight or obese. 74% of obese women underestimated their BMI category. 64% of obese women and 40% of overweight women overestimated their recommended GWG. Women’s knowledge of the specific risks associated with excess GWG or maternal obesity was poor. Women also reported many incorrect beliefs about safe weight management in pregnancy.
Conclusions
Many pregnant women have poor knowledge about obesity, GWG, their consequences and management strategies. Bridging this knowledge gap is an important step towards improving perinatal outcomes for all pregnant women, especially those who enter pregnancy overweight or obese.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-6-278
PMCID: PMC3726511  PMID: 23866845
Overweight; Obesity; Pregnancy; Body mass index; Weight gain; Knowledge; Complications
24.  Early congenital syphilis still occurs. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1985;60(12):1128-1133.
Seven cases of early congenital syphilis have been recorded in the past 10 years in the Mersey Regional Health Authority. Antenatal serology was initially negative in five mothers, who were either incubating or acquired the infection later, and treatment had probably failed in two women given erythromycin for syphilis during pregnancy. Serology should be repeated later in pregnancy in those at high risk. Social factors that define this group include women who book for antenatal care late in pregnancy, have a past history of sexually transmitted disease, and have multiple consorts. Clinical signs in the infant such as failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, symmetrical rash, rhinitis, and osteochondritis should alert the clinician to the possibility of congenital syphilis. Adequate management of mother and baby requires close liaison between the genitourinary physician, microbiologist, obstetrician, and paediatrician. Penicillin remains the treatment of choice.
Images
PMCID: PMC1777673  PMID: 3841473
25.  Inverted papillomas and benign nonneoplastic lesions of the nasal cavity 
Background:
Benign lesions of the nasal cavity represent a diverse group of pathologies. Furthermore, each of these disorders may present differently in any given patient as pain and discomfort, epistaxis, headaches, vision changes, or nasal obstruction. Although these nasal masses are benign, many of them have a significant capacity for local tissue destruction and symptomatology secondary to this destruction. Advances in office-based endoscopic nasendoscopy have equipped the otolaryngologist with a safe, inexpensive, and rapid means of directly visualizing lesions within the nasal cavity and the initiation of appropriate treatment.
Methods:
The purpose of this study is to review the diagnosis, management, and controversies of many of the most common benign lesions of the nasal cavity encountered by the primary care physician or otolaryngologist.
Results:
This includes discussion of inverted papilloma (IP), juvenile angiofibroma, squamous papilloma, pyogenic granuloma, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, schwannoma, benign fibro-osseous lesions, and other benign lesions of the nasal cavity, with particular emphasis on IP and juvenile angiofibroma.
Conclusion:
A diverse array of benign lesions occur within the nasal cavity and paranasal cavities. Despite their inability to metastasize, many of these lesions have significant capability for local tissue destruction and recurrence.
doi:10.2500/ajra.2012.26.3732
PMCID: PMC3906506  PMID: 22487294
Cocaine rhinitis; endoscopic surgery; hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia; pyogenic granuloma; nasal mass; inverted papilloma; rhinolith; squamous papilloma

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