This EAACI Task Force document aims at providing the readers with a comprehensive and complete overview of the currently available tools for diagnosis of nasal and sino-nasal disease. We have tried to logically order the different important issues related to history taking, clinical examination and additional investigative tools for evaluation of the severity of sinonasal disease into a consensus document. A panel of European experts in the field of Rhinology has contributed to this consensus document on Diagnostic Tools in Rhinology.
Although there has been many studies quoting ENT and rhinology complications, there have been none looking at the complication rates of one department with a single specialist rhinologist over a 5-year period.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
Over a 5-year period between 1998 and 2002, the number of operative procedures undertaken in the ENT department in a busy district general hospital was collected in a prospective manner.
A total of 10,768 ENT procedures were undertaken in the department which comprised four consultants and associated junior staff (SpRs/SASs/SHOs); 2507 of these procedures were rhinology cases. There were 39 recorded complications following nasal surgery, giving an overall rhinology complication rate of 1.56%. This included 12 postoperative nose bleeds (0.48%), 5 cases of infection following septal surgery (0.56%), 7 cases of septal perforation (0.75%) and various minor functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) complications (2.17%). These figures are either below or within the quoted literature rates. There were no major complications or deaths recorded following nasal surgery.
These results compare favourably with those of other studies.
Audit; Rhinology; District general hospital
Subjective assessment of quality of life (QOL) as an important aspect of outcomes research has received increasing importance during the past decades. QOL is measured with standardized questionnaires which had been tested with regard to reliability, validity, and sensitivity.
Surgical procedures of the nasal septum (septoplasty) and the external nose (rhinoplasty) are frequently performed. Since many years subjectively assessed results of these operations have been reported in the literature. However, validated QOL instruments were applied only for one decade. Beforehand, measurements were performed using retrospective assessment of satisfaction or visual analogue scales. Prospective application of validated disease-specific and general measuring instruments has to be demanded for future studies.
Most of the septoplasty patients as well as most of the rhinoplasty patients evaluate the operation being successful. However, a relevant number of patients is not satisfied with the result of surgery. In this context, QOL instruments have the potential to identify further factors influencing the outcome. Especially in rhinoplasty patients, special attention has to be drawn on potential psychosocial effects of the operation.
validation; quality of life; nasal obstruction; nasal function
CT navigation is an assistant tool for identification and location of anatomical structures during surgery based on computer processed preoperative CT images followed by registration. CT navigation facilitates exact localization of particular anatomical points and at the same time also allows determination of the exact position of a respective instrument in 3D pictures and in 3 CT planes.
The optical CT navigation system Treon Plus (Medtronic-Xomed) is successfully being used at the ENT Department of the 3rd Medical Faculty Charles University and Central Military Clinic, Prague, Czech Republic. We studied the advantages of CT navigation use on 141 patients (257 procedures) operated from January, 1, 2007 till December, 31, 2009. The CT navigation was used for primary sinus endoscopic surgery (81 procedures), revision sinus endoscopic surgery (46), surgical treatment of injuries (7), and in tumors (7). We examined the use of optical CT navigation with MRI fusion for delimitation of extensive tumor of the tongue.
In operated group of patients we observed no major per- or post-operative complications.
The primary benefit of the presented CT navigation is the feasibility of higher radicality, accuracy, together with delicacy towards the surrounding tissues.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a prevalent condition leading to poor quality of life (QOL) in patients with refractory symptoms. Laparoscopic antireflux (LAR) surgery has been shown to improve QOL, and I sought to examine the surgical and QOL outcomes associated with LAR surgery over a 3-year period at a regional hospital.
Patients were given GERD–health related quality of life (GERD-HRQL) and SF-36 questionnaires preoperatively, at 6 months and at 12 or more months after surgery. I collected data on demographic and clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes.
Of the 342 patients referred for GERD or dysphagia, 26 received LAR surgery during the study period. All 26 patients had symptoms refractory to medications; 19 had atypical symptoms and 8 had some form of chronic pain syndrome (CPS). The mean duration of surgery was 125 minutes. There were no conversions, complications, 30-day readmissions or deaths. Three patients stayed 2 days in hospital and 23 stayed overnight. One patient required esophageal dilation for persistent dysphagia. Two patients resumed medication for recurrent symptoms and 24 remained medication free. There were significant improvements in GERD–HRQL scores in all patients. Patients with CPS had no improvements in SF-36 scores, whereas patients without CPS showed significant improvement.
Excellent surgical outcomes in LAR surgery can be obtained with careful patient selection at a nonacademic regional hospital. Although GERD-HRQL improved in all patients, patients with CPS showed no improvement in general health QOL scores after LAR surgery. Careful patient counselling should be employed when offering LAR surgery to patients with CPS.
A number of physiological changes occur during pregnancy and amongst them, audiological and nasal changes are quite significant. These are mainly due to the changing levels of sex hormones and return to normal once the pregnancy is over. This study was conducted to document these changes. Forty (pregnant 40 and non-pregnant 40) consenting subjects in age group of 20–35 years were assigned to test and control groups. They underwent complete ENT and Obstetric examination. In test group Pure Tone Audiometry was performed in all trimesters of pregnancy and within 3 months of delivery. The subjects in the control group underwent pure tone audiometry only once. The nasal patency was measured by Gertner’s plate method. Results from each trimester and postpartum period were compared. A highly significant difference in pure tone thresholds was observed at frequencies ranging from 125 to 1000 Hz (P < 0.001). However frequencies higher than 1000 Hz demonstrated no significant correlation. Nasal patency as measured by mean area of vapour condensation in all trimesters and control groups was highly significant (P < 0.001). The results of this study confirm that these changes occur in the first trimester and gradually improve during the subsequent trimesters returning to normal in post partum period. However number of pregnancies bear no relationship with these changes
Pregnancy ; Hearing loss; Nasal symptoms; Pure tone audiometry; Longitudinal study
The diagnosis and treatment of rhinitis, sinusitis, and epistaxis during pregnancy present unique challenges to the otolaryngologist. Poorly controlled sinonasal disease may have significant adverse effects on the mother's quality of life and pregnancy outcomes and the lack of adequately controlled safety data limits the clinician's ability to make informed decisions about management. At the conclusion of this discussion, the reader should be familiar with the available literature and evidence-based guidelines regarding the safety and indications for radiographic imaging, clinical testing, medical intervention, and surgical treatment of sinonasal disease in pregnant patients. A review was performed of pertinent guidelines regarding the management of gestational rhinitis, sinusitis, and epistaxis, including the diagnostic and therapeutic limitations and physiological changes specific to pregnancy. A study population of four patients was analyzed to highlight the steps of management by reviewing the patient charts including pertinent history, physical examination, clinical course, and operative reports. Two patients with epistaxis and two patients with rhinosinusitis ranging from 27 to 38 years of age and between 16 and 35 weeks gestation were analyzed. The treatment of sinonasal disease during pregnancy is challenging and a thorough knowledge of the available medical evidence and treatment guidelines is necessary to optimize pregnancy outcomes. When the severity of disease precludes the possibility of delaying treatment, the clinician should provide a limited intervention that optimizes the mother's health without placing the fetus at significant risk.
Advair; albuterol; allergic rhinitis; amoxicillin; anaphylaxis; Augmentin; azithromycin; budesonide; epistaxis; fluticasone; gestational rhinitis; montelukast; prednisone; pyogenic granuloma; rads; rhinitis medicamentosa; rhinitis of pregnancy; sinusitis
Patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) have multiple comorbidities and limited life spans. The ability of infrainguinal vein bypass to improve quality of life (QoL) in patients with CLI has therefore been questioned. Prospective preoperative and postoperative QoL data for patients undergoing lower extremity vein bypass for CLI are presented.
A validated, disease-specific QoL questionnaire (VascuQoL) with activity, symptom, pain, emotional, and social domains and responses scored 1 (lowest QoL) to 7 (best QoL) was administered before surgery and at 3 and 12 months after lower extremity vein bypass for CLI. Changes in QoL at 3 and 12 months after lower extremity vein bypass and multiple predetermined variables potentially influencing QoL after lower extremity vein bypass were analyzed to determine the effect of lower extremity vein bypass on QoL in CLI patients.
A total of 1404 patients had lower extremity vein bypass for CLI at 83 centers in the United States and Canada as part of the PREVENT III clinical trial. Surveys were completed in 1296 patients at baseline, 862 patients at 3 months, and 732 patients at 12 months. The global QoL score (mean ± SD) was 2.8 ± 1.1 at baseline and was 4.7 ± 1.4 and 5.1 ± 1.4 at 3 and 12 months, respectively. Mean changes from baseline at 3 and 12 months were statistically significant (P < .0001). Improved QoL scores extended across all domains. Diabetes and the development of graft-related events were associated with decreased improvement in QoL scores, though the mean relative change from baseline remained positive.
Patients with CLI have a low QoL at baseline that is improved at 3 and 12 months after lower extremity vein bypass. QoL improvements are lower in diabetic patients and those who develop graft-related events. Successful revascularization can be expected to improve QoL in patients with CLI, with benefits that are sustained to at least 1 year.
In patients with esophageal cancer, evidence for prognostic significance of preoperative quality of life (QoL) is limited, while the prognostic significance of postoperative QoL has not been investigated at all.
To determine whether preoperative and postoperative QoL measurements can predict survival independently from clinical and pathological factors, in patients with potentially curable esophageal adenocarcinoma.
A randomized controlled trial was performed from 1994 to 2000 in two academic medical centres, comparing transthoracic and transhiatal esophagectomy. QoL questionnaires were sent before and 3 months after surgery (Medical Outcome Study Short Form-20 and Rotterdam Symptom Checklist). Uni- and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to examine firstly the prognostic value of preoperative QoL and several clinical factors, and secondly of postoperative QoL, several clinical factors, and pathological staging.
Out of 220 randomized patients, 199 participated in the QoL-study. In the multivariate preoperative model physical symptom scale (p = 0.021), tumor length (p = 0.034), and endosonographic T-stage (p = 0.003) were predictive for overall survival. In the postoperative multivariate analysis, social functioning (p = 0.035), pain (p = 0.026), and activity level (p = 0.037) predicted survival, besides pathological T-stage (p < 0.001) and N-stage (p < 0.001).
In the present paper the first large consecutive series of potentially curable esophageal cancer patients is presented in whom prospectively collected QoL data before and after potentially curative surgical resection were used to predict survival. Both preoperative (physical symptoms) and postoperative (social functioning, pain, and activity level) QoL subscales are independent predictors of survival in potentially curable patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma.
Varicose veins are a major problem worldwide and improvement in quality of life (QoL) is the ultimate goal after treatment of this benign disease. However QoL is highly dependent on personal and social factors. This study compares high ligation and stripping (HS) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in terms of QoL and recurrence in Korea.
A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data between August 2006 and October 2008 was performed for patients undergoing HS and RFA at a single institution. QoL was assessed with a questionnaire preoperatively, at 3 months postoperatively and annually thereafter. Recurrence was assessed by Duplex ultrasound annually after surgery.
A total of 272 patients completed the questionnaire at 3 months. Among these patients, 155 patients returned for their annual follow-up. There were no significant differences between HS and RFA in global QoL scores, although RFA showed less pain. However, paresthesia rates were also higher after RFA. Recurrence rates were similar between the two modalities, although technical failures were more common after RFA.
Overall QoL and recurrence rates were similar between the two modalities. The benefits of RFA do not seem to be enough to overcome the higher costs of HS in Korea.
Varicose veins; Radiofrequency catheter ablation; Recurrence; Quality of life
To investigate the effect of epiretinal membrane (ERM) peel on patients' health related quality of life (HR‐QOL) and to explore the association between self reported HR‐QOL and conventional measures of visual function.
The National Eye Institute 25 Item Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ‐25) and the 36 Item Short‐Form Health Survey (SF‐36) were self administered by 20 patients before and 4 months following surgery. Preoperative and postoperative data collected included logMAR near and distant visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity, and metamorphopsia. Questionnaire scores were compared preoperatively and postoperatively and their correlation with traditional methods of visual function evaluation analysed.
Postoperatively there was no significant improvement in mean logMAR VA. However, eight (40%) subjects improved by two or more ETDRS lines and nine eyes (45%) reached a final VA of 6/18 or better. Metamorphopsia decreased significantly (p = 0.019) and there was significant improvement in VFQ‐25 mean scores for the general vision (p = 0.03), distance activities (p = 0.05), and composite score (p = 0.03). Baseline binocular VA was significantly correlated with baseline VFQ‐25 composite score (r = 0.631, p = 0.004).
ERM surgery appears to improve patients' subjective perception of visual function as indicated by higher composite scores in VFQ‐25 and improved metamorphopsia in the absence of significant improvement in mean logMAR VA.
We evaluated the health-related quality of life (QOL) of patients undergoing anterior skull base tumor resection. The Anterior Skull Base Surgery QOL questionnaire, a disease-specific multidimensional instrument dedicated to this population, was used to collect and prospectively analyze demographic, medical, and QOL data on 48 patients. Thirty-nine patients completed the questionnaire preoperatively and at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Seventeen patients (44%) had malignant histology and 22 (56%) had benign tumors. The overall QOL score decreased significantly at 6 months postoperatively (p < 0.05) and improved significantly at 12 months postoperatively (p < 0.04). The emotional domain improved significantly at 12 months postoperatively compared with the preoperative scores (p < 0.03). Patients with malignant tumors had lower scores at 6 months postoperatively compared with patients with benign lesions (p < 0.002), although the scores for both groups at 12 months postoperatively were similar. Adjuvant radiation therapy was associated with a poor QOL (p < 0.005). The results of this prospective study show that the overall deteriorated QOL of patients after anterior skull base tumor resection returns to baseline by 1 year after surgery. Histology and radiotherapy are significant predictors of health-related QOL in this population.
Craniofacial resection; cranial base; subcranial approach; cancer
Quality of life (QOL) is a core outcome of palliative care, yet in African settings there is a lack of evidence on patients' levels of QOL. We aimed to describe QOL among patients with incurable, progressive disease receiving palliative care in South Africa and Uganda, to compare QOL in cancer and HIV, to determine how domains of QOL correlate with overall QOL, and compare levels of QOL in this population with those in other studies using the same tool.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted using the Missoula Vitas Quality of Life Index (MVQOLI), a 26-item QOL questionnaire with five subscales (Function, Symptom, Interpersonal, Well being, Transcendent) covering physical, social, psychological and spiritual domains and one global QOL item. One item in each subscale assesses the subjective importance of the domain on a score from 1 (least important) to 5 (most important), used to weight the contribution of the subscale towards the Total QOL score. The tool was translated into 6 languages and administered to consecutively recruited patients at four facilities in South Africa and one in Uganda.
285 patients were recruited, with a mean age of 40.1; 197 (69.1%) were female. Patients' primary diagnoses were HIV (80.7%), cancer (17.9%) and other conditions (1.4%). The mean global QOL score was 2.81 (possible range 0 (worst) to 5 (best)); mean Total score 17.32 (possible range 0 to 30). Patients scored most poorly on Function (mean 0.21), followed by Well being (2.59), Symptoms (5.38), Transcendent (5.50), Interpersonal (9.53) (possible range for subscale scores -30 to 30). Most important to patients were: close relationships (mean 4.13), feeling at peace (4.12), sense of meaning in life (4.10), being active (3.84), physical comfort (2.58). Cancer patients were predominantly recruited at three of the sites; hence comparison with HIV-infected patients was restricted to these sites. HIV+ patients (n = 115) scored significantly worse than cancer patients (n = 50) on Well being (Z = -2.778, p = 0.005), Transcendence (Z = -2.693, p = 0.007) and Total QOL (Z = -2.564, p = 0.01). Global QOL score was most weakly correlated with Total QOL (r = 0.37) and the Transcendent subscale was most highly correlated (r = 0.77) (both p < 0.001). Patients receiving palliative care in South Africa and Uganda exhibited significantly poorer QOL compared to similar populations in the USA.
Feeling at peace and having a sense of meaning in life were more important to patients than being active or physical comfort, and spiritual wellbeing correlated most highly with overall QOL. It is therefore vital to identify and meet the psychological and spiritual care needs of patients, as well as to assess and treat pain and other symptoms. Our finding that patients scored most poorly on the Function domain warrants further research.
Acoustic rhinometry is a new technique which evaluates nasal obstruction by analysing reflections of a sound pulse introduced via the nostrils. The technique is rapid, reproducible, non-invasive and requires minimal cooperation from the subject. Unlike rhinomanometry it does not require airflow. A graph of nasal cross-sectional area as a function of distance from the nostril is produced, from which several area and volume estimates of the nasal cavity can be derived. The reliability of the method is greatest in the anterior nasal cavity, which is the site of the nasal valve. We have applied the technique to the study of normal nasal physiology in adults and children and to a range of pathological conditions. The role of acoustic rhinometry in diagnosis is somewhat limited compared to nasal endoscopy, but it is useful for nasal challenge and for quantifying nasal obstruction. Monitoring of medical and surgical therapy is a more promising application. In future, acoustic rhinometry is likely to be of particular help in evaluating childhood nasal obstruction, as it is well tolerated by children as young as 3 years old-a group of patients to whom objective tests have hitherto been difficult to apply.
With advances in treatment of patients with tumors of the skull base and associated improvement in length of survival, the need for assessment of quality of life (QOL) is becoming increasingly apparent. A thorough assessment of QOL, including functional, physical, social, and emotional status, as well as disease-specific symptoms, allows for comparison of treatments and informs treatment decisions. In addition, it allows for problems following intervention to be identified and addressed, thereby assisting patients in their pursuits of returning to their normal activities and level of functioning. Although health care providers and researchers are increasingly aware of the need to assess patients' QOL, few standardized measures exist with which to perform a comprehensive assessment of QOL in patients with skull base neoplasms. Further research is needed, including prospective trials using reliable and valid measures tapping various aspects of QOL and specific symptoms unique to patients with tumors of the skull base.
Skull base tumor; quality of life
The study of the nose is as old as civilisation. Various conditions affecting its structure and function has been documented in Edwin Smith Papyrus in hieroglyphic script, an Egyptian writing system of the mid −4th Millennium BC.The major contribution for the complete reconstruction of the nose originated in India by Sushruta in around 600 BC. Writing in Sanskrit in the form of verses he described in detail the technique of total reconstruction, which is still being practiced today as Indian Rhinoplasty. This surgical reconstruction paved the way to modern plastic surgery in Europe and United States in 18th century. Sushruta contributed not only to the plastic surgery of the nose, but described entire philosophy of Head and Neck and other surgery as well. Other notable contributors were Greek physicians, Hippocrate and Galen, and at the birth of the Christianity, Celsus wrote eight books of medical encyclopaedia, which described various conditions affecting nose.
Septal and Sinus surgery, in comparison to rhinoplasty did not develop until 17th century. Septal surgery began with total septectomy, sub mucous resection by Killian & Freer in early 20th century and later septoplasty by Cottle in middle of 20th century.
Sinus surgery probably originated in Egypt, where instruments were used to remove brain through the ethmoid sinuses as part of the mummification process. In 18th century, empyema of the maxillary sinus was drained through the tooth socket or anterior wall of the sinus, which lead to the evolution of radical procedures of removal of mucous membrane and inferior meatal antrostomy. In the late 20th century, improved understanding of the mucociliary mechanism described by Prof. Messerklinger and Nasal Endoscopy described by Prof. Draf with the development of fibre optics and CT imaging, heralded a new era, which evolved in functional endoscopic sinus surgery. New technology further enhanced the scope of endoscope being used “around and beyond” the nose.
The aim of this study was to determine how laser in situkeratomileusis (LASIK) affects quality of life (QOL) and to identify factors that may affect satisfaction after LASIK.
A total of 104 patients with a mean age of 29±6, treated with LASIK for myopia and astigmatism, were enrolled in a prospective study. High (90%) and low (10%) contrast visual acuity (CVA) were measured under photopic and scotopic conditions before surgery and at 3 months later. A multidimensional QOL scale (Institute for Eye Research multidimensional QOL scale), which assesses psychological characteristics, personality traits, cosmesis, frequency, and tolerance to disturbing visual and ocular symptoms, and overall satisfaction with vision correction, was also used. Paired rank tests were used to compare preoperative and postoperative vision and QOL scores. Correlations and a multiple linear regression were used to describe the relationship between CVA, QOL, and satisfaction after LASIK.
Significant postoperative changes included increased satisfaction following LASIK (P<0.001), reduced frequency of visual and ocular symptoms (P<0.001), and change in psychological characteristics (P=0.033). The change in satisfaction with LASIK can be predicted by a combination of preoperative satisfaction, postoperative frequency of disturbing visual and ocular symptoms, postoperative mean spherical equivalent, and postoperative scotopic high CVA (R
Satisfaction with LASIK is related to visual function, preoperative expectations, psychological characteristics, and uncorrected CVA achieved. An increased sense of subjective well-being, adaptability, and self-efficacy was evident after LASIK. Patients reported a more optimistic attitude to life and increase perceived QOL after surgery.
quality of life; vision performance; LASIK; psychological characteristics; satisfaction
The use of antibiotics in septoplasty is a common practice among most ear, nose, and throat doctors; however, there are few studies proving the efficacy, which is considered as unnecessary by some authors. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of two different kinds of antimicrobial agent on efficacy and safety after septoplasty surgery and to show that use of cephazolin, 1.0 g, postoperatively, might be sufficient for preventing infection after septoplasty procedure. Patients were randomly divided into two groups with a simple randomization method. The first group of 80 patients received cephazolin, 1.0 g i.v., once postoperatively and the second group of 80 patients received amoxicillin–clavulanate orally for 7 days postoperatively (1000 mg). An early and late postoperative questionnaire and nasal endoscopy evaluation was performed and patients were followed up in the outpatient service to investigate the presence of complications. There was no significant difference in postoperative pain between groups A and B, using visual analog scale scores at the 1st postoperative day. There were no differences related to the amount of purulent discharge found at the lower margin of the inferior turbinate through nasal endoscopy performed on the 14th day postoperatively. There were no statistical significances among groups for complications rates and postoperative endoscopic evaluation. Septoplasties are considered potentially contaminated surgeries, and cephazolin, 1.0 g i.v., given once postoperatively is enough to prevent potential complications with its easy and effective use.
Amoxicillin; antibiotics; cephazolin; complication; postoperative; septoplasty
Background: Health related quality of life (HRQOL) after surgery is important, although very limited data are available on the QOL after lung cancer surgery.
Methods: The effect of surgery on HRQOL was assessed in a prospective study of 110 patients undergoing potentially curative lung cancer surgery at Papworth Hospital, 30% of whom had borderline lung function as judged by forced expiratory volume in 1 second. All patients completed the EORTC QLQ-C30 and LC13 lung cancer module before surgery and again at 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively.
Results: On average, patients had high levels of functioning and low levels of symptoms. Global QOL had deteriorated significantly 1 month after surgery (p = 0.001) but had returned to preoperative levels by 3 months (p = 0.93). Symptoms had worsened significantly at 1 month after surgery but had returned to baseline levels by 6 months. Low values on the preoperative HRQOL scales were not significantly associated with poor surgical outcome. However, patients with low preoperative HRQOL functioning scales and high preoperative symptom scores were more likely to have poor postoperative (6 months) QOL. The only lung function measurement to show a marginally statistically significant association with quality of life at 6 months after surgery was percentage predicted carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO).
Conclusion: Although surgery had short term negative effects on quality of life, by 6 months HRQOL had returned to preoperative values. Patients with low HRQOL functioning scales, high preoperative symptom scores, and preoperative percentage predicted TLCO may be associated with worse postoperative HRQOL.
Bariatric surgery is considered an efficient treatment for severe obesity, but postoperative complications and psychosocial problems may impact quality of life (QoL). Although QoL is an important aspect of bariatric surgery, few studies have evaluated the changes in QoL. We examined whether severely obese patients who had undergone bariatric surgery had better QoL compared with severely obese adults who had not undergone bariatric surgery in Korea.
Data were obtained from 78 participants in two groups; bariatric surgery group (n = 53) and nonsurgery group (n = 25). EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D), the impact of weight on quality of life-lite (IWQoL-lite) and the obesity-related psychosocial problem scale (OP-scale) were used to assess the improvement of QoL.
A total of 78 patients completed the QoL forms as part of their surgical consultation. In the EQ-5D, the changes of EQ-5D 3 level and EQ-5D visual analogue scale in the surgery group was 0.174 and 24.6 versus 0.017 and 17.8 in the nonsurgery group (P = 0.197 and P = 0.179). The changes of IWQoL-lite and OP-scale were significantly improved after bariatric surgery. In the IWQoL-lite, the mean changes in the surgery group was 33.4 versus 14.3 points in the nonsurgery group (P = 0.000). In the OP-scale, the mean changes in the surgery group patients scored 39.3 versus 9.0 points in the nonsurgery group (P = 0.000).
We demonstrated significant improvement of QoL observed after bariatric surgery compared to nonsurgical procedure. The results of this comparative study favor bariatric surgery for the treatment of severe obesity.
Bariatric surgery; Obesity; Quality of life
Testicular cancer (TC) is the most common cancer in young men, and its incidence is increasing. The low mortality rate makes quality of life (QOL) an important issue in this patient group. This study aimed to develop a supplementary module of the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire to assess TC-specific aspects of QOL.
Questionnaire development was conducted according to guidelines from the EORTC Quality of Life Group. Phase I comprised generation of QOL issues relevant to TC patients through a literature search and interviews with patients and experts. Phase II included operationalization and assessment of item relevance. In phase III, items were pre-tested in a cross-cultural sample to assess issues such as understandability and intrusiveness of items.
In phase I and II, an initial list of 69 QOL issues possibly relevant to TC patients was refined through patient and expert interviews. The remaining 37 issues were operationalized into items and assessed for relevance and priority in an expert sample (n = 28) and a patient sample (n = 62) from Austria, Canada and the Netherlands. After revision of the item list, 26 items were considered eligible for pre-testing in phase III, in which 156 patients from Australia, Austria, Italy and Spain participated. All items passed criteria for pre-testing, thus forming the new EORTC QLQ-TC26.
The newly developed EORTC QLQ-TC26 is now available in several languages to assess QOL in TC patients receiving treatment and in TC survivors. Phase IV of questionnaire development will comprise international field testing, including extensive analysis of psychometric characteristics of the EORTC QLQ-TC26.
Testicular cancer; Quality of life; Questionnaire; eortc qlq-tc26
The intention of this study is to analyse the correlation between a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the most common preoperative comorbidity and cardiac variables in patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. This VAS is simple, easy to register and can be used as a global measurement of quality of life (QOL).
Preoperative assessment of QOL in 1351 patients, 979 men and 372 women, with a mean age of 64.5±10.5 (18-88), undergoing elective cardiac surgery between January 2003 and December 2005. QOL was measured by the EuroQol questionnaire.
The mean VAS was 58.7±20.9, range 3 to 100. Univariate analysis showed a difference for sex (p=0.000), and NYHA (p=0.009) between patients with an isolated CABG and those with a combined revascularisation (p=0.05). Stepwise logistic regression analysis identified female gender (p=0.00), NYHA (p=0.00) and valve disease (p=0.03) as independent variables for a low QOL. The correlation between NYHA and QOL was low (r=-0.09, p=0.003).
The clinical consequence is that using this simple VAS we can identify patients with a good QOL. If these patients present for high-risk surgery, with a better quality of life as primary indication, more extended counselling regarding their QOL is recommended. (Neth Heart J 2007;15:51-4.)
myocardial revascularisation; angina pectoris; quality of life; follow-up
There is at present a lack of knowledge of time trends in health related quality of life (HRQL) in common patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) treated in ordinary care. The objective of this study is to assess and compare time trends of health related quality of life (HRQL) and chest pain in patients with coronary artery disease.
253 consecutive CAD patients in Stockholm County, Sweden – 197 males/56 females; 60 ± 8 years – were followed during two years. Perceived chest pain symptoms and three global assessments of HRQL were assessed at baseline, after one and after two years. EuroQol-5 dimension (EQ-5D) with a predefined focus on function and symptoms; the broader tapping global estimates of HRQL; EuroQol VAS (EQ-VAS) and Cardiac Health Profile (CHP) were used. Chest pain was ranked according to Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS). Change in HRQL was analysed by a repeated measurements ANOVA and chest pain symptoms were analysed by Friedman non-parametric ANOVA.
Perceived chest pain decreased during the two years (p < 0.00022); CCS 0: 41–51%; CCS 1: 19–15%; CCS 2: 31–27%; CCS 3: 5–4% and CCS 4: 4–2%. By contrast, HRQL did not change: EQ-5D: 0.76 (CI 0.73–0.79) -0.78 (CI 0.75–0.81), EQ-VAS: 0.68 (CI 0.66–0.71)-0.68 (CI 0.65–0.71) and CHP: 0.66 (CI 0.64–0.69) -0.66 (CI 0.64–0.69).
HRQL did not increase despite a reduction in the severity of chest pain during two years. This implies that the major part of HRQL in these consecutive ordinary patients with CAD is unresponsive to change in chest pain symptoms.
The ‘Worse-Stable-Better’ (W-S-B) question was introduced to capture patient-perceived change in University of Washington Quality of Life (UW-QOL) domains.
202 head and neck cancer patients in remission prospectively completed UW-QOL and Patients Concerns Inventory (PCI). For each UW-QOL domain, patients indicated whether over the last month things had worsened (W), remained stable (S) or were better (B).
202 patients at 448 attendances selected 1752 PCI items they wanted to discuss in consultation, and 58% (1024/1752) of these were not covered by the UW-QOL. UW-QOL algorithms highlighted another 440 significant problems that the patient did not want to discuss (i.e. the corresponding items on the PCI were not selected).
After making allowance for UW-QOL algorithms to identify 'significant problems' and PCI selection of corresponding issues for discussion there remained clear residual and notable variation in W-S-B responses, in particular to identify patients with significant problems that were getting worse, and patients without significant problems that wanted to discuss issues that were getting worse. Changes in mean UW-QOL scores were notably lower for those getting worse on the W-S-B question, typically by 10 or more units a magnitude that suggests clinically important changes in score.
The W-S-B question adds little questionnaire burden and could help to better identify patients who might benefit from intervention. The results of this study suggest that the UW-QOL with the W-S-B modification should be used together with the PCI to allow optimal identification of issues for patient-clinician discussion during routine outpatient clinics.
Health-related quality of life; Head and neck cancer; UW-QOL; Patients Concerns Inventory; Unmet needs
Little is known about longitudinal associations between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and quality of life (QoL) after exposure to violence. The aims of the current study were to examine quality of life (QoL) and the predictive value of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for QoL in victims of non-domestic violence over a period of 12 months.
A single-group (n = 70) longitudinal design with three repeated measures over a period of 12 months were used. Posttraumatic psychological symptoms were assessed by using the Impact of Event Scale, a 15-item self-rating questionnaire comprising two subscales (intrusion and avoidance) as a screening instrument for PTSD. The questionnaire WHOQOL-Bref was used to assess QoL. The WHOQOL-BREF instrument comprises 26 items, which measure the following broad domains: physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment. Results of the analysis were summarized by fitting Structural Equation Modelling (SEM).
For each category of PTSD (probable cases, risk level cases and no cases), the mean levels of the WHOQOL-Bref subscales (the four domains and the two single items) were stable across time of assessment. Individuals who scored as probable PTSD or as risk level cases had significantly lower scores on the QoL domains such as physical health, psychological health, social relationships and environmental than those without PTSD symptoms. In addition, the two items examining perception of overall quality of life and perception of overall health in WHOQOL showed the same results according to PTSD symptoms such as QoL domains. PTSD symptoms predicted lower QoL at all three assessments. Similarly PTSD symptoms at T1 predicted lower QoL at T2 and PTSD symptoms at T2 predicted lower QoL at T3.
The presence of PTSD symptoms predicted lower QoL, both from an acute and prolonged perspective, in victims of non-domestic violence. Focusing on the individual's perception of his/her QoL in addition to the illness may increase the treatment priorities and efforts.