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1.  Diagnostic tools in Rhinology EAACI position paper 
This EAACI Task Force document aims at providing the readers with a comprehensive and complete overview of the currently available tools for diagnosis of nasal and sino-nasal disease. We have tried to logically order the different important issues related to history taking, clinical examination and additional investigative tools for evaluation of the severity of sinonasal disease into a consensus document. A panel of European experts in the field of Rhinology has contributed to this consensus document on Diagnostic Tools in Rhinology.
doi:10.1186/2045-7022-1-2
PMCID: PMC3294630  PMID: 22410181
2.  A 5-Year Audit of Rhinology Procedures Carried Out in a District General Hospital 
INTRODUCTION
Although there has been many studies quoting ENT and rhinology complications, there have been none looking at the complication rates of one department with a single specialist rhinologist over a 5-year period.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
Over a 5-year period between 1998 and 2002, the number of operative procedures undertaken in the ENT department in a busy district general hospital was collected in a prospective manner.
RESULTS
A total of 10,768 ENT procedures were undertaken in the department which comprised four consultants and associated junior staff (SpRs/SASs/SHOs); 2507 of these procedures were rhinology cases. There were 39 recorded complications following nasal surgery, giving an overall rhinology complication rate of 1.56%. This included 12 postoperative nose bleeds (0.48%), 5 cases of infection following septal surgery (0.56%), 7 cases of septal perforation (0.75%) and various minor functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) complications (2.17%). These figures are either below or within the quoted literature rates. There were no major complications or deaths recorded following nasal surgery.
CONCLUSIONS
These results compare favourably with those of other studies.
doi:10.1308/003588407X209275
PMCID: PMC2173183  PMID: 17999825
Audit; Rhinology; District general hospital
3.  245 Use of the CT Navigation in the Rhinology and Head Surgery 
Background
CT navigation is an assistant tool for identification and location of anatomical structures during surgery based on computer processed preoperative CT images followed by registration. CT navigation facilitates exact localization of particular anatomical points and at the same time also allows determination of the exact position of a respective instrument in 3D pictures and in 3 CT planes.
Methods
The optical CT navigation system Treon Plus (Medtronic-Xomed) is successfully being used at the ENT Department of the 3rd Medical Faculty Charles University and Central Military Clinic, Prague, Czech Republic. We studied the advantages of CT navigation use on 141 patients (257 procedures) operated from January, 1, 2007 till December, 31, 2009. The CT navigation was used for primary sinus endoscopic surgery (81 procedures), revision sinus endoscopic surgery (46), surgical treatment of injuries (7), and in tumors (7). We examined the use of optical CT navigation with MRI fusion for delimitation of extensive tumor of the tongue.
Results
In operated group of patients we observed no major per- or post-operative complications.
Conclusions
The primary benefit of the presented CT navigation is the feasibility of higher radicality, accuracy, together with delicacy towards the surrounding tissues.
doi:10.1097/01.WOX.0000412002.53738.41
PMCID: PMC3512809
4.  Evaluation of Audio-Rhinological Changes During Pregnancy 
A number of physiological changes occur during pregnancy and amongst them, audiological and nasal changes are quite significant. These are mainly due to the changing levels of sex hormones and return to normal once the pregnancy is over. This study was conducted to document these changes. Forty (pregnant 40 and non-pregnant 40) consenting subjects in age group of 20–35 years were assigned to test and control groups. They underwent complete ENT and Obstetric examination. In test group Pure Tone Audiometry was performed in all trimesters of pregnancy and within 3 months of delivery. The subjects in the control group underwent pure tone audiometry only once. The nasal patency was measured by Gertner’s plate method. Results from each trimester and postpartum period were compared. A highly significant difference in pure tone thresholds was observed at frequencies ranging from 125 to 1000 Hz (P < 0.001). However frequencies higher than 1000 Hz demonstrated no significant correlation. Nasal patency as measured by mean area of vapour condensation in all trimesters and control groups was highly significant (P < 0.001). The results of this study confirm that these changes occur in the first trimester and gradually improve during the subsequent trimesters returning to normal in post partum period. However number of pregnancies bear no relationship with these changes
doi:10.1007/s12070-010-0103-8
PMCID: PMC3109969  PMID: 22319721
Pregnancy ;  Hearing loss; Nasal symptoms; Pure tone audiometry; Longitudinal study
5.  Quality of life before and after septoplasty and rhinoplasty 
Subjective assessment of quality of life (QOL) as an important aspect of outcomes research has received increasing importance during the past decades. QOL is measured with standardized questionnaires which had been tested with regard to reliability, validity, and sensitivity.
Surgical procedures of the nasal septum (septoplasty) and the external nose (rhinoplasty) are frequently performed. Since many years subjectively assessed results of these operations have been reported in the literature. However, validated QOL instruments were applied only for one decade. Beforehand, measurements were performed using retrospective assessment of satisfaction or visual analogue scales. Prospective application of validated disease-specific and general measuring instruments has to be demanded for future studies.
Most of the septoplasty patients as well as most of the rhinoplasty patients evaluate the operation being successful. However, a relevant number of patients is not satisfied with the result of surgery. In this context, QOL instruments have the potential to identify further factors influencing the outcome. Especially in rhinoplasty patients, special attention has to be drawn on potential psychosocial effects of the operation.
doi:10.3205/cto000070
PMCID: PMC3199828  PMID: 22073110
validation; quality of life; nasal obstruction; nasal function
6.  Rhinologic issues in pregnancy 
Allergy & Rhinology  2012;3(1):e13-e15.
The diagnosis and treatment of rhinitis, sinusitis, and epistaxis during pregnancy present unique challenges to the otolaryngologist. Poorly controlled sinonasal disease may have significant adverse effects on the mother's quality of life and pregnancy outcomes and the lack of adequately controlled safety data limits the clinician's ability to make informed decisions about management. At the conclusion of this discussion, the reader should be familiar with the available literature and evidence-based guidelines regarding the safety and indications for radiographic imaging, clinical testing, medical intervention, and surgical treatment of sinonasal disease in pregnant patients. A review was performed of pertinent guidelines regarding the management of gestational rhinitis, sinusitis, and epistaxis, including the diagnostic and therapeutic limitations and physiological changes specific to pregnancy. A study population of four patients was analyzed to highlight the steps of management by reviewing the patient charts including pertinent history, physical examination, clinical course, and operative reports. Two patients with epistaxis and two patients with rhinosinusitis ranging from 27 to 38 years of age and between 16 and 35 weeks gestation were analyzed. The treatment of sinonasal disease during pregnancy is challenging and a thorough knowledge of the available medical evidence and treatment guidelines is necessary to optimize pregnancy outcomes. When the severity of disease precludes the possibility of delaying treatment, the clinician should provide a limited intervention that optimizes the mother's health without placing the fetus at significant risk.
doi:10.2500/ar.2012.3.0028
PMCID: PMC3404472  PMID: 22852124
Advair; albuterol; allergic rhinitis; amoxicillin; anaphylaxis; Augmentin; azithromycin; budesonide; epistaxis; fluticasone; gestational rhinitis; montelukast; prednisone; pyogenic granuloma; rads; rhinitis medicamentosa; rhinitis of pregnancy; sinusitis
7.  Quality of life and surgical outcomes following laparoscopic surgery for refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease in a regional hospital 
Canadian Journal of Surgery  2012;55(1):41-45.
Background
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a prevalent condition leading to poor quality of life (QOL) in patients with refractory symptoms. Laparoscopic antireflux (LAR) surgery has been shown to improve QOL, and I sought to examine the surgical and QOL outcomes associated with LAR surgery over a 3-year period at a regional hospital.
Methods
Patients were given GERD–health related quality of life (GERD-HRQL) and SF-36 questionnaires preoperatively, at 6 months and at 12 or more months after surgery. I collected data on demographic and clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes.
Results
Of the 342 patients referred for GERD or dysphagia, 26 received LAR surgery during the study period. All 26 patients had symptoms refractory to medications; 19 had atypical symptoms and 8 had some form of chronic pain syndrome (CPS). The mean duration of surgery was 125 minutes. There were no conversions, complications, 30-day readmissions or deaths. Three patients stayed 2 days in hospital and 23 stayed overnight. One patient required esophageal dilation for persistent dysphagia. Two patients resumed medication for recurrent symptoms and 24 remained medication free. There were significant improvements in GERD–HRQL scores in all patients. Patients with CPS had no improvements in SF-36 scores, whereas patients without CPS showed significant improvement.
Conclusion
Excellent surgical outcomes in LAR surgery can be obtained with careful patient selection at a nonacademic regional hospital. Although GERD-HRQL improved in all patients, patients with CPS showed no improvement in general health QOL scores after LAR surgery. Careful patient counselling should be employed when offering LAR surgery to patients with CPS.
doi:10.1503/cjs.018210
PMCID: PMC3270084  PMID: 22269301
8.  Prospective multicenter study of quality of life before and after lower extremity vein bypass in 1404 patients with critical limb ischemia 
Background
Patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) have multiple comorbidities and limited life spans. The ability of infrainguinal vein bypass to improve quality of life (QoL) in patients with CLI has therefore been questioned. Prospective preoperative and postoperative QoL data for patients undergoing lower extremity vein bypass for CLI are presented.
Methods
A validated, disease-specific QoL questionnaire (VascuQoL) with activity, symptom, pain, emotional, and social domains and responses scored 1 (lowest QoL) to 7 (best QoL) was administered before surgery and at 3 and 12 months after lower extremity vein bypass for CLI. Changes in QoL at 3 and 12 months after lower extremity vein bypass and multiple predetermined variables potentially influencing QoL after lower extremity vein bypass were analyzed to determine the effect of lower extremity vein bypass on QoL in CLI patients.
Results
A total of 1404 patients had lower extremity vein bypass for CLI at 83 centers in the United States and Canada as part of the PREVENT III clinical trial. Surveys were completed in 1296 patients at baseline, 862 patients at 3 months, and 732 patients at 12 months. The global QoL score (mean ± SD) was 2.8 ± 1.1 at baseline and was 4.7 ± 1.4 and 5.1 ± 1.4 at 3 and 12 months, respectively. Mean changes from baseline at 3 and 12 months were statistically significant (P < .0001). Improved QoL scores extended across all domains. Diabetes and the development of graft-related events were associated with decreased improvement in QoL scores, though the mean relative change from baseline remained positive.
Conclusions
Patients with CLI have a low QoL at baseline that is improved at 3 and 12 months after lower extremity vein bypass. QoL improvements are lower in diabetic patients and those who develop graft-related events. Successful revascularization can be expected to improve QoL in patients with CLI, with benefits that are sustained to at least 1 year.
doi:10.1016/j.jvs.2006.07.015
PMCID: PMC2890307  PMID: 17098529
9.  Preoperative and Early Postoperative Quality of Life Predict Survival in Potentially Curable Patients with Esophageal Cancer 
Annals of Surgical Oncology  2009;17(1):23-30.
Background
In patients with esophageal cancer, evidence for prognostic significance of preoperative quality of life (QoL) is limited, while the prognostic significance of postoperative QoL has not been investigated at all.
Aim
To determine whether preoperative and postoperative QoL measurements can predict survival independently from clinical and pathological factors, in patients with potentially curable esophageal adenocarcinoma.
Methods
A randomized controlled trial was performed from 1994 to 2000 in two academic medical centres, comparing transthoracic and transhiatal esophagectomy. QoL questionnaires were sent before and 3 months after surgery (Medical Outcome Study Short Form-20 and Rotterdam Symptom Checklist). Uni- and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to examine firstly the prognostic value of preoperative QoL and several clinical factors, and secondly of postoperative QoL, several clinical factors, and pathological staging.
Results
Out of 220 randomized patients, 199 participated in the QoL-study. In the multivariate preoperative model physical symptom scale (p = 0.021), tumor length (p = 0.034), and endosonographic T-stage (p = 0.003) were predictive for overall survival. In the postoperative multivariate analysis, social functioning (p = 0.035), pain (p = 0.026), and activity level (p = 0.037) predicted survival, besides pathological T-stage (p < 0.001) and N-stage (p < 0.001).
Conclusion
In the present paper the first large consecutive series of potentially curable esophageal cancer patients is presented in whom prospectively collected QoL data before and after potentially curative surgical resection were used to predict survival. Both preoperative (physical symptoms) and postoperative (social functioning, pain, and activity level) QoL subscales are independent predictors of survival in potentially curable patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma.
doi:10.1245/s10434-009-0731-y
PMCID: PMC2805800  PMID: 19830496
10.  Prospective nonrandomized comparison of quality of life and recurrence between high ligation and stripping and radiofrequency ablation for varicose veins 
Purpose
Varicose veins are a major problem worldwide and improvement in quality of life (QoL) is the ultimate goal after treatment of this benign disease. However QoL is highly dependent on personal and social factors. This study compares high ligation and stripping (HS) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in terms of QoL and recurrence in Korea.
Methods
A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data between August 2006 and October 2008 was performed for patients undergoing HS and RFA at a single institution. QoL was assessed with a questionnaire preoperatively, at 3 months postoperatively and annually thereafter. Recurrence was assessed by Duplex ultrasound annually after surgery.
RESULTS
A total of 272 patients completed the questionnaire at 3 months. Among these patients, 155 patients returned for their annual follow-up. There were no significant differences between HS and RFA in global QoL scores, although RFA showed less pain. However, paresthesia rates were also higher after RFA. Recurrence rates were similar between the two modalities, although technical failures were more common after RFA.
Conclusion
Overall QoL and recurrence rates were similar between the two modalities. The benefits of RFA do not seem to be enough to overcome the higher costs of HS in Korea.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.84.1.48
PMCID: PMC3539110  PMID: 23323236
Varicose veins; Radiofrequency catheter ablation; Recurrence; Quality of life
11.  Visual function and quality of life following vitrectomy and epiretinal membrane peel surgery 
Aim
To investigate the effect of epiretinal membrane (ERM) peel on patients' health related quality of life (HR‐QOL) and to explore the association between self reported HR‐QOL and conventional measures of visual function.
Methods
The National Eye Institute 25 Item Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ‐25) and the 36 Item Short‐Form Health Survey (SF‐36) were self administered by 20 patients before and 4 months following surgery. Preoperative and postoperative data collected included logMAR near and distant visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity, and metamorphopsia. Questionnaire scores were compared preoperatively and postoperatively and their correlation with traditional methods of visual function evaluation analysed.
Results
Postoperatively there was no significant improvement in mean logMAR VA. However, eight (40%) subjects improved by two or more ETDRS lines and nine eyes (45%) reached a final VA of 6/18 or better. Metamorphopsia decreased significantly (p = 0.019) and there was significant improvement in VFQ‐25 mean scores for the general vision (p = 0.03), distance activities (p = 0.05), and composite score (p = 0.03). Baseline binocular VA was significantly correlated with baseline VFQ‐25 composite score (r = 0.631, p = 0.004).
Conclusions
ERM surgery appears to improve patients' subjective perception of visual function as indicated by higher composite scores in VFQ‐25 and improved metamorphopsia in the absence of significant improvement in mean logMAR VA.
doi:10.1136/bjo.2005.085142
PMCID: PMC1857048  PMID: 16421185
epiretinal membrane
12.  A Prospective Evaluation of Short-Term Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients Undergoing Anterior Skull Base Surgery 
Skull Base  2010;20(1):27-33.
ABSTRACT
We evaluated the health-related quality of life (QOL) of patients undergoing anterior skull base tumor resection. The Anterior Skull Base Surgery QOL questionnaire, a disease-specific multidimensional instrument dedicated to this population, was used to collect and prospectively analyze demographic, medical, and QOL data on 48 patients. Thirty-nine patients completed the questionnaire preoperatively and at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Seventeen patients (44%) had malignant histology and 22 (56%) had benign tumors. The overall QOL score decreased significantly at 6 months postoperatively (p < 0.05) and improved significantly at 12 months postoperatively (p < 0.04). The emotional domain improved significantly at 12 months postoperatively compared with the preoperative scores (p < 0.03). Patients with malignant tumors had lower scores at 6 months postoperatively compared with patients with benign lesions (p < 0.002), although the scores for both groups at 12 months postoperatively were similar. Adjuvant radiation therapy was associated with a poor QOL (p < 0.005). The results of this prospective study show that the overall deteriorated QOL of patients after anterior skull base tumor resection returns to baseline by 1 year after surgery. Histology and radiotherapy are significant predictors of health-related QOL in this population.
doi:10.1055/s-0029-1242982
PMCID: PMC2853063  PMID: 20592855
Craniofacial resection; cranial base; subcranial approach; cancer
13.  Quality of life among patients receiving palliative care in South Africa and Uganda: a multi-centred study 
Background
Quality of life (QOL) is a core outcome of palliative care, yet in African settings there is a lack of evidence on patients' levels of QOL. We aimed to describe QOL among patients with incurable, progressive disease receiving palliative care in South Africa and Uganda, to compare QOL in cancer and HIV, to determine how domains of QOL correlate with overall QOL, and compare levels of QOL in this population with those in other studies using the same tool.
Methods
A cross-sectional survey was conducted using the Missoula Vitas Quality of Life Index (MVQOLI), a 26-item QOL questionnaire with five subscales (Function, Symptom, Interpersonal, Well being, Transcendent) covering physical, social, psychological and spiritual domains and one global QOL item. One item in each subscale assesses the subjective importance of the domain on a score from 1 (least important) to 5 (most important), used to weight the contribution of the subscale towards the Total QOL score. The tool was translated into 6 languages and administered to consecutively recruited patients at four facilities in South Africa and one in Uganda.
Results
285 patients were recruited, with a mean age of 40.1; 197 (69.1%) were female. Patients' primary diagnoses were HIV (80.7%), cancer (17.9%) and other conditions (1.4%). The mean global QOL score was 2.81 (possible range 0 (worst) to 5 (best)); mean Total score 17.32 (possible range 0 to 30). Patients scored most poorly on Function (mean 0.21), followed by Well being (2.59), Symptoms (5.38), Transcendent (5.50), Interpersonal (9.53) (possible range for subscale scores -30 to 30). Most important to patients were: close relationships (mean 4.13), feeling at peace (4.12), sense of meaning in life (4.10), being active (3.84), physical comfort (2.58). Cancer patients were predominantly recruited at three of the sites; hence comparison with HIV-infected patients was restricted to these sites. HIV+ patients (n = 115) scored significantly worse than cancer patients (n = 50) on Well being (Z = -2.778, p = 0.005), Transcendence (Z = -2.693, p = 0.007) and Total QOL (Z = -2.564, p = 0.01). Global QOL score was most weakly correlated with Total QOL (r = 0.37) and the Transcendent subscale was most highly correlated (r = 0.77) (both p < 0.001). Patients receiving palliative care in South Africa and Uganda exhibited significantly poorer QOL compared to similar populations in the USA.
Conclusions
Feeling at peace and having a sense of meaning in life were more important to patients than being active or physical comfort, and spiritual wellbeing correlated most highly with overall QOL. It is therefore vital to identify and meet the psychological and spiritual care needs of patients, as well as to assess and treat pain and other symptoms. Our finding that patients scored most poorly on the Function domain warrants further research.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-9-21
PMCID: PMC3094195  PMID: 21477274
14.  Acoustic rhinometry in rhinological practice: discussion paper. 
Acoustic rhinometry is a new technique which evaluates nasal obstruction by analysing reflections of a sound pulse introduced via the nostrils. The technique is rapid, reproducible, non-invasive and requires minimal cooperation from the subject. Unlike rhinomanometry it does not require airflow. A graph of nasal cross-sectional area as a function of distance from the nostril is produced, from which several area and volume estimates of the nasal cavity can be derived. The reliability of the method is greatest in the anterior nasal cavity, which is the site of the nasal valve. We have applied the technique to the study of normal nasal physiology in adults and children and to a range of pathological conditions. The role of acoustic rhinometry in diagnosis is somewhat limited compared to nasal endoscopy, but it is useful for nasal challenge and for quantifying nasal obstruction. Monitoring of medical and surgical therapy is a more promising application. In future, acoustic rhinometry is likely to be of particular help in evaluating childhood nasal obstruction, as it is well tolerated by children as young as 3 years old-a group of patients to whom objective tests have hitherto been difficult to apply.
Images
PMCID: PMC1294654  PMID: 8046730
15.  The Reliability and Validity of the Persian Version of Sinonasal Outcome Test 22 (Snot 22) Questionnaires 
Background
The quality of life (QOL) is an important indicator for disease-severity classification and outcome measurement in obtaining treatment sinonasal diseases. The sinonasal outcome test 22 (SNOT 22) questionnaire has been introduced as the best specific sinonasal instrument for QOL measurement.
Objectives
To prepare a valid and reliable Persian language version of SNOT 22 questionnaire.
Patients and Methods
After forward and backward translation of the original version of SNOT 22 questionnaire from English to Persian, a group of patients with nasal septal deviation who need septal surgery and another group of healthy volunteers answered the Persian version of the questionnaire. The responsiveness rate, validity (Pearson correlations and differential validity) and reliability (internal consistency and test-retest reliability) of the 22 items of the questionnaire was calculated. P value < 0.05 was considered significant.
Results
Thirty adults with nasal septal deviation need surgical correction and 30 healthy volunteers were included (mean age 30.4 ± 7.1 vs. 33 ± 6.7, P value = 0.148). The questionnaire was introduced to subjects two times with a two-week-period gap. Total responsiveness rate for 22 items was more than 97%. The total Cronbach's Alfa coefficient was 0.898 (ranging 0.890-0.903). The Pearson correlations were 0.85 and 0.96 for patients and healthy volunteers, respectively. The mean total score were 25.6 ± 13.3 (range 6-52) and 7.6 ± 9.1 (range 0-45) in patients and healthy volunteers, respectively (P < 0.0001). The subscales scores were also significantly different between two groups.
Conclusions
The Persian version of SNOT 22 questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument for accessing sinonasal diseases in Persian-speaking people.
doi:10.5812/ircmj.7937
PMCID: PMC3838650  PMID: 24349728
Quality of Life; Nasal Septal; Questionnaires
16.  Serial Comparisons of Quality of Life after Distal Subtotal or Total Gastrectomy: What Are the Rational Approaches for Quality of Life Management? 
Journal of Gastric Cancer  2014;14(1):32-38.
Purpose
The aims of this study were to make serial comparisons of the quality of life (QoL) between patients who underwent total gastrectomy and those who underwent distal subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer and to identify the affected scales with consistency.
Materials and Methods
QoL data of 275 patients who were admitted for surgery between September 2008 and June 2011 and who underwent subtotal gastrectomy or total gastrectomy were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months. The Korean versions of the European Organization for Research and Treatment (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (QLQ-C30) and the gastric cancer specific module, the EORTC QLQ-STO22, were used to assess QoL.
Results
QoL, as assessed by the global health status/QoL and physical functioning, revealed a brief divergence with worse QoL in the total gastrectomy group 3 months postoperatively, followed by rapid convergence. QoL related to restrictive symptoms (nausea/vomiting, dysphagia, reflux, and eating restrictions) and dry mouth was consistently worse in the total gastrectomy group during the first 2 postoperative years.
Conclusions
The general QoL of patients after gastrectomy is highly congruent with subjective physical functioning, and the differences between patients who undergo total gastrectomy and subtotal gastrectomy are no longer valid several months after surgery. In order to further reduce the differences in QoL between patients who underwent total gastrectomy and subtotal gastrectomy, definitive preoperative informing, followed by postoperative symptomatic management, of restrictive symptoms in total gastrectomy patients is the most rational approach.
doi:10.5230/jgc.2014.14.1.32
PMCID: PMC3996247  PMID: 24765535
Gastrectomy; Quality of life; Stomach neoplasms
17.  Evolution of Rhinology 
Summary
The study of the nose is as old as civilisation. Various conditions affecting its structure and function has been documented in Edwin Smith Papyrus in hieroglyphic script, an Egyptian writing system of the mid −4th Millennium BC.The major contribution for the complete reconstruction of the nose originated in India by Sushruta in around 600 BC. Writing in Sanskrit in the form of verses he described in detail the technique of total reconstruction, which is still being practiced today as Indian Rhinoplasty. This surgical reconstruction paved the way to modern plastic surgery in Europe and United States in 18th century. Sushruta contributed not only to the plastic surgery of the nose, but described entire philosophy of Head and Neck and other surgery as well. Other notable contributors were Greek physicians, Hippocrate and Galen, and at the birth of the Christianity, Celsus wrote eight books of medical encyclopaedia, which described various conditions affecting nose.
Septal and Sinus surgery, in comparison to rhinoplasty did not develop until 17th century. Septal surgery began with total septectomy, sub mucous resection by Killian & Freer in early 20th century and later septoplasty by Cottle in middle of 20th century.
Sinus surgery probably originated in Egypt, where instruments were used to remove brain through the ethmoid sinuses as part of the mummification process. In 18th century, empyema of the maxillary sinus was drained through the tooth socket or anterior wall of the sinus, which lead to the evolution of radical procedures of removal of mucous membrane and inferior meatal antrostomy. In the late 20th century, improved understanding of the mucociliary mechanism described by Prof. Messerklinger and Nasal Endoscopy described by Prof. Draf with the development of fibre optics and CT imaging, heralded a new era, which evolved in functional endoscopic sinus surgery. New technology further enhanced the scope of endoscope being used “around and beyond” the nose.
doi:10.1007/s12070-008-0050-9
PMCID: PMC3450513  PMID: 23120515
18.  Technological innovations in tissue removal during rhinologic surgery 
Background:
The modern rhinologist has a wide variety of technological innovations at his/her disposal for the removal of soft tissue and bone during endoscopic surgery. We identified and critically evaluated four leading tissue removal technologies that have impacted, or are poised to impact, rhinological surgery.
Methods:
A literature review was conducted.
Results:
Technological functions, strengths and limitations of microdebriders, radio frequency ablation, endoscopic drills, and ultrasonic aspirators were explored. The primary drawback of powered instruments continues to be the higher costs associated with their use, and their main advantage is the ability to accomplish multiple functions such as tissue removal, suction, and irrigation, all with one tool. The effective and safe use of any powered instrument requires an intimate understanding of its function, capabilities, and limitations.
Conclusion:
Powered instrumentation continues to play a significant and evolving role in soft tissue and bone removal during rhinologic surgery.
doi:10.2500/ajra.2012.26.3722
PMCID: PMC3906522  PMID: 22391085
Coblation; endoscopic sinus instruments; image guidance; microdebrider; PK Diego; powered sinus surgery; Sonopet Omni; suction-irrigation drill; ultrasonic aspirator
19.  Instruments for Estimation of Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Skull Base Neoplasms 
Skull Base  2010;20(1):5-10.
ABSTRACT
With advances in treatment of patients with tumors of the skull base and associated improvement in length of survival, the need for assessment of quality of life (QOL) is becoming increasingly apparent. A thorough assessment of QOL, including functional, physical, social, and emotional status, as well as disease-specific symptoms, allows for comparison of treatments and informs treatment decisions. In addition, it allows for problems following intervention to be identified and addressed, thereby assisting patients in their pursuits of returning to their normal activities and level of functioning. Although health care providers and researchers are increasingly aware of the need to assess patients' QOL, few standardized measures exist with which to perform a comprehensive assessment of QOL in patients with skull base neoplasms. Further research is needed, including prospective trials using reliable and valid measures tapping various aspects of QOL and specific symptoms unique to patients with tumors of the skull base.
doi:10.1055/s-0029-1242978
PMCID: PMC2853060  PMID: 20592851
Skull base tumor; quality of life
20.  Visual and non-visual factors associated with patient satisfaction and quality of life in LASIK 
Eye  2011;25(9):1194-1201.
Purpose
The aim of this study was to determine how laser in situkeratomileusis (LASIK) affects quality of life (QOL) and to identify factors that may affect satisfaction after LASIK.
Methods
A total of 104 patients with a mean age of 29±6, treated with LASIK for myopia and astigmatism, were enrolled in a prospective study. High (90%) and low (10%) contrast visual acuity (CVA) were measured under photopic and scotopic conditions before surgery and at 3 months later. A multidimensional QOL scale (Institute for Eye Research multidimensional QOL scale), which assesses psychological characteristics, personality traits, cosmesis, frequency, and tolerance to disturbing visual and ocular symptoms, and overall satisfaction with vision correction, was also used. Paired rank tests were used to compare preoperative and postoperative vision and QOL scores. Correlations and a multiple linear regression were used to describe the relationship between CVA, QOL, and satisfaction after LASIK.
Results
Significant postoperative changes included increased satisfaction following LASIK (P<0.001), reduced frequency of visual and ocular symptoms (P<0.001), and change in psychological characteristics (P=0.033). The change in satisfaction with LASIK can be predicted by a combination of preoperative satisfaction, postoperative frequency of disturbing visual and ocular symptoms, postoperative mean spherical equivalent, and postoperative scotopic high CVA (R 2=0.725, P<0.05).
Conclusions
Satisfaction with LASIK is related to visual function, preoperative expectations, psychological characteristics, and uncorrected CVA achieved. An increased sense of subjective well-being, adaptability, and self-efficacy was evident after LASIK. Patients reported a more optimistic attitude to life and increase perceived QOL after surgery.
doi:10.1038/eye.2011.151
PMCID: PMC3178233  PMID: 21720417
quality of life; vision performance; LASIK; psychological characteristics; satisfaction
21.  Digestive tract reconstruction pattern as a determining factor in postgastrectomy quality of life 
Postgastrectomy quality of life (QoL) is affected by various symptoms, and compared with the preoperative baseline QoL, is typically impaired for the first 6 mo after surgery. Thereafter, improvement to a stable QoL is observed at approximately 12 mo postoperatively. We consider the digestive tract reconstruction pattern to be a determining factor in postgastrectomy QoL among gastric cancer patients, and believe it requires further discussion. Proximal gastrectomy is associated with the worst postoperative QoL among gastrectomy procedures and should be performed cautiously. The trend of better QoL provided by the pouch procedure of total gastrectomy requires further robust support. Whether the use of Billroth-I gastroduodenostomy or Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy for distal gastrectomy is optimal remains controversial, but Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy is likely to be preferable.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i1.330
PMCID: PMC3886029  PMID: 24415891
Gastric cancer; Gastrectomy; Quality of life; Reconstruction; Digestive tract
22.  Transobturator Tape for Female Stress Urinary Incontinence: Preoperative Valsalva Leak Point Pressure Is Not Related to Cure Rate or Quality of Life Improvement 
Korean Journal of Urology  2014;55(4):265-269.
Purpose
We investigated whether the Valsalva leak point pressure (VLPP) is valuable for predicting postoperative outcome measurement after transobturator suburethral tape (TVT-O) implantation for treating stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women.
Materials and Methods
A total of 204 female patients who underwent TVT-O placement for treatment of SUI from March 2008 to February 2012 were enrolled in this retrospective study. All patients completed the incontinence quality of Life questionnaire (I-QoL), a self-reported quality of life measure specific to urinary incontinence, and the cure rate of incontinence was measured before and 6 months after surgery. Cure was defined as no leakage of urine postoperatively both subjectively and objectively. We compared pre- and postoperative I-QoL scores according to preoperative VLPP and Stamey grade.
Results
The numbers of patients with Stamey grades I, II, and III were 99 (48.5%), 84 (41.2%), and 21 (10.3%), respectively. A total of 30 (14.7%), 87 (42.6%), and 87 patients (42.6%) showed VLPP≤60, 6090 cm H2O, respectively. Preoperative VLPP was not significantly different according to preoperative I-QoL or change in I-QoL after surgery. However, I-QoL after surgery improved in patients with a high preoperative Stamey grade (p=0.001).
Conclusions
VLPP was not a factor related to surgical outcome from the midurethral sling procedure. Stamey grade rather than VLPP was important for predicting subjective quality of life and improved incontinence-related quality of life after surgery.
doi:10.4111/kju.2014.55.4.265
PMCID: PMC3988438  PMID: 24741416
Suburethral sling; Treatment outcome; Urinary incontinence; Urodynamics
23.  Time trends of chest pain symptoms and health related quality of life in coronary artery disease 
Background
There is at present a lack of knowledge of time trends in health related quality of life (HRQL) in common patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) treated in ordinary care. The objective of this study is to assess and compare time trends of health related quality of life (HRQL) and chest pain in patients with coronary artery disease.
Methods
253 consecutive CAD patients in Stockholm County, Sweden – 197 males/56 females; 60 ± 8 years – were followed during two years. Perceived chest pain symptoms and three global assessments of HRQL were assessed at baseline, after one and after two years. EuroQol-5 dimension (EQ-5D) with a predefined focus on function and symptoms; the broader tapping global estimates of HRQL; EuroQol VAS (EQ-VAS) and Cardiac Health Profile (CHP) were used. Chest pain was ranked according to Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS). Change in HRQL was analysed by a repeated measurements ANOVA and chest pain symptoms were analysed by Friedman non-parametric ANOVA.
Results
Perceived chest pain decreased during the two years (p < 0.00022); CCS 0: 41–51%; CCS 1: 19–15%; CCS 2: 31–27%; CCS 3: 5–4% and CCS 4: 4–2%. By contrast, HRQL did not change: EQ-5D: 0.76 (CI 0.73–0.79) -0.78 (CI 0.75–0.81), EQ-VAS: 0.68 (CI 0.66–0.71)-0.68 (CI 0.65–0.71) and CHP: 0.66 (CI 0.64–0.69) -0.66 (CI 0.64–0.69).
Conclusion
HRQL did not increase despite a reduction in the severity of chest pain during two years. This implies that the major part of HRQL in these consecutive ordinary patients with CAD is unresponsive to change in chest pain symptoms.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-5-13
PMCID: PMC1821316  PMID: 17341296
24.  Effect of lung cancer surgery on quality of life 
Thorax  2005;60(3):234-238.
Background: Health related quality of life (HRQOL) after surgery is important, although very limited data are available on the QOL after lung cancer surgery.
Methods: The effect of surgery on HRQOL was assessed in a prospective study of 110 patients undergoing potentially curative lung cancer surgery at Papworth Hospital, 30% of whom had borderline lung function as judged by forced expiratory volume in 1 second. All patients completed the EORTC QLQ-C30 and LC13 lung cancer module before surgery and again at 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively.
Results: On average, patients had high levels of functioning and low levels of symptoms. Global QOL had deteriorated significantly 1 month after surgery (p = 0.001) but had returned to preoperative levels by 3 months (p = 0.93). Symptoms had worsened significantly at 1 month after surgery but had returned to baseline levels by 6 months. Low values on the preoperative HRQOL scales were not significantly associated with poor surgical outcome. However, patients with low preoperative HRQOL functioning scales and high preoperative symptom scores were more likely to have poor postoperative (6 months) QOL. The only lung function measurement to show a marginally statistically significant association with quality of life at 6 months after surgery was percentage predicted carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO).
Conclusion: Although surgery had short term negative effects on quality of life, by 6 months HRQOL had returned to preoperative values. Patients with low HRQOL functioning scales, high preoperative symptom scores, and preoperative percentage predicted TLCO may be associated with worse postoperative HRQOL.
doi:10.1136/thx.2004.031872
PMCID: PMC1747338  PMID: 15741442
25.  The improvement of quality of life in patients treated with bariatric surgery in Korea 
Purpose
Bariatric surgery is considered an efficient treatment for severe obesity, but postoperative complications and psychosocial problems may impact quality of life (QoL). Although QoL is an important aspect of bariatric surgery, few studies have evaluated the changes in QoL. We examined whether severely obese patients who had undergone bariatric surgery had better QoL compared with severely obese adults who had not undergone bariatric surgery in Korea.
Methods
Data were obtained from 78 participants in two groups; bariatric surgery group (n = 53) and nonsurgery group (n = 25). EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D), the impact of weight on quality of life-lite (IWQoL-lite) and the obesity-related psychosocial problem scale (OP-scale) were used to assess the improvement of QoL.
Results
A total of 78 patients completed the QoL forms as part of their surgical consultation. In the EQ-5D, the changes of EQ-5D 3 level and EQ-5D visual analogue scale in the surgery group was 0.174 and 24.6 versus 0.017 and 17.8 in the nonsurgery group (P = 0.197 and P = 0.179). The changes of IWQoL-lite and OP-scale were significantly improved after bariatric surgery. In the IWQoL-lite, the mean changes in the surgery group was 33.4 versus 14.3 points in the nonsurgery group (P = 0.000). In the OP-scale, the mean changes in the surgery group patients scored 39.3 versus 9.0 points in the nonsurgery group (P = 0.000).
Conclusion
We demonstrated significant improvement of QoL observed after bariatric surgery compared to nonsurgical procedure. The results of this comparative study favor bariatric surgery for the treatment of severe obesity.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.84.3.131
PMCID: PMC3594640  PMID: 23486845
Bariatric surgery; Obesity; Quality of life

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