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1.  Mesonephric adenocarcinoma with a sarcomatous component, a notable subtype of cervical carcinosarcoma: a case report and review of the literature 
Diagnostic Pathology  2013;8:74.
Carcinosarcoma of the uterine cervix is less common than its counterpart in the uterine corpus. On the other hand, mesonephric adenocarcinoma is also a rare neoplasm in the uterine cervix, and it has been reported that mesonephric adenocarcinomas are often accompanied by sarcomatous components. We present a case of mesonephric adenocarcinoma with a sarcomatous component which arose in a 63-year-old postmenopausal woman. The hysterectomy specimen grossly showed an exophytic mass measuring 1.8 cm in the uterine cervix. Histologically, diffuse mesonephric hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma with malignant spindle cell proliferation was recognized, and therefore the tumor was diagnosed as “mesonephric adenocarcinoma with a sarcomatous component.” The review of the literature of cervical carcinosarcoma and cervical mesonephric adenocarcinoma revealed that 16% of cervical carcinosarcoma is of mesonephric duct origin, and that mesonephric adenocarcinoma seems to be more likely to have sarcomatous change. We think the presence of a sarcomatous component in the cervical biopsy specimen could be helpful in the diagnosis of mesonephric duct origin.
Virtual slides
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:
PMCID: PMC3652771  PMID: 23651629
Mesonephric adenocarcinoma; Carcinosarcoma; Uterine cervix
2.  Mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the uterine corpus 
Mesonephric carcinomas are rare in the female genital tract and usually are found in sites where embryonic remnants of wolffian ducts are usually detected, such as the uterine cervix, broad ligament, mesosalpinx and exceptionally rarely in the uterine corpus. To date, only four cases of mesonephric carcinomas arising in the uterine corpus have been described in literature. Here we report two cases of mesonephric carcinomas arising in a deep intramural location of the uterine corpus in a 55-year-old woman and a 62-year-old woman in Chinese populations. It is believed to be the first report in China. Both cases presented with a little postmenopausal bleeding. Before hospitalized, uterine curettages were programmed for both cases. The pathology reports were mesonephric adenocarcinoma. A total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed. On gross examination, the tumors of both cases were confined to the myometrium. Microscopic examination found both tumors of these two cases were adenocarcinomas mixed with spindle cell component. The most primary histologic patterns of the mesonephric adenocarcinomas were tubular glands that varied in size and were lined by one to several layers of columnar cells. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells expressed positive with CD10, calretinin, vimentin, cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA); but expressions of ER and PR were completely negative. The peculiar location of mesonephric carcinoma of the uterine corpus may be misinterpreted as other histological type neoplasms. Awareness of this rare phenomenon and immunostaining for markers of mesonephric carcinoma can prevent from making a false diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC4230074  PMID: 25400789
Mesonephric carcinoma; uterine corpus; histologic patterns; immunohistochemistry
3.  A new case of primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the cervix with prominent endometrial and myometrial involvement: Immunohistochemical and molecular studies and review of the literature 
As a rule, endocervical tumours with signet-ring cell are classed as metastatic extra-genital neoplasms. In a patient aged 45 years, we describe primary cervical signet-ring cell carcinoma (PCSRCC) characterized by prominent endometrial and myometrial involvement, simulating primary endometrial adenocarcinoma with cervical extension. In addition, a review was made of the literature to identify the clinical and pathological features of this rare malignancy.
Case presentation
A 45-year-old woman was referred to our Gynaecology Department due to persistent abnormal vaginal bleeding. Transvaginal ultrasonography showed slight endometrial irregularities in the whole uterine cavity suggestive of endometrial neoplasms. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse enlargement of the cervix, which had been replaced by a mass. Induration extended to the parametria and sigmoid colon fat.
Histological examination of endometrial curettage and a cervical biopsy revealed a neoplasm characterized by neoplastic signet-ring cells and trabecular structures. Immunohistochemical analysis and molecular studies showed certain findings consistent with a cervical neoplasm, such as positivity to CEA, keratin 7, Ca-125 and p16 and the presence of HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) DNA 18.
On examination of the hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy, the lesion replacing the cervix, endometrium and myometrium, revealed the same immunohistochemical findings observed on endometrial curettage and cervical biopsy specimens. Metastases were found in an ovarian cystic lesion and the lymph nodes.
With this report the authors have demonstrated that the spread of cervical adenocarcinoma to the uterine corpus, although rare, may be observed, and that in this instance immunohistochemical and molecular studies can provide sufficient information for accurate diagnosis even on small biopsy specimens.
PMCID: PMC3320546  PMID: 22236794
Signet-ring cell carcinoma; Cervical adenocarcinoma; Human Papilloma Virus (HPV); Polymerase Chain Reaction Amplification (PCR)
4.  F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and/or computed tomography findings of an unusual breast lymphoma case and concurrent cervical cancer: a case report 
Breast lymphoma accounts for less than 1% of all non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and approximately 0.1% of all breast neoplasms. Most breast lymphomas are classified as diffuse large B-cell lymphomas or as mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas. Concurrent cases of breast lymphoma and cervical cancer are extremely rare.
Case presentation
We report a case of a 46-year-old woman of unknown ethnic origin diagnosed with concurrent diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the breast and squamous cell cancer of the cervix that was detected and followed with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography and/or computed tomography (PET/CT). The metastatic pattern of this case of breast lymphoma is similar to that of a typical metastatic breast carcinoma. These findings have never been described in the literature. PET/CT also demonstrated an incidentally intense FDG focus in the uterine cervix ultimately leading to the pathologic diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. An appropriate staging of breast lymphoma and cervical cancer with FDG PET/CT is important because of therapeutic consequence. This case report and review of the literature highlights the role of FDG PET/CT in staging and restaging of both breast lymphoma and cervical cancer.
We report a case of a breast lymphoma with a metastatic pattern similar to that of typical metastatic breast carcinoma. The FDG PET/CT scan also diagnosed a rare case of concurrent breast lymphoma and cervical cancer. This concurrence has not been reported previously in the medical literature.
PMCID: PMC2933636  PMID: 20727168
5.  Coexistence of early microinvasive endometrioid adenocarcinoma and CIN3 in the uterine cervix in a 32-year-old Japanese woman 
Diagnostic Pathology  2011;6:51.
Simultaneous occurrence of early microinvasive endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EMEA) and CIN 3 in the uterine cervix is very rare in Japan. A 32-year-old Japanese woman was pointed out to have atypical cells in the cervical cytology. Colposcopic examination revealed irregular lesions in the cervix, and a biopsy showed simultaneous EMEA and CIN3. The EMEA was grade I and CIN3 corresponded to severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ. Hysterectomy and lymph nodes dissection were performed. Grossly, mucosal irregularity and erosion were seen in the cervix. No tumor formation was recognized. The cervix was examined by serial sections. Microscopically, there were a tiny adenocarcinoma (0.5 cm in diameter and 0.3 cm in depth) and broad areas of CIN3. The adenocarcinoma was EMEA without mucins. The EMEA was FIGO stage 1A1. Immunohistochemically, the EMEA was positive for pancytokeratins (AE1/2 +++, CAM5.2 ++), cytokeratin (CK) 34βE12 +, CK5/6 +, CK7 +, CK18 +++, CK19 ++, CA19-9 +, CA125 +++, p53 +, ER +++, PgR +++, while it was negative for CK8, CK14, CK20, EMA, vimentin, CEA, desmin, smooth muscle actin, p63, chromogranin, synaptophysin, CD56, CD68, HER2/neu, MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6. The CIN 3 was positive for pancytokeratins (AE1/2 +++, CAM5.2 +), cytokeratin (CK) 34βE12 +++, CK5/6 +++, CK7 +, EMA, CA19-9 +, CA125 +, p53 +, p63 +++, ER +++, and MUC1 +, while it was negative for CK8, CK14, CK18, CK19, CK20, vimentin, CEA, desmin, smooth muscle actin, chromogranin, synaptophysin, CD56, CD68, PgR, HER2/neu, MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC6. The lymph nodes showed no metastatic lesions (0/34). In conclusion, the author reported a rare case of simultaneous EMEA and CIN 3 with extensive immunohistochemical findings.
PMCID: PMC3123261  PMID: 21663603
early microinvasive adenocarcinoma; CIN3; uterine cervix; histopathology; immunohistochemistry
6.  Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the cervix with foci of malignant melanoma 
Journal of Mid-Life Health  2014;5(1):41-44.
Sarcomatoid squamous cell carcinoma (SSCC) is a rare malignancy of the cervix. Until date around eighteen cases of SSCC have been reported in the literature. It is an aggressive tumor with poor prognosis. The tumor usually presents at an advanced stage. Similarly, primary melanomas of the uterine cervix are rare tumors with not more than 60 cases reported in the world literature. It also has a poor prognosis. There is no reported case of sarcomatoid carcinoma with malignant melanoma. Here, we are presenting a rare case of cervical carcinoma with histopathology suggestive of SSCC with foci of malignant melanoma proven by immunohistochemistry study.
Case Report:
The present case report is about a 42-year-old, Mrs. SR, P5 L3 D1 A1 , presented with the complaints of intermittent bleeding per vaginum since last 3 years and severe pain in the right lower limb since 1 month. On examination, there was a proliferative growth in the cervix. Her magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cervical mass lesion with right parametrial extension invading the right ureter and bladder wall causing hydroureteronephrosis with contiguous bilateral pelvic nodes. There were multiple lesions in the left femur. Diagnosis of carcinoma of cervix International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIIB with distant metastasis was made. Histopathology report was suggestive of sarcomatoid carcinoma with foci of melanocytic melanoma. She was planned to be treated with palliative radiation.
About 90% of cervical carcinomas are squamous cell carcinoma. Adenocarcinoma constitute about 3-4% of all cervical carcinomas. Other rare pathologies are lymphoma, melanoma, sarcoma and metastatic tumors. Our case is a rare combination of sarcomatoid carcinoma with foci of malignant melanoma of cervix.
PMCID: PMC3955046  PMID: 24672206
Cervical cancer; chemotherapy; malignant melanoma of cervix; radiotherapy; sarcomatoid carcinoma of cervix
7.  Cervical adenocarcinoma presenting as a cardiac tamponade in a 57-year-old woman: a case report 
Pericardial effusion as a complication of malignant gynecological disorders is rare. Few cases of endometrial cancer, squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, ovarian cancer and uterine carcinosarcoma have been previously reported. We report the first case of cardiac tamponade secondary to a cervical adenocarcinoma.
Case presentation
A 54-year-old Caucasian woman, without any relevant medical history and no gynecological aftercare, was admitted to our hospital emergency room with severe dyspnea. Echocardiography revealed severe pericardial effusion with a swinging heart. An emergency pericardial drainage was performed through a pericardial window, which permitted the draining of 700 mL of bloody fluid and a pericardial biopsy. Cytological examination of the fluid revealed atypical cells, and the biopsy specimen showed tumor emboli suggestive of adenocarcinoma. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a 35 mm cervical lesion indicative of an endocervical tumor. Exploratory laparoscopy revealed diffuse peritoneal lesions and histological examination of cervical curettage showed a poorly differentiated micropapillary adenocarcinoma of the cervix.
Carcinomatous pericarditis as the first symptom of a malignant gynecological adenocarcinoma has not, to the best of our knowledge, been documented before. This case highlights the extreme severity of pericardial effusion secondary to cervical adenocarcinoma, a sign of advanced disease. Gynecological malignancies have to be considered in cases of neoplastic pericardial effusion.
PMCID: PMC3259127  PMID: 22188664
8.  Advanced small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy with irinotecan and cisplatin followed by radical surgery 
Rare Tumors  2011;3(1):e6.
Small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is a rare form of cervical cancer characterized by extreme aggressiveness and poor prognosis because of its rapid growth, frequent distant metastases, and resistance to conventional treatment modalities. We report here a case of advanced-stage small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by radical surgery, resulting in locoregional disease control. A 39-year-old Japanese woman was diagnosed as having stage IIIb small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. She was treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy with irinotecan/cisplatin, followed by extended radical hysterectomy with pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy. The patient was further treated by adjuvant chemotherapy with irinotecan/cisplatin. Intrapelvic recurrence has not been detected throughout the postoperative course. However, the patient died with distant metastases of the disease, 27 months following the initial treatment. It has been suggested that neoadjuvant chemotherapy therapy followed by radical surgery is a treatment option for advanced-stage small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix for the locoregional disease control. Further studies are necessary to obtain information regarding multimodal treatment including sequence, duration, frequency, and type of effective chemotherapy agents to be used in the treatment of small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix.
PMCID: PMC3070456  PMID: 21464879
small cell carcinoma; uterine cervical cancer; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; multimodal therapy.
9.  Papillary serous carcinoma of the cervix mixed with squamous cells: A report of the first case☆ 
Primary papillary serous carcinoma (PPSC) of the cervix is rarely recognized, with the aggressive and unpredictable course. Here we report a case of primary adenosquamous papillary serous carcinoma of the cervix in a woman who underwent comprehensive treatment.
A 53-year-old woman presented with irregular vaginal bleeding in hospital. The patient with a diagnosis of PPSC by an intracolposcopic biopsy received radical hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, right pelvic lymphadenectomy, left pelvic lymph node dissection, and postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Postoperative immunohistochemistry showed that CK5/6, CK7, P16, CEA, CA12-5 and P53 were positive. During 17 months after operation, the patient demonstrated distant metastases of lymph nodes and finally died of brain metastasis.
Papillary serous adenocarcinoma of the cervix mixed with squamous cell carcinoma has not been reported since now, and here, this is the first documented case. Despite surgery and concurrent chemoradiotherapy, which were reported as effective therapeutic strategies for papillary serous adenocarcinoma of the cervix, the patient showed a poorer prognosis. Taken together, papillary serous adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix could be more malignant than pure papillary serous adenocarcinoma.
•Papillary serous adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix is firstly documented here.•Surgery and postoperative chemoradiotherapy showed a poorer prognosis in the patient.•Mixed adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix behaves more aggressively .
PMCID: PMC3862309  PMID: 24371711
PPSC, Primary papillary serous carcinoma; CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen; SCC, squamous cell carcinoma; CA, cancer antigen; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; CT, computed tomography; AC, adenocarcinoma; Papillary serous carcinoma of the cervix; Adenosquamous carcinoma; Therapy
10.  Primary malignant lymphoma of the uterus 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1965;18(6):723-728.
The clinical and pathological findings in a 59-year-old woman with a primary malignant lymphoma of the corpus uteri are described. There was a period of eight months between detection of the uterine lesion and evidence of disease elsewhere in the body. The patient died of disseminated lymphoma, and the distribution of secondary deposits were suggestive of spread via the right ovarian-uterine venous system.
The criteria for acceptance of a diagnosis of primary uterine lymphoma are discussed and the previous literature is reviewed. There have been nine acceptable cases of primary uterine lymphoma recorded: four in the corpus uteri and five in the cervix. The differential diagnosis from stromal sarcoma, anaplastic endometrial adenocarcinoma, leiomyosarcoma, and benign lymphoid hyperplasia is discussed.
PMCID: PMC473118  PMID: 5844198
11.  Pure Basaloid Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix: A Case Report 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;24(3):542-545.
Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is an extremely rare malignancy of the female genital tract with a poorer clinical outcome than squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. We report a case of pure basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. A 70-yr-old woman with vaginal bleeding was referred to our institute. A basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix, of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage Ib1, was diagnosed by a loop electrosurgical excision procedure cone biopsy. A radical hysterectomy was performed, along with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, pelvic lymph node dissection, and para-aortic lymph node sampling. Pathologic findings were consistent with a basaloid squamous cell carcinoma confined to the cervix without an extracervical tumor. No further treatment was administered and there was no clinical evidence of recurrence during the 12 months of follow-up. Follow-up for the patient is ongoing. Although basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is thought to behave aggressively, accumulation of data on these rare tumors is necessary to determine whether their behavior differs significantly from that of conventional cervical squamous cell carcinoma of similar clinical stage. These data would be useful for defining the best diagnosis and treatment for these rare tumors.
PMCID: PMC2698210  PMID: 19543425
Basaloid; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Cervix Uteri
12.  A case of advanced gynecologic pelvic tumors showing the diagnostic utility of HPV analysis 
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology  2009;20(4):251-253.
Gynecologic malignancies may have similar histological characteristics. This may lead to difficulties in determining the origin of the cancer and to distinguish a synchronous neoplasm from a metastatic cancer in advanced cases. Recently, we treated a 59-year-old patient with adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix, endometrium, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. It was difficult to determine whether the cancer was a single origin metastatic cancer or a synchronous neoplasm. The patient was finally diagnosed with metastatic cancer that originated from the uterine cervix by human papillomavirus (HPV) test. Here we report the case and briefly review of the medical literature.
PMCID: PMC2799026  PMID: 20041104
Cervical adenocarcinoma; Human papillomavirus; Metastatic cancer; Synchronous neoplasm
13.  Endometrioid adenocarcinoma concurrent with a blue nevus of the endometrium and uterine cervix: A case report 
Oncology Letters  2013;6(5):1219-1221.
A blue nevus is a benign melanocytic lesion that is composed of spindle-shaped pigmented melanocytes. Although the uterine cervix is believed to be the most common extracutaneous location of blue nevi, the occurrence of these lesions in the endometrial stroma has been reported, albeit rarely. The present study describes a case of endometrioid adenocarcinoma concurrent with a blue nevus of the endometrium and uterine cervix. A 58-year-old female presented with abnormal vaginal bleeding. A biopsy from the endometrium revealed an endometrioid adenocarcinoma and subsequently, a total hysterectomy was performed. Histopathological study revealed the proliferation of columnar cells that formed irregularly-shaped tubular and cribriform glands. The neoplastic columnar cells had large, round to oval nuclei containing a single small nucleolus. Focal squamous differentiation was noted. In the stroma of the non-neoplastic endometrium, single or small aggregates of short spindle-shaped cells containing melanin without atypia were observed. These melanocytes were also present in the endocervix. Therefore, the final diagnosis was of endometrioid adenocarcinoma concurrent with a blue nevus of the endometrium and cervix. This is the first documented case of a blue nevus of the endometrium and endocervix. The pathogenesis of blue nevi of the genital tract is not yet completely understood. Possible origins of these cells include Schwann cells or perineural cells of the peripheral nerve fiber or the abnormal migration of neural crest-derived cells.
PMCID: PMC3813810  PMID: 24179498
blue nevus; endometrioid adenocarcinoma; endometrium
14.  Vaginal laparoscopically assisted radical trachelectomy in cervical clear cell adenocarcinoma 
ecancermedicalscience  2013;7:373.
Adenocarcinoma of the cervix is a rare condition that has shown an increase in incidence, especially in the 20- to 34-year-old group. Adenocarcinoma represents about 5–10% of all tumours in this area, and, among these, the clear cell type accounts for 4–9%. This type of tumour affects mainly postmenopausal women but also occurs in young women with a history of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES). The prognosis for adenocarcinoma of the cervix is poor overall and worse for the clear cell variety. This article discusses a case of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the cervix, unrelated to intrauterine exposure to DES, in a woman of childbearing age who wished to preserve her fertility and was therefore treated by radical vaginal trachelectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy.
PMCID: PMC3826807  PMID: 24244219
clear cell carcinoma; radical trachelectomy; fertility sparing; cervical adenocarcinoma
15.  Fertility-sparing operation for recurrence of uterine cervical perivascular epithelioid cell tumor 
Rare Tumors  2010;2(2):e26.
Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComa) are mesenchymal tumors composed of histologically and immunohistochemically distinctive perivascular epithelial cells. Although the uterine corpus seems to be one of the most prevalent sites of involvement, PEComa of the uterine cervix are very rare. Only four cervical PEComa cases have been described, and were treated with hysterectomy and radiotherapy.
We report a case of a 24-year-old nulligravida woman who presented with acute abdominal pain and was diagnosed with a rupture of an ovarian chocolate cyst. Subsequent surgery revealed that the tumor arose in the uterus, and the histological diagnosis was uterine PEComa with low potential malignancy. Recurrent PEComa in the uterine cervix were excised twice, and she remains disease free 12 months after the last operation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of recurrent cervical PEComa with fertility-preserving surgery. Estimating the malignant potential and appropriate surgery are essential for young patients with uterine PEComa.
PMCID: PMC2994514  PMID: 21139828
perivascular epithelioid cell tumor; PEComa; uterus; cervix; fertility-sparing operation.
16.  Malignant Müllerian Mixed Tumor of the Uterine Cervix with a Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Component 
Case Reports in Pathology  2013;2013:630859.
Malignant Müllerian mixed tumors (MMMTs) of the uterine cervix are extremely rare, accounting for 0.005% of all cervical malignancies. To date, only approximately 50 well-documented cases have been reported. Although several epithelial components have been described in cervical MMMTs, small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCC) has not appeared in the English literature. We present a 43-year-old woman, para 2 gravida 2, who had MMMT with SCC and rhabdomyosarcoma components in the uterine cervix. She was referred to our hospital because of a cervical mass with an abnormal Pap smear result. Cervical biopsy revealed SCC. After neoadjuvant chemotherapy with balloon-occluded arterial infusion, she underwent type II radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy. Histological analysis revealed that the cervical tumor comprised SCC and rhabdomyosarcoma components. Genotype analysis indicated human papillomavirus type 18. She underwent concurrent chemoradiation therapy. The patient had been free of the disease and showed no evidence of recurrence 38 months after operation.
PMCID: PMC3600347  PMID: 23533892
17.  Bilateral ovarian metastatic squamous cell carcinoma arising from the uterine cervix and eluding the Mullerian mucosa 
Diagnostic Pathology  2014;9:109.
Bilateral ovarian metastasis from invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix is a rare phenomenon with very few clinically significant cases described in the literature. Ovarian metastases when present are usually seen in association with bulky, advanced cervical squamous cell carcinomas with extensive involvement of the uterus.
We describe a 48 year old woman with clinically normal cervix whose hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy performed for abnormal uterine bleeding, demonstrated high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma involving the deeper stroma of the uterus and bilateral ovarian metastases. Gross examination of the cervical canal and the uterine cavity did not show tumor while well circumscribed pearly white metastatic deposits were distinguished within the parenchyma of both the ovaries. Microscopy ascertained high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion with malignant cells invading the deeper cervical stroma and disseminating further as lymphovascular tumor emboli within the myometrium of the corpus uteri without involving the endometrium. Both the fallopian tubes exhibited lymphovascular tumor emboli without epithelial involvement while the parenchyma of both the ovaries showed metastatic deposits.
Although an isolated case of endophytic squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix with extensive lymphovascular invasion of the corpus uteri, both the fallopian tubes and bilateral ovarian deposits without involving either the endometrium or the tubal mucosa does not form a paradigm, this case brings to light the capricious behavior of cervical squamous cell carcinoma.
Virtual Slides
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:
PMCID: PMC4071803  PMID: 24899394
Cervical cancer; Endophytic tumor; Bilateral ovarian metastasis; Ovarian squamous cell carcinoma
18.  Primary Uterine Cervix Schwannoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Case Reports in Pathology  2012;2012:353049.
Schwannoma (neurilemmoma) is a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor that occurs in a wide variety of locations; however, its finding in the uterine cervix is extremely rare. We report a case of an incidental primary benign cervical schwannoma in a 48-year-old woman. In the English literature, a few cases of primary schwannoma of the cervix have been reported, which include seven cases of primary malignant cervical schwannoma and only two that are benign. These cases are reviewed in the following discussion.
PMCID: PMC3539385  PMID: 23320233
19.  Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma Arising from Endometriosis of the Uterine Cervix: A Case Report 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;24(4):767-771.
Endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis of the uterine cervix is rare in premenopausal woman. We describe here a patient with this condition and review the clinical and pathological features of these tumors. A 48-yr-old woman complaining of severe dysmenorrhea was referred for investigation of a pelvic mass. Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed. Histological examination revealed an endometrioid adenocarcinoma directly adjacent to the endometriosis at the uterine cervix, with a transition observed between endometriosis and endometrioid adenocarcinoma. The patient was diagnosed as having endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis of the uterine cervix and underwent postoperative chemotherapy. Gynecologists and pathologists should be aware of the difficulties associated with a delay in diagnosis of endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis when the tumor presents as a benign looking endometrioma.
PMCID: PMC2719211  PMID: 19654969
Carcinoma, Endometrioid; Endometriosis; Cervix Uteri
20.  Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of the rectum: report of a case and review of the literature 
We report a case of perivascular epithelioid cell tumor arising in the rectum of a 55-year-old woman. The tumor was treated by transanal endoscopic microsurgery. After 1 year follow-up, the patient is alive with no radiologic or endoscopic evidence of recurrence. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor is a rare mesenchymal tumor characterized by co-expression of melanocytic and smooth muscle markers. This rare tumor can arise in various organs, including the falciform ligament, uterus, uterine cervix, liver, kidney, lung, breast, cardiac septum, pancreas, prostate, thigh, and gastrointestinal tract. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of the gastrointestinal tract is very rare, with only 23 previously reported cases. We review the literature on perivascular epithelioid cell tumors arising in the gastrointestinal tract.
PMCID: PMC3896964  PMID: 24410788
Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor; PEComa; Transanal endoscopic microsurgery
21.  Primary Malignant Melanoma of the Uterine Cervix Treated with Ultraradical Surgery: A Case Report 
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology  2010;2011:683020.
Primary melanomas of the uterine cervix are rare tumors with no more than 60 cases reported in the world literature. Poor prognosis is considered for the neoplasia itself as well as for diagnostic tardiness. There is no standard treatment; however, radical surgery is the treatment cornerstone. Our aim was to present the case of a 34-year-old woman with a primary malignant melanoma in the uterine cervix with affectation of the posterior face of the vagina without metastasis. Total infraelevator pelvic exenteration and adjuvant radiotherapy was performed. The patient was under surveillance for 8 years of followup without evidence of local or distant disease. The majority of case reports found suggests radical hysterectomy as the treatment indicated for these patients. Notwithstanding this, survival is very short when patients are treated in this manner. Based on our results and on those reported in the literature, we propose initial treatment with total pelvic exenteration as optimal management for this neoplasia in its initial form.
PMCID: PMC3101984  PMID: 21654876
22.  Breast and splenic metastases of squamous cell carcinoma from the uterine cervix: a case report 
Metastases to the breast from extramammary malignancies are infrequent, the most common primary sites are malignant melanoma, leukemia, lymphoma, and cancer of the lung, stomach, prostate and ovary. The cervical origin is exceptional.
Splenic metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix is also rare. To the best of our knowledge, only three cases of isolated splenic metastasis have been reported in the literature.
Case presentation
We describe the case of a 55-year-old North African woman who presented with a nodule in her left breast eight months after treatment for stage IIB squamous cell uterine cervical carcinoma. The excisional biopsy with histological study demonstrated a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. A computed tomography scan revealed a splenic secondary location.
We report here a case of two unusual metastatic sites of uterine cervical carcinoma, the breast and spleen. It is the first case of this association without widespread disease.
PMCID: PMC4234522  PMID: 25366471
Breast metastasis; Splenic metastasis; Cervical cancer
23.  Unusual case of cavitary lung metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix 
Spontaneous excavation of primary lung cancer is common; however cavitation of metastatic lung lesions is rare and usually confused with benign lesions. In Moroccan context tuberculosis is the first suspected diagnosis of lung excavations. We report a rare case of cavitary lung metastasis of a uterine cervix cancer, treated initially as tuberculosis. A 40-year old non-smoking woman with a known history of squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix since August 2005; presented on September 2008 with right chest pain without fever, hemoptysis or weight loss. CT scan showed a thin walled cavity. Empirical Antibiotic therapy was conducted 15 days with poor outcome. Then antibacillary treatment was started with no proof of mycobacterial infection. A month later, the patient presented with gynecological bleeding and a pneumothorax. Bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsy of the cavitary mass was performed. Pathology demonstrated a metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. Pelvic examination and MRI showed a subsequent local cervix recurrence. Patient underwent 3 courses of systemic chemotherapy. She died on June 2009 due to progressive disease. Even cavitary lung metastases are rare and benign differential diagnosis are more common, clinician should be careful in neoplastic context and investigation should be done to eliminate a recurrence.
PMCID: PMC3612870  PMID: 23560120
cavitary lung metastasis; squamous cell carcinoma; uterine cervix
24.  Malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) of the uterus with late renal and pulmonary metastases: a case report with review of the literature 
Diagnostic Pathology  2007;2:45.
Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa), other than angiomyolipoma (AML), clear cell sugar tumor (CCST), and lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), is a very rare mesenchymal tumor with an unpredictable natural history. The uterus is the most prevalent reported site of involvement of PEComa-not otherwise specified (PEComa-NOS). To the best of our knowledge, about 100 PEComa-NOS have been reported in the English Language medical literature, of which 38 were uterine PEComa-NOS. These reported cases of uterine PEComa-NOS have usually shown clinically benign behavior, but 13 tumors, three of them associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), exhibited local aggressive behavior and four of them showed distant metastases.
Case presentation
We report the case of a 59-year-old woman, who presented with renal and pulmonary lesions seven years after the initial diagnosis of uterine leiomyosarcoma. Left nephrectomy and right middle lobe wedge resection were performed. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis of the renal and pulmonary lesions, in addition to retrospective re-evaluation of the previous uterine tumor, led to the final diagnosis of malignant uterine PEComa with late renal and pulmonary metastases. All three lesions had the typical histological appearance of PEComa-NOS showing a biphasic growth pattern with continuous transition between spindle cells and epithelioid cells, often arranged around vascular spaces. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells of both phenotypes in all three lesions stained for melanocytic (HMB-45 and Melan-A/MART-1) and myoid (desmin, smooth muscle actin, and muscle-specific actin/all muscle actin/HHF-35) markers.
The findings indicate that despite the small number of reported cases, PEComas-NOS should be considered tumors of uncertain malignant potential, and metastases to other organs might become evident even several years after the primary diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC2213634  PMID: 18053181
25.  Shortened Cervix in the Subsequent Pregnancy after Embolization for Postpartum Cervical Hemorrhage 
Introduction. Rupture of a branch of uterine artery during delivery often leads to a massive postpartum hemorrhage that can be successfully treated using uterine artery embolization. Case Report. A 33-year-old woman had a cesarean section at term followed by a secondary postpartum hemorrhage due to a ruptured cervicovaginal branch terminating in a large, partially thrombosed hematoma of the cervix. She was given selective uterine artery embolization, and she was discharged to home in stable condition on the third day after embolization. In the forthcoming pregnancy a shortened cervix was a risk of threatened premature delivery from 26 weeks of gestation onwards. Conclusion. Superselective unilateral embolization of a thrombosed hematoma in the cervix might prevent extensive iatrogenic trauma of the cervix, which allows preservation of reproductive function.
PMCID: PMC3985175  PMID: 24800090

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