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1.  Mesonephric adenocarcinoma with a sarcomatous component, a notable subtype of cervical carcinosarcoma: a case report and review of the literature 
Diagnostic Pathology  2013;8:74.
Carcinosarcoma of the uterine cervix is less common than its counterpart in the uterine corpus. On the other hand, mesonephric adenocarcinoma is also a rare neoplasm in the uterine cervix, and it has been reported that mesonephric adenocarcinomas are often accompanied by sarcomatous components. We present a case of mesonephric adenocarcinoma with a sarcomatous component which arose in a 63-year-old postmenopausal woman. The hysterectomy specimen grossly showed an exophytic mass measuring 1.8 cm in the uterine cervix. Histologically, diffuse mesonephric hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma with malignant spindle cell proliferation was recognized, and therefore the tumor was diagnosed as “mesonephric adenocarcinoma with a sarcomatous component.” The review of the literature of cervical carcinosarcoma and cervical mesonephric adenocarcinoma revealed that 16% of cervical carcinosarcoma is of mesonephric duct origin, and that mesonephric adenocarcinoma seems to be more likely to have sarcomatous change. We think the presence of a sarcomatous component in the cervical biopsy specimen could be helpful in the diagnosis of mesonephric duct origin.
Virtual slides
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:
PMCID: PMC3652771  PMID: 23651629
Mesonephric adenocarcinoma; Carcinosarcoma; Uterine cervix
2.  Mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the uterine corpus 
Mesonephric carcinomas are rare in the female genital tract and usually are found in sites where embryonic remnants of wolffian ducts are usually detected, such as the uterine cervix, broad ligament, mesosalpinx and exceptionally rarely in the uterine corpus. To date, only four cases of mesonephric carcinomas arising in the uterine corpus have been described in literature. Here we report two cases of mesonephric carcinomas arising in a deep intramural location of the uterine corpus in a 55-year-old woman and a 62-year-old woman in Chinese populations. It is believed to be the first report in China. Both cases presented with a little postmenopausal bleeding. Before hospitalized, uterine curettages were programmed for both cases. The pathology reports were mesonephric adenocarcinoma. A total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed. On gross examination, the tumors of both cases were confined to the myometrium. Microscopic examination found both tumors of these two cases were adenocarcinomas mixed with spindle cell component. The most primary histologic patterns of the mesonephric adenocarcinomas were tubular glands that varied in size and were lined by one to several layers of columnar cells. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells expressed positive with CD10, calretinin, vimentin, cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA); but expressions of ER and PR were completely negative. The peculiar location of mesonephric carcinoma of the uterine corpus may be misinterpreted as other histological type neoplasms. Awareness of this rare phenomenon and immunostaining for markers of mesonephric carcinoma can prevent from making a false diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC4230074  PMID: 25400789
Mesonephric carcinoma; uterine corpus; histologic patterns; immunohistochemistry
3.  A new case of primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the cervix with prominent endometrial and myometrial involvement: Immunohistochemical and molecular studies and review of the literature 
As a rule, endocervical tumours with signet-ring cell are classed as metastatic extra-genital neoplasms. In a patient aged 45 years, we describe primary cervical signet-ring cell carcinoma (PCSRCC) characterized by prominent endometrial and myometrial involvement, simulating primary endometrial adenocarcinoma with cervical extension. In addition, a review was made of the literature to identify the clinical and pathological features of this rare malignancy.
Case presentation
A 45-year-old woman was referred to our Gynaecology Department due to persistent abnormal vaginal bleeding. Transvaginal ultrasonography showed slight endometrial irregularities in the whole uterine cavity suggestive of endometrial neoplasms. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse enlargement of the cervix, which had been replaced by a mass. Induration extended to the parametria and sigmoid colon fat.
Histological examination of endometrial curettage and a cervical biopsy revealed a neoplasm characterized by neoplastic signet-ring cells and trabecular structures. Immunohistochemical analysis and molecular studies showed certain findings consistent with a cervical neoplasm, such as positivity to CEA, keratin 7, Ca-125 and p16 and the presence of HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) DNA 18.
On examination of the hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy, the lesion replacing the cervix, endometrium and myometrium, revealed the same immunohistochemical findings observed on endometrial curettage and cervical biopsy specimens. Metastases were found in an ovarian cystic lesion and the lymph nodes.
With this report the authors have demonstrated that the spread of cervical adenocarcinoma to the uterine corpus, although rare, may be observed, and that in this instance immunohistochemical and molecular studies can provide sufficient information for accurate diagnosis even on small biopsy specimens.
PMCID: PMC3320546  PMID: 22236794
Signet-ring cell carcinoma; Cervical adenocarcinoma; Human Papilloma Virus (HPV); Polymerase Chain Reaction Amplification (PCR)
4.  Solitary cardiac metastasis of uterine cervical cancer with antemortem diagnosis: A case report and literature review 
Oncology Letters  2016;11(5):3337-3341.
Cardiac metastasis of uterine cervical cancer with antemortem diagnosis is extremely rare. Therefore, its landscape epidemiology has not been well elucidated to date. In the present study, a case of solitary cardiac metastasis of uterine cervical cancer diagnosed antemortem is reported, and a review of the currently available literature (which includes 18 cases of cardiac metastasis of uterine cervical cancer) is conducted. In January 2013, a 78-year-old woman with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the uterine cervix (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIIb) underwent definitive radiotherapy at Gunma University Hospital (Gunma, Japan). Follow-up examination at 5 months after completion of the treatment indicated no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. In April 2014, the patient reported epigastric discomfort and general malaise. Electrocardiogram suggested myocardial dysfunction. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed the presence of a mass occupying the right ventricle and pericardial effusion. Cine magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a filling defect in the right ventricle, and transcatheter biopsy confirmed SCC. The patient was diagnosed with a solitary cardiac metastasis of uterine cervical cancer. Despite aggressive medical therapy, the patient succumbed to disease 31 days after admission to hospital. A review of the current literature revealed that 84% of cases of cardiac metastasis develop within 2 years of completion of the initial treatment, and that electrocardiogram and echocardiography reveal findings of myocardial dysfunction and the presence of a mass in the right ventricle, respectively. A treatment strategy for cardiac metastasis of uterine cervical cancer has not been standardized thus far, and the prognosis is very poor, as the majority of patients succumbed to disease within 1 year. In summary, the current case and the literature review conducted in the present study suggest that: i) Cardiac metastasis should be included in the differential diagnosis in cases with nonspecific complaints such as epigastric discomfort and general malaise when patients have a history of uterine cervical cancer, particularly within the previous 2 years; and ii) electrocardiogram and echocardiography are convenient and effective modalities for the diagnosis of cardiac metastasis of uterine cervical cancer.
PMCID: PMC4841013  PMID: 27123113
uterine cervical cancer; cardiac metastasis; antemortem diagnosis; electrocardiogram; echocardiography
5.  Cytokeratin 7-positive/cytokeratin 20-negative cecal adenocarcinoma metastatic to the uterine cervix: a case report 
The vast majority of uterine cervical malignancies are primary carcinomas, and secondary neoplasms that metastasize to the uterine cervix from a distant organ are uncommon. Although relatively rare, metastases to the uterine cervix from a primary colon cancer have been reported. We report a rare case of metastatic carcinoma originating from a cecal adenocarcinoma with an unusual cytokeratin 7/cytokeratin 20 immunophenotype.
Case presentation
A 74-year-old postmenopausal Japanese woman was referred to our hospital for the evaluation of a uterine tumor. She had a past medical history of cecal cancer and had undergone laparoscopically assisted right hemicolectomy at the age of 69 years. During follow-up, she was found to have elevated levels of the tumor markers carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (179.7 IU/mL) and carcinoembryonic antigen (26.9 μg/L). Positron emission tomography/computed tomography showed a focus of high 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in her uterus. Examination of a cervical biopsy found a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma that was immunopositive for cytokeratin (CK)7 and caudal-related homeobox 2 (CDX2) expression and immunonegative for cytokeratin 20 expression. The patient underwent radical hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Histopathological examination found invasive growth of irregular and atypical ductal hyperplasia. Immunohistochemical staining of the tumor specimen revealed the same immunophenotype as the biopsy specimen. The cecal cancer specimen from her previous surgery was also examined and found to have the same immunophenotype. The histopathological diagnosis was cecal adenocarcinoma metastatic to the uterine cervix. The patient is currently receiving adjuvant chemotherapy and to date is without evidence of recurrent disease.
Our report illustrates the importance of immunohistochemistry for the correct diagnosis of the origin of a uterine cervical adenocarcinoma in a patient with a medical history of colorectal cancer. Re-examination of a previous oncological specimen is critical for cases with a uterine lesion that is difficult to identify as primary or metastatic cancer.
PMCID: PMC4727413  PMID: 26810414
CDX2; Cecal cancer; Cervical metastasis; Cytokeratin 7; Cytokeratin 20; Immunohistochemistry; Tumor marker
6.  F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and/or computed tomography findings of an unusual breast lymphoma case and concurrent cervical cancer: a case report 
Breast lymphoma accounts for less than 1% of all non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and approximately 0.1% of all breast neoplasms. Most breast lymphomas are classified as diffuse large B-cell lymphomas or as mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas. Concurrent cases of breast lymphoma and cervical cancer are extremely rare.
Case presentation
We report a case of a 46-year-old woman of unknown ethnic origin diagnosed with concurrent diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the breast and squamous cell cancer of the cervix that was detected and followed with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography and/or computed tomography (PET/CT). The metastatic pattern of this case of breast lymphoma is similar to that of a typical metastatic breast carcinoma. These findings have never been described in the literature. PET/CT also demonstrated an incidentally intense FDG focus in the uterine cervix ultimately leading to the pathologic diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. An appropriate staging of breast lymphoma and cervical cancer with FDG PET/CT is important because of therapeutic consequence. This case report and review of the literature highlights the role of FDG PET/CT in staging and restaging of both breast lymphoma and cervical cancer.
We report a case of a breast lymphoma with a metastatic pattern similar to that of typical metastatic breast carcinoma. The FDG PET/CT scan also diagnosed a rare case of concurrent breast lymphoma and cervical cancer. This concurrence has not been reported previously in the medical literature.
PMCID: PMC2933636  PMID: 20727168
7.  Papillary Squamotransitional Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix: A Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Introduction. Papillary squamotransitional cell carcinoma (PSTCC) is an uncommon histopathological variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the uterine cervix, which occurs in postmenopausal women. Presentation of Case. Herein, we describe a case of a 63-year-old woman who presented with 4-month history of postmenopausal vaginal bleeding. Vaginal examination revealed a fragile lesion of size 1 × 1 cm invading left posterior vaginal fornice and parametrium. Biopsy showed the presence of papillae containing fibrovascular cores lined by multilayered atypical epithelial cells resembling squamous and transitional cell epithelium, confirming the diagnosis of PSTCC of the uterine cervix. After staging work-up she was staged according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system 2009 as FIGO IIB, and she was started on extended field concurrent chemoradiation. Discussion. PSTCC of the uterine cervix is an extremely rare and aggressive entity. PSTCC is often characterized by the presence of papillary structures with prominent fibrovascular cores. PSTCC of the uterine cervix should be differentiated from transitional cell carcinoma, squamous papilloma, papillary adenocarcinoma, and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia with papillary features. Conclusion. PSTCC of the uterine cervix is a diagnostic challenge; further studies regarding the mechanism underlying the development of PSCC are warranted.
PMCID: PMC5021459  PMID: 27656303
8.  Coexistence of early microinvasive endometrioid adenocarcinoma and CIN3 in the uterine cervix in a 32-year-old Japanese woman 
Diagnostic Pathology  2011;6:51.
Simultaneous occurrence of early microinvasive endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EMEA) and CIN 3 in the uterine cervix is very rare in Japan. A 32-year-old Japanese woman was pointed out to have atypical cells in the cervical cytology. Colposcopic examination revealed irregular lesions in the cervix, and a biopsy showed simultaneous EMEA and CIN3. The EMEA was grade I and CIN3 corresponded to severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ. Hysterectomy and lymph nodes dissection were performed. Grossly, mucosal irregularity and erosion were seen in the cervix. No tumor formation was recognized. The cervix was examined by serial sections. Microscopically, there were a tiny adenocarcinoma (0.5 cm in diameter and 0.3 cm in depth) and broad areas of CIN3. The adenocarcinoma was EMEA without mucins. The EMEA was FIGO stage 1A1. Immunohistochemically, the EMEA was positive for pancytokeratins (AE1/2 +++, CAM5.2 ++), cytokeratin (CK) 34βE12 +, CK5/6 +, CK7 +, CK18 +++, CK19 ++, CA19-9 +, CA125 +++, p53 +, ER +++, PgR +++, while it was negative for CK8, CK14, CK20, EMA, vimentin, CEA, desmin, smooth muscle actin, p63, chromogranin, synaptophysin, CD56, CD68, HER2/neu, MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6. The CIN 3 was positive for pancytokeratins (AE1/2 +++, CAM5.2 +), cytokeratin (CK) 34βE12 +++, CK5/6 +++, CK7 +, EMA, CA19-9 +, CA125 +, p53 +, p63 +++, ER +++, and MUC1 +, while it was negative for CK8, CK14, CK18, CK19, CK20, vimentin, CEA, desmin, smooth muscle actin, chromogranin, synaptophysin, CD56, CD68, PgR, HER2/neu, MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC6. The lymph nodes showed no metastatic lesions (0/34). In conclusion, the author reported a rare case of simultaneous EMEA and CIN 3 with extensive immunohistochemical findings.
PMCID: PMC3123261  PMID: 21663603
early microinvasive adenocarcinoma; CIN3; uterine cervix; histopathology; immunohistochemistry
9.  Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the cervix with foci of malignant melanoma 
Journal of Mid-Life Health  2014;5(1):41-44.
Sarcomatoid squamous cell carcinoma (SSCC) is a rare malignancy of the cervix. Until date around eighteen cases of SSCC have been reported in the literature. It is an aggressive tumor with poor prognosis. The tumor usually presents at an advanced stage. Similarly, primary melanomas of the uterine cervix are rare tumors with not more than 60 cases reported in the world literature. It also has a poor prognosis. There is no reported case of sarcomatoid carcinoma with malignant melanoma. Here, we are presenting a rare case of cervical carcinoma with histopathology suggestive of SSCC with foci of malignant melanoma proven by immunohistochemistry study.
Case Report:
The present case report is about a 42-year-old, Mrs. SR, P5 L3 D1 A1 , presented with the complaints of intermittent bleeding per vaginum since last 3 years and severe pain in the right lower limb since 1 month. On examination, there was a proliferative growth in the cervix. Her magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cervical mass lesion with right parametrial extension invading the right ureter and bladder wall causing hydroureteronephrosis with contiguous bilateral pelvic nodes. There were multiple lesions in the left femur. Diagnosis of carcinoma of cervix International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIIB with distant metastasis was made. Histopathology report was suggestive of sarcomatoid carcinoma with foci of melanocytic melanoma. She was planned to be treated with palliative radiation.
About 90% of cervical carcinomas are squamous cell carcinoma. Adenocarcinoma constitute about 3-4% of all cervical carcinomas. Other rare pathologies are lymphoma, melanoma, sarcoma and metastatic tumors. Our case is a rare combination of sarcomatoid carcinoma with foci of malignant melanoma of cervix.
PMCID: PMC3955046  PMID: 24672206
Cervical cancer; chemotherapy; malignant melanoma of cervix; radiotherapy; sarcomatoid carcinoma of cervix
10.  Advanced small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy with irinotecan and cisplatin followed by radical surgery 
Rare Tumors  2011;3(1):e6.
Small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is a rare form of cervical cancer characterized by extreme aggressiveness and poor prognosis because of its rapid growth, frequent distant metastases, and resistance to conventional treatment modalities. We report here a case of advanced-stage small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by radical surgery, resulting in locoregional disease control. A 39-year-old Japanese woman was diagnosed as having stage IIIb small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. She was treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy with irinotecan/cisplatin, followed by extended radical hysterectomy with pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy. The patient was further treated by adjuvant chemotherapy with irinotecan/cisplatin. Intrapelvic recurrence has not been detected throughout the postoperative course. However, the patient died with distant metastases of the disease, 27 months following the initial treatment. It has been suggested that neoadjuvant chemotherapy therapy followed by radical surgery is a treatment option for advanced-stage small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix for the locoregional disease control. Further studies are necessary to obtain information regarding multimodal treatment including sequence, duration, frequency, and type of effective chemotherapy agents to be used in the treatment of small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix.
PMCID: PMC3070456  PMID: 21464879
small cell carcinoma; uterine cervical cancer; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; multimodal therapy.
11.  Cervical adenocarcinoma presenting as a cardiac tamponade in a 57-year-old woman: a case report 
Pericardial effusion as a complication of malignant gynecological disorders is rare. Few cases of endometrial cancer, squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, ovarian cancer and uterine carcinosarcoma have been previously reported. We report the first case of cardiac tamponade secondary to a cervical adenocarcinoma.
Case presentation
A 54-year-old Caucasian woman, without any relevant medical history and no gynecological aftercare, was admitted to our hospital emergency room with severe dyspnea. Echocardiography revealed severe pericardial effusion with a swinging heart. An emergency pericardial drainage was performed through a pericardial window, which permitted the draining of 700 mL of bloody fluid and a pericardial biopsy. Cytological examination of the fluid revealed atypical cells, and the biopsy specimen showed tumor emboli suggestive of adenocarcinoma. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a 35 mm cervical lesion indicative of an endocervical tumor. Exploratory laparoscopy revealed diffuse peritoneal lesions and histological examination of cervical curettage showed a poorly differentiated micropapillary adenocarcinoma of the cervix.
Carcinomatous pericarditis as the first symptom of a malignant gynecological adenocarcinoma has not, to the best of our knowledge, been documented before. This case highlights the extreme severity of pericardial effusion secondary to cervical adenocarcinoma, a sign of advanced disease. Gynecological malignancies have to be considered in cases of neoplastic pericardial effusion.
PMCID: PMC3259127  PMID: 22188664
12.  Uterine Serous Adenocarcinoma in an Elderly Postmenopausal Woman: Clinically Misdiagnosed as Uterine Cervix Cancer 
Journal of Menopausal Medicine  2015;21(3):171-174.
Uterine serous adenocarcinoma (USC) is rare and invasive cancer. This cancer is more often reported in the ovary, the fallopian tube, and the endometrium than uterine cervix. No matter where the tumor is located, the tumor exhibits similar histological characteristics. So when uterine cancer is proven to be serous adenocarcinoma, it is necessary to see if the tumor originated from ovary or endometrium and invaded the cervix. We report a case of a 73-year-old postmenopausal woman with USC arising near the internal os of endocervical canal, clinically misdiagnosed as uterine cervix cancer.
PMCID: PMC4719093  PMID: 26793684
Cystadenocarcinoma serous; Tomography X-ray computed; Uterine cervical neoplasms; Uterus
13.  Papillary serous carcinoma of the cervix mixed with squamous cells: A report of the first case☆ 
Primary papillary serous carcinoma (PPSC) of the cervix is rarely recognized, with the aggressive and unpredictable course. Here we report a case of primary adenosquamous papillary serous carcinoma of the cervix in a woman who underwent comprehensive treatment.
A 53-year-old woman presented with irregular vaginal bleeding in hospital. The patient with a diagnosis of PPSC by an intracolposcopic biopsy received radical hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, right pelvic lymphadenectomy, left pelvic lymph node dissection, and postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Postoperative immunohistochemistry showed that CK5/6, CK7, P16, CEA, CA12-5 and P53 were positive. During 17 months after operation, the patient demonstrated distant metastases of lymph nodes and finally died of brain metastasis.
Papillary serous adenocarcinoma of the cervix mixed with squamous cell carcinoma has not been reported since now, and here, this is the first documented case. Despite surgery and concurrent chemoradiotherapy, which were reported as effective therapeutic strategies for papillary serous adenocarcinoma of the cervix, the patient showed a poorer prognosis. Taken together, papillary serous adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix could be more malignant than pure papillary serous adenocarcinoma.
•Papillary serous adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix is firstly documented here.•Surgery and postoperative chemoradiotherapy showed a poorer prognosis in the patient.•Mixed adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix behaves more aggressively .
PMCID: PMC3862309  PMID: 24371711
PPSC, Primary papillary serous carcinoma; CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen; SCC, squamous cell carcinoma; CA, cancer antigen; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; CT, computed tomography; AC, adenocarcinoma; Papillary serous carcinoma of the cervix; Adenosquamous carcinoma; Therapy
14.  Primary malignant lymphoma of the uterus 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1965;18(6):723-728.
The clinical and pathological findings in a 59-year-old woman with a primary malignant lymphoma of the corpus uteri are described. There was a period of eight months between detection of the uterine lesion and evidence of disease elsewhere in the body. The patient died of disseminated lymphoma, and the distribution of secondary deposits were suggestive of spread via the right ovarian-uterine venous system.
The criteria for acceptance of a diagnosis of primary uterine lymphoma are discussed and the previous literature is reviewed. There have been nine acceptable cases of primary uterine lymphoma recorded: four in the corpus uteri and five in the cervix. The differential diagnosis from stromal sarcoma, anaplastic endometrial adenocarcinoma, leiomyosarcoma, and benign lymphoid hyperplasia is discussed.
PMCID: PMC473118  PMID: 5844198
15.  Methods for assessing pre-induction cervical ripening 
Induction of labour is the artificial initiation of labour in a pregnant woman after the age of fetal viability but without any objective evidence of active phase labour and with intact fetal membranes. The need for induction of labour may arise due to a problem in the mother, her fetus or both, and the procedure may be carried out at or before term. Obstetricians have long known that for this to be successful, it is important that the uterine cervix (the neck of the womb) has favourable characteristics in terms of readiness to go into the labour state.
To compare Bishop score with any other method for assessing pre-induction cervical ripening in women admitted for induction of labour.
Search methods
We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs).
Selection criteria
All RCTs comparing Bishop score with any other methods of pre-induction cervical assessment in women admitted for induction of labour. Cluster-RCTs were eligible for inclusion but none were identified. Quasi-RCTs and studies using a cross-over design were not eligible for inclusion. Studies published in abstract form were eligible for inclusion if they provided sufficient information.
Comparisons could include the following.
Bishop score versus transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS).
Bishop score versus Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1).
Bishop score versus vaginal fetal fibronectin (fFN).
However, we only identified data for a comparison of Bishop score versus TVUS.
Data collection and analysis
Two review authors independently assessed the trials for inclusion, extracted the data and assessed trial quality. Data were checked for accuracy.
Main results
We included two trials that recruited a total of 234 women. The overall risk of bias was low for the two studies. Both studies compared Bishop score withTVUS.
The two included studies did not show any clear difference between the Bishop score and TVUS groups for the following main outcomes: vaginal birth (RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.25, moderate quality evidence), caesarean delivery (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.34, moderate quality evidence), neonatal admission into neonatal intensive care unit (RR 1.67, 95% CI 0.41 to 6.71, moderate quality evidence). Both studies only provided median data in relation to induction-delivery interval and reported no clear difference between the Bishop and TVUS groups. Perinatal mortality was not reported in the included studies.
For the review's secondary outcomes, the need for misoprostol for cervical ripening was more frequent in the TVUS group compared to the Bishop score group (RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.66, two studies, 234 women, moderate quality evidence). In contrast, there were no clear differences between the Bishop scope and TVUS groups in terms of meconium staining of the amniotic fluid, fetal heart rate abnormality in labour, and Apgar score less than seven. Only one trial reported median data on the induction-delivery interval and induction to active phase interval, the trialist reported no difference between the Bishop group and the TVUS group for this outcome. Neither of the included studies reported on uterine rupture.
Authors' conclusions
Moderate quality evidence from two small RCTs involving 234 women that compared two different methods for assessing pre-induction cervical ripening (Bishop score and TVUS) did not demonstrate superiority of one method over the other in terms of the main outcomes assessed in this review. We did not identify any data relating to perinatal mortality. Whilst use of TVUS was associated with an increased need for misoprostol for cervical ripening, both methods could be complementary.
The choice of a particular method of assessing pre-induction cervical ripening may differ depending on the environment and need where one is practicing since some methods (i.e. TVUS) may not be readily available and affordable in resource-poor settings where the sequelae of labour and its management is prevalent.
The evidence in this review is based on two studies that enrolled a small number of women and there is insufficient evidence to support the use of TVUS over the standard digital vaginal assessment in pre-induction cervical ripening. Further adequately powered RCTs involving TVUS and the Bishop score and including other methods of pre-induction cervical ripening assessment are warranted. Such studies need to address uterine rupture, perinatal mortality, optimal cut-off value of the cervical length and Bishop score to classify women as having favourable or unfavourable cervices and cost should be included as an outcome.
Methods for assessing pre-induction cervical ripening, the ability of the cervix to open in response to spontaneous uterine contractions
In this review, researchers from The Cochrane Collaboration examined a comparison between the Bishop score and any other method for checking pre-induction cervical ripening in women admitted for induction of labour. The Bishop score is the traditional method of determining the readiness of the cervix to open (dilate) before labour induction. It also assesses the position, softening and shortening of the cervix, and the location of the presenting part of the baby. After searching for relevant trials up to 31 March 2015, we included two randomised controlled trials that recruited 234 pregnant women.
What are the methods for pre-induction softening of the neck of womb and why is it important to soften the neck of womb before induction of labour?
Induction of labour is the non-natural process of starting labour in a pregnant woman after the age the baby is more likely to survive following delivery, when there is no clear evidence of serious onset of labour and the membranes covering the baby are unruptured. Induction of labour may be needed because of a problem in the mother, or her baby or both, and is carried out at or before the ninth (last) month of pregnancy. Obstetricians (specialist caring for pregnant women) have long known that for this to be successful, it is important that the uterine cervix (the neck of the womb) has the favourable characteristics that make it ready to go into the labour. The delivery method and total duration of labour are affected by many factors and cervical readiness (ripeness) is just one of these.
What the research says
Moderate quality evidence was available from the two included studies which compared the Bishop score with transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) (ultrasound done through the vagina). The studies were considered to be at a low risk of bias. The need for misoprostol (a drug) for softening the cervix (cervical ripening) was more common in the TVUS arm. No clear difference was seen between the two methods in terms of vaginal birth, caesarean delivery, admission of the newborn into the neonatal intensive care unit, meconium staining of the amniotic fluid, abnormal heart beat of the baby within the womb whilst the mother was in labour and Apgar score less than seven (difficulty of the baby establishing life and other life movements on its own immediately after childbirth). None of the included studies reported on tears of the womb or death of the baby just before, during or immediately after childbirth. We did not find any studies that compared Bishop score with any other methods such as the presence of vaginal fetal fibronectin or insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1.
Authors conclusions
Although the overall quality of evidence is moderate, there is no difference in outcomes between the two methods (Bishop score and TVUS) apart from the increased need of misoprostol in the TVUS group. Both methods could be useful to each other, or complementary as the Bishop score does not need any special equipment and uses digital examination which is required to induce labour (to insert a cervical ripening agent, rupture the membranes or separate them from the cervix) but TVUS can give additional information that may affect the course and management of the labour. The choice of a particular method may differ depending on the environment and need since TVUS requires training and may not be readily available and affordable in resource-poor countries.
Future research The two included studies involved a small number of women and further studies are needed. Such studies should include outcomes such as rupture of the womb, perinatal mortality, most appropriate cut-off value for the cervical length and Bishop score to classify women as having ripe or unripe cervices, and cost.
PMCID: PMC4473357  PMID: 26068943
16.  A Case of Lymphoepithelioma-like Carcinoma in the Uterine Cervix 
Rare Tumors  2015;7(1):5688.
Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma occurring in the reproductive organs is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma, and this tumor of the uterine cervix accounts for 0.7% of all primary cervical uterine neoplasms. Associations with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human papilloma virus (HPV) have been demonstrated in some studies. Some investigators suggested that EBV has an important role in the initiation of lymphoepitheliomalike carcinoma in Asian women. Here we report the case of a 45-year-old Japanese woman, gravida 2 and parity 2. She was admitted due to severe atypical genital bleeding caused by uterine cervical cancer. A >60-mm tumor was detected at the uterine cervix, and no distal metastasis or swallowing of lymph nodes was revealed by magnetic resonance imaging and a computed tomography scan. The cervical cancer stage FIGO Ib2 was diagnosed, and a radical hysterectomy was performed for this malignant tumor. The in situ hybridization for EBV was negative. HVP infection was strongly suspected because the squamous cell carcinoma was observed macroscopically in the uterine cervix. The prognosis of uterine lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma is thought to be better than those of other cervical cancer types, but careful follow-up at fixed intervals is recommended. The patient has been followed up for 4 months since her surgery, and no evidence of recurrence has been detected.
PMCID: PMC4387360  PMID: 25918614
uterine cervical cancer; lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma; squamous cell carcinoma
17.  Mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix and literature review 
BMJ Case Reports  2012;2012:bcr0120125632.
Mesonephric adenocarcinoma is a rare type of cervical cancer that derives from mesonephric remnants in the uterine cervix. To the best of our knowledge, this is the 34th case of mesonephric adenocarcinoma in adult women documented in the literature. We present an asymptomatic 64-year-old postmenopausal woman presenting with a suspicious-looking cervix as an incidental finding and diagnosed with a stage IB mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the cervix. This case was managed with radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingoophorectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. The rarity of such cases imposes challenges on the management in terms of diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic options.
PMCID: PMC4542968  PMID: 23230242
18.  Pure Basaloid Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix: A Case Report 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;24(3):542-545.
Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is an extremely rare malignancy of the female genital tract with a poorer clinical outcome than squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. We report a case of pure basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. A 70-yr-old woman with vaginal bleeding was referred to our institute. A basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix, of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage Ib1, was diagnosed by a loop electrosurgical excision procedure cone biopsy. A radical hysterectomy was performed, along with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, pelvic lymph node dissection, and para-aortic lymph node sampling. Pathologic findings were consistent with a basaloid squamous cell carcinoma confined to the cervix without an extracervical tumor. No further treatment was administered and there was no clinical evidence of recurrence during the 12 months of follow-up. Follow-up for the patient is ongoing. Although basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is thought to behave aggressively, accumulation of data on these rare tumors is necessary to determine whether their behavior differs significantly from that of conventional cervical squamous cell carcinoma of similar clinical stage. These data would be useful for defining the best diagnosis and treatment for these rare tumors.
PMCID: PMC2698210  PMID: 19543425
Basaloid; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Cervix Uteri
19.  Endometrial Metastasis of Lung Adenocarcinoma: A Report of Two Cases 
Case series
Patient: Female, 55 • Female, 51
Final Diagnosis: Metastatic lung adenocarcinoma
Symptoms: Neck swelling
Medication: Erlotinib
Clinical Procedure: Lymph node biopsy
Specialty: Oncology
Unusual clinical course
The female genital tract is an uncommon site of involvement for extragenital malignancies. Ovarian, vaginal, and cervical metastasis has been described in the literature. Uterine corpus and, particularly, endometrial involvement are exceedingly rare. As the incidence of lung cancer is rising in the female population, metastatic uterine involvement by lung cancer is also being reported in the medical literature. Here, we report two cases of endometrial metastasis from primary lung adenocarcinoma.
Case Report:
The first case is a 55-year-old woman diagnosed with stage III lung adenocarcinoma who received initial treatment with sequential chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which resulted in complete response to treatment. However, patient was found to have recurrence soon after completion of initial treatment. Biopsy of a hypermetabolic lesion confirmed endometrial metastasis. The second case is a 51-year-old woman who presented with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma with metastasis to the uterus. EGFR mutation analysis of the lung mass and endometrial biopsy revealed epidermal growth factor receptor L858R mutation in exon 21. She had a positive response to EGFR-directed treatment of all areas of disease, including the uterus.
Uterine metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma is uncommon and difficult to differentiate from primary uterine cancer. The possibility of lung cancer metastasis should be considered in patients who have adenocarcinoma on biopsy of uterine lesions.
PMCID: PMC4444144  PMID: 25981989
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung; Urogenital Neoplasms; Uterine Neoplasms
20.  Hypersensitivity to chemoradiation in FANCA carrier with cervical carcinoma—A case report and review of the literature 
Compared to Fanconi anemia (FA) patients with homozygous defective two-alleles inheritance, there is a scarce or no evidence on one defective allele FANCA carriers, with respect to their cancer incidence, clinical and in vitro radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity. On that account, we report a case of a 30-year old FANCA mutation carrier woman with uterine cervix adenocarcinoma who was treated with chemoradiotherapy, in which unexpected acute toxicity and fatal late morbidity occured.
We also report the results of an in vitro test for radiosensitivity, immunohistochemical examination with FANCA staining and human papillomavirus genotypization, and a review of the literature for FA carrier patients with respect to cancer incidence, clinical and in vitro response to chemo/radiotherapy, options of early heterozygosity detection, and methods of in vitro prediction of hypersensitivity to oncologic treatment.
Although there are no standard guidelines for management of FA carriers with malignancies and reports about chemo- or radiosensitivity in this population are scarce; patients with FA-A heterozygosity may have a high rate of complications from chemo/radiotherapy. Up to now, an optimum method for the prediction of radiosensitivity and the best parameter has not been found. Clinical radioresponsiveness is unpredictable in FA carriers and there is a pressing need of new rapid and predictive in vitro assays of radiation responses. Until then, the treatment of FA carriers with malignancies should be individualized, with respect to potential hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation or cross-linking agents.
PMCID: PMC4477125  PMID: 26109920
Fanconi anemia; FANCA carrier; Heterozygote; Radiotherapy; Cisplatin
21.  Uterine cervix metastasis from a sigmoid adenocarcinoma: a rare presentation of an uncommon tumor 
Metastatic carcinoma to the uterine cervix from colorectal cancer, through haematogenous or lymphatic spread, is extremely rare. We report the case of a 59 year old woman in whom cervical metastasis was diagnosed after 13 months of follow-up for a sigmoid adenocarcinoma, confirmed by immunohistochemical study, with a review of the literature. This case illustrates that abnormal gynecologic symptoms can reveal a disease progression on patients who suffer colorectal cancer.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/2053-6844-1-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4878055  PMID: 27231559
Uterine cervix; Metastasis; Adenocarcinoma; Sigmoid cancer; Immunohistochemistry
22.  Endometrioid adenocarcinoma concurrent with a blue nevus of the endometrium and uterine cervix: A case report 
Oncology Letters  2013;6(5):1219-1221.
A blue nevus is a benign melanocytic lesion that is composed of spindle-shaped pigmented melanocytes. Although the uterine cervix is believed to be the most common extracutaneous location of blue nevi, the occurrence of these lesions in the endometrial stroma has been reported, albeit rarely. The present study describes a case of endometrioid adenocarcinoma concurrent with a blue nevus of the endometrium and uterine cervix. A 58-year-old female presented with abnormal vaginal bleeding. A biopsy from the endometrium revealed an endometrioid adenocarcinoma and subsequently, a total hysterectomy was performed. Histopathological study revealed the proliferation of columnar cells that formed irregularly-shaped tubular and cribriform glands. The neoplastic columnar cells had large, round to oval nuclei containing a single small nucleolus. Focal squamous differentiation was noted. In the stroma of the non-neoplastic endometrium, single or small aggregates of short spindle-shaped cells containing melanin without atypia were observed. These melanocytes were also present in the endocervix. Therefore, the final diagnosis was of endometrioid adenocarcinoma concurrent with a blue nevus of the endometrium and cervix. This is the first documented case of a blue nevus of the endometrium and endocervix. The pathogenesis of blue nevi of the genital tract is not yet completely understood. Possible origins of these cells include Schwann cells or perineural cells of the peripheral nerve fiber or the abnormal migration of neural crest-derived cells.
PMCID: PMC3813810  PMID: 24179498
blue nevus; endometrioid adenocarcinoma; endometrium
23.  Orbital Metastasis of Cervical Carcinoma – Case Report and Review of Literature 
The orbit is a frequent site of metastasis, particularly from the breast, prostate gland and the lung. Carcinoma of the cervix metastasizing to the orbit is rare. We report a 27-year-old woman with Stage II B cervical cancer who presented with progressive painless protrusion of the left eye of one month duration associated with diplopia. Histology of the orbital mass was similar to that of the cervical cancer and reported as squamous cell carcinoma. She received palliative radiation to the left orbit 30 Gy in 10 fractions along with chemotherapy (Paclitaxel and Carboplatin). This resulted in regression of the proptosis. We review published literature of cases of carcinoma of the uterine cervix with metastasis to the orbit.
PMCID: PMC4740630  PMID: 26894102
Proptosis; Radiotherapy; Uterine neoplasm
24.  Bone Involvement by Adenocarcinoma of the Uterine Cervix: A Rare Entity 
Adenocarcinoma is the second most frequent cancer of the uterine cervix after squamous carcinoma, and the most frequent histotype is the mucinous one. Endo-cervical adenocarcinoma accounts for about 10–30% of all cervical cancers and clinically the lesion can be asymptomatic or, more frequently, presenting with anomalous bleeding and/or vaginal discharge.
Case Report
A 41-year-old woman with a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix was subjected to chemotherapy after radical surgery. During the follow-up, the patient underwent a Positron Emission Tomography integrated with Computed Tomography and pelvic Magnetic Resonance, which showed rapid and diffuse disease progression from the site of the lesion to the pelvic bones.
Bone involvement in patients with cervical cancer, being a rare event, is significant since it greatly reduces life expectancy. The majority of metastatic bone lesions in cervical cancer seem to be of osteolytic nature. In our patient, Positron Emission Tomography integrated with Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance were the imaging methods used during the follow-up and both techniques clearly showed diffuse and rapid tumour spread to the bones.
PMCID: PMC4332296  PMID: 25745521
Adenocarcinoma; Cervix Uteri; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Pelvic Bones; Positron-Emission Tomography
25.  A case of advanced gynecologic pelvic tumors showing the diagnostic utility of HPV analysis 
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology  2009;20(4):251-253.
Gynecologic malignancies may have similar histological characteristics. This may lead to difficulties in determining the origin of the cancer and to distinguish a synchronous neoplasm from a metastatic cancer in advanced cases. Recently, we treated a 59-year-old patient with adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix, endometrium, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. It was difficult to determine whether the cancer was a single origin metastatic cancer or a synchronous neoplasm. The patient was finally diagnosed with metastatic cancer that originated from the uterine cervix by human papillomavirus (HPV) test. Here we report the case and briefly review of the medical literature.
PMCID: PMC2799026  PMID: 20041104
Cervical adenocarcinoma; Human papillomavirus; Metastatic cancer; Synchronous neoplasm

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