Mastocytosis is a disorder characterized by an abnormal proliferation of mast cells and release of cell mediators. The incidence is 1 per 1000 skin diseases attending in dermatology services. Mastocytosis can be divided into 3 different clinical variants: cutaneous, systemic and malign mastocytosis. Urticaria pigmentosa is the most common variety (70–90%) of mastocytosis. Of all cases 55% ocurr during the first 2 years of life. When the bone marrow, lymph nodes, liver and spleen are affected the disorder is called systemic mastocytosis.
Case 1: A 20 month old male with history of penicillin and erythromycin allergy, as well atopic family history. Began at 4 months with itchy brown-marrow papules in the back, then generalizated except palms and soles. The lesions were exacerbated by heat and rubbing. There was no fever, weight loss, or any other systemic symptoms in the history. Blood count and biochemical laboratories were normal. Skin biopsy reported the presence of mast cells, confirming urticaria pigmentosa diagnosis. The management included antihistamines, restricted diet and emollients with improved of symptoms. Case 2: A 9 month old male with no history of atopy. At the first visit he had 4 months with skin lesions characterized by hyperpigmented maculopapular eruption, scattered on head, over trunk and extremities. Darier´s sign was positive. Skin biopsy is performed with confirming the diagnosis of mastocytosis.
The urticaria pigmentosa diagnosis is mainly clinical, with emphasis on the Darier´s sign, which is pathognomonic and positive in 90% of cases. In some cases a skin biopsy is required to confirm the diagnosis. Antihistamines are the first line of treatment. Symptoms relieve spontaneously before adolescence in 50% of pediatric patients. In some cases, a malignant transformation of mastocytosis could occur, condition that is called “mast cell leukemia”.
Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is a hematopoietic neoplasm characterized by pathologic expansion of tissue mast cells in one or more extracutaneous organs. In most children and most adult patients, skin involvement is found. Childhood patients frequently suffer from cutaneous mastocytosis without systemic involvement, whereas most adult patients are diagnosed as suffering from SM. In a smaller subset of patients, SM without skin lesions develops which is a diagnostic challenge. In the current article, a diagnostic algorithm for patients with suspected SM is proposed. In adult patients with skin lesions and histologically confirmed mastocytosis in the skin (MIS), a bone marrow biopsy is recommended regardless of the serum tryptase level. In adult patients without skin lesions who are suffering from typical mediator-related symptoms, the basal serum tryptase level is an important diagnostic parameter. In those with slightly elevated tryptase (15-30 ng/ml), additional non-invasive investigations, including a KIT mutation analysis of peripheral blood cells and sonographic analysis, is performed. In adult patients in whom i) KIT D816V is detected or/and ii) the basal serum tryptase level is clearly elevated (> 30 ng/ml) or/and iii) other clinical or laboratory features are suggesting the presence of occult mastocytosis, a bone marrow biopsy should be performed. In the absence of KIT D816V and other indications of mastocytosis, no bone marrow investigation is required, but the patient’s course and the serum tryptase levels are examined in the follow-up.
Mastocytosis; tryptase; KIT D816V; diagnostic algorithm; staging
Despite the good prognosis of pediatric mastocytosis, some patients suffer from severe mast cell (MC) mediator-associated symptoms. The aim of this study was to identify predictors for severe MC mediator release symptoms in children with mastocytosis in the skin (MIS).
Serum baseline total tryptase (sbT) levels in 111 children with MIS – 80 maculopapular cutaneous mastocytosis/plaque mastocytosis, 22 nodular mastocytosis, and nine diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis – were investigated as a predictive biomarker for the occurrence of MC mediator-related signs and symptoms within the first 18 months after disease onset.
Twelve children (11%) who showed extensive cutaneous disease involving >90% of body surface area (BSA) suffered from severe symptoms requiring hospitalization, with (n = 5) or without (n = 6) management in the intensive care unit (ICU) owing to life-threatening complications. The median sbT was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in patients with extensive cutaneous disease vs those with <90% of BSA involved (45.5 vs 5.2 µg/l, respectively), as well as in children with grade 4 (severe mastocytosis-related symptoms requiring emergency therapy and hospitalization) vs those with grade <4 (46.2 vs 5.2 µg/l, respectively). Receiver operating characteristics curve analyses showed that the optimal cutoff s for sbT to predict the need for daily antimediator therapy, hospitalization, and the management in an ICU were 6.6, 15.5, and 30.8 µg/l, respectively (sensitivity and specificity of 77% and 79%, 100% and 95%, and 100% and 96%, respectively).
Increased sbT in association with extensive cutaneous involvement identifies patients at risk for severe MC activation events in pediatric mastocytosis.
mast cell; mastocytosis, pediatric; skin; tryptase
It is known that patients with mastocytosis have an increased risk of anaphylaxis. This also appears to be the case with patients with evidence of a clonal mast cell disorder resulting in the monoclonal mast cell activation syndrome (MMAS) who do not express the full mastocytosis phenotype. Most patients with mastocytosis are recognized by their characteristic skin lesions. An increased level of baseline serum mast cell tryptase is also an indicator for a possible clonal mast cell disorder including mastocytosis. Other markers for mast cell clonality and for mastocytosis include abnormal immunostaining of mast cells with CD25 and CD2, clustering of mast cells in tissues, abnormal mast cell morphology, and the presence of a mutation in the proto-oncogene c-kit encoding for the mast cell growth receptor KIT. As recognition depends on an understanding of mastocytosis, and this disease should be considered in patients with recurrent anaphylaxis, we describe the features of mast cell clonality, MMAS and mastocytosis; and review recent findings.
The authors present a case of telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans, an uncommon form of cutaneous mastocytosis, in a 53-year-old man and discuss its clinics, pathophysiology, laboratory results, and treatment. Cutaneous mastocytosis is a proliferation of masts cells on the skin without involvement of other organs. Typically the lesions of telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans are telangiectatic macules with color ranging from light to dark brown. It is more frequent in adults, with some reports in children. It is usually insidious, without symptoms at the beginning and, although a manifestation of cutaneous mastocytosis, telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans may present systemic involvement. It is very important for dermatologists to know this form of cutaneous mastocytosis and to make an early diagnosis, so they may treat the disorder and improve their patients' quality of life.
Mastocytosis is an uncommon disorder defined by increased and abnormal mast cells in one or more tissues. Cutaneous mastocytosis (cm) is limited to the skin, with varying degrees of rash, pruritus, and disfigurement. Systemic mastocytosis (sm) typically involves the bone marrow, sometimes in association with other bone marrow disorders, including chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (cmml). Mastocytosis has been associated with somatic mutations in the gene encoding the tyrosine kinase Kit, leading to identification of Kit as a therapeutic target. The Kit inhibitor imatinib mesylate is approved for aggressive sm. We present an unusual patient with disabling pruritus from telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans, a subtype of cm, and cmml, but with no evidence of systemic mast cell disease. She was treated with imatinib and experienced marked improvement in her pruritus. Concomitant cm and cmml have not previously been reported, and the present report is the first of successful imatinib therapy in an adult patient with cm.
Mastocytosis; chronic myelomonocytic leukemia; imatinib; pruritus; cutaneous; tyrosine kinase inhibitor; tmep
Mastocytosis is a clonal disorder associated with an increased mast cell burden. We have recently demonstrated the ability of human mast cells to express and be activated through multiple serotonin receptors; to synthesize and release serotonin; and that mastocytosis patients may have abnormal serotonin levels. As serotonin has been implicated in the genesis of clinical symptoms found in association with some chronic diseases, we have now determined the whole blood serotonin levels in 29 patients diagnosed with mastocytosis, and correlated these levels with multiple clinical and laboratory parameters.
Materials and methods
Patients with mastocytosis were categorized according to disease variant. Blood serotonin values were determined and correlated with values reported for normal subjects; and clinical and laboratory features of the disease.
Total blood serotonin levels followed a bimodal distribution in line with our earlier report, unlike the normal distribution reported for normal individuals. Serotonin levels did not correlate with platelet numbers, liver function tests or serum tryptase levels. Patients with lower serotonin values had greater rates of fatigue (P = 0·0001), migraine headaches (P = 0·0028), psychiatric symptoms (P = 0·0001), diarrhoea (P = 0·0407), flushing (0·0085), and abdominal and bone pain (P = 0·0001).
Our study suggests that low blood serotonin levels help define a sub-group of patients with mastocytosis that are more likely to present with neurological and gastrointestinal complaints, and suggests that the use of pharmacologic agents that alter blood serotonin levels could be explored in selected patients.
5HT; mast cells; mastocytosis; platelets; serotonin; tryptase
Mastocytosis is a heterogeneous disease, with abnormal accumulation of mast cells in one or more organs. Hyperplasia is often found in the bone marrow and peripheral sites such as skin, gastrointestinal mucosa, liver and spleen. The clinical manifestations are due to release of mast cell mediators and tissue infiltration; however, there is no direct relationship between total mast cell mass and symptoms of liberation.
Describe 2 cases of mastocytosis that manifest with anaphylactic shock and also have IgE-dependent allergy.
Case1: Man of 62 years consulting for intraoperative anaphylaxis with an expected elevated serum tryptase (54 mg/L) during episode. The skin test were positive to vecuronium, rocuronium and Izofran and the other drugs and latex were negative. Specific IgE to quaternary ammonium latex and beta-lactams were negative. The tryptase remains elevated (23 mg/L) 6 weeks after surgery. Bone marrow biopsy showed mast cell infiltration of 10% CD 34 staining less than 1% and 10% CD117. Co-CD25 and CD117 were 25% compatible with mastocytosis. CT neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis were normal. The upper and lower endoscopy revealed polyps in gastric antrum, the histology was nodular foveolar hyperplasia. Case 2: Female, 38 years consulted for 3 episodes of anaphylaxis following the ingestion of fish, shellfish and quinoa. The skin prick test was positive to white fish and shrimp, specific IgE were positive to white and blue fish and shrimp. The initial serum tryptase was 11 mg/L, 3 months was 14 mg/L. Later, patient had a new anaphylaxis episode, after unnoticed consumption of fish. Bone marrow biopsy compatible with mastocytosis. The study with lower and upper endoscopy with chest and abdominal CT scan ruled out visceral involvement.
Both cases of systemic mastocytosis show an IgE sensitization to drugs and to food whose main manifestation was anaphylactic shock. In the literature, anaphylaxis was reported in up to 22% of mastocytosis, mostly men, associated with different triggering stimuli such as muscle relaxants, but not food. Therefore it is essential to rule out the presence of mastocytosis in patients complaining of anaphylaxis even in those with allergy study showing IgE-dependent sensitization.
Mastocytosis is a rare disease of mast-cell proliferation with involvement of the reticuloendothelial systems including skin, bone, gastrointestinal tract, liver, lungs, spleen, and lymph nodes. Systemic mastocytosis is characterized by a combination of symptoms that relate to the mast cells' release of vasoactive substances, such as histamine. These symptoms include urticaria pigmentosa, flushing, syncope with hypotension, headaches, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and occasional bronchospasm. The diagnosis of mastocytosis is typically based on the presence of the characteristic extraosseus manifestations. A well recognized roentgenographic feature seen in 70-75% of patients with mastocytosis is diffuse osteolysis and osteosclerosis, affecting primarily the axial skeleton and the ends of the long bones. Rarely, the bony involvement consists of generalized osteoporosis, which may lead to pathologic fracture, or solitary lesions (mastocytomas) which may cause symptoms of localized pain. Four patients with previously diagnosed systemic mastocytosis had unusual skeletal lesions. Clinical and laboratory evaluation of these patients eventually led to the correct diagnosis of systemic mastocytosis. We report these four cases to emphasize the need for thorough evaluation of unusual musculoskeletal findings in association with extraosseus symptoms that are characteristic of mastocytosis. Knowledge of a wide differential diagnosis of unusual skeletal lesions should include systemic mastosytosis.
Mastocytosis is a rare neoplastic disease characterized by a pathologic accumulation of tissue mast cells (MCs). Mastocytosis is often associated with a somatic point mutation in the Kit protooncogene leading to an Asp/Val substitution at position 816 in the kinase domain of this receptor. The contribution of this mutation to mastocytosis development remains unclear. In addition, the clinical heterogeneity presented by mastocytosis patients carrying the same mutation is unexplained. We report that a disease with striking similarities to human mastocytosis develops spontaneously in transgenic mice expressing the human Asp816Val mutant Kit protooncogene specifically in MCs. This disease is characterized by clinical signs ranging from a localized and indolent MC hyperplasia to an invasive MC tumor. In addition, bone marrow–derived MCs from transgenic animals can be maintained in culture for >24 mo and acquire growth factor independency for proliferation. These results demonstrate a causal link in vivo between the Asp816Val Kit mutation and MC neoplasia and suggest a basis for the clinical heterogeneity of human mastocytosis.
Mast cell disorders are defined by an abnormal accumulation of tissue mast cells in one or more organ systems. In systemic mastocytosis, at least one extracutaneous organ is involved by definition. Although, systemic mastocytosis usually represents with skin lesion called urticaria pigmentosa, in a small proportion, there is extracutaneous involvement without skin infiltration. Other manifestations are flushing, tachycardia, dyspepsia, diarrhea, hypotension, syncope, and rarely fever. Various medications have been used but there is not a definite cure for systemic mastocytosis. The principles of treatment include control of symptoms with measures aimed to decrease mast cell activation. We describe a case of systemic mastocytosis presenting with hypotension, syncope attacks, fever, and local flushing. In bone marrow biopsy, increased mast cell infiltration was demonstrated. She had no skin infiltration. A good clinicopathological response was obtained acutely with combination therapy of glucocorticoid and cyclosporine.
Mast cells are now known to derive from CD34+ haemopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. However, it has not yet been established whether the various types of mastocytosis, which involve tumour-like proliferation of mast cells, are true neoplastic disorders or reactive/hyperplastic conditions. In this study, tissue specimens (five bone marrow, two spleen, one skin) from female patients with histologically confirmed mastocytosis were investigated with a recently developed polymerase chain reaction assay for the determination of clonality of female cells using the human androgen receptor gene (HU-MARA). Mast cells purified to near homogeneity from hysterectomy specimens served as a control. The findings in bone marrow and skin either were not reproducible, or indicated polyclonality. However, both spleen specimens exhibited monoclonality. In addition, DNA analysis by flow cytometry was performed and revealed a diploid chromosome content with proliferation indices of under 8% in all the specimens. This is the first molecular biological study to indicate that mastocytosis is indeed neoplastic in nature.
Is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by clonal proliferation of mast cells (MCs) leading accumulation in different organs. Pathologic activation of KIT due to a mutation in codon 816 replacing aspartic acid for valine: KIT-D816V (>93%) has been identified. Cutaneous Mastocytosis (CM), Classified in Urticaria Pigmentosa (UP), solitary mastocytoma, diffuse, and telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans (TMEP). The most common is the Urticaria Pigmentosa as fixed, reddish brown macular or papular, urticate in physical irritation (Darier's sign). WHO Diagnostic Criteria for cutaneous Mastocytosis: Presence of at least 1 of skin lesions with Focal dense MC infiltrates (>15 MCs per cluster) or diffuse (>20 cells per high-power field).
We report 2 cases of patients with this disease who were not diagnosed at first. A 51 years old female, who noticed 20 years ago, the appareance of itchy "spots” in thorax, abdomen and extremities, progressively increasing in number and size, receiving unspecified treatments without improvement. On examination, we found brown macules with sharp borders, 0.3 to 0.5 cm erythema and Darier´s sign, disseminated lesions on thorax, shoulders and extremities. A 45 year old female, who noticed 2 years ago, the appareance of freckles in neck, arms, thorax and legs progressively increasing in number, who in stress are itchy. Receiving multiple treatments without improvement. On examination disseminated brown macules with sharp borders <0.5 cm with Darier´s sign.
In both patients, the biopsies taken had findings compatible with mastocytosis (inflammatory infiltrate with perivascular lymphocytes, histiocytes and mast cells). Mast cells were not quantified. We realized a genetic study in search of c-kit mutation. Once the diagnosis was considered and treated accordingly, they had a good control of symptoms.
Mastocytosis is diagnosed by clinical features and histological infiltrate of mast cells. The skin is the organ most frequently affected. These patients previously received multiple treatments with no clinical improvement suggest inadecuate diagnosis. Histologically, compatible although no quantificate mast cells, but a mutation of c-kit was found. It is important to consider this disease in the differential diagnosis of pruritic skin disorders since an appropriate treatment with an improvement in quality of life also must be aware of the risk of anafylaxis and its potential triggers.
Background/Aims—The occurrence of myeloid leukaemia in patients with systemic mastocytosis is a well recognised phenomenon. However, the pathophysiological basis of such a coevolution has not been clarified. Recent data have shown that the c-kit mutation Asp 816 to Val is detectable in neoplastic mast cells in most patients with systemic mastocytosis, including those who have associated haematological disorders. The aim of this study was to study clonal disease evolution by analysing bone marrow cells from a patient with systemic mastocytosis and associated chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML) for the presence of this mutation.
Methods—The DNA of microdissected bone marrow cells from a patient with systemic mastocytosis and associated CMML was analysed for the presence of the c-kit mutation Asp 816 to Val by means of HinfI digestion and direct sequencing of semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products.
Results—The two neoplasms could easily be identified and discriminated in paraffin wax embedded bone marrow sections by tryptase and chloroacetate esterase staining. A total number of 10 tryptase positive systemic mastocytosis infiltrates and 10 tryptase negative CMML infiltrates were removed by microdissection. As assessed by HinfI digestion and direct sequencing of semi-nested PCR products, the c-kit mutation Asp 816 to Val was detected in five of seven systemic mastocytosis infiltrates and four of six CMML infiltrates. By contrast, no c-kit mutation Asp 816 to Val was found in bone marrow infiltrates in patients with CMML without associated systemic mastocytosis (n = 20).
Conclusion—These data support a monoclonal evolution of systemic mastocytosis and concurrent CMML in the patient studied.
mast cells; microdissection; c-kit point mutation
Pediatric onset mastocytosis usually presents as urticaria pigmentosa; and less often as diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis. While the literature indicates that disease often resolves, there has been a move to more aggressive therapy for mastocytosis early in life. We addressed the long term prognosis of pediatric-onset disease by examining 17 children with mastocytosis which we had reported on in 1989.
We successfully contacted 15 of these patients and data was collected regarding their clinical status. Original bone marrow specimens were re-stained, re-examined, and correlated with disease outcome using consensus criteria. Three of five patients with persistent disease underwent repeat bone marrow biopsies.
There was complete regression of disease as defined by cutaneous findings and symptoms (clinical disease severity) in 10 of 15 patients (67%). Three patients had major (20%) and two had partial regression of disease (13%). Repeat marrow examinations on three patients with persistent disease documented systemic mastocytosis based on marrow findings in one patient who had partial regression of disease and was the only patient with initial morphologic evidence of systemic disease. Of the remaining two patients, one demonstrated partial regression and the other major regression of disease; and neither had evidence of systemic mastocytosis.
This study demonstrates that initial bone marrow biopsies were prognostic in that those without evidence of systemic disease experienced disease regression; and that the long term prognosis for children managed symptomatically with mastocytosis is highly encouraging.
Cutaneous mastocytosis; pediatric mastocytosis; urticaria pigmentosa; serum tryptase; bone marrow; KIT
Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is a rare disease with abnormal proliferation and infiltration of mast cells in the skin, bone marrow, and viscera including the mucosal surfaces of the digestive tract. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms occur in 14%-85% of patients with systemic mastocytosis. The GI symptoms may be as frequent as the better known pruritus, urticaria pigmentosa, and flushing. In fact most recent studies show that the GI symptoms are especially important clinically due to the severity and chronicity of the effects that they produce. GI symptoms may include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and bloating. A case of predominantly GI systemic mastocytosis with unique endoscopic images and pathologic confirmation is herein presented, as well as a current review of the GI manifestations of this disease including endoscopic appearances. Issues such as treatment and prognosis will not be discussed for the purposes of this paper.
Systemic mastocytosis; Idiopathic diarrhea; Gastrointestinal manifestations
Activation of tissue mast cells (MCs) and their abnormal growth and accumulation in various organs are typically found in primary MC disorders also referred to as mastocytosis. However, increasing numbers of patients are now being informed that their clinical findings are due to MC activation (MCA) that is neither associated with mastocytosis nor with a defined allergic or inflammatory reaction. In other patients with MCA, MCs appear to be clonal cells, but criteria for diagnosing mastocytosis are not met. A working conference was organized in 2010 with the aim to define criteria for diagnosing MCA and related disorders, and to propose a global unifying classification of all MC disorders and pathologic MC reactions. This classification includes three types of ‘MCA syndromes’ (MCASs), namely primary MCAS, secondary MCAS and idiopathic MCAS. MCA is now defined by robust and generally applicable criteria, including (1) typical clinical symptoms, (2) a substantial transient increase in serum total tryptase level or an increase in other MC-derived mediators, such as histamine or prostaglandin D2, or their urinary metabolites, and (3) a response of clinical symptoms to agents that attenuate the production or activities of MC mediators. These criteria should assist in the identification and diagnosis of patients with MCAS, and in avoiding misdiagnoses or overinterpretation of clinical symptoms in daily practice. Moreover, the MCAS concept should stimulate research in order to identify and exploit new molecular mechanisms and therapeutic targets.
Mast cells; Mast cell activation syndrome; Allergy; Anaphylaxis; Tryptase
Approximately 20% of patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM) have an associated haematological, clonal, non-mast cell lineage disease, and most exhibit an associated myelogenous neoplasm. This report describes a 48 year old man with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and a type t(8;21) cytogenetic abnormality. Associated bone marrow mastocytosis (a defined subtype of SM) was only detected after successful polychemotherapy in the state of bone marrow aplasia, and persisted after complete remission of AML. The diagnosis of mastocytosis was based on the demonstration of a multifocal dense mastocytic infiltrate. The atypical mast cells showed prominent spindling and an aberrant immunophenotype, with coexpression of tryptase, chymase, KIT, and CD25—which is expressed only on neoplastic (not normal) mast cells. In addition, the transforming somatic mutation D816V of the c-kit gene was detected. Re-examination of the pretherapeutic (initial) bone marrow revealed a slight diffuse increase in partially spindle shaped mast cells also exhibiting an abnormal immunophenotype, with CD25 expression, although compact mastocytic infiltrates were not detected. Because the D816V mutation was detected in the initial bone marrow specimen, strict application of three minor diagnostic criteria (spindling, CD25, D816V) enabled a diagnosis of SM-AML to be confirmed retrospectively in the initial bone marrow tissue.
mastocytosis; bone marrow; CD25; acute myeloid leukaemia; mast cell tryptase; occult; mastocytosis; c-kit mutation
A 74 year old woman presented with a primary subglottic tumour. Neither cutaneous mastocytosis (urticaria pigmentosa) nor spread to the bone marrow, liver, or spleen were detected. About two years after initial manifestation of the tumour nodular skin metastases appeared, as well as local recurrence in the larynx. Despite chemotherapy and radiation the disease progressed and was fatal. The terminal phase was characterised by generalisation of the mast cell tumour with diffuse infiltration of bone marrow and, shortly before death, leukaemic transformation. The patient died four years after onset of disease with symptoms of a hemorrhagic diathesis. As far as we know this is the first case of mast cell sarcoma to be reported in man.
Aims: Although systemic mastocytosis (SM) with an associated clonal haematological non-mast cell lineage disease (SM-AHNMD) is a major subtype of SM, little is known about its frequency among myelogenous neoplasms, and mastocytosis in particular, or about AHNMD subtype frequencies.
Methods: Approximately 19 500 routine bone marrow biopsies were evaluated. Immunostaining with antibodies against tryptase, KIT, and CD25 and molecular analysis for detection of C-KIT point mutations were performed in approximately 550/4100 myelogenous malignancies including mastocytosis, almost all subtypes of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative syndrome (MDS/MPD), MPD, and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML).
Results: SM was rare—it was diagnosed in only 64 bone marrows (0.3%) and made up 1.5% of myelogenous tumours. SM-AHNMD was the second most frequent subtype (20). SM-AHNMD was never included in the clinical differential diagnoses and was confirmed histologically in most cases only after appropriate immunostaining. The abnormal mast cell phenotype was confirmed by immunohistochemical demonstration of tryptase and CD25 coexpression. The following associated haematological neoplasms were found: MDS/MPS, AML, MPS, MDS, plasma cell myeloma, and unclassifiable myelogenous malignancy. C-KIT point mutations were detected in 16 of 20 cases.
Conclusions: SM-AHNMD can be diagnosed histologically in bone marrow trephines only after immunostaining with antibodies against tryptase, KIT, and CD25. Eighteen of 20 AHNMDs were of myeloid origin. C-KIT point mutations were present in 16 of 20 cases. The prognostic relevance of detecting SM associated with another haematological neoplasm remains unclear, but mast cell resistance to most cytoreductive agents is of major importance for treatment planning.
mast cell; mastocytosis; systemic mastocytosis; systemic mastocytosis with associated clonal haematological non-mast cell lineage diseases; bone marrow
Mastocytosis is a heterogeneous disease characterized by mast cells accumulation in one or more organs. We have reported that depression is frequent in mastocytosis, but although it was already described, little is known about the prevalence and features of cognitive impairment. Our objective was to describe the prevalence and features of cognitive impairment in a large cohort of patients with this rare disease (n = 57; mean age = 45) and to explore the relations between memory impairment and depression. Objective memory impairment was evaluated using the 3rd edition of the Clinical Memory scale of Wechsler. Depression symptoms were evaluated using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Age and education levels were controlled for all patients. Patients with mastocytosis presented high levels of cognitive impairment (memory and/or attention) (n = 22; 38.6%). Cognitive impairment was moderate in 59% of the cases, concerned immediate auditory (41%) and working memory (73%) and was not associated to depression (p≥0.717). In conclusion, immediate auditory memory and attention impairment in mastocytosis are frequent, even in young individuals, and are not consecutive to depression. In mastocytosis, cognitive complaints call for complex neuropsychological assessment. Mild-moderate cognitive impairment and depression constitute two specific but somewhat independent syndromes in mastocytosis. These results suggest differential effects of mast-cell activity in the brain, on systems involved in emotionality and in cognition.
Unregulated activation of mast cells can contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory and allergic diseases, including asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and multiple sclerosis(1;2). Absence of mast cells in animal models can lead to impairment in the innate immune response to parasites and bacterial infections(3–5). Aberrant clonal accumulation and proliferation of mast cells can result in a variety of diseases ranging from benign cutaneous mastocytosis to systemic mastocytosis or mast cell leukemia(6). Understanding mast cell differentiation provides important insights into mechanisms of lineage selection during hematopoiesis and can provide targets for new drug development to treat mast cell disorders,. In this review, we discuss controversies related to development, sites of origin,, and the transcriptional program of mast cells.
Mast cells; transcription factors; GATA; PU.1; Mitf
Mastocytosis is a rare disease consisting of a group of disorders characterized by a pathologic increase in the number of mast cells in one or more organ system. Treatment is symptomatic. Oral sodium cromoglicate (SCG) is the only treatment licensed for the treatment of mastocytosis. In this case we report how in a mastocytosis patient being treated with H1 and H2 antihistamines, and oral sodium cromoglicate, the addition of inhaled sodium cromoglicate resulted in further improvement. This is the first report of this use of the drug in this disease.
The subject is a Caucasian woman aged 40 years. Symptoms of mastocytosis began when she was aged 13 years, but the diagnosis was not made until after her first pregnancy aged 33 years. Symptoms improved with H1 and H2 antihistamines, and oral sodium cromoglicate, but it required the addition of inhaled sodium cromoglicate to produce further improvement, specifically in the symptoms of bone pain, fatigue and headache. Doses of oral sodium cromoglicate had to be increased if challenged with a food to which the subject was sensitive. Doses of inhaled sodium cromoglicate had to be increased during the menstrual period.
Patients suffering from the rare disease of mastocytosis have symptoms affecting many body systems. Symptoms result from the release of inflammatory mediators from mast cells. Sodium cromoglicate, a drug that reduces the release of mediators from mast cells, is effective in controlling gastrointestinal symptoms, but less effective in those affecting other body systems. In this case report we have shown that the addition of inhaled sodium cromoglicate controls the symptoms of bone pain, fatigue and headache and also that the doses have to be increased during the menstrual period.
Systemic Mastocytosis (SM) comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders of mast cell proliferation. Infiltration, including skin and bone, of multiple mast cells may occur as cutaneous and systemic variants. A rare form of osteoporosis has been also described as expression of the skeletal involvement.
Here, we describe a case of a 57-years-old woman with SM and, according to the clinical diagnosis, evaluate the possible mechanism underlying osteoporosis. Moreover, a review of the literature, particularly regarding the use of bisphosphonates in this rare disease is also presented.
mastocytosis, osteoporosis, bisphosphonates.
Pediatric mastocytosis consists of a spectrum of clinical variants characterized by increased numbers of resident mast cells in various organ systems. Mast cells are instrumental in mediating anaphylaxis and patients with mastocytosis are at risk to develop provoked and unprovoked episodes of anaphylaxis.
The authors examined peri-anesthetic records of patients with pediatric mastocytosis who were anesthetized for diagnostic and surgical procedures from 1993 to 2006. In addition, the authors conducted a literature review of the experience of the use anesthetics in pediatric mastocytosis.
Twenty-two patients with pediatric mastocytosis, with a median age of 3.2 years (range 6 months to 20 years) at the time of the procedure, were anesthetized for 29 diagnostic and surgical procedures. All variants of the disease are represented in this series. Most patients had a history of flushing, pruritus, GERD and abdominal pain; one patient had history of spontaneous anaphylaxis. Routine anesthetic techniques were used and despite the complexity of the disease, the peri-operative courses were uncomplicated and without serious adverse events.
We review the main features of pediatric mastocytosis, its anesthetic and perioperative implications, and describe a practical approach to the anesthetic management of pediatric patients with the disease. While many drugs used routinely in anesthesia reportedly cause mast cell degranulation, deviations from routine anesthesia techniques are not necessarily warranted. However, an understanding of the anesthetic implications of the disease and meticulous preparation to treat possible adverse events are advised.