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1.  Infections caused by Klebsiella ozaenae: a changing disease spectrum. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1978;8(4):413-418.
A total of 64 isolates of Klebsiella ozaenae were recovered from 36 patients during a 40-month period. Over 7,500 isolates of K. pneumoniae were isolated during the same time period. Before this decade, K. ozaenae was considered to be only a colonizer of the nasopharynx or a putative cause of ozena (atrophic rhinitis). K. ozaenae was recovered most frequently from sputum in mixed culture but was associated with infection in 12 patients (2 with bacteremia, 3 with urinary tract infection, 1 with soft tissue infection, and 6 with mucopurulent nasal discharge). The spectrum of disease caused by this organism is more extensive than has been appreciated previously.
PMCID: PMC275262  PMID: 721945
2.  An unusual variation in the anatomy of the uncinate process in external dacryocystorhinostomy 
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology  2008;56(5):413-416.
Variations in the bony components of the nose are often encountered. One such variation was found in a 49-year-old male who had undergone conventional external dacryocystorhinostomy for adult onset nasolacrimal duct blockage. Intraoperatively, a thick bar of bone was seen beneath and parallel to the lacrimal sac fossa after a complete osteotomy had been made. Another osteotomy had to be fashioned in this bone to reach the nasal cavity. Postoperative 3D computed tomographic scan revealed the bone to be an anatomical variation of the uncinate process of the ethmoidal bone which was rather anteriorly placed, much thicker than usual, and attached to the nasal roof.
The uncinate process is thin, curved and its anterior edge may frequently overlap some part of the lacrimal fossa. However, to our knowledge, the presence of such a large and thick uncinate process necessitating an additional large osteotomy has not been reported.
PMCID: PMC2636146  PMID: 18711272
Dacryocystorhinostomy; nasal bones; uncinate process
3.  Regeneration of toxigenic Pasteurella multocida induced severe turbinate atrophy in pigs detected by computed tomography 
Background
Atrophic rhinitis is a widely prevalent infectious disease of swine caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica and Pasteurella multocida. The course of the disease is considered to be different depending on the principal aetiological agents distinguishing B. bronchiseptica induced non-progressive and toxigenic P. multocida produced progressive forms. In order to compare the pathological events of the two forms of the disease, the development of nasal lesions has longitudinally been studied in pigs infected by either B. bronchiseptica alone or B. bronchiseptica and toxigenic P. multocida together using computed tomography to visualise the nasal structures.
Results
B. bronchiseptica infection alone caused moderately severe nasal turbinate atrophy and these lesions completely regenerated by the time of slaughter. Unexpectedly, complete regeneration of the bony structures of the nasal cavity was also observed in pigs infected by B. bronchiseptica and toxigenic P. multocida together in spite of seeing severe turbinate atrophy in most of the infected animals around the age of six weeks.
Conclusions
B. bronchiseptica mono-infection has been confirmed to cause only mild to moderate and transient lesions, at least in high health status pigs. Even severe turbinate atrophy induced by B. bronchiseptica and toxigenic P. multocida combined infection is able to be reorganised to their normal anatomical structure. Computed tomography has further been verified to be a useful tool to examine the pathological events of atrophic rhinitis in a longitudinal manner.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-9-222
PMCID: PMC3818441  PMID: 24171824
Atrophic rhinitis; Bordetella bronchiseptica; Pasteurella multocida; Computed tomography
4.  Successful endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy in a patient with Wegener’s granulomatosis 
Wegener’s granulomatosis (WG) is one form of idiopathic autoimmune vasculitis. The disease has a predilection for the upper and lower respiratory tracts (lungs, nose, sinus), and kidneys. WG may be systemic, severe, and potentially lethal, but it may also be limited to the otolaryngological area or to the eyes and the orbits. Obstruction of the lacrimal pathway is a possible complication of the disease that affects approximately 7% of patients with WG. It usually occurs as a direct extension of sinonasal disease and typically is a late manifestation. Management of such a condition is generally viewed as difficult. We report the case of a patient with a quiescent WG limited to the otolaryngological area. This patient presented a bilateral obstruction of the nasolacrimal ducts caused by bilateral extensive adhesions in the nasal cavity. Because she had several episodes of left-side acute dacryocystitis which necessitated several courses of broad-spectrum antibiotics, she successfully underwent an endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy using a diode laser and powered instrumentation. The authors describe the clinical case, the surgical technique, and review the literature.
PMCID: PMC2801633  PMID: 20054412
Wegener’s granulomatosis; recurrent dacryocystitis; endonasal DCR; diode; laser; powered instrumentation
5.  Study of Histopathological Changes in Primary Atrophic Rhinitis 
ISRN Otolaryngology  2011;2011:269479.
Primary atrophic rhinitis is a progressive chronic nasal disease and histopathologically characterized by squamous metaplasia and two characteristic types of vascular involvement (type I and type II). Despite its chronicity and squamous transformation, nothing is known about the occurrence of malignancy in atrophic rhinitis. The present work was undertaken to study the histopathological characteristics in primary atrophic rhinitis and identify whether it has any association with malignant transformation. Nasal biopsies obtained from 90 patients diagnosed as primary atrophic rhinitis were studied. Squamous metaplasia was noted in 89% of patients, and type I and type II vascular involvement were seen in 67% and 33% of patients, respectively. This preliminary report suggests that there is no association between atrophic rhinitis and precancerous lesions of nasal cavity despite squamous metaplasia and confirms the presence of two types of vascular changes in the disease which is helpful to decide the treatment modality.
doi:10.5402/2011/269479
PMCID: PMC3658637  PMID: 23724252
6.  Neuro-navigation: An Adjunct in Craniofacial Surgeries: Our Experience 
Purpose
Due to the destruction of osseous landmarks of the skull base or paranasal sinuses, the anatomical orientation during surgery of frontobasal or clival tumors with (para) nasal extension is often challenging. In this relation, Neuro-navigation guidance might be a useful tool. Here, we explored the use of Neuro-navigation in an interdisciplinary setting.
Methods and Materials
The surgical series consists of 3 patients who underwent Lefort-I access osteotomy and surgical decompression of the tumor. The procedures were planned and assisted by neuro-navigation techniques with image fusion of CT and MRI. Two of the patients were diagnosed to have clival chordoma and one had extensive JNA.
Results
The application of Neuro-navigation in the combined approaches was both safe and reliable for delineation of tumors and identification of vital structures hidden or encased by the tumors. There was no perioperative mortality. Tumors were either removed completely, or subtotal resection was achieved.
Conclusion
Craniofacial approaches with intra-operative neuro-navigational guidance in a multidisciplinary setting allow safe resection of large tumors of the upper clivus and the paranasal sinuses involving the anterior skull base. Complex skull base surgery with the involvement of bony structures appears to be an ideal field for advanced navigation techniques given the lack of intraoperative shift of relevant structures.
doi:10.1007/s12663-011-0245-6
PMCID: PMC3267921  PMID: 23204743
Neuro-navigation; Neuro-navigator; Lefort I access osteotomies; Clival chordoma
7.  Persistent CSF Rhinorrhoea, Pneumocephalus, and Recurrent Meningitis Following Misdiagnosis of Olfactory Neuroblastoma 
Case Reports in Medicine  2010;2010:312081.
A 41-year-old female patient was admitted with streptococcal meningitis on a background of 5-month history of CSF rhinorrhoea. Imaging revealed an extensive skull base lesion involving the sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses, the pituitary fossa with suprasellar extension and bony destruction. Histological examination of an endonasal transethmoidal biopsy suggested a diagnosis of olfactory neuroblastoma. A profuse CSF leak occurred and the patient developed coliform meningitis. A second endonasal endoscopic biopsy was undertaken which demonstrated the tumour to be a prolactinoma. Following endonasal repair of the CSF leak and lumbar drainage, she developed profound pneumocephalus. The patient underwent three further unsuccessful CSF leak repairs. Definitive control of the CSF leak was finally achieved through a transcranial approach with prolonged lumbar drainage. This case illustrates some of the potentially devastating complications which can occur as a consequence of complex skull base lesions. A multidisciplinary approach may be required to successfully manage such cases.
doi:10.1155/2010/312081
PMCID: PMC2929619  PMID: 20811561
8.  Primary Atrophic Rhinitis: A Clinical Profile, Microbiological and Radiological Study 
ISRN Otolaryngology  2012;2012:404075.
Background. The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the clinical profile, microbiological flora and radiological features in primary atrophic rhinitis patients and to identify their association with the etiology of primary atrophic rhinitis. Study design. Prospective case study. Materials and methods. Patients with primary atrophic rhinitis over a two years period were included in the study. Complete blood count, total protein and microbiological analysis from nasal swab were done to evaluate iron deficiency anemia, nutritional status and identification of the pathogenic bacteria respectively. Radiological evaluation was done to study the radiological features of primary atrophic rhinitis. Observations. Ninety cases of primary atrophic rhinitis were studied. The most common symptom was nasal crusting. Nasal crust, odour and atrophy of mucosa were the most consistent finding. Nasal myiasis was found in 26.6% cases. The nasal mucociliary clearance time was markedly increased. On investigation there were low value of hemoglobin and total protein in 46.6% and 25.5% patients, respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (37%) was the commonest organism isolated from culture. On radiological evaluation evidence of different grade of sinusitis was seen in 87.7% case. Conclusion. The present study suggested that certain bacterial infections, anemia, poor nutrition and hereditary factor may contribute significantly to the etiology of primary atrophic rhinitis.
doi:10.5402/2012/404075
PMCID: PMC3671697  PMID: 23762613
9.  Non-endoscopic Mechanical Endonasal Dacryocystorhinostomy 
To circumvent the disadvantages of endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy such as small rhinostomy size, high failure rate and expensive equipment, we hereby introduce a modified technique of non-endoscopic mechanical endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (NE-MEDCR). Surgery is performed under general anesthesia with local decongestion of the nasal mucosa. A 20-gauge vitrectomy light probe is introduced through the upper canaliculus until it touches the bony medial wall of the lacrimal sac. While directly viewing the transilluminated target area, a nasal speculum with a fiber optic light carrier is inserted. An incision is made vertically or in a curvilinear fashion on the nasal mucosa in the lacrimal sac down to the bone using a Freer periosteum elevator. Approximately 1 to 1.5 cm of nasal mucosa is removed with Blakesley forceps. Using a lacrimal punch, the thick bone of the frontal process of the maxilla is removed and the inferior half of the sac is uncovered. The lacrimal sac is tented into the surgical site with the light probe and its medial wall is incised using a 3.2 mm keratome and then excised using the Blakesley forceps. The procedure is completed by silicone intubation. The NE-MEDCR technique does not require expensive instrumentation and is feasible in any standard ophthalmic surgical setting.
PMCID: PMC3306095  PMID: 22454740
Endonasal Dacryocystorhinostomy; Mechanical; Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction
10.  Dominant inheritance in a family with primary atrophic rhinitis. 
Journal of Medical Genetics  1980;17(1):39-40.
Primary atrophic rhinitis is an uncommon condition which presents with crusts in the nose. The nasal mucosa is dry and atrophied and the nasal cavities are abnormally wide. We report a large London Irish family with an affected father with fifteen children. Eight of these have primary atrophic rhinitis. Symptoms appear around puberty, and there was one case in the third generation with an affected mother. The nasal appearances of the affected members varied considerably and many hid their disease well. The family fits well with dominant inheritance. A familial aetiology for primary atrophic rhinitis is a more attractive theory than those previously postulated.
PMCID: PMC1048485  PMID: 7365761
11.  Classification of Nonallergic Rhinitis Syndromes With a Focus on Vasomotor Rhinitis, Proposed to be Known henceforth as Nonallergic Rhinopathy 
Many patients have nasal syndromes that are nonallergic and noninfectious and not caused by mechanical or anatomic abnormalities. There are at least 8 recognized nonallergic rhinitis syndromes: drug-induced rhinitis including rhinitis medicamentosa, gustatory rhinitis, hormonally induced rhinitis including the rhinitis of pregnancy, nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophilia syndrome, senile rhinitis, atrophic rhinitis, cerebral spinal fluid leak, and vasomotor rhinitis. Few studies have explored etiologic causes. These syndromes are distinguished by clinical characteristics, recognized triggering conditions, and concomitant observations such as nasal eosinophilia or cerebral spinal fluid leak. Until more specific subjective clinical characteristics and/or objective measures can better define and differentiate underlying causes for these disparate diseases, they will remain a murky group of overlapping syndromes.
doi:10.1097/WOX.0b013e3181a9d55b
PMCID: PMC3650985  PMID: 24229372
rhinitis; vasomotor rhinitis; allergic rhinitis; nonallergic rhinitis; nonallergic rhinopathy
14.  Ozena among the various races of the earth 
PMCID: PMC1585045  PMID: 20310995
15.  ETIOLOGY OF OZENA 
PMCID: PMC1642411  PMID: 18737063
16.  Dacryocystorhinostomy in patients lacking an ipsilateral nasal cavity 
Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) remains the surgery of choice for the treatment of epiphora secondary to nasolacrimal duct (NLD) obstruction. It involves creating a direct soft‐tissue anastomosis between the lacrimal sac and the ipsilateral nasal cavity, via an osteotomy created by removal of the floor of the lacrimal fossa and surrounding bone. Successful surgery clearly requires the presence of a nasal space and absence of this poses a surgical challenge.
We describe three patients with absent nasal cavity on the side of lacrimal obstruction, where DCR was performed by the creation of an anastomosis between the lacrimal sac and the contralateral nasal space.
doi:10.1136/bjo.2006.099036
PMCID: PMC1857647  PMID: 17035281
17.  Converging paths to progress for skull base chordoma: Review of current therapy and future molecular targets 
Background:
Chordomas of the skull base are rare locally aggressive neoplasms with a predilection for encapsulating critical neurovascular structures, bony destruction and irregular growth patterns, and from which patients succumb to recurrence and treatment failures.
Methods:
A review of the medical literature is performed, using standard search engines and identifying articles related to skull base chordomas, surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, molecular genetics, and prospective trials.
Results:
A synthesis of the literature is presented, including sections on pathology, treatment, molecular genetics, challenges, and future directions.
Conclusion:
Beyond an understanding of the current treatment paradigms for skull base chordomas, the reader gains insight into the collaborative approach applied to orphan diseases, of which chordomas is a prime exemplar.
doi:10.4103/2152-7806.112822
PMCID: PMC3683175  PMID: 23776758
Chordomas; cell lines; radiation therapy; review; skull base neoplasms; surgery
18.  Mechanical endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy with mucosal flaps 
Aims: To describe and assess the efficacy of mechanical endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (MENDCR). This is a new technique that involves creation of a large rhinostomy and mucosal flaps. The study involved a prospective non-randomised interventional case series with short perioperative follow up.
Method: A prospective series of 104 consecutive endonasal DCRs performed from January 1999 to December 2001 were entered into the study. Patients included in the study had nasolacrimal duct obstruction and had not had previous lacrimal surgery. The technique involved anastomosis of nasal mucosal and lacrimal sac flaps and a large bony ostium. Surgery was performed by two surgeons (AT/PJW). Follow up assessment included nasoendoscopy as well as symptom evaluation. Success was defined as anatomical patency with fluorescein flow on nasoendoscopy and patency to lacrimal syringing. The average follow up time was 9.7 months (range 2–28, SD 6.7 months).
Results: There were 104 DCRs performed on 86 patients (30 male, 56 female). The average age of the patients was 59 years (range 3–89, SD 24.1 years). Common presentations were epiphora (77%) and/or mucocele (19%). Septoplasty (SMR) was required in 48 DCRs (46%) and 13 DCRs (12.5%) needed other endoscopic surgery in conjunction with the lacrimal surgery. The surgery was successful in 93 cases (89%). Of the 11 cases that were classified as a failure six patients was anatomically patent but still symptomatic and another two had preoperative canalicular problems. The anatomical patency with this new technique was thus 95% (99 of 104 DCRs).
Conclusion: MENDCR involves creation of a large ostium and mucosal preservation for the construction of flaps. The anatomical success is 95% and is similar to external DCR and better then other endonasal approaches. The authors suggest that creation of a large ostium as well as mucosal flaps improves the efficacy of this endonasal technique.
PMCID: PMC1771466  PMID: 12488261
mechanical endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (MENDCR); mucosal flaps; otodrill
19.  External dacryocystorhinostomy: Tips and tricks 
Oman Journal of Ophthalmology  2012;5(3):191-195.
Dacryocystorhinostomy or DCR is one of the most common oculoplastics surgery performed. It is a bypass procedure that creates an anastomosis between the lacrimal sac and the nasal mucosa via a bony ostium. It may be performed through an external skin incision or intranasally with or without endoscopic visualization. This article will discuss the indications, goals, and simple techniques for a successful outcome of an external DCR.
doi:10.4103/0974-620X.106106
PMCID: PMC3574519  PMID: 23440476
Congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction; dacryocystorhinostomy; primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction; secondary acquired lacrimal duct obstruction
20.  Eustachian tube in atrophic rhinitis 
Atropic Rhinitis is a chronic non-specific disease characterised by atrophy of mucosa and turbinate bones. Maxillary antrum may sometimes be involved as result of primary disease or at time secondary to mucosal pathology or crusting. Extension of disease involving the eustachian tube is uncertain. In the present study, endoscopy of the nasopharynx was performed in 20 patients with atrophic rhinitis to find out the type, nature and site of lesion at the orifice of the eustachian tube. The lesion was found in seven cases (35%) involving the eustachian tube. The lesion occurs in form of atrophic changes with crusting granuloma and thick mucoid area. Endoscopy is also found to be therepeutic value in removing the thick discharge crust etc. at the orifice of eustachian tube to prevent the otological complications
doi:10.1007/BF02996774
PMCID: PMC3451254  PMID: 23119381
21.  Chondrosarcoma of the nasal septum 
Chondrosarcoma of the head and neck region are relatively uncommon, arising rarely in the naval septum. The reported cases of nasal septal chondrosarcomas are extensive lesions with involvement of paranasal sinuses, orbit or skull base at the lime of diagnosis. Those limited to the nasal cavity is extremely rare and to date there has been one case report in English language literature. We present a case of chondrosarcoma of the nasal septum with involvement of the nasal cavity alone and no evidence of bony erosion. Initial multiple biopsies showed mature chondromatous areas with no atypia. The patient had wide excision of the tumour. The final biopsy of the excised specimen revealed foci of well-differentiated chondrosarcoma. Wide surgical excision with adequate margins should be considered as the treatment of choice in lesion of nasal septum even if initial biopsies are negative for malignancy. Hence this case report.
doi:10.1007/BF02974400
PMCID: PMC3451162  PMID: 23120109
Chondrosarcoma; nasal septum; wide surgical excision
22.  Prosthetic management of atrophic rhinitis 
Atrophic rhinitis is a form of chronic rhinitis in which the nasal mucosa atrophies and hardens, causing the nasal passages to dilate and dry out. Other prominent findings include bad smell, extensive nasal crusting and bleeding. Surgical and nonsurgical methods have been advocated for its treatment. We describe a prosthetic technique for its management
doi:10.1007/s12070-008-0120-z
PMCID: PMC3476796  PMID: 23120587
Atrophic rhinitis; Prosthesis; Rhinitis sicca
23.  Endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy: our experience 
Objectives
To study the outcome of endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) with or without mucosal flap preservation, without mitomycin local application, silicon tube stenting or laser assistance. To determine the duration of the surgical procedure of DCR, influence of simultaneously performed endonasal endoscopic procedures for concomitant sinonasal diseases.
Methods
Combined retrospective and prospective study in our tertiary referral center. 24 patients with chronic dacryocystitis underwent 25 standard endonasal endoscopic DCR procedures, 10 with and 15 without mucosal flap preservation. 6 of these had concomitant sinonasal diseases for which they underwent septoplasty or functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) or both, simultaneously or as staged procedures. Relief from epiphora and patency of the nasolacrimal fistula was assessed by nasal endoscopy and syringing of the lacrimal apparatus at 1 week, 3 weeks and 3 months postoperatively.
Results
Out of 18 patients who underwent only DCR, 17 patients (94.44%) had complete relief from epiphora. Out of 6 patients who underwent 7 DCRs with concomitant sinonasal surgery, 5 patients (85.71%) had complete relief from epiphora. Overall 23 out of 25 DCRs (92%) had complete relief. In 15 of the 25 procedures, mucosal flap was excised completely. In remaining 10 procedures, flap was trimmed, repositioned to cover exposed bone around the newly created nasolacrimal fistula. In either situation, only one patient each had partial block of the nasolacrimal fistula. Average duration of the surgical procedure of DCR was 18 min.
Conclusion
Endonasal endoscopic DCR is a viable alternative to external DCR, co-existing sinonasal diseases can be managed simultaneously, as may be required in 25% of cases. It can be performed under 20 min without mucosal flap preservation, mitomycin local application, silicon tube stenting or laser assistance and can still provide a good success rate (92%) with less complications.
doi:10.1007/s12070-009-0071-z
PMCID: PMC3449975  PMID: 23120640
Epiphora; Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy; DCR; Mucosal flap
24.  A report on a rare case of Klebsiella ozaenae causing atrophic rhinitis in the UK 
BMJ Case Reports  2011;2011:bcr0920114812.
Ozena is a chronic disease of the nasal cavity characterised by atrophy of the mucosa and bone caused by Klebsiella ozaenae. It is endemic to subtropical and temperate regions affecting the lower socio-economic group, usually the poor who live in unhygienic conditions. It is a rare disease in the UK. There is usually a delay in diagnosis due to unfamiliarity of the disease. A 25-year-old Nigerian migrant presented with nasal obstruction with purulent nasal discharge. Isolation of the bacterium was found from cultures of nasal discharge, crusting and tissue biopsies. She was treated successfully with ciprofloxacin. It is important to consider this rare condition in cases of nasal obstruction even in non-endemic areas especially with the advances of modern travel.
doi:10.1136/bcr.09.2011.4812
PMCID: PMC3233926  PMID: 22669526
25.  Anatomy and Surgery of the Endoscopic Endonasal Approach to the Skull Base 
Summary
The midline skull base is an anatomical area, which extends from the anterior limit of the anterior cranial fossa down to the anterior border of the foramen magnum. For many lesions of this area, a variety of skull base approaches including anterior, antero-lateral, and postero-lateral routes, have been proposed over the last decades, either alone or in combination, often requiring extensive neurovascular manipulation.
Recently the endoscopic endonasal approach to the skull base has been introduced to access the midline skull base.
The major potential advantage of the endoscopic endonasal technique is to provide a direct anatomical route to the lesion since it does not traverse any major neurovascular structures, thereby obviating brain retraction.
The potential disadvantages include the relatively restricted exposure and the higher risk of CSF leak.
In the present study we report the endoscopic endonasal anatomy of different areas of the midline skull base from the olfactory groove to the cranio-vertebral junction and accordingly describe the main features of the surgical approaches to each of these regions.
PMCID: PMC3728777  PMID: 23905043
endoscopy; skull base surgery; endoscopic endonasal surgery; endoscopic anatomy

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