A total of 64 isolates of Klebsiella ozaenae were recovered from 36 patients during a 40-month period. Over 7,500 isolates of K. pneumoniae were isolated during the same time period. Before this decade, K. ozaenae was considered to be only a colonizer of the nasopharynx or a putative cause of ozena (atrophic rhinitis). K. ozaenae was recovered most frequently from sputum in mixed culture but was associated with infection in 12 patients (2 with bacteremia, 3 with urinary tract infection, 1 with soft tissue infection, and 6 with mucopurulent nasal discharge). The spectrum of disease caused by this organism is more extensive than has been appreciated previously.
Variations in the bony components of the nose are often
encountered. One such variation was found in a 49-year-old male
who had undergone conventional external dacryocystorhinostomy
for adult onset nasolacrimal duct blockage. Intraoperatively, a
thick bar of bone was seen beneath and parallel to the lacrimal
sac fossa after a complete osteotomy had been made. Another
osteotomy had to be fashioned in this bone to reach the nasal
cavity. Postoperative 3D computed tomographic scan revealed
the bone to be an anatomical variation of the uncinate process
of the ethmoidal bone which was rather anteriorly placed, much
thicker than usual, and attached to the nasal roof.
The uncinate process is thin, curved and its anterior edge may
frequently overlap some part of the lacrimal fossa. However, to
our knowledge, the presence of such a large and thick uncinate
process necessitating an additional large osteotomy has not been
Dacryocystorhinostomy; nasal bones; uncinate process
Wegener’s granulomatosis (WG) is one form of idiopathic autoimmune vasculitis. The disease has a predilection for the upper and lower respiratory tracts (lungs, nose, sinus), and kidneys. WG may be systemic, severe, and potentially lethal, but it may also be limited to the otolaryngological area or to the eyes and the orbits. Obstruction of the lacrimal pathway is a possible complication of the disease that affects approximately 7% of patients with WG. It usually occurs as a direct extension of sinonasal disease and typically is a late manifestation. Management of such a condition is generally viewed as difficult. We report the case of a patient with a quiescent WG limited to the otolaryngological area. This patient presented a bilateral obstruction of the nasolacrimal ducts caused by bilateral extensive adhesions in the nasal cavity. Because she had several episodes of left-side acute dacryocystitis which necessitated several courses of broad-spectrum antibiotics, she successfully underwent an endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy using a diode laser and powered instrumentation. The authors describe the clinical case, the surgical technique, and review the literature.
Wegener’s granulomatosis; recurrent dacryocystitis; endonasal DCR; diode; laser; powered instrumentation
To circumvent the disadvantages of endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy such as small rhinostomy size, high failure rate and expensive equipment, we hereby introduce a modified technique of non-endoscopic mechanical endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (NE-MEDCR). Surgery is performed under general anesthesia with local decongestion of the nasal mucosa. A 20-gauge vitrectomy light probe is introduced through the upper canaliculus until it touches the bony medial wall of the lacrimal sac. While directly viewing the transilluminated target area, a nasal speculum with a fiber optic light carrier is inserted. An incision is made vertically or in a curvilinear fashion on the nasal mucosa in the lacrimal sac down to the bone using a Freer periosteum elevator. Approximately 1 to 1.5 cm of nasal mucosa is removed with Blakesley forceps. Using a lacrimal punch, the thick bone of the frontal process of the maxilla is removed and the inferior half of the sac is uncovered. The lacrimal sac is tented into the surgical site with the light probe and its medial wall is incised using a 3.2 mm keratome and then excised using the Blakesley forceps. The procedure is completed by silicone intubation. The NE-MEDCR technique does not require expensive instrumentation and is feasible in any standard ophthalmic surgical setting.
Endonasal Dacryocystorhinostomy; Mechanical; Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction
A 41-year-old female patient was admitted with streptococcal meningitis on a background of 5-month history of CSF rhinorrhoea. Imaging revealed an extensive skull base lesion involving the sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses, the pituitary fossa with suprasellar extension and bony destruction. Histological examination of an endonasal transethmoidal biopsy suggested a diagnosis of olfactory neuroblastoma. A profuse CSF leak occurred and the patient developed coliform meningitis. A second endonasal endoscopic biopsy was undertaken which demonstrated the tumour to be a prolactinoma. Following endonasal repair of the CSF leak and lumbar drainage, she developed profound pneumocephalus. The patient underwent three further unsuccessful CSF leak repairs. Definitive control of the CSF leak was finally achieved through a transcranial approach with prolonged lumbar drainage. This case illustrates some of the potentially devastating complications which can occur as a consequence of complex skull base lesions. A multidisciplinary approach may be required to successfully manage such cases.
Due to the destruction of osseous landmarks of the skull base or paranasal sinuses, the anatomical orientation during surgery of frontobasal or clival tumors with (para) nasal extension is often challenging. In this relation, Neuro-navigation guidance might be a useful tool. Here, we explored the use of Neuro-navigation in an interdisciplinary setting.
Methods and Materials
The surgical series consists of 3 patients who underwent Lefort-I access osteotomy and surgical decompression of the tumor. The procedures were planned and assisted by neuro-navigation techniques with image fusion of CT and MRI. Two of the patients were diagnosed to have clival chordoma and one had extensive JNA.
The application of Neuro-navigation in the combined approaches was both safe and reliable for delineation of tumors and identification of vital structures hidden or encased by the tumors. There was no perioperative mortality. Tumors were either removed completely, or subtotal resection was achieved.
Craniofacial approaches with intra-operative neuro-navigational guidance in a multidisciplinary setting allow safe resection of large tumors of the upper clivus and the paranasal sinuses involving the anterior skull base. Complex skull base surgery with the involvement of bony structures appears to be an ideal field for advanced navigation techniques given the lack of intraoperative shift of relevant structures.
Neuro-navigation; Neuro-navigator; Lefort I access osteotomies; Clival chordoma
Primary atrophic rhinitis is an uncommon condition which presents with crusts in the nose. The nasal mucosa is dry and atrophied and the nasal cavities are abnormally wide. We report a large London Irish family with an affected father with fifteen children. Eight of these have primary atrophic rhinitis. Symptoms appear around puberty, and there was one case in the third generation with an affected mother. The nasal appearances of the affected members varied considerably and many hid their disease well. The family fits well with dominant inheritance. A familial aetiology for primary atrophic rhinitis is a more attractive theory than those previously postulated.
Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) remains the surgery of choice for the treatment of epiphora secondary to nasolacrimal duct (NLD) obstruction. It involves creating a direct soft‐tissue anastomosis between the lacrimal sac and the ipsilateral nasal cavity, via an osteotomy created by removal of the floor of the lacrimal fossa and surrounding bone. Successful surgery clearly requires the presence of a nasal space and absence of this poses a surgical challenge.
We describe three patients with absent nasal cavity on the side of lacrimal obstruction, where DCR was performed by the creation of an anastomosis between the lacrimal sac and the contralateral nasal space.
Aims: To describe and assess the efficacy of mechanical endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (MENDCR). This is a new technique that involves creation of a large rhinostomy and mucosal flaps. The study involved a prospective non-randomised interventional case series with short perioperative follow up.
Method: A prospective series of 104 consecutive endonasal DCRs performed from January 1999 to December 2001 were entered into the study. Patients included in the study had nasolacrimal duct obstruction and had not had previous lacrimal surgery. The technique involved anastomosis of nasal mucosal and lacrimal sac flaps and a large bony ostium. Surgery was performed by two surgeons (AT/PJW). Follow up assessment included nasoendoscopy as well as symptom evaluation. Success was defined as anatomical patency with fluorescein flow on nasoendoscopy and patency to lacrimal syringing. The average follow up time was 9.7 months (range 2–28, SD 6.7 months).
Results: There were 104 DCRs performed on 86 patients (30 male, 56 female). The average age of the patients was 59 years (range 3–89, SD 24.1 years). Common presentations were epiphora (77%) and/or mucocele (19%). Septoplasty (SMR) was required in 48 DCRs (46%) and 13 DCRs (12.5%) needed other endoscopic surgery in conjunction with the lacrimal surgery. The surgery was successful in 93 cases (89%). Of the 11 cases that were classified as a failure six patients was anatomically patent but still symptomatic and another two had preoperative canalicular problems. The anatomical patency with this new technique was thus 95% (99 of 104 DCRs).
Conclusion: MENDCR involves creation of a large ostium and mucosal preservation for the construction of flaps. The anatomical success is 95% and is similar to external DCR and better then other endonasal approaches. The authors suggest that creation of a large ostium as well as mucosal flaps improves the efficacy of this endonasal technique.
mechanical endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (MENDCR); mucosal flaps; otodrill
Dacryocystorhinostomy or DCR is one of the most common oculoplastics surgery performed. It is a bypass procedure that creates an anastomosis between the lacrimal sac and the nasal mucosa via a bony ostium. It may be performed through an external skin incision or intranasally with or without endoscopic visualization. This article will discuss the indications, goals, and simple techniques for a successful outcome of an external DCR.
Congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction; dacryocystorhinostomy; primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction; secondary acquired lacrimal duct obstruction
Atropic Rhinitis is a chronic non-specific disease characterised by atrophy of mucosa and turbinate bones. Maxillary antrum may sometimes be involved as result of primary disease or at time secondary to mucosal pathology or crusting. Extension of disease involving the eustachian tube is uncertain. In the present study, endoscopy of the nasopharynx was performed in 20 patients with atrophic rhinitis to find out the type, nature and site of lesion at the orifice of the eustachian tube. The lesion was found in seven cases (35%) involving the eustachian tube. The lesion occurs in form of atrophic changes with crusting granuloma and thick mucoid area. Endoscopy is also found to be therepeutic value in removing the thick discharge crust etc. at the orifice of eustachian tube to prevent the otological complications
Atrophic rhinitis is a form of chronic rhinitis in which the nasal mucosa atrophies and hardens, causing the nasal passages to dilate and dry out. Other prominent findings include bad smell, extensive nasal crusting and bleeding. Surgical and nonsurgical methods have been advocated for its treatment. We describe a prosthetic technique for its management
Atrophic rhinitis; Prosthesis; Rhinitis sicca
Chondrosarcoma of the head and neck region are relatively uncommon, arising rarely in the naval septum. The reported cases of nasal septal chondrosarcomas are extensive lesions with involvement of paranasal sinuses, orbit or skull base at the lime of diagnosis. Those limited to the nasal cavity is extremely rare and to date there has been one case report in English language literature. We present a case of chondrosarcoma of the nasal septum with involvement of the nasal cavity alone and no evidence of bony erosion. Initial multiple biopsies showed mature chondromatous areas with no atypia. The patient had wide excision of the tumour. The final biopsy of the excised specimen revealed foci of well-differentiated chondrosarcoma. Wide surgical excision with adequate margins should be considered as the treatment of choice in lesion of nasal septum even if initial biopsies are negative for malignancy. Hence this case report.
Chondrosarcoma; nasal septum; wide surgical excision
To study the outcome of endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) with or without mucosal flap preservation, without mitomycin local application, silicon tube stenting or laser assistance. To determine the duration of the surgical procedure of DCR, influence of simultaneously performed endonasal endoscopic procedures for concomitant sinonasal diseases.
Combined retrospective and prospective study in our tertiary referral center. 24 patients with chronic dacryocystitis underwent 25 standard endonasal endoscopic DCR procedures, 10 with and 15 without mucosal flap preservation. 6 of these had concomitant sinonasal diseases for which they underwent septoplasty or functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) or both, simultaneously or as staged procedures. Relief from epiphora and patency of the nasolacrimal fistula was assessed by nasal endoscopy and syringing of the lacrimal apparatus at 1 week, 3 weeks and 3 months postoperatively.
Out of 18 patients who underwent only DCR, 17 patients (94.44%) had complete relief from epiphora. Out of 6 patients who underwent 7 DCRs with concomitant sinonasal surgery, 5 patients (85.71%) had complete relief from epiphora. Overall 23 out of 25 DCRs (92%) had complete relief. In 15 of the 25 procedures, mucosal flap was excised completely. In remaining 10 procedures, flap was trimmed, repositioned to cover exposed bone around the newly created nasolacrimal fistula. In either situation, only one patient each had partial block of the nasolacrimal fistula. Average duration of the surgical procedure of DCR was 18 min.
Endonasal endoscopic DCR is a viable alternative to external DCR, co-existing sinonasal diseases can be managed simultaneously, as may be required in 25% of cases. It can be performed under 20 min without mucosal flap preservation, mitomycin local application, silicon tube stenting or laser assistance and can still provide a good success rate (92%) with less complications.
Epiphora; Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy; DCR; Mucosal flap
External dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) remains a reliable surgical technique for the treatment of obstruction of lacrimal drainage system beyond the common canalicular opening.
To describe a simple modified double flap external DCR technique.
Materials and Methods:
Ninety six consecutive cases of chronic dacryocystitis with or without mucocele were selected irrespective of age and sex. In a modification to routine external DCR, a modified technique was followed, where both anterior and posterior flaps of lacrimal sac and nasal mucosa are created and sutured. Two double armed sutures were used to join the edges of anterior flaps, and elevate them anteriorly to avoid adhesion or apposition with underlying sutured posterior flaps, and to approximate the deep plane of the wound.
At the end of average follow-up period of 13 months, we observed 98.9% objective and 96.8% subjective success rates. The average operation time was 45 minutes. No significant intraoperative or postoperative complications were noticed.
We believe that combined posterior flap and anterior suspended flap DCR technique is simple to perform and has the advantage of both double flap DCR and anterior suspension of anterior flaps. The results of the study showed the efficacy of this simple modification.
Chronic dacryocystitis; epiphora; external dacryocystorhinostomy; lacrimal; success rate
We report the success rate and problems associated with conventional dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) in failed cases of Trans-canalicular, laser-assisted DCR (TCLADCR). Out of 50 patients operated by the TCLADCR technique during the period 2005 – 2006, 33 patients had failure, which was confirmed on syringing of the nasolacrimal passage. Before considering them for conventional DCR, a thorough ear, nose, throat (ENT) examination was done by an ENT surgeon, to rule out a nasal pathology. All the patients were operated by the conventional standard DCR method at a medical college. While performing the surgery, the problems that came across were identified and noted. The success rate was found to be 91% in this study in a follow-up period of one year, with no major intra-operative problems. Conventional DCR is still a gold standard and should be considered as a procedure of choice in failed cases of TCLDCR.
Conventional dacryocystorhinostomy; trans-canalicular laser-assisted dacryocystorhinostomy
Advances in endoscopy and lasers have improved surgical management of chronic nasolacrimal duct obstruction. This is a preliminary comparison between standard and laser assisted endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR).
Combined retrospective and prospective study.
Tertiary referral hospital.
Patients and Methods
Thirty-eight cases of chronic nasolacrimal duct obstruction underwent endoscopic DCR (26 standard and 12, laser-assisted) and were assessed at 3 and at 6 months postoperatively by nasal endoscopy.
Three months postoperatively (n=38), total relief of epiphora among the nonlaser group was 80.76 vs 75% in the laser group (P=0.982). At 6 months (n=19), the laser group had recorded 100% symptomatic relief compared to 85.71% in the nonlaser group (P=0.964). The laser group suffered fewer complications (33.33 vs 46.15% for nonlaser group).
Lasers show promise in long-term management of duct obstruction and are associated with fewer complications. A larger study is required before and generalization is made.
Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy; KTP 532 laser
Objective: We report cases of central or atypical skull base osteomyelitis and review issues related to the diagnosis and treatment. Methods: The four cases presented, which were drawn from the Oxford, United Kingdom, skull base pathology database, had a diagnosis of central skull base osteomyelitis. Results: Four cases are presented in which central skull base osteomyelitis was diagnosed. Contrary to malignant otitis externa, our cases were not preceded by immediate external infections and had normal external ear examinations. They presented with headache and a variety of cranial neuropathies. Imaging demonstrated bone destruction, and subsequent microbiological analysis diagnosed infection and prompted prolonged antibiotic treatment. Conclusion: We concluded that in the diabetic or immunocompromised patient, a scenario of headache, cranial neuropathy, and bony destruction on imaging should raise the possibility of skull base osteomyelitis, even in the absence of an obvious infective source. The primary goal should still be to exclude an underlying malignant cause.
Skull base; osteomyelitis; cranial neuropathies; otitis externa
Cavernous sinus syndrome is a rare entity in oncology reported only in occasional case reports. Optimal therapy is thus poorly defined with rapidly progressive disease dominating the picture. Management includes prompt diagnosis, attempts at stabilization of cranial nerve function, and aggressive control of central pain syndrome. Here, we report cavernous sinus syndrome secondary to the original squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. With common presenting causes of this syndrome being infection, thrombosis or tumor, it might seem that metastatic tumor would be expected in a patient with a cancer diagnosis. What was not so expected was the extremely rapid progression from mild headache and mild trigeminal neuralgia with negative-contrast head CT to a massive, destructive lesion involving several skull bones and skull base, only 3 weeks later. In addition, the patient was severely immunosuppressed at the completion of induction chemotherapy. Infectious processes, although unlikely, were considered, as aggressive cancer therapy (including high-dose steroids and radiation therapy) had no impact on this disease. Despite accurate localization, the aggressive nature of this disease with massive bone destruction and dural thickening limited any chance of a durable control. We discuss the process of evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of symptoms and the importance of a team approach to best palliate these unfortunate patients.
Non-small cell lung cancer; Sphenoid bone metastasis; Central pain syndrome; Cranial nerve examination; Cancer progression and bone metastasis; Cavernous sinus syndrome
Skull base inverted papilloma (IP) is an unusual entity for many neurosurgeons. IP is renowned for its high rate of recurrence, its ability to cause local destruction, and its association with malignancy. This paper is a comprehensive review of the reports, studies, and reviews published in the current biomedical literature from 1947 to September 2010 and synthesize this information to focus on its potential invasion to the base of the skull and possible intradural extension. The objective is to familiarize the clinician with the different aspects of this unusual disease. The role of modern diagnostic tools in medical imaging in order to assess clearly the limits of the tumors and to enhance the efficiency and the safety in the choice of a surgical approach is pointed out. The treatment guidelines for IP have undergone a complex evolution that continues today. Radical excision of the tumour is technically difficult and often incomplete. Successful management of IP requires resection of the affected mucosa which could be achieved with open surgery, endoscopic, or combined approach. Radio and chemotherapy were used for certain indications. More optimally research would be a multicenter randomized trials with large size cohorts.
Endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery is a growing field in which the nasal corridors are used to address skull base lesions. Whether the middle turbinates must be removed for adequate exposure is controversial and not well addressed in the literature. This is a prospective, observational study of 163 consecutive cases of purely endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgeries performed at a single tertiary care institution. The primary study outcome measurement is the feasibility of middle turbinate preservation in endoscopic transsphenoidal skull base surgery. The pathologies included 99 pituitary tumors, 15 craniopharyngiomas, 11 meningiomas, 11 Rathke's cleft cysts, 7 encephaloceles, 5 cerebrospinal fluid leak repairs, 9 clival chordomas, and 6 other pathologies of the sella. In patients undergoing surgery for a neoplasm, the average tumor size was 2.3 cm. The middle turbinate was preserved in 160/163 cases (98%). One hundred and twenty magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies were reviewed at a median of 16 months postoperatively and no patients (0%) developed frontal sinusitis. The middle turbinate can be preserved in nearly every endonasal, endoscopic transsphenoidal skull base case while still providing good exposure for successful tumor resection and skull base reconstruction. Postoperative sinonasal function may be better preserved with this technique.
Middle turbinate; endsocopic skull base surgery; transsphenoidal; sinonasal; pituitary adenoma; rhinology; skull base