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1.  Rigid Nasal Endoscopy in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Epistaxis 
Background and Objectives: Epistaxis is one of the common symptoms encountered in the Otorhinolaryngology department. Many times the cause for epistaxis is not found on anterior and posterior rhinoscopy. The present study was undertaken to assess the role of rigid nasal endoscope in the diagnosis and treatment of epistaxis, where normal anterior and posterior rhinoscopy did not reveal any specific finding.
Methods: Fifty patients with epistaxis were studied using rigid nasal endoscope under local anaesthesia. Patients who were above 15 years with nasal bleeding and who were willing for rigid nasal endoscopy were included in the study. Patients less than 15 years were not included in the study because nasal endoscopy was difficult in them under local anaesthesia. Only those patients in whom, the cause for epistaxis could not be made out on anterior and posterior rhinoscopy were chosen for the study, this was done in order to remove the bias for nasal endoscopy.
Results: The use of the nasal endoscope allowed diagnosis of bleeding points and treating them directly. Epistaxis was more in male patients especially in the 3rd and after the 5th decade. On endoscopic examination,the bleeding points were identified as coming from the crevices of the lateral nasal wall, posterior spur on the septum, posterior deviation of the septum with ulcer, congested polyps, enlarged and congested adenoids, scabs or crusts in the crevices of the lateral nasal wall and angiofibroma. Endoscope also helps in the treatment of epistaxis, which includes endoscopic selective nasal packing using gelfoam, endoscopic cautery or diathermy and endoscopic polypectomy. Other patients with adenoids, scabs and crusts and angiofibroma were managed on their merits.
Interpretation and Conclusion: Nasal endoscopy helps not only in the localisation of the bleeding point but also in the treatment of those bleeding areas that are situated in the posterior and lateral part of the nose.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2013/4421.2995
PMCID: PMC3681049  PMID: 23814722
Epistaxis; Rigid nasal endoscope; Selective nasal packing; Cautery or diathermy
2.  The role of surgical audit in improving patient management; nasal haemorrhage: an audit study 
BMC Surgery  2007;7:19.
Background
Nasal bleeding remains one of the most common Head & Neck Surgical (Ear Nose and Throat [ENT]/Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery [OMFS]) emergencies resulting in hospital admission. In the majority of cases, no other intervention is required other than nasal packing, and it was felt many cases could ideally be managed at home, without further medical interference. A limited but national telephone survey of accident and emergency departments revealed that early discharge practice was identified in some rural areas and urban departments (where adverse socio-demographic factors resulted in poor patient compliance to admission or follow up), with little adverse patient sequelae. A simple nasal packing protocol was also identified.
The aim of this audit was to determine if routine nasal haemorrhage (epistaxis) can be managed at home with simple nasal packing; a retrospective and prospective audit.
Ethical committee approval was obtained. Similar practice was identified in other UK accident and emergency centres. Literature was reviewed and best practice identified. Regional consultation and feedback with regard to prospective changes and local applicability of areas of improved practice mutually agreed upon with involved providers of care.
Methods
Retrospective: The Epistaxis admissions for the previous four years during the same seven months (September to March).
Prospective: 60consecutive patients referred with a diagnosis of Nasal bleeding over a seven month time course (September to March). All patients were over 16, not pregnant and gave fully informed counselled consent.
New Guidelines for the management of nosebleeds, nasal packing protocols (with Netcel®) and discharge policy were developed at the Hospital. Training of accident and emergency and emergency ENT staff was provided together with access to adequate examination and treatment resources. Detailed patient information leaflets were piloted and developed for use.
Results
Previously all patients requiring nasal packing were admitted. The type of nasal packing included Gauge impregnated Bismuth Iodoform Paraffin Paste, Nasal Tampon, and Vaseline gauge. Over the previous four year period (September to March) a mean of 28 patients were admitted per month, with a mean duration of in patient stay of 2.67 days.
In the prospective audit the total number of admissions was significantly reduced, by over 70%, (χ2 = 25.05, df = 6, P < 0.0001), despite no significant change in the number of monthly epistaxis referrals (χ2 = 4.99, df = 6, P < 0.0001). There was also a significant increase in the mean age of admitted patients with epistaxis (χ2 = 22.71, df = 5, P < 0.0001), the admitted patients had a mean length of stay of 2.53 days. This policy results is an estimated saved 201.39 bed days per annum resulting in an estimated annual speciality saving of over £50,000, allowing resource re-allocation to other areas of need. Furthermore, bed usage could be optimised for other emergency or elective work.
Conclusion
Exclusion criteria have now been expanded to exclude traumatic nasal haemorrhage. New adjunctive therapies now include direct endoscopic bipolar diathermy of bleeding points, and the judicious use of topical pro-coagulant agents applied via the nasal tampon. Expansion of the audit protocols for use in general practice.
This original audit informed clinical practice and had potential benefits for patients, clinicians, and provision of service. Systematic replication of this project, possibly on a regional and general practice basis, could result in further financial savings, which would allow development of improved patient services and delivery of care.
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-7-19
PMCID: PMC2034528  PMID: 17854499
3.  Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia Presenting as Isolated Persistent Epistaxis: A Very Rare Presentation 
Nose bleed is the most common rhinological emergency. There are multiple risk factors for the development of epistaxis and it can affect any age group, but it is the elderly population with their associated morbidity who often require more intensive treatment and subsequent admission. Most cases of epistaxis occur in the Little’s area, a location readily accessible and treatable by cautery or anterior nasal packing. However, posterior epistaxis often requires more aggressive measures including posterior nasal packing and endoscopic cauterization. After posterior nasal packing, the two most common therapies for intractable epistaxis are transantral ligation of the internal maxillary artery and percutaneous embolization of the distal internal maxillary artery. However, optimal management of intractable posterior epistaxis remains controversial. We hereby report fourth case of Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia in English literature, which presented as isolated persistent epistaxis and was treated by therapeutic plasmapheresis.
doi:10.1007/s12070-012-0613-7
PMCID: PMC3649036  PMID: 24427564
Epistaxis; Little’s area; Embolization; Plasmapheresis; Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia
4.  Nasal packing aspiration in a patient with Alzheimer’s disease: a rare complication 
Nasal bleeding is a frequent problem for patients receiving anticoagulant agents. Most cases are successfully managed with anterior or posterior nasal packing. However, the complications of nasal packing should be always considered. We report the case of a 78-year-old man with Alzheimer’s disease who was treated for anterior epistaxis with anterior nasal packing using three pieces of antibiotic-soaked gauze. Two days later, the patient was admitted to the emergency department in respiratory distress. A chest x-ray demonstrated atelectasis of the right lung. During an examination of the nasal cavities, the nasal packing was removed, and one of the gauze pieces was missing. The patient underwent rigid bronchoscopy, and the missing gauze was found to be obstructing the right main bronchus. The patient’s respiratory function improved considerably after removal of the foreign body. It is assumed that gauze packs should be used with caution in patients with an impaired level of consciousness and neurodegenerative diseases.
doi:10.2147/IJGM.S34676
PMCID: PMC3413305  PMID: 22879779
epistaxis; nasal packing; aspiration; Alzheimer’s disease; cough reflex
5.  Intractable Anemia: A Case of Bleeding Nasal Cavernous Hemangioma 
Cavernous haemangioma of the nose is rare, but when it occurs it usually presents with severe epistaxis. This nasal pathology is mostly seen in adult patient patients. Standard approach to dealing with such haemangiomas is surgical resection. A 30-year-old woman presented to General Physician with history of haemoptysis, haematemesis and weakness. She was admitted for investigation of her severe anaemia. On examination there was no obvious source of bleeding in the mouth or oropharynx, and Upper GI endoscopy did not reveal any pathology. She was referred to us after a trivial episode of epistaxis. Anterior and posterior rhinoscopy did not reveal any abnormality. Her extreme anxiety made indirect laryngoscopy and post-nasal space examination difficult but no obvious abnormality was seen. Diagnostic nasal endoscopy was done, and a small haemangiomatous mass was found in the postero superior part of inferior turbinate. Excision of the mass was done under local anaesthesia and sent for histopathological evaluation. The mass on histopathology came out to be Cavernous haemangioma.
doi:10.1007/s12070-011-0176-z
PMCID: PMC3146694  PMID: 22754827
Severe anaemia; Cavernous haemangioma; Endoscopic excision
6.  Endoscopic Cauterization of the Sphenopalatine Artery to Control Severe and Recurrent Posterior Epistaxis 
Introduction:
Epistaxis is one of the most common medical emergencies, making the management of posterior epistaxis a challenging problem for the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeon. In the cases of conservative management failure, ligation of the major arteries or percutaneous embolization of the maxillary artery is performed routinely in most units, but rates of failure and complications are high. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of endoscopic sphenopalatine artery (SPA) cauterization in patients with refractory posterior epistaxis.
Materials and Methods:
Between April 2011 and January 2012, 27 patients (15 males and 12 females) with refractory posterior epistaxis underwent endoscopic SPA cauterization in two tertiary referral hospitals in Shiraz. Three patients underwent bilateral cauterization.
Results:
Four patients (from 30 arteries) had new epistaxis after surgery, three experienced subsequent epistaxis requiring medical treatment, and one patient had a minor epistaxis not needing treatment.
Conclusion:
The SPA electrocoagulation technique seems to be safe, simple, fast, and effective with low rates of morbidity and complications for the management of refractory posterior epistaxis. Endoscopic SPA cauterization should be considered as an immediate second-line management when conservative treatment as first-line management fails.
PMCID: PMC3846233  PMID: 24303435
Epistaxis; Endoscopic sphenopalatine artery cauterization; SPA electrocoagulation technique
7.  Endoscopic management of posterior epistaxis: a review 
SUMMARY
The paradigm for the management of epistaxis, specifically posterior epistaxis, has undergone significant changes in the recent past. Recent prospective and retrospective data has shown that the endonasal surgical management of posterior epistaxis is superior to posterior nasal packing and angiography/embolization with regards to various factors including pain, cost-effectiveness, risk and overall control of bleeding. Endonasal endoscopic surgical techniques for posterior epistaxis include direct cauterization and transnasal endoscopic sphenopalatine/ posterior nasal artery ligation or cauterization with or without control of the anterior ethmoidal artery. Despite the evidence provided by the current literature, a universal treatment protocol has not yet been established. This review article provides an up-to-date assessment of the available literature, and presents a structured paradigm for the management of posterior epistaxis.
PMCID: PMC3970224
Epistaxis; Endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation; Posterior epistaxis; Sphenopalatine artery
8.  Nasal endoscopy-evaluation in epistaxis 
Epistaxis is generally of two types : one where a cause is recognised ( Local or Systemic ) and the other where the cause is not known. All cases of nose bleeds with no evident cause is customarily categorised into an Idiopathic type. Anterior rhinoscopy ordinarily gives a very limited view of the nose and the probable cause of epistaxis, and this, we feel could he one of the reasons why a proper diagnosis is not always likely. Another problem is the poor localisation of the site of bleeding point. Such cases pose a problem in implementing treatment, as the cause or the site is not easily located. This study tries to venture the exquisite and wide vision provided by the Nasal endoscope. This study also tries to investigate the possibility of reaching the inaccessible bleeding points, to treat them directly. The study was conducted on 60 patients who attended the Out Patient Department and the Indoor ward with complaints of Epistaxis.
doi:10.1007/BF03000330
PMCID: PMC3451285  PMID: 23119651
9.  Efficacy of conservative treatment modalities used in epistaxis 
Objective
To assess the efficacy of conservative modalities in the management of epistaxis.
Study design
Prospective case studies.
Setting
Rural medical college hospital.
Patients
Indoor and outdoor patients with epistaxis.
lntervention
Conservative(non surgical) management techniques in epistaxis.
Results
Chemical cauterization was successful in 72.07% cases, anterior nasal packing in 84.5% and posterior nasal packing in 95.6% cases.
Conclusion
Out of 300 cases of epistaxis included in the study (except for one case that required internal maxillary artery ligation). all cases were treated successfully with conservative treatment alongwith treating the underlying pathology causing epistaxis.
doi:10.1007/BF02968765
PMCID: PMC3451969  PMID: 23120019
Epistaxis; cauterization; nasal packing
10.  Internal maxillary artery ligation for idiopathic intractable epistaxis 
Epistaxis though common, is rarely life threatening. Routinely nose pinching, anterior find posterior nasal packing and endoscopic cauterization of bleeding points is sufficient to control epistaxis in 99% of the cases. It is mandatory to rule out local and systemic causes before labeling a case as idiopathic by using a battery of investigative modalities. Here are two interesting cases of epistaxis which did not respond to conventional therapeutic modalities in which transantral internal maxillary artery ligation was attempted leading to complete cure.
doi:10.1007/BF02968757
PMCID: PMC3450951  PMID: 23119939
Epistaxis; IMA (interanal maxillary artery)
11.  Endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation for refractory posterior epistaxis 
Intractable posterior epistaxis remains a challenging problem for our specialty. Conventional management options in the form of anterior and posterior packing, arterial ligation of the internal maxillary or the external carotid artery and embolization, are not entirely satisfactory because of morbidity, high failure rates and occasional significant complication. Our experience with endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation for four patients with posterior epistaxis is described. All patients had epistaxis refractory to anterior and posterior nasal packing, which was rapidly controlled following the procedure. The technique of spheno-palatine artery ligation is described.
The technique is simple and effective and prevents the morbidity and complications of nasal packing. It is especially useful in systemically compromised individuals who otherwise tolerate nasal packing poorly. and should be one of the treatment options to be considered relatively early in the management of epistaxis refractory to anterior and posterior nasal packing.
doi:10.1007/BF02907693
PMCID: PMC3451447  PMID: 23120200
12.  Brachytherapy as a treatment for malignant melanoma of the nasal cavity and nasopharynx – case report 
Purpose
Primary malignant melanoma of the nasal cavity and nasopharynx is rarely seen. Clinically, most patients display initial nonspecific symptoms of unilateral nasal obstruction or epistaxis. The prognosis is generally poor, with a mean survival time of 3.5 years.
Material and methods
In this paper, we have reported the case of malignant melanoma of the nasal cavity and nasopharynx. 79 years old man had presented with the swelling of the nose, nasal blockage and epistaxis during the six months before diagnosis. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed to excised the nasal cavity tumor. Using positron emission tomography/computed tomography examination with 18-fluorodeoxyglucose, the patient was diagnosed with residual nasopharyngeal tumor after surgery.
Results
Following the diagnosis, intracavitary brachytherapy for nasopharynx was administered. Solitary cervical nodal involvement occurred 6 months after the diagnosis when had been completely removed. After that, external beam radiotherapy was performed on the submandibular area on the right side. Thereafter, the patient was given follow-up care in the Department of Radiation Oncology until the time of distant progression of the disease.
Conclusions
We have chosen to discuss this condition, because of its rarity and the possibility of using radiotherapy, even though the malignant melanoma had been regarded as a radioresistant disease, and also to emphasize the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to treatment of such patients.
doi:10.5114/jcb.2013.37404
PMCID: PMC3797404  PMID: 24143151
brachytherapy; malignant melanoma; nasal cavity; nasopharynx
13.  Endoscopic Management of Posterior Epistaxis 
The traditional method of management of posterior epistaxis has been with anteroposterior nasal packing. Apart from the high failure rate of 26–50% reported in various series, nasal packing is associated with marked discomfort and several complications. In order to avoid nasal packing, we started doing endoscopic cauterization in cases of posterior epistaxis. A total of 23 patients with posterior epistaxis were subjected to nasal endoscopy with the intent to stop bleeding by cauterization of the bleeding vessel. Of these, in four cases unsuspected diagnosis was made. Of the remaining 19, in three patients, the bleeding point could not be localized accurately and these patients were managed by anteroposterior packing. The rest of the 16 patients were managed by endoscopic cauterization. In four patients, there was recurrence of bleeding within 24 h. In one of these, cauterization controlled the bleeding while in the rest nasal packing had to be resorted to. Thus, of the 23 patients of posterior epistaxis subjected to nasal endoscopy, we could avoid nasal packing in 17 (74%). To conclude, endoscopic nasal cauterization is recommended as the first line to treatment in all cases of posterior epistaxis. This will not only prevent the uncomfortable and potentially dangerous nasal packing but also help in finding the underlying pathology.
doi:10.1007/s12070-010-0054-0
PMCID: PMC3102162  PMID: 22468250
14.  Management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis 
Background:
Epistaxis is a common otolaryngology emergency and is often controlled with first-line interventions such as cautery, hemostatic agents, or anterior nasal packing. A subset of patients will continue to bleed and require more aggressive therapy.
Methods:
Intractable spontaneous epistaxis was traditionally managed with posterior nasal packing and prolonged hospital admission. In an effort to reduce patient morbidity and shorten hospital stay, surgical and endovascular techniques have gained popularity. A literature review was conducted.
Results:
Transnasal endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation and arterial embolization provide excellent control rates but the decision to choose one over the other can be challenging. The role of transnasal endoscopic anterior ethmoid artery ligation is unclear but may be considered in certain cases when bleeding localizes to the ethmoid region.
Conclusion:
This article will focus on the management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis and discuss the role of endoscopic arterial ligation and embolization as it pertains to this challenging clinical scenario.
doi:10.2500/ajra.2012.26.3696
PMCID: PMC3906521  PMID: 22391084
Anterior; artery; embolization; endoscopic; endovascular; epistaxis; ethmoid; packing; posterior; sphenopalatine
15.  Recurrent and Massive Life Threatening Epistaxis due to Nasal Heroin Usage 
Epistaxis, active bleeding from the nose, is a common ear nose and throat emergency, and can be severe or even fatal. We report a severe life threatening recurrent massive nasal bleeding caused by intranasal heroin use that has not hitherto been reported in the English literature. A 24-year-old male who took heroin several times nasally presented with massive nasal bleeding. A blood transfusion and an operation to halt nasal bleeding were required. The patient did not experience a bleeding attack 2 months following cessation of nasal heroin use.
doi:10.3342/ceo.2011.4.3.159
PMCID: PMC3173709  PMID: 21949584
Nasal heroin; Life threatening; Recurrent epistaxis
16.  Endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation for refractory posterior epistaxis 
Intractable posterior epistaxis remains a challenging problem for our specialty Conventional management options in the form of anterior and posterior packing, arterial ligation of the internal maxillary or the external carotid artery and embolization, are not entively satisfactory because of morbidity, high failure rates, and occasional significant complication. Our experience with endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation for four patients with posterior existaxis is described. All patients had epistaxis refractory to anterior and posterior nasal packing, which was rapidly controlled following the procedure. The technique of spheno-palatine artery ligation is described. The technique is simple and effective and prevents the morbidity and complications of nasal packing. It is especially useful in systemically compromised individuals who otherwise tolerate nasal packing poorly. and should be one of the treatment options to be considered relatively early in the management of epistaxis refractory to anterior & posterior nasal packing.
doi:10.1007/BF03008017
PMCID: PMC3451351  PMID: 23120175
17.  Modified Technique of Anterior Nasal Packing: A Comparative Study Report 
Anterior nasal packing, which is a common procedure in otorhinolaryngology practice, has different complications. Pain during introduction and removal of pack, bleeding after removal due to mucosal damage and synechia formation are common among them. A continuous effort is going on worldwide to combat those by modifying the nature of pack material or inventing new materials for nasal packing. In the present study an effort was made to compare a new modification of conventional gauze pack by using aluminum foil prepared from the cover of suture materials as septal splint (to reduce the mucosal damage) with conventional gauze pack and another costly material, nasal tampon (merocel). Comparisons were done in terms of cost, efficacy and complications. Prospective hospital based interventional study. Patients were distributed into three groups according to the material used for anterior nasal packing. Comparisons were made in terms of cost of the material used, pain during introduction of pack, rise of systolic blood pressure, incidences of bleeding while pack in situ, incidences of bleeding after removal of pack that required repacking and incidences of synechia formation after pack removal. The episodes of bleeding while pack in situ, within first 48 h and forced for repacking was observed to be significantly more prevalent among nasal tampon groups (12.5%) of patients but only 2.1 and 2.4% with use of conventional gauze pack and our modification respectively. Regarding bleeding after removal of pack, 10.6% patients experienced bleeding with conventional gauze pack, whereas with our modification it was only 2.4%. Synechia formation was found to be highest among the cases with conventional gauze pack (14.9%), but with our modification it is only 2.4%. In this study it is found that use of aluminum foil prepared from the cover of suture materials can be very useful and cost effective method to reduce some of the complications of anterior nasal packing.
doi:10.1007/s12070-011-0343-2
PMCID: PMC3477445  PMID: 24294575
ANS packing; Epistaxis; Septal splint; Nasal tampon
18.  Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for a Rendu-Osler-Weber Disease Patient with Recurrent Severe Epistaxis: A Case Report 
Case Reports in Medicine  2010;2010:321835.
We present a case of a Rendu-Osler-Weber disease patient with recurrent life threatening epistaxis demanding multiple blood transfusions despite of repetitive endoscopic laser and electrocoagulations, endovascular embolisation, septodermoplasty, and long-term intranasal dressings. As alternative treatment modalities repeatedly failed and the patient became almost permanently dependent on nasal dressing, we performed a highly conformal intensity-modulated radiotherapy of the nasal cavity; a total dose of 50 Gy in 2 Gy single fractions was applied. The therapy was very well tolerated, no acute toxicities occurred. Two weeks after the last radiation dose had been applied, the nasal dressing could be removed without problems. Endoscopical control revealed an almost avascular white mucosa without any trace of bleeding spots; previously existing hemangiomas and crusts had disappeared. After a 1-year-follow up, the patient had no significant recurrent epistaxis.
doi:10.1155/2010/321835
PMCID: PMC2846684  PMID: 20368796
19.  Management of epistaxis: a national survey. 
A survey to assess variations in management and outcome of patients admitted with epistaxis was conducted. A questionnaire was sent to all consultant otolaryngologists working at NHS hospitals in England and Wales requesting information about management of patients admitted with epistaxis over a 3 month period. Data analysis of information provided by 102 consultants for a total of 933 patients was performed. The average number of patients admitted with epistaxis over a period of 3 months per consultant was 10.2. More than 70% of the patients were aged 60 years or over. Approximately 75% of the patients required nasal packing; the most common pack used was BIPP (Bismuth Iodine Paraffin Paste). Of the patients, 5.6% required general anaesthesia, with less than 1% requiring formal arterial ligation. The mean duration of stay in hospital was 2.9 days. Few complications were reported. Patients admitted with epistaxis were generally managed conservatively, with very few requiring surgical intervention. There was remarkable consensus in various aspects of management of patients admitted with epistaxis.
PMCID: PMC2502947  PMID: 8881728
20.  Routine nasal packing follwoing nasal surgery—Is it necessary? 
The practice of routine nasal packing after nasal surgery is usually customary and not evidence based. Post operative complications, while uncoumon, are sometimes pack related. A retrospective analysis of 110 patients who underwent a variety of nasal operations was performed to determine the incidence of complications when nasal packs were not routinely inserted 9 cases (8.2%) [6 out of these were revision surgeries] needed nasal packing for haemostasis at the end of surgery. 4 cases (3.6%) required to be packed in the immediate post operative period. One patient who required nasal packing developed a unilateral adhesion. No patient developed septal hematoma. The need for routine nasal packing is not supported. Packing should be indicated where there continuous bleeding at
doi:10.1007/BF02907637
PMCID: PMC3451540  PMID: 23120133
Nasal Packing; complications; septal Haematoma; Adhesions
21.  Training model for nasal packing. 
A model is described for practising packing of the nose with ribbon gauze in the treatment of epistaxis. The model was constructed from accurate casts of a cadaveric nasal cavity. The value of the model as a practical teaching aid is shown by a trial on a group of 15 accident and emergency (A&E) doctors. After training on the model, there was a significant improvement in the confidence of the doctors to pack a nose, the amount of gauze packed and the visual appearance of the pack. Use of the model should raise the generally poor standard of nasal packing by doctors working in A&E departments.
Images
PMCID: PMC1342580  PMID: 8775957
22.  The management of epistaxis in accident and emergency departments: a survey of current practice. 
A short questionnaire on the subject of the management of epistaxis was sent to forty accident & emergency departments in two NHS regions. Thirty replies were received (response of 75%). It was found that all departments were involved in the initial management of epistaxis, but the extent of that involvement varied considerably. One of the most obvious factors contributing towards the degree of involvement was the liaison between the accident & emergency and the ENT departments. Three departments never referred patients to the ENT department for follow-up. Nine departments performed their own nasal cautery, but half of these did not use any form of local anaesthesia. Twenty-seven departments used various forms of nasal packing but, of these, two-thirds did not use any form of local anaesthesia. Twenty-three departments allowed patients to go home with a nasal pack in situ. The results of this survey are discussed and a guideline to the management of epistaxis in an accident & emergency setting is suggested.
PMCID: PMC1285652  PMID: 2135175
23.  A rare cause of paediatric epistaxis: lobular capillary haemangioma of the nasal cavity 
BMJ Case Reports  2011;2011:bcr0720103199.
The authors describe a case of a 14-year-old male child presenting with massive anterior epistaxis on a background of recurrent episodes of epistaxis. Immediate management constituted anterior nasal packing. Endoscopic nasal examination revealed a 5 mm purple vascular lesion anterior to the right-middle turbinate. The initial working diagnosis of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma which is most common in this population was excluded following MRI. The lesion was excised via an endoscopic approach with no complications. Histological analysis confirmed the diagnosis of lobular capillary haemangioma. The patient made an uneventful recovery and remains on follow-up with no recurrence.
doi:10.1136/bcr.07.2010.3199
PMCID: PMC3062829  PMID: 22707545
24.  Relation between epistaxis, external nasal deformity, and septal deviation following nasal trauma 
Emergency Medicine Journal : EMJ  2005;22(11):778-779.
Objectives: To find if the presence of epistaxis after nasal trauma can be used to predict post-traumatic external nasal deformity or a symptomatic deviated nasal septum.
Methods: Retrospective analysis of all patients seen in the fractured nose clinic by the first author between 17 October 2003 and 27 February 2004. Presence of epistaxis, newly developed external nasal deformity, and the presence of a deviated nasal septum with new symptoms of nasal obstruction were noted.
Results: A total of 139 patients were included in the study. Epistaxis following injury was noted in 106 (76%). Newly developed external nasal deformity was noted in 71 (51%), and 33 (24%) had a deviated nasal septum with new symptoms of nasal obstruction. Of the 106 patients with post-trauma epistaxis, 50 (67%) had newly developed external nasal deformity and of the 33 patients without post-traumatic epistaxis, 11 (33%) had nasal deformity (p<0.05). Post-trauma epistaxis was not associated with the presence of a newly symptomatic deviated septum (25% in patients with epistaxis after injury versus 18% if there was no epistaxis).
Conclusions: Presence of epistaxis after nasal trauma is associated with a statistically significant increase in external nasal deformity. However, one third of patients without epistaxis following nasal trauma also had external nasal deformity and hence all patients with a swollen nose after injury, irrespective of post-trauma epistaxis, still need to be referred to the fractured nose clinic.
doi:10.1136/emj.2004.018994
PMCID: PMC1726610  PMID: 16244333
25.  A Microbiological Study of Anterior Nasal Packs in Epistaxis 
Bleeding per nose is one of the comnonest ailment encountered by each and every otolaryngologvst Since hemostasis is immediate concern, anterior nasal pressure pack is put and is usually allowed to remain for 24-72 hours. Blood soaked pack and raw mucosal surface are good media for bacterial multiplication resulting in infection including sinusitis and sometimes toxic shock syndromes.
Present study is conducted to work out bacterial flora of anterior nasal pack and effect of svstemic antibiotics in controlling it. Thirty cases of epistaxis of different etiology were included. Out of these 26 cases were positive on culture. These included Staphylococcus aureus 70%,. Pseudomonas aeruginosa twenty three percent. Klabsiella pneumonia and proteus mirabilis 3.3%, Streptococcus and Hemolyticus 3.3%. Details of type and duration of packing and its relation with organism cultured are discussed. It is concluded that the packing material should be soaked with antibiotics prior to use and should not be keep for more than 48 hours. And systemic antibiotics does not have any significant on this local infection due to packing.
doi:10.1007/BF02996844
PMCID: PMC3451490  PMID: 23119483

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