Background & objectives:
ADAM33 is a member of a family of genes that encode membrane-anchored proteins with a disintegrin and a metalloprotease domain, primarily expressed in lung fibroblasts and bronchial smooth muscle cells. ADAM33 has been identified as a risk factor for asthma and is known as a gene associated with airway remodelling. The present study was conducted with the aims to investigate the expression of ADAM33 protein in patients of asthma and non-asthmatic controls, and to assess if the expression of ADAM33 protein relates with severity of asthma.
A total of 35 subjects, including 27 patients with asthma and eight non-asthmatic controls were included using Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines 2005. Bronchial biopsy tissues were collected and paraffin sections were made to store all study samples. Immunohistochemistry was performed using standardized protocol.
An increase in expression of ADAM33 protein was observed in the epithelium, smooth muscle and mesenchymal cells of asthma cases when compared to controls but there was no relationship with severity of asthma.
Interpretation & conclusions:
A higher expression of ADAM33 protein was seen in asthma patients compared to controls. Large prospective studies need to be done with adequate study design to confirm these preliminary finding.
ADAM33 protein expression; asthma; bronchial biopsy; immunohistochemistry; severity of asthma
ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) constitute a family of cell surface proteins containing disintegrin and metalloprotease domains which associate features of adhesion molecules and proteases. ADAMTSs (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs) bear thrombospondin type I motifs in C-terminal extremity, and most of them are secreted proteins. Because genetic studies have shown that ADAM-33 gene polymorphisms are associated with asthma, we designed this study to assess mRNA expression profile of several ADAM and ADAMTS proteases in sputum from patients with asthma and to investigate the relationship between expression of these proteases and asthma-associated inflammation and airway obstruction. mRNA expression profile of selected ADAM and ADAMTS proteinases (ADAM-8, -9, -10, -12, -15, -17, and -33; ADAMTS-1, -2, -15, -16, -17, -18, and -19), their physiological inhibitors TIMP-1 and TIMP-3, and RECK, a membrane-anchored MMP activity regulator, was obtained by RT-PCR analysis performed on cells collected by sputum induction from 21 patients with mild to moderate asthma and 17 healthy individuals. mRNA levels of ADAM-8, ADAM-9, ADAM-12, TIMP-1, and TIMP-3 were significantly increased, whereas mRNA levels coding for ADAMTS-1, ADAMTS-15, and RECK were significantly decreased in patients with asthma compared with control patients. ADAM-8 expression was negatively correlated with the forced expiratory volume at the first second (FEV1) (r = −0.57, P < 0.01), whereas ADAMTS-1 and RECK expressions were positively correlated to FEV1 (r = 0.45, P < 0.05, and r = 0.55, P = 0.01, respectively). We conclude that expression of ADAMs and ADAMTSs and their inhibitors is modulated in airways from patients with asthma and that these molecules may play a role in the pathogenesis of asthma.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. ADAM33 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 33) has been one of the most exciting candidate genes for asthma since its first association with the disease in Caucasian populations. Recently, ADAM33 was shown to be associated with excessive decline of lung function and COPD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential relationship between polymorphisms of ADAM33 and COPD in a Han population in northeastern China.
A total of 312 COPD patients and a control group of 319 healthy volunteers were recruited for this study. Eight polymorphic loci (V4, T+1, T2, T1, S2, S1, Q-1, and F+1) of ADAM33 were selected for genotyping. Genotypes were determined by using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method.
Statistically significant differences in the distributions of the T2G, T1G, S2C, and Q-1G alleles between patients and controls were observed (P < 0.001, odds ratio (OR) = 2.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.19-3.61; P < 0.001, OR = 2.60, 95% CI = 2.06-3.30; P = 0.03, OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.02-1.69; and P < 0.001, OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.50-2.50, respectively). Haplotype analysis showed that the frequencies of the CGGGGAGC, CGGGGAGT, CGGGCAGC, and CGGGGGGC haplotypes were significantly higher in the case group than in the control group (P = 0.0002, 0.0001, 0.0005, and 0.0074, respectively). In contrast, the haplotype CGAAGAGC was more common in the control group than in the case group (P < 0.0001).
These preliminary results suggest an association between ADAM33 polymorphisms and COPD in a Chinese Han population.
ADAM33, the first asthma candidate gene identified by positional cloning, may be associated with childhood asthma, lung function decline and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. However, replication results have been inconclusive in smaller previous study populations probably due to inconsistencies in asthma phenotypes or yet unknown environmental influences. Thus, we tried to further elucidate the role of ADAM33 polymorphisms (SNPs) in a genetic analysis of German case control and longitudinal populations.
Using MALDI-TOF, ten ADAM33 SNPs were genotyped in 1,872 children from the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC II) in a case control setting and further 824 children from the longitudinal cohort Multicentre Study of Allergy (MAS). In both populations the effects of single SNPs and haplotypes were studied and a gene environment analysis with passive smoke exposure was performed using SAS/Genetics.
No single SNP showed a significant association with doctor's diagnosis of asthma. A trend for somewhat more profound effects of ADAM33 SNPs was observed in individuals with asthma and BHR. Haplotype analyses suggested a minor effect of the ADAM33 haplotype H4 on asthma (p = 0.033) but not on BHR. Associations with non atopic asthma and baseline lung function were identified but no interaction with passive smoke exposure could be detected.
The originally reported association between ADAM33 polymorphisms and asthma and BHR could not be confirmed. However, our data may suggest a complex role of ADAM33 polymorphisms in asthma ethiology, especially in non atopic asthma.
My research career has focused on the causes of asthma and its treatment. After establishing the key role that mast cells play in the inflammatory response in asthma, attention was turned towards understanding disease chronicity and variability across the lifecourse. Through a combination of studies on airway biopsies and primary cell cultures we have established that asthma is primarily an epithelial disease driven by increased environmental susceptibility to injury and an altered repair response as depicted by sustained activation of the epithelial mesenchymal trophic unit (EMTU) that is invoked in foetal branching morphogenesis. Varied activation of the EMTU connects the origins of asthma to its progression over time with involvement of epithelial susceptibility through impaired barrier and innate immune functions and altered mesenchymal susceptibility as exemplified by polymorphisms of the metalloprotease gene, ADAM33. Taken together these observations have led to a fundamental re-evaluation of asthma pathogenesis. Rather than placing allergic inflammation as the prime abnormality, it is proposed that the airway epithelium lies at the center of asthma pathogenesis, and that in conjunction with the underlying mesenchyme, it is the principle orchestrator of both the induction of asthma and its evolution over the lifecourse. This concept has provided 'the basis for a new preventative and therapeutic approach focused more on increasing the airways resistance to environmental insults rather than suppressing downstream inflammation once it is established.
Asthma; management; prevention; treatment
A disintegrin and metalloprotein-33 (ADAM33) participates in the bronchial remodeling process in asthma, and genetic analyses pointed it out as a candidate gene in asthma.
To analyze the association between ADAM33 and asthma and total and mite-specific IgE levels in a population of the Caribbean Coast of Colombia, we genotyped 6 single-nucleotide polymorphisms of ADAM33 in 429 asthmatics, 401 controls and 116 family trios using fluorogenic probes. Total and specific IgE against Blomia tropicalis and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were determined by ELISA. Case-control and family-based analyses were performed. Case-control association analyses were corrected by population stratification using a set of 52 ancestry-informative markers.
Eight common haplotypes were identified; among them, H4 (GCAGGG) was associated with asthma in the family group (Z score: −2.049, p = 0.04). We also found an association between the TT genotype of ST+7 and asthma in the case-control study (p = 0.05) that disappeared after correcting for multiple testing. In the family-based analysis, this genotype was a risk factor for asthma (p = 0.01), high total IgE (Z score: 2.546, p = 0.01) and high specific IgE against B. tropicalis (p = 0.02) and D. pteronyssinus (Z score: 2.414, p = 0.01). V4 was associated with specific IgE against B. tropicalis (p = 0.03); T2 with asthma (p = 0.03), high total IgE (p = 0.02) and IgE against D. pteronyssinus (p = 0.03) and T1 with high total IgE (p = 0.04). None of these associations was maintained after correction for multiple testing.
Our findings suggest a relevant role of ADAM33 in thepathogenesis of asthma in this population.
A disintegrin and metalloprotein 33; ADAM33; Immunoglobulin E; Asthma; Allergy; Colombians
Asthma is one of the most common chronic respiratory diseases, affecting ∼300 million children and adults worldwide. Previous studies identified a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain 33 (ADAM33) as an important susceptibility gene for asthma in patients of different nationalities; however, it is unknown whether this relationship exists in ethnically diverse populations. The present study focused on the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ADAM33 gene and asthma in the Uygur population of China. Three SNPs of ADAM33 (T1, S+1 and F+1) were genotyped in a case-control study among the Chinese Uygur population, involving 126 adult asthmatic patients and 126 healthy controls. The frequency of the ADAM33 T1 C allele among asthma patients was significantly higher compared to healthy controls (20.6 vs. 11.1%, P=0.003). The distribution of ADAM33 genotypes differed significantly between the two groups. The frequency of the T1 TC genotype was higher among patients compared to healthy controls [odds ratio (OR)=2.118, P=0.016] and the variant genotype, TC+CC, increased the risk of asthma (OR=2.244, P=0.005). Following adjustment for confounding factors, the ORs of TC and TC+CC for asthma were 2.317 and 2.522, respectively. There was a significant decrease in the forced expiratory volume (FEV1) levels in patients with the TC genotype compared to the TT genotype of T1. Haplotype analysis revealed that the frequencies of Hap5 (CAC) and Hap6 (CAT) were significantly higher among asthmatic patients compared to healthy controls (P=0.024 and 0.016, respectively). The genotype and allele frequencies of SNP S+1 and F+1 were not statistically different between asthmatic patients and controls. In conclusion, the ADAM33 T1 SNP may affect susceptibility to asthma in the Chinese Uygur population.
a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain 33; single-nucleotide polymorphisms; asthma; Uygur population; haplotype
Polymorphisms in ADAM33, the first gene identified in asthma by positional cloning, have been recently associated with psoriasis. No replication study of this association has been published so far. Data available in the French EGEA study (Epidemiological study on Genetics and Environment of Asthma, bronchial hyperresponsivensess and Atopy) give the opportunity to attempt to replicate the association between ADAM33 and psoriasis in 2002 individuals. Psoriasis (n = 150) has been assessed by questionnaire administered by an interviewer and a sub-sample of subjects with early-onset psoriasis (n = 74) has been identified based on the age of the subjects at time of interview (<40 years). Nine SNPs in ADAM33 and 11 SNPs in PSORS1 were genotyped. Association analysis was conducted by using two methods, GEE regression-based method and a likelihood-based method (LAMP program). The rs512625 SNP in ADAM33 was found associated with psoriasis at p = 0.01, the usual threshold required for replication (OR [95% CI] for heterozygotes compared to the reference group of homozygotes for the most frequent allele = 0.61 [0.42;0.89]). The rs628977 SNP, which was not in linkage disequilibrium with rs512625, was significantly associated with early-onset psoriasis (p = 0.01, OR [95% CI] for homozygotes for the minor allele compared to the reference group = 2.52 [1.31;4.86]). Adjustment for age, sex, asthma and a PSORS1 SNP associated with psoriasis in the EGEA data did not change the significance of these associations. This suggests independent effects of ADAM33 and PSORS1 on psoriasis. This is the first study that replicates an association between genetic variants in ADAM33 and psoriasis. Interestingly, the 2 ADAM33 SNPs associated with psoriasis in the present analysis were part of the 3-SNPs haplotypes showing the strongest associations in the initial study. The identification of a pleiotropic effect of ADAM33 on asthma and psoriasis may contribute to the understanding of these common immune-mediated diseases.
The asthma susceptibility gene, a disintegrin and metalloprotease-33 (ADAM33), is selectively expressed in mesenchymal cells, and the activity of soluble ADAM33 has been linked to angiogenesis and airway remodeling. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is a profibrogenic growth factor, the expression of which is increased in asthma, and recent studies show that it enhances shedding of soluble ADAM33. In this study, we hypothesized that TGF-β also affects ADAM33 expression in bronchial fibroblasts in asthma. Primary fibroblasts were grown from bronchial biopsies from donors with and those without asthma, and treated with TGF-β2 to induce myofibroblast differentiation. ADAM33 expression was assessed using quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. To examine the mechanisms whereby TGF-β2 affected ADAM33 expression, quantitative methylation-sensitive PCR, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and nuclear accessibility assays were conducted on the ADAM33 promoter. We found that TGF-β2 caused a time- and concentration-dependent reduction in ADAM33 mRNA expression in normal and asthmatic fibroblasts, affecting levels of splice variants similarly. TGF-β2 also induced ADAM33 protein turnover and appearance of a cell-associated C-terminal fragment. TGF-β2 down-regulated ADAM33 mRNA expression by causing chromatin condensation around the ADAM33 promoter with deacetylation of histone H3, demethylation of H3 on lysine-4, and hypermethylation of H3 on lysine-9. However, the methylation status of the ADAM33 promoter did not change. Together, these data suggest that TGF-β2 suppresses expression of ADAM33 mRNA in normal or asthmatic fibroblasts. This occurs by altering chromatin structure, rather than by gene silencing through DNA methylation as in epithelial cells. This may provide a mechanism for fine regulation of levels of ADAM33 expression in fibroblasts, and may self-limit TGF-β2–induced ectodomain shedding of ADAM33.
a disintegrin and metalloprotease-33; myofibroblast; transforming growth factor-β; histone modification
A disintegrin and metalloprotease 33 (ADAM33) is a transmembrane protease and integrin ligand that has been identified as an asthma susceptibility gene product. To determine whether ADAM33 plays important roles in mammalian development and the modulation of allergic airway dysfunction, we generated ADAM33-null mice by gene targeting. ADAM33-null mice were born at expected Mendelian ratios, and both male and females developed normally and were fertile. No anatomical or histological abnormalities were detected in any tissues. In an animal model of allergic asthma, ADAM33-null mice showed normal allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity, immunoglobulin E production, mucus metaplasia, and airway inflammation. Our results demonstrate that ADAM33 is not essential for growth or reproduction in the mouse and does not modulate baseline or allergen-induced airway responsiveness.
Published data regarding the associations between genetic variants and asthma risk in Chinese population were inconclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate asthma susceptible genes in Chinese population.
The authors conducted 18 meta-analyzes for 18 polymorphisms in 13 genes from eighty-two publications.
Seven polymorphisms were found being associated with risk of asthma, namely: A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 33 (ADAM33) T1-C/T (odds ratio [OR] = 6.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.69-13.73), Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) D/I (OR = 3.85, 95%CI: 2.49-5.94), High-affinity IgE receptor β chain (FcεRIβ) -6843G/A (OR = 1.49, 95%CI: 1.01-2.22), Interleukin 13(IL-13) -1923C/T (OR = 2.99, 95%CI: 2.12-4.24), IL-13 -2044A/G (OR = 1.49, 95%CI: 1.07-2.08), Regulated upon Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) -28C/G (OR = 1.64, 95%CI: 1.09-2.46), Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) -308G/A(OR = 1.42, 95%CI: 1.09, 1.85). After subgroup analysis by age, the ACE D/I, β2-Adrenergic Receptor (β2-AR) -79G/C, TNF-α -308G/A, Interleukin 4 receptor(IL-4R) -1902G/A and IL-13 -1923C/T polymorphisms were found significantly associated with asthma risk in Chinese children. In addition, the ACE D/I, FcεRIβ -6843G/A, TNF-α -308G/A, IL-13 -1923C/T and IL-13 -2044A/G polymorphisms were associated with asthma risk in Chinese adults.
ADAM33, FcεRIβ, RANTES, TNF-α, ACE, β2-AR, IL-4R and IL-13 genes could be proposed as asthma susceptible genes in Chinese population. Given the limited number of studies, more data are required to validate these associations.
A proteinase with a disintegrin and a metalloproteinase domain-8 (ADAM8) has been linked to asthma.
To explore whether ADAM8 is a therapeutic target for asthma.
We reviewed literature on ADAM8’s function and expression and activities in lungs of humans and mice with allergic airway inflammation (AAI). We used these data to generate hypotheses about the contributions of ADAM8 to asthma pathogenesis.
ADAM8 levels are increased in airway epithelium and airway inflammatory cells in mice with AAI and human asthma patients. Data from murine models of AAI indicate that ADAM8 dampens airway inflammation. It is not clear whether ADAM8 contributes directly to structural remodeling in asthmatic airways. Additional studies are required to validate ADAM8 as a therapeutic target for asthma.
ADAM; airway hyper-responsiveness; allergy; asthma; disintegrin; eosinophil; epithelium; inflammation; leukocyte; macrophage; metalloproteinase; proteinase; remodeling; signaling
ADAM33 has been identified as an asthma-associated gene in an out-bred population. Genetic studies suggested that the functional role of this metalloprotease was in airway remodeling. However, the mechanistic roles of the disease-associated SNPs have yet to be elucidated especially in the context of the pathophysiology of asthma. One disease-associated SNP, BC+1, which resides in intron BC toward the 5' end of ADAM33, is highly associated with the disease.
The region surrounding this genetic variant was cloned into a model system to determine if there is a regulatory element within this intron that influences transcription.
The BC+1 protective allele did not impose any affect on the transcription of the reporter gene. However, the at-risk allele enforced such a repressive affect on the promoter that no protein product from the reporter gene was detected. These results indicated that there exists within intron BC a regulatory element that acts as a repressor for gene expression. Moreover, since SNP BC+1 is a common genetic variant, this region may interact with other undefined regulatory elements within ADAM33 to provide a rheostat effect, which modulates pre-mRNA processing. Thus, SNP BC+1 may have an important role in the modulation of ADAM33 gene expression.
These data provide for the first time a functional role for a disease-associated SNP in ADAM33 and begin to shed light on the deregulation of this gene in the pathophysiology of asthma.
Variation in ADAM33 has been shown to be important in the development of asthma and altered lung function. This relationship however, has not been investigated in the population susceptible to COPD; long term tobacco smokers. We evaluated the association between polymorphisms in ADAM33 gene with COPD and lung function in long term tobacco smokers.
Caucasian subjects, at least 50 year old, who smoked ≥ 20 pack-years (n = 880) were genotyped for 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ADAM33. COPD was defined as an FEV1/FVC ratio < 70% and percent-predicted (pp)FEV1 < 75% (n = 287). The control group had an FEV1/FVC ratio ≥ 70% and ppFEV1 ≥ 80% (n = 311) despite ≥ 20 pack years of smoking. Logistic and linear regressions were used for the analysis. Age, sex, and smoking status were considered as potential confounders.
Five SNPs in ADAM33 were associated with COPD (Q-1, intronic: p < 0.003; S1, Ile → Val: p < 0.003; S2, Gly → Gly: p < 0.04; V-1 intronic: p < 0.002; V4, in 3' untranslated region: p < 0.007). Q-1, S1 and V-1 were also associated with ppFEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio and ppFEF25–75 (p values 0.001 – 0.02). S2 was associated with FEV1/FVC ratio (p < 0.05). The association between S1 and residual volume revealed a trend toward significance (p value < 0.07). Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype analyses suggested that S1 had the strongest degree of association with COPD and pulmonary function abnormalities.
Five SNPs in ADAM33 were associated with COPD and lung function in long-term smokers. Functional studies will be needed to evaluate the biologic significance of these polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of COPD.
Rhinitis and asthma are very common diseases involving genetic and environmental factors. Most patients with asthma also have rhinitis, which suggests the concept of 'one airway, one disease.' A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 33 (ADAM33) is the first asthma-susceptible gene to be discovered by positional cloning. To evaluate the potential influence of ADAM33 gene polymorphisms on allergic rhinitis (AR) and allergic asthma (AS), a case-control study was conducted on the Han population of northeast China.
Six polymorphic sites (V4, T+1, T2, T1, S1, and Q-1) were genotyped in 128 patients with AR, 181 patients with AS, and 151 healthy controls (CTR). Genotypes were determined by the polymerase chain restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test with Haploview software.
The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), V4 G/C, T+1 A/G, and T1 G/A, of the ADAM33 gene may be the causal variants in AR, whereas ADAM33 V4 G/C, T2 A/G, T1 G/A, and Q-1A/G may participate in the susceptibility of AS.
These results suggest that polymorphisms of the ADAM33 gene may modify individual susceptibility to AR and AS in a Chinese Han population.
Six asthma candidate genes, ADAM33, NPSR1, PHF11, DPP10, HLA-G, and CYFIP2, located at different chromosome regions have been positionally cloned following the reported linkage studies. For ADAM33, NPSR1, and CYFIP2, the associations with asthma or asthma-related phenotypes have been studied in East Asian populations such as Chinese and Japanese. However, for PHF11, DPP10, and HLA-G, none of the association studies have been conducted in Asian populations. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to test the associations between these three positionally cloned genes and asthma or asthma-related phenotypes in a Chinese population.
Two, five, and two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the identified top regions of PHF11, DPP10, and HLA-G, respectively, were genotyped in 1183 independent samples. The study samples were selected based on asthma affectation status and extreme values in at least one of the following three asthma-related phenotypes: total serum immunoglobulin E levels, bronchial responsiveness test, and skin prick test. Both single SNP and haplotype analyses were performed.
We found that DPP10 was significantly associated with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and BHR asthma after the adjustment for multiple testing; while the associations of PHF11 with positive skin reactions to antigens and the associations of HLA-G with BHR asthma were only nominally significant.
Our study is the first one to provide additional evidence that supports the roles of DPP10 in influencing asthma or BHR in a Chinese population.
Background: ADAM 33 is the first gene identified as a candidate for asthma by positional cloning techniques, with association studies reaching impressive statistical significance. It has a postulated role in myogenesis, airway modelling, and signalling via protein shedding. Concerns over the methodology of the initial study have led to several attempts at replication, with inconsistent results.
Method: To clarify the role of ADAM33 in determining the risk of asthma in the general population, new transmission disequilibrium and case-control studies were undertaken followed by a meta-analysis of all existing data.
Results: Studies in Icelandic and UK populations revealed no association when taken in isolation. The meta-analysis, however, showed that the F+1 and ST+7 variants were significantly associated with asthma in both types of study.
Conclusions: The additional risk imparted by this variation would account for 50 000 excess asthma cases in the UK alone. This study also demonstrates the size of study required to investigate such hypotheses adequately.
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are complex genetic diseases that cause considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Genetic variability interacting with environmental and ethnic factors is presumed to cause tobacco smoke susceptibility and to influence asthma severity. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 33 (ADAM33) and matrix metalloproteinase‐9 (MMP9) appear to have important roles in asthma and COPD pathogenesis. ADAM33 and MMP9 genetic alterations could possibly contribute to the establishment and progression of these multifactorial diseases, although their association with the clinical phenotypes has not yet been elucidated. However, the occurrence of these alterations does not always result in clear disease, implying that either they are an epiphenomenon or they are in proximity to the true causative alteration. This review summarises the most recent literature dealing with the genetic variations of metalloproteinases and outlines their potential pathogenetic outcome.
ADAM33; asthma; COPD; genes; metalloproteinases; polymorphisms
In the absence of HER2 overexpression, triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) rely on signaling by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ErbB1/HER1) to convey growth signals and stimulate cell proliferation. Soluble EGF-like ligands are derived from their transmembrane precursors by ADAM proteases, but the identity of the ADAM that is primarily responsible for ligand release and activation of EGFR in TNBCs is not clear. Using publicly available gene expression data for patients with lymph node-negative breast tumors who did not receive systemic treatment, we show that ADAM12L is the only ADAM whose expression level is significantly associated with decreased distant metastasis-free survival times. Similar effect was not observed for patients with ER-negative non-TNBCs. There was a positive correlation between ADAM12L and HB-EGF and EGFR in TNBCs, but not in ER-negative non-TNBCs. We further demonstrate that ectopic expression of ADAM12L increased EGFR phosphorylation in a mouse intraductal xenograft model of early breast cancer. Finally, we detect strong correlation between the level of anti-ADAM12L and anti-phospho-EGFR immunostaining in human breast tumors using tissue microarrays. These studies suggest that ADAM12L is the primary protease responsible for the activation of EGFR in early stage, lymph node-negative TNBCs. Thus, our results may provide novel insight into the biology of TNBC.
Metalloprotease; epidermal growth factor; estrogen receptor; xenograft; tissue microarrays
Lungs are exposed to the outside environment and therefore to toxic and infectious agents or allergens. This may lead to permanent activation of innate immune response elements. A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinases (ADAMs) and ADAMs with Thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS) are proteinases closely related to Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs). These multifaceted molecules bear metalloproteinase and disintegrin domains endowing them with features of both proteinases and adhesion molecules. Proteinases of the ADAM family are associated to various physiological and pathological processes and display a wide spectrum of biological effects encompassing cell fusion, cell adhesion, "shedding process", cleavage of various substrates from the extracellular matrix, growth factors or cytokines... This review will focus on the putative roles of ADAM/ADAMTS proteinases in airway diseases such as asthma and COPD.
In the present study, whether the ADAM-8, -9, -10, -12, -15, -17, and ADAMTS-1 proteins might play a role in mouse uterus during periimplantation period was investigated. Immunoblotting analyses demonstrated that all ADAM proteins consistently appeared throughout days 1 to 8 of pregnancy but with a variation depending on the species of ADAM gene, the progression of pregnancy, and the site of the uterus. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated that ADAM proteins were localized in the luminal or glandular epithelial layers with a varying intensity depending on the species of ADAM and the progression of pregnancy. Particularly ADAM-8, -12, and -15, were predominantly located in the implantation site of the uterine tissues, whereas little or no protein was localized in the interimplantation site. Based upon these observations, it is suggested that the ADAMs might play an important role in the remodeling of the mouse uterus during the periimplantation period.
ADAM; uterus; implantation; remodeling
Autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADTLE) is an inherited epileptic syndrome characterized by ictal auditory symptoms or aphasia, negative MRI findings, and relatively benign evolution. Mutations responsible for ADLTE have been found in the LGI1 gene. The functions of the Lgi1 protein apparently are mediated by interactions with members of the ADAM protein family: it binds the postsynaptic receptor ADAM22 to regulate glutamate-AMPA currents at excitatory synapses and also the ADAM23 receptor to promote neurite outgrowth in vitro and dendritic arborization in vivo. Because alteration of each of these neuronal mechanisms may underlie ADLTE, ADAM22 and ADAM23 are candidate genes for this syndrome. In a previous work, we excluded a major role of ADAM22 in the aetiology of ADLTE. Here, we performed linkage analysis between microsatellite markers within or flanking the ADAM23 gene and ADLTE in 13 Italian families. The results exclude ADAM23 as major causative gene for ADLTE.
Cellular interactions between thymocytes and thymic stromal cells are critical for normal T cell development. Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) are important stromal niche cells that provide essential growth factors, cytokines, and present self-antigens to developing thymocytes. The identification of genes that mediate cellular crosstalk in the thymus is ongoing. One candidate gene, Adam17, encodes a metalloprotease that functions by cleaving the ectodomain of several transmembrane proteins and regulates various developmental processes. In conventional Adam17 knockout mice, a non-cell autonomous role for ADAM17 in adult T cell development was reported, which strongly suggested that expression of ADAM17 in TECs was required for normal T cell development. However, knockdown of Adam17 results in multisystem developmental defects and perinatal lethality, which has made study of the role of Adam17 in specific cell types difficult. Here, we examined T cell and thymic epithelial cell development using a conditional knockout approach.
We generated an Adam17 conditional knockout mouse in which floxed Adam17 is deleted specifically in TECs by Cre recombinase under the control of the Foxn1 promoter. Normal T cell lineage choice and development through the canonical αβ T cell stages was observed. Interestingly, Adam17 deficiency in TECs resulted in reduced expression of the transcription factor Aire. However, no alterations in the patterns of TEC phenotypic marker expression and thymus morphology were noted.
In contrast to expectation, our data clearly shows that absence of Adam17 in TECs is dispensable for normal T cell development. Differentiation of TECs is also unaffected by loss of Adam17 based on phenotypic markers. Surprisingly, we have uncovered a novel genetic link between Adam17and Aire expression in vivo. The cell type in which ADAM17 mediates its non-cell autonomous impact and the mechanisms by which it regulates intrathymic T cell development remain to be identified.
Pericellular proteolysis by ADAM family metalloproteinases has been widely implicated in cell signaling and development. We recently found that Xenopus ADAM13, an ADAM metalloproteinase, is required for activation of canonical Wnt signaling during cranial neural crest (CNC) induction by regulating a novel crosstalk between Wnt and ephrin B (EfnB) signaling pathways (Wei et al., 2010b). In the present study we show that the metalloproteinase activity of ADAM13 also plays important roles in eye development in X. tropicalis. Knockdown of ADAM13 results in reduced expression of eye field markers pax6 and rx1, as well as that of the pan-neural marker sox2. Activation of canonical Wnt signaling or inhibition of forward EfnB signaling rescues the eye defects caused by loss of ADAM13, suggesting that ADAM13 functions through regulation of the EfnB-Wnt pathway interaction. Downstream of Wnt, the head inducer Cerberus was identified as an effector that mediates ADAM13 function in early eye field formation. Furthermore, ectopic expression of the Wnt target gene snail2 restores cerberus expression and rescues the eye defects caused by ADAM13 knockdown. Together these data suggest an important role of ADAM13-regulated Wnt activity in eye development in Xenopus.
ADAM13; Xenopus; eye; Wnt; ephrin; Snail2; Cerberus
A close correlation between asthma and palm dermatoglyphic patterns has been observed in previous studies, but the underlying genetic mechanisms have not been investigated. A disintegrin and metalloprotein-33 (ADAM33) polymorphisms are important in the development of asthma and other atopic diseases. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of the association between asthma and distinctive palm dermatoglyphic patterns, thirteen ADAM33 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed for the association between asthma and palm dermatoglyphic patterns in a population of 400 asthmatic patients and 200 healthy controls. Based on the results, five SNPs, rs44707 (codominant model, P=0.031; log-additive model, P=0.0084), rs2787094 (overdominant model, P=0.049), rs678881 (codominant model, P=0.028; overdominant model, P=0.0083), rs677044 (codominant model, P=0.013; log-additive model, P=0.0033) and rs512625 (dominant model, P=0.033), were associated with asthma in this population. Two SNPs, rs44707 (dominant model, P=0.042) and rs2787094 (codominant model, P=0.014; recessive model, P=0.0038), were observed in the asthma patients with the distinctive palm pattern. As rs44707 and rs2787094 are associated with asthma and a distinctive palm pattern, the data suggest that ADAM33 polymorphisms are correlated with asthma and may be the underlying genetic basis of the association between asthma and palm dermatoglyphic patterns.
asthma; a disintegrin and metalloprotein-33; palm; polymorphisms; dermatoglyphics