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1.  Preventing and treating discitis: cephazolin penetration in ovine lumbar intervertebral disc 
European Spine Journal  2006;15(9):1397-1403.
Infection can occur after any spinal procedure that violates the disc and although it is not common, the potential consequences are serious. Treatment of discitis is not always successful and the key to management is prevention. Intradiscal prophylaxis with antibiotic is routinely used in spinal surgery, but there is a limited understanding of how well antibiotics can enter the avascular disc after intravenous injection. An in vivo ovine study to optimise prophylactic and parenteral treatment of discitis is described to assess the effectiveness of cephazolin in preventing and treating infection. The concentration of cephazolin was measured in disc tissue from normal and degenerate sheep discs to determine if cephazolin can enter the disc and if disc degeneration affects antibiotic uptake. Fourteen sheep were deliberately inoculated with bacteria to induce discitis. Eight sheep (“prophylaxis” group) were given either a 0, 1, 2 or 3 g dose of prophylactic cephazolin before inoculation while the remaining sheep (“treatment” group) were treated with cephazolin commencing 7 days after inoculation for 21 days at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day. Histopathology and radiography were used to assess the effect of the different treatments. Cephazolin was given 30 min prior to sacrifice and the intradiscal concentration was measured by biochemistry. In the “prophylaxis” group all doses of antibiotic provided some protection against infection, although it was not dose dependent. In the “treatment” group discitis was confirmed radiologically and histologically in all animals from 2 weeks onwards. Biochemical assay confirmed that antibiotic is distributed throughout the disc but was present in higher concentration in the anulus fibrosus than the nucleus pulposus. This study demonstrated that whilst the incidence of iatrogenic discitis can be reduced by antibiotic prophylaxis, it could not be abolished in all incidences with a broad-spectrum antibiotic such as cephazolin. Furthermore, antibiotics were ineffective at preventing endplate destruction once an intradiscal inoculum was established.
doi:10.1007/s00586-006-0144-6
PMCID: PMC2438566  PMID: 16830132
Cephazolin; Discitis; Prophylaxis; Treatment; Intervertebral disc
2.  Unexpected overnight admissions following day-case surgery: an analysis of a dedicated ENT day care unit. 
Day-case surgery is an integral part of otolaryngology, and many procedures can be performed as day-cases provided strict criteria are applied in the selection of patients. We reviewed patients who required unexpected admission from the day-case unit at the Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital, London between April 1997 and March 1998. The total number of patients undergoing surgery was 1642. Of the total, 29 (1.8%) had to be admitted unexpectedly for overnight stay: 24 of these patients had undergone nasal surgery, representing 5.4% of all the nasal procedures performed--and the cause of all these admissions was haemorrhage. Further analysis revealed 22 of these 24 nasal operations had included a septoplasty. The total number of septoplasties performed was 163; thus, septoplasty had an unexpected admission rate of 13.4%. This information has been used to formulate stricter guidelines for day-case septoplasty admissions in our unit.
Images
PMCID: PMC2503604  PMID: 11041031
3.  The Efficacy of Bioabsorbable Mesh as an Internal Splint in Primary Septoplasty 
Archives of Plastic Surgery  2012;39(5):561-564.
Nasal bone fractures are often accompanied by septal fractures or deformity. Posttraumatic nasal deformity is usually caused by septal fractures. Submucosal resection and septoplasty are commonly used surgical techniques for the correction of septal deviation. However, septal perforation or saddle nose deformity is a known complication of submucosal resection. Hence, we chose to perform septoplasty, which is a less invasive procedure, as the primary treatment for nasal bone fractures accompanied by septal fractures. During septoplasty, we used a bioabsorbable mesh as an internal splint. We used the endonasal approach and inserted the mesh bilaterally between the mucoperichondrial flap and the septal cartilage. The treatment outcomes were evaluated by computed tomography (CT) and the nasal obstruction symptom evaluation (NOSE) scale. The CT scans demonstrated a significant improvement in the septal deviation postoperatively. The symptomatic improvement rated by the NOSE scale was greater at 1 month and 6 months after surgery compared to the preoperative status. There were no cases of extrusion or infection of the implant. In cases of moderate or severe septal deviation without dislocation from the vomerine groove on the CT scan, our technique should be considered one of the treatments of choice.
doi:10.5999/aps.2012.39.5.561
PMCID: PMC3474417  PMID: 23094256
Nasal septum; Nasal bone; Bioabsorbable implants
4.  Phenylephrine as an alternative to cocaine for nasal vasoconstriction before nasal surgery: A randomised trial 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2013;57(2):163-169.
Background:
Cocaine is often used topically to provide the profound vasoconstriction required for nasal surgery; however, it has been associated with intraoperative cardiac adverse effects. We compared cocaine with phenylephrine as an alternative to ascertain their relative efficacy as vasoconstrictors in nasal septoplasty.
Methods:
Adult patients, presenting for elective nasal septoplasty, of American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I-III, were randomised to either 0.5% phenylephrine or 4% cocaine. The primary outcome was quality of vasoconstriction on a 5-point scale (1=unacceptable, 5=excellent), rated by the surgeon at the end of the procedure.
Results:
Twenty-nine patients received phenylephrine and 26 received cocaine. The median rating for quality of the vasoconstriction was 4.0 (good) in both the phenylephrine and cocaine groups (P=0.84). Median blood loss was 50 ml in the phenylephrine group and 62.5 ml in the cocaine group (P=0.49). In secondary analyses, phenylephrine was shown to be non-inferior to cocaine on both quality of vasoconstriction (non-inferiority delta of 1 point, P=0.009) and estimated blood loss (non-inferiority delta of 25 ml, P=0.028). The frequency of ventricular ectopy, ST segment changes or blood pressure changes after nasal packing was not significantly different between the two groups.
Conclusion:
Phenylephrine in a concentration of 0.5% is not different from 4% cocaine on the quality of vasoconstriction in septoplasty. Given the abuse potential of cocaine and the added administrative burden associated with its handling, phenylephrine might serve as an alternative.
doi:10.4103/0019-5049.111844
PMCID: PMC3696264  PMID: 23825816
Cocaine; hypertension; local anaesthetics; nasal surgery; neo-synephrine; phenylephrine
5.  Comparative evaluation of endoscopic with conventional septoplasty 
A study was conducted to assess the merits and demerits of endoscopic septoplasty. Fifty patients having symptomatic DNS were randomly divided into two groups of 25 patients each. One group underwent endoscopic septoplasty and other group underwent conventional septoplasty. The groups were compared regarding the complaints with pack in postoperative period, relief of symptoms after surgery and complications. The symptoms complained by the patients with pack in postoperative period and complications after surgery were significantly less in endoscopic septoplasty group.
doi:10.1007/s12070-009-0029-1
PMCID: PMC3450123  PMID: 23120599
Endoscopic septoplasty; Conventional septoplasty
6.  Quality of life before and after septoplasty and rhinoplasty 
Subjective assessment of quality of life (QOL) as an important aspect of outcomes research has received increasing importance during the past decades. QOL is measured with standardized questionnaires which had been tested with regard to reliability, validity, and sensitivity.
Surgical procedures of the nasal septum (septoplasty) and the external nose (rhinoplasty) are frequently performed. Since many years subjectively assessed results of these operations have been reported in the literature. However, validated QOL instruments were applied only for one decade. Beforehand, measurements were performed using retrospective assessment of satisfaction or visual analogue scales. Prospective application of validated disease-specific and general measuring instruments has to be demanded for future studies.
Most of the septoplasty patients as well as most of the rhinoplasty patients evaluate the operation being successful. However, a relevant number of patients is not satisfied with the result of surgery. In this context, QOL instruments have the potential to identify further factors influencing the outcome. Especially in rhinoplasty patients, special attention has to be drawn on potential psychosocial effects of the operation.
doi:10.3205/cto000070
PMCID: PMC3199828  PMID: 22073110
validation; quality of life; nasal obstruction; nasal function
7.  Assessment of Septoplasty Effectiveness using Acoustic Rhinometry and Rhinomanometry 
Introduction:
Septal deviation is the chief cause of chronic nasal obstruction. In order to treat such cases, nasal septoplasty surgery is usually performed based on patient complaints and a surgeon's examination, both of which are subjective. This study aims at using the objective parameters of acoustic rhinometry and rhinomanometry to evaluate the effectiveness of septoplasty surgery.
Materials and Methods:
A prospective study was performed in 30 candidate patients for septoplasty surgery. Acoustic rhinometry and rhinomanometry tests were performed on all patients both before and 3 months after the operation. The symptom recovery rate was recorded according to the patient's statements and anterior rhinoscopic examinations 3 months after surgery. Data were analyzed using a t-test and chi-square tests in a SPSS package.
Results:
A total of 26 of 30 patients returned for a post–procedure follow-up examination after 3 months. Patients were aged from 18 to 32 years (average, 25 years). In total 69.2% (18 patients) were satisfied with the results of the procedure. In addition, rhinomanometry resulted in a decrease in general nasal resistance if patients used decongestants (P=0.03). However, the decrease was not significant before the use of decongestants (P=0.12). Furthermore, according to the results from acoustic rhinomanometry, there was an increase in the nasal cross-sectional area on both the narrow and wide sides after the operation (P<0.05), although this increase was not so notable in the narrower side after using decongestants. There was, however, no significant relationship between the results from the objective tests and the patient's symptoms or clinical examinations (P>0.05).
Conclusion:
The findings of this study show that although the objective tests confirm an improvement in general nasal resistance and an increase in the nasal cross-sectional area after surgery, no unambiguous relationship between the patient's symptoms and the clinical examinations is observed. Therefore, such objective tests do not prove to be sufficient diagnostic criteria for the effectiveness of septoplasty.
PMCID: PMC3846266  PMID: 24303423
Acoustic rhinometry; Nasal airway obstruction; Nasal septum; Rhinomanometry
8.  Retrospective analysis of 697 septoplasty surgery cases: packing versus trans-septal suturing method 
SUMMARY
The trans-septal suturing method has been developed in septoplasty as an alternative to packing. This study was carried out to compare the postoperative results of trans-septal suturing with the anterior Merocel packing technique. The study involved 697 patients who underwent septoplasty. Following surgery, patients were randomly divided into two groups, one with trans-septal suturing and the other with Merocel packing. Patients were asked to record pain levels using a visual analogue scale. Postoperative symptoms and complications were compared. A total of 697 nasal operations were evaluated in the postoperative period considering pain, bleeding, haematoma, septal perforation synechiae and septal perforation. The results for haemorrhage, haematoma, synechiae and perforation were not statistically different (p > 0.05) between groups. In contrast, the level of postoperative pain in patients undergoing trans-septal suturing was significantly less than in the group who received Merocel packing (p < 0.05). Patients with Merocel packing had significantly more pain and nasal discomfort when assessed 1 week after intervention. Therefore, the trans-septal suturing technique may be the preferred option to provide higher patient satisfaction.
PMCID: PMC3383079  PMID: 22767972
Septoplasty; Trans-septal suturing; Nasal packing
9.  Comparison of Sinonasal Symptoms in Patients with Nasal Septal Deviation and Patients with Chronic Rhinosinusitis  
Introduction:
Disorders of the nose and paranasal sinuses are among the most common chronic illnesses. Although considerable progress has been made in the medical and surgical control of these diseases, a large number of questions relating to the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of these conditions remain unanswered. The aim of the present study was to evaluate differences in the frequency of symptoms and disease severity in patients with nasal septal deviation (NSD) compared with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS).
Materials and Methods:
A total of 156 patients, divided into NSD and CRS groups, were studied in relation to symptoms and disease severity. Patients were selected from those referred to the Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) Wards of the Imam Reza and Ghaem Hospitals, who had not responded to a variety of treatments. Depending on the type of disease, patients were candidates for either septoplasty or endoscopic sinus surgery. The Rhinosinusitis Symptom Inventory was administered to measure the severity of symptoms, with scores assigned based on the answers given by patients (Likert scale). Scores were compared between the CRS and NSD groups.
Results:
A total of 156 patients (78 with NDS and 78 with CRS) entered the study in overall sinonasal symptoms were more prevalent in CRS group. Nasal congestion, runny nose, earache, toothache, and smelling disorder were significantly more common in the CRS group (P<0.001); while there were no significant differences in symptoms such as facial pressure, fever, or headache between the two groups (P>0.05).
Conclusion:
Patients with CRS manifested statistically significantly greater sinonasal symptom scores than patients with NSD.
PMCID: PMC3846238  PMID: 24303413
Chronic rhinosinusitis; Septal deviation; Symptoms of sinonasal disease
10.  Comparative study of endoscopic aided septoplasty and traditional septoplasty in posterior nasal septal deviations 
Patients with deviated nasal septum are advised surgery, which has seen several modifications since its inception. This recent technique of using nasal endoscopes gives better illumination and access to posterior septal deviations. The aim of the study was to identify the nasal septal pathology in relation to lateral nasal wall in a precise way and to correct this with minimal exposure, limited manipulation and least resection. Twenty five patients underwent endoscope aided and 25 conventional septoplasty. Results were graded on subjective and objective improvement. Endoscopic aided septoplasty (Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 1999; 120, 678; Laryngoscope 1994, 104, 1507; J Laryngol Otol 1998, 112, 934; Ear Nose Throat J 1997, 76, 622) was found to be safe, effective and conservative approach with better patient compliance, shorter recovery time and greater stability of remaining septum.
doi:10.1007/BF02907695
PMCID: PMC3451456  PMID: 23120202
Endoscope; septal deviation; septoplasty
11.  Quality of life comparison in common rhinologic surgeries 
Allergy & Rhinology  2012;3(1):e1-e7.
Various questionnaires are used in patients who undergo rhinologic surgeries but a unique comprehensive questionnaire is needed to evaluate quality of life (QOL) in rhinologic surgeries. The purpose of this study was to prepare a comprehensive questionnaire and compare QOL among four common rhinologic surgeries including functional endoscopic sinus surgery, septoplasty, septorhinoplasty, and septoplasty with turbinoplasty preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. This was a prospective interventional before-and-after study. Preoperative and 6 months postoperative evaluations were performed with a Modified Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL) questionnaire designed to cover all needed QOL aspects and the 22-item Sino-nasal Outcome Test questionnaire to cover all needed QOL aspects. The Modified HRQL included 33 items in six subgroups (nasal symptoms, sleep problems, headache, nonnasal symptoms, and practical and emotional problems) and general feeling. From 202 patients who completed the questionnaire before the procedures, 146 (72% of all patients) who were interviewed 6 months postoperatively were included in this study. Comparing preoperative data between followed up patients and missed patients showed no statistical difference among surgeries (p = 0.90). Comparison of patient's pre- and postoperative QOL showed a significant improvement in global QOL and in all questionnaire items (p < 0.0001 in all comparisons). Comparison of QOL changes before and after surgery among different surgeries revealed no statistical difference (p = 0.282). Our data showed a significant improvement in each surgery but the amount of improvement in different surgeries was almost constant.
doi:10.2500/ar.2012.3.0020
PMCID: PMC3404471  PMID: 22852123
Functional endoscopic sinus surgery; Modified Health-Related Quality of Life questionnaire; quality of life; rhinologic surgeries; septoplasty; septorhinoplasty; turbinoplasty
12.  Unilateral Visual Loss after a Nasal Airway Surgery 
Septoplasty and turbinoplasty are common ear, nose, throat (ENT) operations which generally have low complication rates. A 45-year-old man had a septoplasty operation and a right turbinoplasty operation under a combined general and local anesthetic. He woke from the procedure with a reduced visual acuity in the right eye and substantial inferior visual field loss. A review of the current literature focuses on the vasospasm effects of local anesthetic, in combination with epinephrine on the intricately linked nasal and orbital vascular supply.
doi:10.4137/CCRep.S11158
PMCID: PMC3700966  PMID: 23843719
septoplasty; turbinoplasty; vision loss; vasospasm
13.  The role of septal surgery in cosmetic rhinoplasty 
SUMMARY
Septoplasty is performed to resolve breathing problems, but it often becomes pivotal to correct external nasal deviation, representing a central step in rhinoplasty surgery. Even in patients with no functional problems, septal surgery may represent the best solution for obtaining a proper realignment of the external nasal pyramid. One-stage septorhinoplasty has become the standard of treatment for a deviated nose, hence septoplasty cannot be considered as a separate procedure to perform before or after rhinoplasty or as a partial operation subject to later revision. The aim of this article is to discuss the close relationship between the nasal septum and the aesthetics of the nose, and how a graduated surgical approach for the correction of septal deviations could affect the external deviated nose.
PMCID: PMC3709526  PMID: 23853409
Septorhinoplasty; Deviated septum; Septoplasty; Cosmetic rhinoplasty
14.  Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak after septoplasty: A potential complication of occult anterior skull base encephalocele 
Allergy & Rhinology  2013;4(1):e41-e44.
Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea after septoplasty is a known entity resulting from errors in surgical technique and improper handling of the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone. When these occur, urgent management is necessary to prevent deleterious sequelae such as meningitis, intracranial abscess, and pneumocephalus. Encephaloceles are rare occurrences characterized by herniation of intracranial contents through a skull base defect that can predispose patients to CSF rhinorrhea. In this report, we present a case of CSF rhinorrhea occurring 2 weeks after septoplasty likely from manipulation of an occult anterior skull base encephalocele. To our knowledge, no previous similar case has been reported in the literature. Otolaryngologists should be aware of the possibility of occult encephaloceles while performing septoplasties because minimal manipulation of these entities may potentially result in postoperative CSF leakage.
doi:10.2500/ar.2013.4.0043
PMCID: PMC3679567  PMID: 23772326
Anterior skull base defect; anterior skull base encephalocele; cerebrospinal fluid leakage; cribriform defect; CSF leak; encephalocele; septoplasty complications
15.  Comparison of the bacterial flora of the nasal vestibule and cavity in haemodialysis patients 
Summary
Staphylococcal infections are the major causes of morbidity in haemodialysis patients. The source of the staphylococci is the anterior nares. Elimination of nasal carriage of staphylococci could result in a remarkable decrease in the infection rate. The aim of this study was to investigate if there was a difference in the bacterial flora between the nasal vestibule and cavity as well as their antibiotic susceptibility in haemodialysis. Swab samples obtained from 35 haemodialysis patients were subjected to conventional microbiological methods. The antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for Staphylococcus spp. using cephazolin, cephaclor, trimetoprim + sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin, oxacillin, clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ampicillin + sulbactam and amoxicillin + clavulanic acid. Staphylococcus spp. was found more often in the vestibule than in the cavity (88.5 vs. 77.1%). The effectiveness of clindamycin, erythromycin and tetracycline was particularly striking for the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci isolates. In conclusion, existence of difference in bacterial flora between the nasal cavity and vestibule and their responsiveness to antibacterial agents may require reconsideration of elimination of secondary infections in haemodialysis patients.
PMCID: PMC2821123  PMID: 20162025
Nose; Bacterial flora; Antibiogram; Haemodialysis
16.  Are Cross-hatching Incisions Mandatory for Correction of Cartilaginous Septal Deviation? 
Objectives
Cross-hatching incisions have been considered mandatory for correcting cartilaginous septal deviation. We evaluated the clinical outcome of septoplasty without cross-hatching incisions to determine the necessity for making septal cartilage incisions.
Methods
The reconstructed septal components during septoplasty were categorized into four anatomical areas: vomer, maxillary crest, perpendicular plate of ethmoid (PPE) and septal cartilage (the area for cross-hatching incisions). During septoplasty, we attempted to complete the surgery only by removing or fracturing the bony part of the septum without cross-hatching incisions on the cartilage. Only in the cases that the deviation was not immediately corrected, the cross-hatching incisions were made onto the cartilage at the end of the procedure. We analyzed the frequency of manipulating the septal components. The changes of symptoms were evaluated using a modified nasal obstruction symptom evaluation (NOSE) scale and a visual analog scale (VAS) preoperatively, 1 and 3 months after the surgery.
Results
Seventy five percents of the deviated septums were immediately corrected only by removing or fracturing of the bony septal components. In decreasing order of frequency, the sepal components for correcting septal deviation were the vomer (59%), maxillary crest (49%), septal cartilage (cross-hatching only: 25%) and PPE (15%). The modified NOSE scale and the VAS demonstrated significant improvement of the nasal symptoms postoperatively (P<0.05).
Conclusion
Most of septal deviations could be corrected by manipulating only the bony septum. The results of this procedure were not different from conventional septoplasty with cross-hatching incisions. Our data suggest cross-hatching incisions during septoplasty might have been overemphasized and that the main cause for cartilaginous deviation may be the extrinsic forces that are generated by the neighboring bony structures.
doi:10.3342/ceo.2008.1.1.20
PMCID: PMC2671754  PMID: 19434257
Nasal septum; Cartilage; Surgery
17.  A Comparative Study of Septoplasty With or Without Nasal Packing 
This study was conducted to compare the outcome of septoplasty with or without Nasal packing. The study subjects were randomly allocated into two groups. There was significant reduction in frequency of post operative pain, headache, discomfort and duration of hospital stay in patients who have undergone septoplasty without nasal packing. However there was no difference in post operative bleeding and septal perforation between two groups. Therefore after Septoplasty without nasal packing is preferred alternative to with nasal packing.
doi:10.1007/s12070-011-0141-x
PMCID: PMC3138948  PMID: 22754803
Septoplasty; Nasal packing
18.  Nasendoscopy for unusual nasal symptoms 
BMJ Case Reports  2010;2010:bcr0420102911.
A 20-year-old woman who was fit and well presented with a history of left nasal blockage for 2 years. She was noted on anterior rhinoscopy to have nasal septal deviation towards the left. She was listed for septoplasty with the aim of relieving nasal obstruction. At operation she was found to have a mildly deviated septum to the left. There was also a rhinolith in the left nostril posterior to the deviated septum (figure 1). Following removal of the rhinolith, her nasal airway appeared adequate; hence, septoplasty was not performed. Postoperatively, the patient was pleased with the outcome. When the patient was shown the foreign body she recalled inserting a pen cover into her nose about 10 years previously (figure 2). When she presented to the Accident and Emergency department at that time she was told that there was no foreign body in her nose. Figure 1Endoscopic view of rhinolith. Figure 2Rhinolith.
doi:10.1136/bcr.04.2010.2911
PMCID: PMC3029879  PMID: 22778205
19.  Day-Case Septoplasty and Unexpected Re-Admissions at a Dedicated Day-Case Unit: A 4-Year Audit 
INTRODUCTION
Septal surgery has been identified as suitable for day-surgery, but is not widely performed as such. Guidelines for day-surgery state that the unexpected admission rate should be 2–3%. Previous audits have not achieved this figure and septoplasty is not universally considered suitable for day-surgery. We have reviewed practice over 4 years in our institution to identify surgical and patient factors associated with unexpected admission following septoplasty.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
A retrospective case note based audit of day-case septoplasty procedures reviewed at the end of each year between October 1998 and October 2002.
RESULTS
A total of 432 septal surgery procedures were performed, comprising 378 septoplasties and 54 submucous resections. Thirty-eight patients were admitted, overwhelmingly because of haemorrhage in the immediate postoperative period, giving an overall admission rate of 8.8% within the first 24 h. Factors associated strongly with re-admission were the use of intranasal splints, the performance of revision surgery, submucous resection (as opposed to septoplasty) and, less so, the performance of additional procedures and the peri-operative administration of diclofenac. There was no correlation between unexpected admission and grade of surgeon, surgical technique or any of the patient factors analysed.
CONCLUSIONS
The unexpected admission rate of septal surgery performed at our unit is above that recommended for day-case procedures, but is within the range previously published. Patient satisfaction with day-case septoplasty has been shown to be high. We believe that septoplasty should be performed in this setting but there is a significant chance that patients may need admission, and a pathway should be in place for this to occur with minimal disruption to the patient.
doi:10.1308/003588406X95039
PMCID: PMC1964047  PMID: 16551420
Septal surgery; Audit; Day-case
20.  Does Cosmetic Rhinoplasty Affect Nose Function? 
ISRN Otolaryngology  2011;2011:615047.
Objective. To evaluate the changes in nasal dimensions of healthy Iranian volunteered for cosmetic rhinoplasty after surgery using acoustic rhinometry. Methods. Pre- and postoperative nasal dimension of 36 cases undergoing cosmetic rhinoplasty were compared using acoustic rhinometry (AR), and the measured variables were distance to first and second constriction (d1, d2), first and second minimal cross-sectional area (MCA1, 2), and volume. Results. Mean age (SD) of cases were 24.63 (4.4) years. Septoplasty was performed in 12 cases (33.3%). After surgery, bilateral d1 and both MCA2 decreased significantly, while significant increase was observed in MCA1 postoperatively using decongestant. Cases with septoplasty experienced more increase in MCA1 and less constriction in MCA2 postoperatively. In cases with rhinoplasty alone, they received benefit from double osteotomy in MCA1. In either group of rhinoplasty with and without septoplasty, placing a strut was beneficial for patients. Discussion. The cross-sectional area of the nose is a major factor in the determination of airflow. Cosmetic rhinoplasty may generate a mix effect on nose function. Performing osteotomy may better help patients to save nasal patency, septoplasty is beneficial even in mildly deviated septums, and placing a strut may be beneficial in most of the cases.
doi:10.5402/2011/615047
PMCID: PMC3658547  PMID: 23724256
21.  Extracorporeal septoplasty-how we do it at marienhospital stuttgart germany 
Septoplasty is one of the most common surgery of ENT but even today the difficult septum still presents a great surgical problem. A severe septum deformity is usually due to an accident quite often in childhood. It is also seen in patients with malformation such as cleft lip and cleft palate deformity. It affects not only the nasal function, but also the aesthetic part of the nose. Severe septal deformities can not be corrected properly by the standard septoplasty techniques. Therefore in such cases an extracorporeal septoplasty is recommended. In this technique the whole septum is taken out, the bony and cartilaginous septum in one piece if possible, a new septal plate is reconstructed by different surgical techniques, followed by replantation and reconstruction of the cartilagenous dorsum. The first author kept on improving the safe septal fixation, rebuilding of cartilagenous dorsum and overall the extracorporeal septoplasty technique over the period of time and this technique with all its refinement can be recommended to all the surgeons dealing with this challenging noses.
doi:10.1007/s12070-008-0007-z
PMCID: PMC3450704  PMID: 23120491
Extracorporeal septoplasty; spreader graft
22.  Endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy: our experience 
Objectives
To study the outcome of endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) with or without mucosal flap preservation, without mitomycin local application, silicon tube stenting or laser assistance. To determine the duration of the surgical procedure of DCR, influence of simultaneously performed endonasal endoscopic procedures for concomitant sinonasal diseases.
Methods
Combined retrospective and prospective study in our tertiary referral center. 24 patients with chronic dacryocystitis underwent 25 standard endonasal endoscopic DCR procedures, 10 with and 15 without mucosal flap preservation. 6 of these had concomitant sinonasal diseases for which they underwent septoplasty or functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) or both, simultaneously or as staged procedures. Relief from epiphora and patency of the nasolacrimal fistula was assessed by nasal endoscopy and syringing of the lacrimal apparatus at 1 week, 3 weeks and 3 months postoperatively.
Results
Out of 18 patients who underwent only DCR, 17 patients (94.44%) had complete relief from epiphora. Out of 6 patients who underwent 7 DCRs with concomitant sinonasal surgery, 5 patients (85.71%) had complete relief from epiphora. Overall 23 out of 25 DCRs (92%) had complete relief. In 15 of the 25 procedures, mucosal flap was excised completely. In remaining 10 procedures, flap was trimmed, repositioned to cover exposed bone around the newly created nasolacrimal fistula. In either situation, only one patient each had partial block of the nasolacrimal fistula. Average duration of the surgical procedure of DCR was 18 min.
Conclusion
Endonasal endoscopic DCR is a viable alternative to external DCR, co-existing sinonasal diseases can be managed simultaneously, as may be required in 25% of cases. It can be performed under 20 min without mucosal flap preservation, mitomycin local application, silicon tube stenting or laser assistance and can still provide a good success rate (92%) with less complications.
doi:10.1007/s12070-009-0071-z
PMCID: PMC3449975  PMID: 23120640
Epiphora; Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy; DCR; Mucosal flap
23.  Reproductive outcome after hysteroscopic septoplasty in patients with septate uterus - a retrospective cohort study and systematic review of the literature 
Background
Septate uterus, one of the most common forms of congenital uterine malformations, negatively affects female reproductive health.
Methods
In a retrospective cohort study, we evaluated the reproductive outcome after hysteroscopic septoplasty in 64 women with septate uterus and primary or secondary infertility. We performed a systematic review of studies evaluating the reproductive outcome after hysteroscopic septoplasty.
Results
Sixty-four women underwent hysteroscopic septoplasty. In 2/64 (3%) women, intraoperative uterine perforation occurred. Complete follow-up was available for 49/64 (76%) patients. Mean follow-up time was 68.6 +/- 5.2 months. The overall pregnancy rate after hysteroscopic septoplasty was 69% (34/49). The overall life birth rate (LBR) was 49% (24/49). The mean time interval between surgery and the first life birth was 35.8 +/- 22.5 months. Including our own data, we identified 18 studies investigating the effect of septoplasty on reproductive outcome in 1501 women. A pooled analysis demonstrated that hysteroscopic septoplasty resulted in an overall pregnancy rate of 60% (892/1501) and a LBR of 45% (686/1501). The overall rate of intra- and postoperative complications was 1.7% (23/1324) and the overall rate of re-hysteroscopy was 6% (79/1324).
Conclusions
In women with septate uterus and a history of infertility, hysteroscopic septoplasty is a safe and effective procedure resulting in a pregnancy rate of 60% and a LBR of 45%.
doi:10.1186/1477-7827-8-52
PMCID: PMC2885403  PMID: 20492650
24.  Selected surgical managements in snoring and obstructive sleep apnea patients 
Summary
Background
The diagnostic process and the surgical procedures in patients with snoring and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are crucial. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of surgical treatment in snoring and OSAS patients.
Material/Methods
A precise laryngological examination and screening polysomnography (Poly-Mesam) were performed in all patients with mild, moderate and severe OSAS before and 6 months after surgery. The patients completed questionnaires concerning their complaints. We included patients qualified to septoplasty, laser-assisted uvulopalatoplasty (LAUP), uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) and radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy of the tongue base (RITT). Outcome evaluation of surgery was performed on the basis of data received from follow-up laryngological examinations, selected parameters obtained from the Poly-Mesam test and follow-up questionnaires.
Results
In most cases we observed improvement, defined as decreasing some sleep parameters, such as a respiratory disturbance index (RDI), by more than 50%, decreasing the loudness of snoring, decreasing the number of hypopneas, and obtaining better blood saturation values. After UPPP we noticed changes in retropalatal space, soft palate dimensions and uvula-posterior pharyngeal wall distance. In the postoperative period we did not observe severe complications. In some cases we found short-lived palatal deficiency after UPPP. Patients after RITT experienced discomfort and throat pain lasting from 2 to 4 days. In 2 patients we observed swelling of the tongue base, which decreased after few days.
Conclusions
Surgery in OSAS contributes to normalization of some sleep parameters. The majority of patients experienced improvement after surgery.
doi:10.12659/MSM.882193
PMCID: PMC3560687  PMID: 22207114
snoring; sleep apnea syndrome; septoplasty; uvulopalatoplasty; uvulopalatopharyngoplasty; radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy
25.  The Efficacy of Submucosal Tramadol in the Postoperative Treatment of Pain Following Septoplasty Operations 
Tramadol is a centrally acting opioid which is effective for moderate-severe pain and is being used for various acute and chronic pain scenarios. The primary endpoint of this controlled, randomized double blind study was to evaluate the effect of submucosal tramadol on VAS scores after septoplasty operations and secondary endpoint was to investigate the effects on total opioid and additional analgesic consumption and patient satisfaction. 60 patients scheduled for septoplasty under general anaesthesia were enrolled. In Group T, at the end of surgery following hemostasis, 2 mg/kg tramadol was applied as submucosal infiltration to both surgical sites, 2 ml (total 4 ml), by the surgeon. In Group P, at the end of surgery following hemostasis, 2 ml isotonic solution (total 4 ml) was applied as submucosal infiltration to both surgical sites by the surgeon. Total opioid consumption, VAS scores, patient satisfaction was evaluated at the end of 24 h VAS values were higher in Group P on the first and second postoperative hours. Patient controlled analgesia demand and delivery values were higher in Group P on the postoperative 1, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24th hours. Patient satisfaction was higher and opioid consumption was lower in Group T compared to Group P. There was no difference in additional analgesic consumption between two groups. The results show that patients receiving tramadol had lower VAS scores compared with the placebo groups postoperatively.
doi:10.1007/s12070-012-0571-0
PMCID: PMC3585556  PMID: 24381911
Septoplasty; Submucosal tramadol; Postoperative pain; Opioids

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