Day-case surgery is an integral part of otolaryngology, and many procedures can be performed as day-cases provided strict criteria are applied in the selection of patients. We reviewed patients who required unexpected admission from the day-case unit at the Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital, London between April 1997 and March 1998. The total number of patients undergoing surgery was 1642. Of the total, 29 (1.8%) had to be admitted unexpectedly for overnight stay: 24 of these patients had undergone nasal surgery, representing 5.4% of all the nasal procedures performed--and the cause of all these admissions was haemorrhage. Further analysis revealed 22 of these 24 nasal operations had included a septoplasty. The total number of septoplasties performed was 163; thus, septoplasty had an unexpected admission rate of 13.4%. This information has been used to formulate stricter guidelines for day-case septoplasty admissions in our unit.
Infection can occur after any spinal procedure that violates the disc and although it is not common, the potential consequences are serious. Treatment of discitis is not always successful and the key to management is prevention. Intradiscal prophylaxis with antibiotic is routinely used in spinal surgery, but there is a limited understanding of how well antibiotics can enter the avascular disc after intravenous injection. An in vivo ovine study to optimise prophylactic and parenteral treatment of discitis is described to assess the effectiveness of cephazolin in preventing and treating infection. The concentration of cephazolin was measured in disc tissue from normal and degenerate sheep discs to determine if cephazolin can enter the disc and if disc degeneration affects antibiotic uptake. Fourteen sheep were deliberately inoculated with bacteria to induce discitis. Eight sheep (“prophylaxis” group) were given either a 0, 1, 2 or 3 g dose of prophylactic cephazolin before inoculation while the remaining sheep (“treatment” group) were treated with cephazolin commencing 7 days after inoculation for 21 days at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day. Histopathology and radiography were used to assess the effect of the different treatments. Cephazolin was given 30 min prior to sacrifice and the intradiscal concentration was measured by biochemistry. In the “prophylaxis” group all doses of antibiotic provided some protection against infection, although it was not dose dependent. In the “treatment” group discitis was confirmed radiologically and histologically in all animals from 2 weeks onwards. Biochemical assay confirmed that antibiotic is distributed throughout the disc but was present in higher concentration in the anulus fibrosus than the nucleus pulposus. This study demonstrated that whilst the incidence of iatrogenic discitis can be reduced by antibiotic prophylaxis, it could not be abolished in all incidences with a broad-spectrum antibiotic such as cephazolin. Furthermore, antibiotics were ineffective at preventing endplate destruction once an intradiscal inoculum was established.
Cephazolin; Discitis; Prophylaxis; Treatment; Intervertebral disc
Nasal bone fractures are often accompanied by septal fractures or deformity. Posttraumatic nasal deformity is usually caused by septal fractures. Submucosal resection and septoplasty are commonly used surgical techniques for the correction of septal deviation. However, septal perforation or saddle nose deformity is a known complication of submucosal resection. Hence, we chose to perform septoplasty, which is a less invasive procedure, as the primary treatment for nasal bone fractures accompanied by septal fractures. During septoplasty, we used a bioabsorbable mesh as an internal splint. We used the endonasal approach and inserted the mesh bilaterally between the mucoperichondrial flap and the septal cartilage. The treatment outcomes were evaluated by computed tomography (CT) and the nasal obstruction symptom evaluation (NOSE) scale. The CT scans demonstrated a significant improvement in the septal deviation postoperatively. The symptomatic improvement rated by the NOSE scale was greater at 1 month and 6 months after surgery compared to the preoperative status. There were no cases of extrusion or infection of the implant. In cases of moderate or severe septal deviation without dislocation from the vomerine groove on the CT scan, our technique should be considered one of the treatments of choice.
Nasal septum; Nasal bone; Bioabsorbable implants
Cocaine is often used topically to provide the profound vasoconstriction required for nasal surgery; however, it has been associated with intraoperative cardiac adverse effects. We compared cocaine with phenylephrine as an alternative to ascertain their relative efficacy as vasoconstrictors in nasal septoplasty.
Adult patients, presenting for elective nasal septoplasty, of American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I-III, were randomised to either 0.5% phenylephrine or 4% cocaine. The primary outcome was quality of vasoconstriction on a 5-point scale (1=unacceptable, 5=excellent), rated by the surgeon at the end of the procedure.
Twenty-nine patients received phenylephrine and 26 received cocaine. The median rating for quality of the vasoconstriction was 4.0 (good) in both the phenylephrine and cocaine groups (P=0.84). Median blood loss was 50 ml in the phenylephrine group and 62.5 ml in the cocaine group (P=0.49). In secondary analyses, phenylephrine was shown to be non-inferior to cocaine on both quality of vasoconstriction (non-inferiority delta of 1 point, P=0.009) and estimated blood loss (non-inferiority delta of 25 ml, P=0.028). The frequency of ventricular ectopy, ST segment changes or blood pressure changes after nasal packing was not significantly different between the two groups.
Phenylephrine in a concentration of 0.5% is not different from 4% cocaine on the quality of vasoconstriction in septoplasty. Given the abuse potential of cocaine and the added administrative burden associated with its handling, phenylephrine might serve as an alternative.
Cocaine; hypertension; local anaesthetics; nasal surgery; neo-synephrine; phenylephrine
A study was conducted to assess the merits and demerits of endoscopic septoplasty. Fifty patients having symptomatic DNS were randomly divided into two groups of 25 patients each. One group underwent endoscopic septoplasty and other group underwent conventional septoplasty. The groups were compared regarding the complaints with pack in postoperative period, relief of symptoms after surgery and complications. The symptoms complained by the patients with pack in postoperative period and complications after surgery were significantly less in endoscopic septoplasty group.
Endoscopic septoplasty; Conventional septoplasty
Subjective assessment of quality of life (QOL) as an important aspect of outcomes research has received increasing importance during the past decades. QOL is measured with standardized questionnaires which had been tested with regard to reliability, validity, and sensitivity.
Surgical procedures of the nasal septum (septoplasty) and the external nose (rhinoplasty) are frequently performed. Since many years subjectively assessed results of these operations have been reported in the literature. However, validated QOL instruments were applied only for one decade. Beforehand, measurements were performed using retrospective assessment of satisfaction or visual analogue scales. Prospective application of validated disease-specific and general measuring instruments has to be demanded for future studies.
Most of the septoplasty patients as well as most of the rhinoplasty patients evaluate the operation being successful. However, a relevant number of patients is not satisfied with the result of surgery. In this context, QOL instruments have the potential to identify further factors influencing the outcome. Especially in rhinoplasty patients, special attention has to be drawn on potential psychosocial effects of the operation.
validation; quality of life; nasal obstruction; nasal function
The trans-septal suturing method has been developed in septoplasty as an alternative to packing. This study was carried out to compare the postoperative results of trans-septal suturing with the anterior Merocel packing technique. The study involved 697 patients who underwent septoplasty. Following surgery, patients were randomly divided into two groups, one with trans-septal suturing and the other with Merocel packing. Patients were asked to record pain levels using a visual analogue scale. Postoperative symptoms and complications were compared. A total of 697 nasal operations were evaluated in the postoperative period considering pain, bleeding, haematoma, septal perforation synechiae and septal perforation. The results for haemorrhage, haematoma, synechiae and perforation were not statistically different (p > 0.05) between groups. In contrast, the level of postoperative pain in patients undergoing trans-septal suturing was significantly less than in the group who received Merocel packing (p < 0.05). Patients with Merocel packing had significantly more pain and nasal discomfort when assessed 1 week after intervention. Therefore, the trans-septal suturing technique may be the preferred option to provide higher patient satisfaction.
Septoplasty; Trans-septal suturing; Nasal packing
Various questionnaires are used in patients who undergo rhinologic surgeries but a unique comprehensive questionnaire is needed to evaluate quality of life (QOL) in rhinologic surgeries. The purpose of this study was to prepare a comprehensive questionnaire and compare QOL among four common rhinologic surgeries including functional endoscopic sinus surgery, septoplasty, septorhinoplasty, and septoplasty with turbinoplasty preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. This was a prospective interventional before-and-after study. Preoperative and 6 months postoperative evaluations were performed with a Modified Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL) questionnaire designed to cover all needed QOL aspects and the 22-item Sino-nasal Outcome Test questionnaire to cover all needed QOL aspects. The Modified HRQL included 33 items in six subgroups (nasal symptoms, sleep problems, headache, nonnasal symptoms, and practical and emotional problems) and general feeling. From 202 patients who completed the questionnaire before the procedures, 146 (72% of all patients) who were interviewed 6 months postoperatively were included in this study. Comparing preoperative data between followed up patients and missed patients showed no statistical difference among surgeries (p = 0.90). Comparison of patient's pre- and postoperative QOL showed a significant improvement in global QOL and in all questionnaire items (p < 0.0001 in all comparisons). Comparison of QOL changes before and after surgery among different surgeries revealed no statistical difference (p = 0.282). Our data showed a significant improvement in each surgery but the amount of improvement in different surgeries was almost constant.
Functional endoscopic sinus surgery; Modified Health-Related Quality of Life questionnaire; quality of life; rhinologic surgeries; septoplasty; septorhinoplasty; turbinoplasty
Patients with deviated nasal septum are advised surgery, which has seen several modifications since its inception. This recent technique of using nasal endoscopes gives better illumination and access to posterior septal deviations. The aim of the study was to identify the nasal septal pathology in relation to lateral nasal wall in a precise way and to correct this with minimal exposure, limited manipulation and least resection. Twenty five patients underwent endoscope aided and 25 conventional septoplasty. Results were graded on subjective and objective improvement. Endoscopic aided septoplasty (Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 1999; 120, 678; Laryngoscope 1994, 104, 1507; J Laryngol Otol 1998, 112, 934; Ear Nose Throat J 1997, 76, 622) was found to be safe, effective and conservative approach with better patient compliance, shorter recovery time and greater stability of remaining septum.
Endoscope; septal deviation; septoplasty
Septoplasty and turbinoplasty are common ear, nose, throat (ENT) operations which generally have low complication rates. A 45-year-old man had a septoplasty operation and a right turbinoplasty operation under a combined general and local anesthetic. He woke from the procedure with a reduced visual acuity in the right eye and substantial inferior visual field loss. A review of the current literature focuses on the vasospasm effects of local anesthetic, in combination with epinephrine on the intricately linked nasal and orbital vascular supply.
septoplasty; turbinoplasty; vision loss; vasospasm
Septoplasty is performed to resolve breathing problems, but it often becomes pivotal to correct external nasal deviation, representing a central step in rhinoplasty surgery. Even in patients with no functional problems, septal surgery may represent the best solution for obtaining a proper realignment of the external nasal pyramid. One-stage septorhinoplasty has become the standard of treatment for a deviated nose, hence septoplasty cannot be considered as a separate procedure to perform before or after rhinoplasty or as a partial operation subject to later revision. The aim of this article is to discuss the close relationship between the nasal septum and the aesthetics of the nose, and how a graduated surgical approach for the correction of septal deviations could affect the external deviated nose.
Septorhinoplasty; Deviated septum; Septoplasty; Cosmetic rhinoplasty
Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea after septoplasty is a known entity resulting from errors in surgical technique and improper handling of the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone. When these occur, urgent management is necessary to prevent deleterious sequelae such as meningitis, intracranial abscess, and pneumocephalus. Encephaloceles are rare occurrences characterized by herniation of intracranial contents through a skull base defect that can predispose patients to CSF rhinorrhea. In this report, we present a case of CSF rhinorrhea occurring 2 weeks after septoplasty likely from manipulation of an occult anterior skull base encephalocele. To our knowledge, no previous similar case has been reported in the literature. Otolaryngologists should be aware of the possibility of occult encephaloceles while performing septoplasties because minimal manipulation of these entities may potentially result in postoperative CSF leakage.
Anterior skull base defect; anterior skull base encephalocele; cerebrospinal fluid leakage; cribriform defect; CSF leak; encephalocele; septoplasty complications
Cross-hatching incisions have been considered mandatory for correcting cartilaginous septal deviation. We evaluated the clinical outcome of septoplasty without cross-hatching incisions to determine the necessity for making septal cartilage incisions.
The reconstructed septal components during septoplasty were categorized into four anatomical areas: vomer, maxillary crest, perpendicular plate of ethmoid (PPE) and septal cartilage (the area for cross-hatching incisions). During septoplasty, we attempted to complete the surgery only by removing or fracturing the bony part of the septum without cross-hatching incisions on the cartilage. Only in the cases that the deviation was not immediately corrected, the cross-hatching incisions were made onto the cartilage at the end of the procedure. We analyzed the frequency of manipulating the septal components. The changes of symptoms were evaluated using a modified nasal obstruction symptom evaluation (NOSE) scale and a visual analog scale (VAS) preoperatively, 1 and 3 months after the surgery.
Seventy five percents of the deviated septums were immediately corrected only by removing or fracturing of the bony septal components. In decreasing order of frequency, the sepal components for correcting septal deviation were the vomer (59%), maxillary crest (49%), septal cartilage (cross-hatching only: 25%) and PPE (15%). The modified NOSE scale and the VAS demonstrated significant improvement of the nasal symptoms postoperatively (P<0.05).
Most of septal deviations could be corrected by manipulating only the bony septum. The results of this procedure were not different from conventional septoplasty with cross-hatching incisions. Our data suggest cross-hatching incisions during septoplasty might have been overemphasized and that the main cause for cartilaginous deviation may be the extrinsic forces that are generated by the neighboring bony structures.
Nasal septum; Cartilage; Surgery
This study was conducted to compare the outcome of septoplasty with or without Nasal packing. The study subjects were randomly allocated into two groups. There was significant reduction in frequency of post operative pain, headache, discomfort and duration of hospital stay in patients who have undergone septoplasty without nasal packing. However there was no difference in post operative bleeding and septal perforation between two groups. Therefore after Septoplasty without nasal packing is preferred alternative to with nasal packing.
Septoplasty; Nasal packing
A 20-year-old woman who was fit and well presented with a history of left nasal blockage for 2 years. She was noted on anterior rhinoscopy to have nasal septal deviation towards the left. She was listed for septoplasty with the aim of relieving nasal obstruction. At operation she was found to have a mildly deviated septum to the left. There was also a rhinolith in the left nostril posterior to the deviated septum (figure 1). Following removal of the rhinolith, her nasal airway appeared adequate; hence, septoplasty was not performed. Postoperatively, the patient was pleased with the outcome. When the patient was shown the foreign body she recalled inserting a pen cover into her nose about 10 years previously (figure 2). When she presented to the Accident and Emergency department at that time she was told that there was no foreign body in her nose.
Figure 1Endoscopic view of rhinolith.
Septal surgery has been identified as suitable for day-surgery, but is not widely performed as such. Guidelines for day-surgery state that the unexpected admission rate should be 2–3%. Previous audits have not achieved this figure and septoplasty is not universally considered suitable for day-surgery. We have reviewed practice over 4 years in our institution to identify surgical and patient factors associated with unexpected admission following septoplasty.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
A retrospective case note based audit of day-case septoplasty procedures reviewed at the end of each year between October 1998 and October 2002.
A total of 432 septal surgery procedures were performed, comprising 378 septoplasties and 54 submucous resections. Thirty-eight patients were admitted, overwhelmingly because of haemorrhage in the immediate postoperative period, giving an overall admission rate of 8.8% within the first 24 h. Factors associated strongly with re-admission were the use of intranasal splints, the performance of revision surgery, submucous resection (as opposed to septoplasty) and, less so, the performance of additional procedures and the peri-operative administration of diclofenac. There was no correlation between unexpected admission and grade of surgeon, surgical technique or any of the patient factors analysed.
The unexpected admission rate of septal surgery performed at our unit is above that recommended for day-case procedures, but is within the range previously published. Patient satisfaction with day-case septoplasty has been shown to be high. We believe that septoplasty should be performed in this setting but there is a significant chance that patients may need admission, and a pathway should be in place for this to occur with minimal disruption to the patient.
Septal surgery; Audit; Day-case
Staphylococcal infections are the major causes of morbidity in haemodialysis patients. The source of the staphylococci is the anterior nares. Elimination of nasal carriage of staphylococci could result in a remarkable decrease in the infection rate. The aim of this study was to investigate if there was a difference in the bacterial flora between the nasal vestibule and cavity as well as their antibiotic susceptibility in haemodialysis. Swab samples obtained from 35 haemodialysis patients were subjected to conventional microbiological methods. The antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for Staphylococcus spp. using cephazolin, cephaclor, trimetoprim + sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin, oxacillin, clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ampicillin + sulbactam and amoxicillin + clavulanic acid. Staphylococcus spp. was found more often in the vestibule than in the cavity (88.5 vs. 77.1%). The effectiveness of clindamycin, erythromycin and tetracycline was particularly striking for the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci isolates. In conclusion, existence of difference in bacterial flora between the nasal cavity and vestibule and their responsiveness to antibacterial agents may require reconsideration of elimination of secondary infections in haemodialysis patients.
Nose; Bacterial flora; Antibiogram; Haemodialysis
Objective. To evaluate the changes in nasal dimensions of healthy Iranian volunteered for cosmetic rhinoplasty after surgery using acoustic rhinometry. Methods. Pre- and postoperative nasal dimension of 36 cases undergoing cosmetic rhinoplasty were compared using acoustic rhinometry (AR), and the measured variables were distance to first and second constriction (d1, d2), first and second minimal cross-sectional area (MCA1, 2), and volume. Results. Mean age (SD) of cases were 24.63 (4.4) years. Septoplasty was performed in 12 cases (33.3%). After surgery, bilateral d1 and both MCA2 decreased significantly, while significant increase was observed in MCA1 postoperatively using decongestant. Cases with septoplasty experienced more increase in MCA1 and less constriction in MCA2 postoperatively. In cases with rhinoplasty alone, they received benefit from double osteotomy in MCA1. In either group of rhinoplasty with and without septoplasty, placing a strut was beneficial for patients. Discussion. The cross-sectional area of the nose is a major factor in the determination of airflow. Cosmetic rhinoplasty may generate a mix effect on nose function. Performing osteotomy may better help patients to save nasal patency, septoplasty is beneficial even in mildly deviated septums, and placing a strut may be beneficial in most of the cases.
Septoplasty is one of the most common surgery of ENT but even today the difficult septum still presents a great surgical problem. A severe septum deformity is usually due to an accident quite often in childhood. It is also seen in patients with malformation such as cleft lip and cleft palate deformity. It affects not only the nasal function, but also the aesthetic part of the nose. Severe septal deformities can not be corrected properly by the standard septoplasty techniques. Therefore in such cases an extracorporeal septoplasty is recommended. In this technique the whole septum is taken out, the bony and cartilaginous septum in one piece if possible, a new septal plate is reconstructed by different surgical techniques, followed by replantation and reconstruction of the cartilagenous dorsum. The first author kept on improving the safe septal fixation, rebuilding of cartilagenous dorsum and overall the extracorporeal septoplasty technique over the period of time and this technique with all its refinement can be recommended to all the surgeons dealing with this challenging noses.
Extracorporeal septoplasty; spreader graft
Septate uterus, one of the most common forms of congenital uterine malformations, negatively affects female reproductive health.
In a retrospective cohort study, we evaluated the reproductive outcome after hysteroscopic septoplasty in 64 women with septate uterus and primary or secondary infertility. We performed a systematic review of studies evaluating the reproductive outcome after hysteroscopic septoplasty.
Sixty-four women underwent hysteroscopic septoplasty. In 2/64 (3%) women, intraoperative uterine perforation occurred. Complete follow-up was available for 49/64 (76%) patients. Mean follow-up time was 68.6 +/- 5.2 months. The overall pregnancy rate after hysteroscopic septoplasty was 69% (34/49). The overall life birth rate (LBR) was 49% (24/49). The mean time interval between surgery and the first life birth was 35.8 +/- 22.5 months. Including our own data, we identified 18 studies investigating the effect of septoplasty on reproductive outcome in 1501 women. A pooled analysis demonstrated that hysteroscopic septoplasty resulted in an overall pregnancy rate of 60% (892/1501) and a LBR of 45% (686/1501). The overall rate of intra- and postoperative complications was 1.7% (23/1324) and the overall rate of re-hysteroscopy was 6% (79/1324).
In women with septate uterus and a history of infertility, hysteroscopic septoplasty is a safe and effective procedure resulting in a pregnancy rate of 60% and a LBR of 45%.
To study the outcome of endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) with or without mucosal flap preservation, without mitomycin local application, silicon tube stenting or laser assistance. To determine the duration of the surgical procedure of DCR, influence of simultaneously performed endonasal endoscopic procedures for concomitant sinonasal diseases.
Combined retrospective and prospective study in our tertiary referral center. 24 patients with chronic dacryocystitis underwent 25 standard endonasal endoscopic DCR procedures, 10 with and 15 without mucosal flap preservation. 6 of these had concomitant sinonasal diseases for which they underwent septoplasty or functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) or both, simultaneously or as staged procedures. Relief from epiphora and patency of the nasolacrimal fistula was assessed by nasal endoscopy and syringing of the lacrimal apparatus at 1 week, 3 weeks and 3 months postoperatively.
Out of 18 patients who underwent only DCR, 17 patients (94.44%) had complete relief from epiphora. Out of 6 patients who underwent 7 DCRs with concomitant sinonasal surgery, 5 patients (85.71%) had complete relief from epiphora. Overall 23 out of 25 DCRs (92%) had complete relief. In 15 of the 25 procedures, mucosal flap was excised completely. In remaining 10 procedures, flap was trimmed, repositioned to cover exposed bone around the newly created nasolacrimal fistula. In either situation, only one patient each had partial block of the nasolacrimal fistula. Average duration of the surgical procedure of DCR was 18 min.
Endonasal endoscopic DCR is a viable alternative to external DCR, co-existing sinonasal diseases can be managed simultaneously, as may be required in 25% of cases. It can be performed under 20 min without mucosal flap preservation, mitomycin local application, silicon tube stenting or laser assistance and can still provide a good success rate (92%) with less complications.
Epiphora; Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy; DCR; Mucosal flap
The diagnostic process and the surgical procedures in patients with snoring and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are crucial. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of surgical treatment in snoring and OSAS patients.
A precise laryngological examination and screening polysomnography (Poly-Mesam) were performed in all patients with mild, moderate and severe OSAS before and 6 months after surgery. The patients completed questionnaires concerning their complaints. We included patients qualified to septoplasty, laser-assisted uvulopalatoplasty (LAUP), uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) and radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy of the tongue base (RITT). Outcome evaluation of surgery was performed on the basis of data received from follow-up laryngological examinations, selected parameters obtained from the Poly-Mesam test and follow-up questionnaires.
In most cases we observed improvement, defined as decreasing some sleep parameters, such as a respiratory disturbance index (RDI), by more than 50%, decreasing the loudness of snoring, decreasing the number of hypopneas, and obtaining better blood saturation values. After UPPP we noticed changes in retropalatal space, soft palate dimensions and uvula-posterior pharyngeal wall distance. In the postoperative period we did not observe severe complications. In some cases we found short-lived palatal deficiency after UPPP. Patients after RITT experienced discomfort and throat pain lasting from 2 to 4 days. In 2 patients we observed swelling of the tongue base, which decreased after few days.
Surgery in OSAS contributes to normalization of some sleep parameters. The majority of patients experienced improvement after surgery.
snoring; sleep apnea syndrome; septoplasty; uvulopalatoplasty; uvulopalatopharyngoplasty; radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy
To evaluate whether virtual surgery (VS) performed on 3D nasal airway models can predict post-surgical, biophysical parameters obtained by computational fluid dynamics (CFD).
Pre- and post- surgery CT scans of a patient undergoing septoplasty and right inferior turbinate reduction (ITR) were used to generate 3D models of the nasal airway. Prior to obtaining the post-surgery scan, the pre-surgery model was digitally altered to generate three VS models: 1) right ITR only, 2) septoplasty only, and 3) septoplasty with right ITR. The results of the VS CFD analyses were compared with post-surgical CFD outcome measures including nasal resistance, unilateral airflow allocation, and regional airflow distribution.
Post-surgery CFD analysis and all VS models predicted similar reductions in overall nasal resistance, as well as more balanced airflow distribution between sides, primarily in the middle region, when compared with the pre-surgery state. In contrast, virtual ITR alone produced little change in either nasal resistance or regional airflow allocation.
We present an innovative approach for assessing functional outcomes of nasal surgery using CFD techniques. This preliminary study suggests that virtual nasal surgery has the potential to be a predictive tool that will enable surgeons to perform personalized nasal surgery using computer simulation techniques. Further investigation involving correlation of patient-reported measures with CFD outcome measures in multiple individuals is underway.
The advent of endoscopes has revolutionized rhinology and the traditional headlight based surgeries have largely been replaced by endoscopes. Septoplasty for deviated nasal septum or Sluder’s neuralgia have been conventionally performed with the aid of headlight. This can be technically challenging as visualization of the nasal cavity, particularly the posterior portion is rather limited as the procedure is performed via the nostrils. In addition, with headlights for illumination, teaching this procedure can be difficult as only the surgeon who is wearing the headlights has direct vision of the surgical field.
Endoscopic septoplasty is an accepted alternative to traditional headlight approach to septoplasty. This approach provides a direct-targeted route to the anatomic deformity, improved visualization, and magnification of the surgical field. Our experience in endoscopic septoplasty is highlighted in this paper, excluding septoplasties performed as part of exposure to the sinuses. We use the open book method that to best of our knowledge has not been described in literature before.
Endoscopic septoplasty; deviated nasal septum
Background: Patients with a smell disorder and less often, healthy people, exhibit an olfactory difference between the two sides of the nose. Higher olfactory thresholds are correlated with the obstructed side of a nasal septal deviation (NSD). With this prospective study we sought to investigate if a NSD compromises the olfactory identification.
Materials and methods: Thirty patients with nasal obstruction due to a NSD were recruited. The patients were listed for primary septoplasty with or without radiofrequency reduction of the inferior turbinates. Pre- and postoperatively, patients were assessed by visual analogue scales for symptoms and by the bilateral nasal spirometry (nasal partitioning ratio-NPR) for the side/degree of obstruction. Olfactory identification was tested separately for each nasal cavity by means of the 12 item Sniffin Sticks test (12-SS test) and a 3-point difference between the nasal sides was considered significant.
Results: The mean age of patients (25 males/5 females) was 33 years (range 17-52). No complications or anosmia were reported postoperatively. Subjective hyposmia, nasal obstruction and the NPR were reduced (p<0.001). Significant lateralized differences were present in 20% and 13% of patients before and after septoplasty respectively; the change was not significant (p=0.754). Patients with a significant lateralized olfactory difference had a greater NPR pre- (p=0.031) but not postoperatively (p=0.783). The sides of obstruction and worst olfactory performance did not differ in these patients before surgery.
Conclusions: Olfactory identification may be compromised on the convex side of a large NSD. Post-operatively, patients exhibit a lateralised smell identification difference as often as healthy people. The effect of a clinically significant NSD on the different aspects of olfactory performance warrants further study.
septoplasty; nasal septal deviation; olfaction; sniffin sticks test; olfactory identification test