Lung cancer is mainly caused by smoking, but the quantitative relations between smoking and histologic subtypes of lung cancer remain inconclusive. Using one of the largest lung cancer datasets ever assembled, we explored the impact of smoking on risks of the major cell types of lung cancer. This pooled analysis included 13,169 cases and 16,010 controls from Europe and Canada. Studies with population controls comprised 66.5% of the subjects. Adenocarcinoma (AdCa) was the most prevalent subtype in never smokers and in women. Squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) predominated in male smokers. Age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were estimated with logistic regression. ORs were elevated for all metrics of exposure to cigarette smoke and were higher for SqCC and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) than for AdCa. Current male smokers with an average daily dose of >30 cigarettes had ORs of 103.5 (95% CI 74.8-143.2) for SqCC, 111.3 (95% CI 69.8-177.5) for SCLC, and 21.9 (95% CI 16.6-29.0) for AdCa. In women, the corresponding ORs were 62.7 (95% CI 31.5-124.6), 108.6 (95% CI 50.7-232.8), and 16.8 (95% CI 9.2-30.6), respectively. Whereas ORs started to decline soon after quitting, they did not fully return to the baseline risk of never smokers even 35 years after cessation. The major result that smoking exerted a steeper risk gradient on SqCC and SCLC than on AdCa is in line with previous population data and biological understanding of lung cancer development.
cigarette smoking; lung cancer; relative risk characterization; tobacco smoke; stem cells
Adenocarcinoma (AC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) are two major histological subtypes of lung cancer. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have made considerable advances in the understanding of lung cancer susceptibility. Obvious heterogeneity has been observed between different histological subtypes of lung cancer, but genetic determinants in specific to lung SqCC have not been systematically investigated. Here, we performed the GWAS analysis specifically for lung SqCC in 833 SqCC cases and 3,094 controls followed by a two-stage replication in additional 2,223 lung SqCC cases and 6,409 controls from Chinese populations. We found that rs12296850 in SLC17A8-NR1H4 gene region at12q23.1 was significantly associated with risk of lung SqCC at genome-wide significance level [additive model: odds ratio (OR) = 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.72–0.84, P = 1.19×10−10]. Subjects carrying AG or GG genotype had a 26% (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.67–0.81) or 32% (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.56–0.83) decreased risk of lung SqCC, respectively, as compared with AA genotype. However, we did not observe significant association between rs12296850 and risk of lung AC in a total of 4,368 cases with lung AC and 9,486 controls (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.90–1.02, P = 0.173). These results indicate that genetic variations on chromosome 12q23.1 may specifically contribute to lung SqCC susceptibility in Chinese population.
Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) strongly suggested the importance of genetic susceptibility for lung cancer. However, the studies specific to different histological subtypes of lung cancer were limited. We performed the GWAS analysis specifically for lung squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) with 570,009 autosomal SNPs in 833 SqCC cases and 3,094 controls and replicated in additional 2,223 lung SqCC cases and 6,409 controls from Chinese populations (822 SqCC cases and 2,243 controls for the first replication stage and 1,401 SqCC cases and 4,166 controls for the second replication stage). We found a novel association at rs12296850 (SLC17A8-NR1H4) on12q23.1. However, rs12296850 didn't show significant association with risk of lung adenocacinoma (AC) in 4,368 lung AC cases and 9,486 controls. These results indicate that genetic variations on chromosome 12q23.1 may specifically contribute to lung SqCC susceptibility in Chinese population.
The grim prognosis of lung cancer, that has an overall 10–15% survival at 5 years, remains in the US the leading cause of cancer mortality, providing a compelling rationale for studying the molecular basis of this malignancy. Surmising the common, general association with smoking, lung cancers differ at the microscopic, anatomical, epidemiological and clinical level and harbor complex genetic and epigenetic alterations. Currently, lung cancer is divided into small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) for the purpose of clinical management. NSCLC constitutes 80–85% of lung cancers and is further divided into histological subtypes such as adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and large cell carcinoma, etc.
The ultimate goal for lung cancer research is to develop a strategy to block the tumor progression and improve the prognosis of lung cancer. This goal can realistically be achieved only when the biological complexity of this disease is taken into account. To this end, identification and understanding of molecular markers that are mechanistically involved in tumor progression are needed. Our recent studies suggest histological subtype-dependent distinct correlations between the expression and/or subcellular localization of tumor suppressive maspin with the progression and prognosis of NSCLC. Maspin is an epithelial specific member of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily but recently identified as an endogenous inhibitor of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). This novel biochemical activity coincides with a consensus emerged recently from the evidence that nuclear maspin confers better differentiated epithelial phenotypes, decreased tumor angiogenesis, increased tumor sensitivity to drug-induced apoptosis, and a more favorable prognosis. In the current review, we discuss the evidence that maspin may be a marker that stratifies the progression and prognosis of different subtypes of NSCLC.
lung cancer; molecular marker; prognosis; histological subtypes; histone deacetylase 1; natural HDAC inhibitor; subcellular localization; differential expression; drug discovery
Background: Squamous cell carcinoma has a stronger association with tobacco smoking than other non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). A study was undertaken to determine whether chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a risk factor for the squamous cell carcinoma histological subtype in smokers with surgically resectable NSCLC.
Methods: Using a case-control design, subjects with a surgically confirmed diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma were enrolled from smokers undergoing lung resection for NSCLC in the District Hospital of Ferrara, Italy. Control subjects were smokers who underwent lung resection for NSCLC in the same hospital and had a surgically confirmed diagnosis of NSCLC of any histological type other than squamous cell.
Results: Eighty six cases and 54 controls (mainly adenocarcinoma, n = 50) were enrolled. The presence of COPD was found to increase the risk for the squamous cell histological subtype by more than four times. Conversely, the presence of chronic bronchitis was found to decrease the risk for this histological subtype by more than four times. Among patients with chronic bronchitis (n = 77), those with COPD had a 3.5 times higher risk of having the squamous cell histological subtype.
Conclusions: These data suggest that, among smokers with surgically resectable NSCLC, COPD is a risk factor for the squamous cell histological subtype and chronic bronchitis, particularly when not associated with COPD, is a risk factor for the adenocarcinoma histological subtype.
Studies in European and East Asian populations have identified lung cancer susceptibility loci in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) genes on chromosome 15q25.1 which also appear to influence smoking behaviors. We sought to determine if genetic variation in nAChR genes influences lung cancer susceptibly in African-Americans, and evaluated the association of these cancer susceptibility loci with smoking behavior. A total of 1308 African-Americans with lung cancer and 1241 African-American controls from three centers were genotyped for 378 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the sixteen human nAChR genes. Associations between SNPs and the risk of lung cancer were estimated using logistic regression, adjusted for relevant covariates. Seven SNPs in three nAChR genes were significantly associated with lung cancer at a strict Bonferroni-corrected level, including a novel association on chromosome 2 near the promoter of CHRNA1 (rs3755486: OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.18-1.67, P = 1.0 × 10−4). Association analysis of an additional 305 imputed SNPs on 2q31.1 supported this association. Publicly available expression data demonstrated that the rs3755486 risk allele correlates with increased CHRNA1 gene expression. Additional SNP associations were observed on 15q25.1 in genes previously associated with lung cancer, including a missense variant in CHRNA5 (rs16969968: OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.27-2.01, P = 5.9 × 10−5). Risk alleles on 15q25.1 also correlated with an increased number of cigarettes smoked per day among the controls. These findings identify a novel lung cancer risk locus on 2q31.1 which correlates with CHRNA1 expression and replicate previous associations on 15q25.1 in African-Americans.
Lung cancer; nicotine dependence; African-Americans; genetic association; smoking
Four genome-wide association (GWA) studies have found that variation in a region of strong linkage disequilibrium on the long arm of chromosome 15 (15q24-25.1), containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes, contributes to lung cancer risk. Since cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for developing both lung cancer and pancreatic cancer, we hypothesized that variation in this region may also modify individual susceptibility to pancreatic cancer.
We conducted a case-control study of 532 patients with pathologically confirmed pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 1046 age-, sex-, ethnicity-, and smoking behavior-matched cancer-free controls.
We found that the two risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reported in the lung cancer GWA studies, rs8034191: A>G and rs1051730: G>A, located in this 15q24-25.1 region, were not associated with risk of pancreatic cancer.
The results of our study suggest that the two SNPs at 15q25.1 do not modify pancreatic cancer risk.
nicotinic acetylcholine receptor; single nucleotide polymorphisms; pancreatic cancer; case-control study and chromosome 15
CHRNA5-A3-B4, the gene cluster encoding nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits, is associated with lung cancer risk and smoking behaviors in people of European descent. Because cigarette smoking is also a major risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we investigated the associations between variants in CHRNA5-A3-B4 and ESCC risk, as well as smoking behaviors, in a Chinese population.
A case-control study of 866 ESCC patients and 952 healthy controls was performed to study the association of polymorphisms (rs667282 and rs3743073) in CHRNA5-A3-B4 with cancer risk using logistic regression models. The relationships between CHRNA5-A3-B4 polymorphisms and smoking behaviors that can be quantified by cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and pack-years of smoking were separately estimated with Kruskal-Wallis tests among all 840 smokers.
CHRNA5-A3-B4 rs667282 TT/TG genotypes were associated with significantly increased risk of ESCC [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03 – 1.69, P = 0.029]. The increased ESCC risk was even higher among younger subjects (≤60 years) (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.04 – 1.98, P = 0.024). These effects were not found in another polymorphism rs3743073. No evident association between the two polymorphisms and smoking behaviors was observed.
These results support the hypothesis that CHRNA5-A3-B4 is a susceptibility gene cluster for ESCC. The relationship between CHRNA5-A3-B4 and smoking behaviors in a Chinese population needs further investigation.
The underlying genetic alterations for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC) carcinogenesis are largely unknown.
High-resolution array- CGH was performed to identify the differences in the patterns of genomic imbalances between SCC and AC of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
On a genome-wide profile, SCCs showed higher frequency of gains than ACs (p = 0.067). More specifically, statistically significant differences were observed across the histologic subtypes for gains at 2q14.2, 3q26.2–q29, 12p13.2–p13.33, and 19p13.3, as well as losses at 3p26.2–p26.3, 16p13.11, and 17p11.2 in SCC, and gains at 7q22.1 and losses at 15q22.2–q25.2 occurred in AC (P < 0.05). The most striking difference between SCC and AC was gains at the 3q26.2–q29, occurring in 86% (19/22) of SCCs, but in only 21% (3/14) of ACs. Many significant genes at the 3q26.2–q29 regions previously linked to a specific histology, such as EVI1,MDS1, PIK3CA and TP73L, were observed in SCC (P < 0.05). In addition, we identified the following possible target genes (> 30% of patients) at 3q26.2–q29: LOC389174 (3q26.2),KCNMB3 (3q26.32),EPHB3 (3q27.1), MASP1 and SST (3q27.3), LPP and FGF12 (3q28), and OPA1,KIAA022,LOC220729, LOC440996,LOC440997, and LOC440998 (3q29), all of which were significantly targeted in SCC (P < 0.05). Among these same genes, high-level amplifications were detected for the gene, EPHB3, at 3q27.1, and MASP1 and SST, at 3q27.3 (18, 18, and 14%, respectively). Quantitative real time PCR demonstrated array CGH detected potential candidate genes that were over expressed in SCCs.
Using whole-genome array CGH, we have successfully identified significant differences and unique information of chromosomal signatures prevalent between the SCC and AC subtypes of NSCLC. The newly identified candidate target genes may prove to be highly attractive candidate molecular markers for the classification of NSCLC histologic subtypes, and could potentially contribute to the pathogenesis of the squamous cell carcinoma of the lung.
Smoking causes lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that impose severe health problem to humans. Both diseases are related to each other and can be induced by chronic inflammation in the lung. To identify the molecular mechanism for lung cancer formation, a CCSP-rtTA/(Teto)7Stat3C bitransgenic model was generated recently. In this model, persistent activation of the Stat3 signaling pathway induced pulmonary inflammation and adenocarcinoma formation in the lung. A group of Stat3 downstream genes were identified by Affymetrix GeneChip microarray analysis that can be used as biomarkers for lung cancer diagnosis and prognosis. To determine which human lung cancers are related to the Stat3 pathway, multiple Stat3 downstream genes were screened in human lung cancers (adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas) and lung tissue with COPD. In both cancer and COPD, the Stat3 gene was up-regulated. A panel of Stat3-up-regulated downstream genes in mice was up-regulated in human adenocarcinomas, but not in human squamous cell carcinomas. This panel of genes was also modestly up-regulated in lung tissue with COPD from patients with a history of smoking and not up-regulated in those without histories of smoking. Several Stat3-down-regulated downstream genes also showed differential expression patterns in carcinoma and COPD. These studies support a concept that Stat3 is a potent oncogenic molecule that plays a role in formation of lung adenocarcinomas in both mice and humans. The carcinogenesis of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma is mediated by different molecular mechanisms and pathways in vivo. Stat3 and its downstream genes can serve as biomarkers for lung adenocarcinoma and COPD diagnosis and prognosis in mice and humans.
Stat3; Adenocarcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma; COPD; Biomarkers; Real-Time qRT-PCR
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in alcohol metabolism genes are associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), and may influence cancer risk in conjunction with alcohol. Genetic variation in the oxidative stress pathway may impact the carcinogenic effect of reactive oxygen species produced by ethanol metabolism. We hypothesized that alcohol interacts with these pathways to affect SCCHN incidence.
Interview and genotyping data for 64 SNPs were obtained from 2552 European- and African-American subjects (1227 cases, 1325 controls) from the Carolina Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology study, a population-based case-control study of SCCHN conducted in North Carolina from 2002–2006. We estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for SNPs and haplotypes, adjusting for age, sex, race, and duration of cigarette smoking. P-values were adjusted for multiple testing using Bonferroni correction.
Two SNPs were associated with SCCHN risk: ADH1B rs1229984 A allele (OR=0.7, 95%CI=0.6–0.9) and ALDH2 rs2238151 C allele (OR=1.2, 95%CI=1.1–1.4). Three were associated with sub-site tumors: ADH1B rs17028834 C allele (larynx, OR=1.5, 95%CI=1.1–2.0), SOD2 rs4342445 A allele (oral cavity, OR=1.3, 95%CI=1.1–1.6), and SOD2 rs5746134 T allele (hypopharynx, OR=2.1, 95%CI=1.2–3.7). Four SNPs in alcohol metabolism genes interacted additively with alcohol consumption: ALDH2 rs2238151, ADH1B rs1159918, ADH7 rs1154460, and CYP2E1 rs2249695. No alcohol interactions were found for oxidative stress SNPs.
Conclusions and Impact
Previously unreported associations of SNPs in ALDH2, CYP2E1, GPX2, SOD1, and SOD2 with SCCHN and sub-site tumors provide evidence that alterations in alcohol and oxidative stress pathways influence SCCHN carcinogenesis, and warrant further investigation.
Head and Neck Neoplasms; Head and Neck Neoplasms/epidemiology; Gene-environment interaction; Alcohol Drinking/metabolism; Oxidative Stress
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified common genetic variants at 5p15.33, 6p21–6p22 and 15q25.1 associated with lung cancer risk. Several other genetic regions including variants of CHEK2 (22q12), TP53BP1 (15q15) and RAD52 (12p13) have been demonstrated to influence lung cancer risk in candidate- or pathway-based analyses. To identify novel risk variants for lung cancer, we performed a meta-analysis of 16 GWASs, totaling 14 900 cases and 29 485 controls of European descent. Our data provided increased support for previously identified risk loci at 5p15 (P = 7.2 × 10−16), 6p21 (P = 2.3 × 10−14) and 15q25 (P = 2.2 × 10−63). Furthermore, we demonstrated histology-specific effects for 5p15, 6p21 and 12p13 loci but not for the 15q25 region. Subgroup analysis also identified a novel disease locus for squamous cell carcinoma at 9p21 (CDKN2A/p16INK4A/p14ARF/CDKN2B/p15INK4B/ANRIL; rs1333040, P = 3.0 × 10−7) which was replicated in a series of 5415 Han Chinese (P = 0.03; combined analysis, P = 2.3 × 10−8). This large analysis provides additional evidence for the role of inherited genetic susceptibility to lung cancer and insight into biological differences in the development of the different histological types of lung cancer.
Asbestos exposure is a known risk factor for lung cancer. Although recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified some novel loci for lung cancer risk, few addressed genome-wide gene–environment interactions. To determine gene–asbestos interactions in lung cancer risk, we conducted genome-wide gene–environment interaction analyses at levels of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), genes and pathways, using our published Texas lung cancer GWAS dataset. This dataset included 317 498 SNPs from 1154 lung cancer cases and 1137 cancer-free controls. The initial SNP-level P-values for interactions between genetic variants and self-reported asbestos exposure were estimated by unconditional logistic regression models with adjustment for age, sex, smoking status and pack-years. The P-value for the most significant SNP rs13383928 was 2.17×10–6, which did not reach the genome-wide statistical significance. Using a versatile gene-based test approach, we found that the top significant gene was C7orf54, located on 7q32.1 (P = 8.90×10–5). Interestingly, most of the other significant genes were located on 11q13. When we used an improved gene-set-enrichment analysis approach, we found that the Fas signaling pathway and the antigen processing and presentation pathway were most significant (nominal P < 0.001; false discovery rate < 0.05) among 250 pathways containing 17 572 genes. We believe that our analysis is a pilot study that first describes the gene–asbestos interaction in lung cancer risk at levels of SNPs, genes and pathways. Our findings suggest that immune function regulation-related pathways may be mechanistically involved in asbestos-associated lung cancer risk.
Abbreviations:CIconfidence intervalEenvironmentFDRfalse discovery rateGgeneGSEAgene-set-enrichment analysisGWASgenome-wide association studiesi-GSEAimproved gene-set-enrichment analysis approachORodds ratioSNPsingle nucleotide polymorphism
Lung cancers consist of four major types that and for clinical-pathological reasons are often divided into two broad categories: small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). All major histological types of lung cancer are associated with smoking, although the association is stronger for SCLC and squamous cell carcinoma than adenocarcinoma. To date, epidemiological studies have identified several environmental, genetic, hormonal and viral factors associated with lung cancer risk. It has been estimated that 15-25% of human cancers may have a viral etiology. The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a proven cause of most human cervical cancers, and might have a role in other malignancies including vulva, skin, oesophagus, head and neck cancer. HPV has also been speculated to have a role in the pathogenesis of lung cancer. To validate the hypothesis of HPV involvement in small cell lung cancer pathogenesis we performed a gene expression profile of transgenic mouse model of SCLC induced by HPV-16 E6/E7 oncoproteins.
Gene expression profile of SCLC has been performed using Agilent whole mouse genome (4 × 44k) representing ~ 41000 genes and mouse transcripts. Samples were obtained from two HPV16-E6/E7 transgenic mouse models and from littermate's normal lung. Data analyses were performed using GeneSpring 10 and the functional classification of deregulated genes was performed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (Ingenuity® Systems, http://www.ingenuity.com).
Analysis of deregulated genes induced by the expression of E6/E7 oncoproteins supports the hypothesis of a linkage between HPV infection and SCLC development. As a matter of fact, comparison of deregulated genes in our system and those in human SCLC showed that many of them are located in the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Signal transduction pathway.
In this study, the global gene expression of transgenic mouse model of SCLC induced by HPV-16 E6/E7 oncoproteins led us to identification of several genes involved in SCLC tumor development. Furthermore, our study reveled that the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Signaling is the primarily affected pathway by the E6/E7 oncoproteins expression and that this pathway is also deregulated in human SCLC. Our results provide the basis for the development of new therapeutic approaches against human SCLC.
The majority of lung cancers (LC) belong to the non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) type. The two main NSCLC sub-types, namely adenocarcinoma (AC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), respond differently to therapy. Whereas the link between cigarette smoke and lung cancer risk is well established, the relevance of non-canonical Wnt pathway up-regulation detected in SCC remains poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to investigate further the molecular events in canonical and non-canonical Wnt signalling during SCC development. A total of 20 SCC and AC samples with matched non-cancerous controls were obtained after surgery. TaqMan array analysis confirmed up-regulation of non-canonical Wnt5a and Wnt11 and identified down-regulation of canonical Wnt signalling in SCC samples. The molecular changes were tested in primary small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) and various lung cancer cell lines (e.g. A549, H157, etc). Our studies identified Wnt11 and Wnt5a as regulators of cadherin expression and potentiated relocation of β-catenin to the nucleus as an important step in decreased cellular adhesion. The presented data identifies additional details in the regulation of SCC that can aid identification of therapeutic drug targets in the future.
In this chapter we review the epidemiology of lung cancer incidence and mortality among never smokers/ nonsmokers and describe the never smoker lung cancer risk models used by CISNET modelers. Our review focuses on those influences likely to have measurable population impact on never smoker risk, such as secondhand smoke, even though the individual-level impact may be small. Occupational exposures may also contribute importantly to the population attributable risk of lung cancer. We examine the following risk factors in this chapter: age, environmental tobacco smoke, cooking fumes, ionizing radiation including radon gas, inherited genetic susceptibility, selected occupational exposures, preexisting lung disease, and oncogenic viruses. We also compare the prevalence of never smokers between the three CISNET smoking scenarios and present the corresponding lung cancer mortality estimates among never smokers as predicted by a typical CISNET model.
Exposure to cigarette smoke is a major risk factor for lung cancer, but how it induces cancer is unclear. The overexpressed in lung cancer 1 (OLC1) gene is one of 50 candidate lung cancer genes identified by suppression subtractive hybridization as having higher expression in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) than normal lung epithelia.
We used immunohistochemistry (IHC) to measure OLC1 protein levels in primary lung cancer samples from 559 patients and used fluorescence in situ hybridization to measure OLC1 copy number in primary SCC samples from 23 patients. We compared OLC1 protein expression in SCC samples of 371 patients with and without a smoking history using the Pearson χ2 test. We assayed OLC1 protein levels by immunoblotting in H1299 human lung cancer cells, immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells, and primary cultured normal human bronchial epithelial cells that were treated with cigarette smoke condensate. We assayed tumor formation in athymic mice using NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells transfected with OLC1 (eight mice) and analyzed apoptosis and colony formation of H1299 and H520 lung cancer cells transfected with scrambled (negative) or OLC1 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) (s1).
OLC1 protein was overexpressed in 387 of 464 (83.4%) of primary lung cancers, as detected by IHC, and OLC1 was amplified in 14 of 23 (60%) of SCC samples. OLC1 protein overexpression was more common in SCC patients with a smoking history than those without (77.1% vs 45.8%, P < .001). In addition, cigarette smoke condensate increased OLC1 protein levels in H1299 cells, immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells, and primary cultured normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Overexpression of OLC1 induced tumor formation in athymic mice (control vs OLC1, 0% vs 100%). Knockdown of OLC1 increased apoptosis (mean percentage of apoptotic H1299 cells, s1 vs negative: 30.3% vs 6.4%, difference = 23.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 19.1% to 28.5%, P = .002; mean percentage of apoptotic H520 cells, s1 vs negative: 21.6% vs 4.9%, difference = 16.7%, 95% CI = 10.6% to 22.8%, P = .007) and decreased colony formation (mean no. of colonies of H1299 cells transfected with siRNAs, negative vs s1: 84 vs 4, difference = 80, 95% CI = 71 to 88, P < .001; mean no. of colonies of H520 cells transfected with siRNAs, negative vs s1: 103 vs 24, difference = 79, 95% CI = 40 to 116, P = .005).
OLC1 is a candidate oncogene in lung cancer whose expression may be regulated by exposure to cigarette smoke.
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer, with a
poor response to chemotherapy and low survival rate. This unfavorable treatment
response is likely to derive from both late diagnosis and from complex,
incompletely understood biology, and heterogeneity among NSCLC subtypes. To
define the relative contributions of major cellular pathways to the biogenesis
of NSCLC and highlight major differences between NSCLC subtypes, we studied the
molecular signatures of lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma
(SCC), based on analysis of gene expression and comparison of tumor samples with
normal lung tissue. Our results suggest the existence of specific molecular
networks and subtype-specific differences between lung ADC and SCC subtypes,
mostly found in cell cycle, DNA repair, and metabolic pathways. However, we also
observed similarities across major gene interaction networks and pathways in ADC
and SCC. These data provide a new insight into the biology of ADC and SCC and
can be used to explore novel therapeutic interventions in lung cancer
chemoprevention and treatment.
NSCLC; adenocarcinoma; squamous cell carcinoma; molecular signature; gene expression; pathway
Cigarette smoking is an established co-factor to human papillomavirus (HPV) in the development of cervical and vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and may influence risk through an immunosuppressive pathway. Genetic variation in interleukin 2 (IL2), associated in some studies with inhibition of HPV-targeted immunity, may modify the effect of smoking on the risk of HPV-related anogenital cancers. We conducted a population-based case-only study to measure the departure from a multiplicative joint effect of cigarette smoking and IL2 variation on cervical and vulvar SCC. Genotyping of four IL2 tagSNPs (rs2069762, rs2069763, rs2069777, and rs2069778) was performed in 399 cervical and 486 vulvar SCC cases who had been interviewed regarding their smoking history. Compared to cases carrying the rs2069762 TT genotype, we observed significant departures from multiplicativity for smoking and carriership of the TG or GG genotypes in vulvar SCC risk (interaction odds ratio (IOR)=1.67, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 2.41). Carriership of one of three diplotypes together with cigarette smoking was associated with either a supra-multiplicative (TGCT/GGCC, IOR=2.09, 95% CI: 0.98, 4.46) or sub-multiplicative (TTCC/TGTC, IOR=0.37, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.85 or TGCT/TGCC, IOR=0.37, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.87) joint effect in vulvar cancer risk. For cervical SCC, departure from multiplicativity was observed for smokers homozygous for the rs2069763 variant allele (TT versus GG or GT genotypes) (IOR=1.87, 95% CI: 1.00, 3.48), and for carriership of the TTCC/TTCC diplotype, (IOR=2.08, 95% CI: 1.01, 4.30). These results suggest that cervical and vulvar SCC risk among cigarette smokers is modified by genetic variation in IL2.
Cervical cancer; Vulvar cancer; Effect modification; Interleukin 2; Cigarette smoking
MicroRNAs (miRs) have an important role in lung carcinogenesis and progression. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in miR biogenesis may affect miR expression in lung tissue and be associated with lung carcinogenesis and progression.
We analysed 12 SNPs in POLR2A, RNASEN and DICER1 genes in 1984 cases and 2073 controls from the Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE) study. We investigated miR expression profiles in 165 lung adenocarcinoma (AD) and 125 squamous cell carcinoma tissue samples from the same population. We used logistic and Cox regression models to examine the association of individual genotypes and haplotypes with lung cancer risk and with lung cancer-specific survival, respectively. SNPs-miR expression associations in cases were assessed using two-sample t-tests and global permutation tests.
A haplotype in RNASEN (Drosha) was significantly associated with shorter lung cancer survival (hazard ratio=1.86, 95% CI=1.19–2.92, P=0.007). In AD cases, a SNP within the same haplotype was associated with reduced RNASEN mRNA expression (P=0.013) and with miR expression changes (global P=0.007) of miRs known to be associated with cancer (e.g., let-7 family, miR-21, miR-25, miR-126 and miR15a).
Inherited variation in the miR-processing machinery can affect miR expression levels and lung cancer-specific survival.
microRNA biogenesis; polymorphism; lung cancer; survival
We compared the risk of being diagnosed with smoking-related cancers (lung, oral cavity, upper digestive and respiratory organs, bladder, kidney, anogenital cancers and myeloid leukaemia) among people with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or basal cell carcinoma of the skin (BCC), with risks found in the general population using data from an Australian population-based cancer registry.
People diagnosed with BCC or SCC in 1980-2003 reported to the Tasmanian Cancer Registry, Australia, were followed-up by linkage within the registry, until diagnosis of a subsequent smoking-related cancer, death, or until 31 December 2003. Risk of developing a future smoking-related cancer was assessed using age Standardised Incidence Ratios (SIR).
People diagnosed with SCC had an increased risk of lung cancer (men: SIR = 1.89, 95% confidence interval: 1.61-2.21; women: SIR = 2.04, 1.42-2.83) and all other smoking-related cancers (men: SIR = 1.38, 1.19-1.60; women: SIR = 1.78, 1.34-2.33). Men with BCC had a significant increased risk of lung cancer (SIR = 1.26, 1.10-1.44) but not of any of the other smoking-related cancers (SIR = 1.09, 0.97-1.23).
Individuals with a history of SCC having an increased risk of developing smoking related cancers cancer suggests smoking as a common etiology. The relationship between BCC and smoking-related cancers is less certain.
Incidence rates for adenocarcinoma of the lung are increasing and are higher in the United States than in many other developed countries. We examine whether these trends may be associated with changes in cigarette design.
Lung cancer risk equations based on observations during 1960–1972 from the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study I are applied to 5-year birth cohort–specific estimates of changes in smoking behaviors to predict birth cohort–specific rates of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the lung among US White men for the period 1973–2000. These expected rates are compared to observed rates for the same birth cohorts of White men in the US Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data.
Changes in smoking behaviors over the past several decades adequately explain the changes in squamous cell carcinoma rates observed in the SEER data. However, predicted rates for adenocarcinoma do not match the observed SEER data without inclusion of a term increasing the risk for adenocarcinoma with the duration of smoking after 1965.
The risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma from smoking appears to have remained stable in the United States over the past several decades; however, the risk of adenocarcinoma has increased substantially in a pattern temporally associated with changes in cigarette design.
Cigarettes; Lung cancer; Changing risk; Changing cigarettes; Adenocarcinoma
This study assesses the epidemiological pattern of lung cancer cell-types in Ireland, with identification of any underlying gender variations.
Lung cancer incidence data, including the major cell-types: squamous-cell-carcinoma (SCC), adenocarcinoma (AC), small-cell-lung-carcinoma (SCLC) and large-cell-carcinoma (LCC) were obtained from the national cancer registry (1994–2000), together with individual characteristics, such as age, gender, smoking status, and the year of diagnosis. Age-standardised incidence rates (ASIR), male-to-female (M: F) rate ratios (RR) of ASIR for SCC and AC, as well as RR of AC: SCC according to smoking status for both sexes, were estimated. Estimated-annual-percent-changes for each of the cell-types were calculated.
AC incidence in females is rising annually (8.5%, p=0.008) from 1994 to 2000, while SCC is declining (−5.4%, p=0.01) in males. M: F ratios of ASIR are consistently greater than ‘one’, but converging recently. RR of AC: SCC is also approaching ‘unity’ across both sexes, irrespective of the smoking status
An apparent increase in lung AC incidence in females was observed in Ireland that might indicate some local environmental risk factors, in addition to changing smoking habits. The study findings do not support the hypothesis that females in general are at higher risk for lung cancer development, but tobacco and histologic-specific susceptibility cannot be ruled out.
Histology; Incidence; Lung cancer; Ireland; Smoking
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the KLK3 gene on chromosome 19q13.33 are associated with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Recent genome wide association studies of prostate cancer have yielded conflicting results for association of the same SNPs with prostate cancer risk. Since the KLK3 gene encodes the PSA protein that forms the basis for a widely used screening test for prostate cancer, it is critical to fully characterize genetic variation in this region and assess its relationship with the risk of prostate cancer. We have conducted a next-generation sequence analysis in 78 individuals of European ancestry to characterize common (minor allele frequency, MAF >1%) genetic variation in a 56 kb region on chromosome 19q13.33 centered on the KLK3 gene (chr19:56,019,829–56,076,043 bps). We identified 555 polymorphic loci in the process including 116 novel SNPs and 182 novel insertion/deletion polymorphisms (indels). Based on tagging analysis, 144 loci are necessary to tag the region at an r2 threshold of 0.8 and MAF of 1% or higher, while 86 loci are required to tag the region at an r2 threshold of 0.8 and MAF >5%. Our sequence data augments coverage by 35 and 78% as compared to variants in dbSNP and HapMap, respectively. We observed six non-synonymous amino acid or frame shift changes in the KLK3 gene and three changes in each of the neighboring genes, KLK15 and KLK2. Our study has generated a detailed map of common genetic variation in the genomic region surrounding the KLK3 gene, which should be useful for fine-mapping the association signal as well as determining the contribution of this locus to prostate cancer risk and/or regulation of PSA expression.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00439-009-0751-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Lung cancer is the most prevalent non-AIDS-defining malignancy in the HAART era. Smoking plays a significant role in the development of HIV-associated lung cancer, but the cancer risk is 2–4 times greater in HIV-infected persons than in the general population, even after adjusting for smoking intensity and duration. Lung cancer is typically diagnosed a decade or more earlier among HIV-infected persons (mean age, 46 years) compared to those without HIV infection. Adenocarcinoma is the commonest histological subtype, and the majority of patients are diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic carcinoma. Since pulmonary infections are common among HIV-infected individuals, clinicians may not suspect lung cancer in this younger patient population. Surgery with curative intent remains the treatment of choice for early stage disease. Although there is increasing experience in using radiation and chemotherapy for HIV-infected patients who do not have surgical options, there is a need for prospective studies for this population frequently excluded from participating in cancer trials. Evidence-based treatments for smoking-cessation with demonstrated efficacy in the general population must be routinely incorporated into the care of HIV-positive smokers.
Prior microarray studies of smokers at high risk for lung cancer have demonstrated that heterogeneity in bronchial airway epithelial cell gene expression response to smoking can serve as an early diagnostic biomarker for lung cancer. As a first step in applying functional genomic analysis to population studies, we have examined the relationship between gene expression variation and genetic variation in a central molecular pathway (NRF2-mediated antioxidant response) associated with smoking exposure and lung cancer. We assessed global gene expression in histologically normal airway epithelial cells obtained at bronchoscopy from smokers who developed lung cancer (SC, n = 20), smokers without lung cancer (SNC, n = 24), and never smokers (NS, n = 8). Functional enrichment analysis showed that the NRF2-mediated, antioxidant response element (ARE)-regulated genes, were significantly lower in SC, when compared with expression levels in SNC. Importantly, we found that the expression of MAFG (a binding partner of NRF2) was correlated with the expression of ARE genes, suggesting MAFG levels may limit target gene induction. Bioinformatically we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in putative ARE genes and to test the impact of genetic variation, we genotyped these putative regulatory SNPs and other tag SNPs in selected NRF2 pathway genes. Sequencing MAFG locus, we identified 30 novel SNPs and two were associated with either gene expression or lung cancer status among smokers. This work demonstrates an analysis approach that integrates bioinformatics pathway and transcription factor binding site analysis with genotype, gene expression and disease status to identify SNPs that may be associated with individual differences in gene expression and/or cancer status in smokers. These polymorphisms might ultimately contribute to lung cancer risk via their effect on the airway gene expression response to tobacco-smoke exposure.