Alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau and β–amyloid peptide 1–42 (Aβ42) levels and rates of cerebral glucose (CMRglu) on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) occur years before clinical symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) become manifest, but their relationship remains unclear.
To determine whether CSF AD biomarker levels and CMRglu in healthy individuals correlate in brain structures affected early in AD.
Alzheimer’s disease research center.
Twenty individuals without dementia, aged 46 to 83 years.
Lumbar CSF sampling and FDG-PET imaging of CMRglu. The CSF Aβ42, tau, and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (p–tau181) levels were measured using immunobead–based multiplex assays.
Main Outcome Measures
Correlations between CMRglu and CSF biomarker levels were analyzed via voxel–based and volume–of–interest approaches.
Voxel–based analyses demonstrated significant negative correlations between CSF tau and p–tau181 levels and CMRglu in the posterior cingulate, precuneus, and parahippocampal regions. In contrast, a limited positive correlation was found between CSF Aβ42 levels and CMRglu in the inferior temporal cortex. Volume–of–interest analyses confirmed negative associations between CSF tau and p–tau181 levels and CMRglu in the parietal and medial parietal lobes and a positive association between CSF Aβ42 levels and CMRglu in the parahippocampal gyrus.
In healthy individuals, higher CSF tau and p–tau181 concentrations were associated with more severe hypometabolism in several brain regions affected very early in AD, whereas lower CSF Aβ42 concentrations were associated with hypometabolism only in the medial temporal lobe. This suggests that early tau and Aβ abnormalities may be associated with subtle synaptic changes in brain regions vulnerable to AD. A longitudinal assessment of CSF and FDG–PET biomarkers is needed to determine whether these changes predict cognitive impairment and incipient AD.
Advances in our understanding of tau-mediated neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are moving this disease pathway to center stage for the development of biomarkers and disease modifying drug discovery efforts. Immunoassays were developed detecting total (ttau) and tau phosphorylated at specific epitopes (p-tauX) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), methods to analyse tau in blood are at the experimental beginning. Clinical research consistently demonstrated CSF t- and p-tau increased in AD compared to controls. Measuring these tau species proved informative for classifying AD from relevant differential diagnoses. Tau phosphorylated at threonine 231 (p-tau231) differentiated between AD and frontotemporal dementia, tau phosphorylated at serine 181 (p-tau181) enhanced classification between AD and dementia with Lewy bodies. T- and p-tau are considered “core” AD biomarkers that have been successfully validated by controlled large-scale multi-center studies. Tau biomarkers are implemented in clinical trials to reflect biological activity, mechanisms of action of compounds, support enrichment of target populations, provide endpoints for proof-of-concept and confirmatory trials on disease modification. World-wide quality control initiatives are underway to set required methodological and protocol standards. Discussions with regulatory authorities gain momentum defining the role of tau biomarkers for trial designs and how they may be further qualified for surrogate marker status.
Alzheimer's disease; MCI; neurodegeneration; biomarker; prediction; diagnosis; blood; CSF; tau; p-tau
The default mode network (DMN) is particularly relevant to Alzheimer's disease (AD) since its structures are vulnerable to deposition of amyloid. Decreased levels of β-amyloid1-42 (Aβ42) and increased total tau protein (T-tau) and tau phosphorylated at position threonine 181 (P-tau181p) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been established as valid biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of AD. However, the relationship between CSF biomarkers and change in the DMN is still unknown. In this study we investigated the correlation between the functional connectivity within the DMN and the ratio of Aβ42/P-tau181p in the CSF. We found that the ratio of Aβ42/P-tau181p was moderately positively correlated with the functional connectivity within the DMN in the left precuneus/cuneus. This finding implicates that the brain functional connectivity within DMN is affected by pathological changes at early stage in AD. This may provide a better understanding of AD pathology progression and improve AD diagnosis.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are currently being considered for inclusion in revised diagnostic criteria for research and/or clinical purposes to increase the certainty of ante-mortem diagnosis. Establishing biomarker validity requires demonstration that the assays are true markers of underlying disease pathology (e.g., amyloid plaques and/or neurofibrillary tangles) in living individuals.
We compared the performances of the two most commonly used platforms, INNOTEST® ELISA and INNO-BIA AlzBio3 for measurement of CSF amyloid-beta (Aβ) and tau(s), for identifying the presence of amyloid plaques in a research cohort (n=103). Values obtained for CSF Aβ1-42, total tau and phosphorylated tau181 (p-tau181) using the two assay platforms were compared to brain amyloid load as assessed by positron emission tomography using the amyloid imaging agent, Pittsburgh Compound B (PIB).
Research volunteers who are cognitively normal or have very mild to moderate AD dementia.
The two assay platforms yielded different (~2–6-fold) absolute values for the various analytes, but relative values were highly correlated. CSF Aβ1-42 correlated inversely, and tau and p-tau181 correlated positively, with the amount of cortical PIB binding, albeit to differing degrees. Both assays yielded similar patterns of CSF biomarker correlations with amyloid load. The ratios of total tau/Aβ1-42 and p-tau181/Aβ1-42 outperformed any single analyte, including Aβ1-2, in discriminating individuals with versus without cortical amyloid.
The INNOTEST® and INNO-BIA CSF platforms performed equally well in identifying individuals with underlying amyloid plaque pathology. Differences in absolute values, however, point to the need for assay-specific diagnostic cut-point values.
Alzheimer’s disease; amyloid; biomarkers; cerebrospinal fluid; imaging (PET, MRI) in dementias; Pittsburgh Compound B
Clinicopathological studies suggest that Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology begins ∼10–15 years before the resulting cognitive impairment draws medical attention. Biomarkers that can detect AD pathology in its early stages and predict dementia onset would, therefore, be invaluable for patient care and efficient clinical trial design. We utilized a targeted proteomics approach to discover novel cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers that can augment the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of current leading CSF biomarkers (Aβ42, tau, p-tau181).
Methods and Findings
Using a multiplexed Luminex platform, 190 analytes were measured in 333 CSF samples from cognitively normal (Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR] 0), very mildly demented (CDR 0.5), and mildly demented (CDR 1) individuals. Mean levels of 37 analytes (12 after Bonferroni correction) were found to differ between CDR 0 and CDR>0 groups. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses revealed that small combinations of a subset of these markers (cystatin C, VEGF, TRAIL-R3, PAI-1, PP, NT-proBNP, MMP-10, MIF, GRO-α, fibrinogen, FAS, eotaxin-3) enhanced the ability of the best-performing established CSF biomarker, the tau/Aβ42 ratio, to discriminate CDR>0 from CDR 0 individuals. Multiple machine learning algorithms likewise showed that the novel biomarker panels improved the diagnostic performance of the current leading biomarkers. Importantly, most of the markers that best discriminated CDR 0 from CDR>0 individuals in the more targeted ROC analyses were also identified as top predictors in the machine learning models, reconfirming their potential as biomarkers for early-stage AD. Cox proportional hazards models demonstrated that an optimal panel of markers for predicting risk of developing cognitive impairment (CDR 0 to CDR>0 conversion) consisted of calbindin, Aβ42, and age.
Using a targeted proteomic screen, we identified novel candidate biomarkers that complement the best current CSF biomarkers for distinguishing very mildly/mildly demented from cognitively normal individuals. Additionally, we identified a novel biomarker (calbindin) with significant prognostic potential.
Previously it was reported that Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients have reduced amyloid (Aβ1-42) and elevated total tau (t-tau) and phosphorylated tau (p-tau181p) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), suggesting that these same measures could be used to detect early AD pathology in healthy elderly (CN) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that there would be an association among rates of regional brain atrophy, the CSF biomarkers Aβ1-42, t-tau, and p-tau181p and ApoE ε4 status, and that the pattern of this association would be diagnosis specific. Our findings primarily showed that lower CSF Aβ1-42 and higher tau concentrations were associated with increased rates of regional brain tissue loss and the patterns varied across the clinical groups. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that CSF biomarker concentrations are associated with the characteristic patterns of structural brain changes in CN and MCI that resemble to a large extent the pathology seen in AD. Therefore, the finding of faster progression of brain atrophy in the presence of lower Aβ1-42 levels and higher p-tau levels supports the hypothesis that CSF Aβ1-42 and tau are measures of early AD pathology. Moreover, the relationship among CSF biomarkers, ApoE ε4 status, and brain atrophy rates are regionally varying, supporting the view that the genetic predisposition of the brain to amyloid and tau mediated pathology is regional and disease stage specific.
MRI; Alzheimer's disease; cerebrospinal fluid; biomarkers; cortical thickness; atrophy; brain tissue volume; ApoE
Develop a cerebrospinal fluid biomarker signature for mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) subjects.
Amyloid-β 1 to 42 peptide (Aβ1-42), total tau (t-tau), and tau phosphorylated at the threonine 181 were measured in (1) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained during baseline evaluation of 100 mild AD, 196 mild cognitive impairment, and 114 elderly cognitively normal (NC) subjects in ADNI; and (2) independent 56 autopsy-confirmed AD cases and 52 age-matched elderly NCs using a multiplex immunoassay. Detection of an AD CSF profile for t-tau and Aβ1-42 in ADNI subjects was achieved using receiver operating characteristic cut points and logistic regression models derived from the autopsy-confirmed CSF data.
CSF Aβ1-42 was the most sensitive biomarker for AD in the autopsy cohort of CSF samples: receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0.913 and sensitivity for AD detection of 96.4%. In the ADNI cohort, a logistic regression model for Aβ1-42, t-tau, and APOε4 allele count provided the best assessment delineation of mild AD. An AD-like baseline CSF profile for t-tau/Aβ1-42 was detected in 33 of 37 ADNI mild cognitive impairment subjects who converted to probable AD during the first year of the study.
The CSF biomarker signature of AD defined by Aβ1-42 and t-tau in the autopsy-confirmed AD cohort and confirmed in the cohort followed in ADNI for 12 months detects mild AD in a large, multisite, prospective clinical investigation, and this signature appears to predict conversion from mild cognitive impairment to AD.
The close correlation between abnormally low pre-mortem cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ1–42) and plaque burden measured by amyloid imaging as well as between pathologically increased levels of CSF tau and the extent of neurode-generation measured by MRI has led to growing interest in using these biomarkers to predict the presence of AD plaque and tangle pathology. A challenge for the wide-spread use of these CSF biomarkers is the high variability in the assays used to measure these analytes which has been ascribed to multiple pre-analytical and analytical test performance factors. To address this challenge, we conducted a seven-center inter-laboratory standardization study for CSF total tau (t-tau), phospho-tau (p-tau181) and Aβ1–42 as part of the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Aliquots prepared from five CSF pools assembled from multiple elderly controls (n = 3) and AD patients (n = 2) were the primary test samples analyzed in each of three analytical runs by the participating laboratories using a common batch of research use only immunoassay reagents (INNO-BIA AlzBio3, xMAP technology, from Innogenetics) on the Luminex analytical platform. To account for the combined effects on overall precision of CSF samples (fixed effect), different laboratories and analytical runs (random effects), these data were analyzed by mixed-effects modeling with the following results: within center %CV 95% CI values (mean) of 4.0–6.0% (5.3%) for CSF Aβ1–42; 6.4–6.8% (6.7%) for t-tau and 5.5–18.0% (10.8%) for p-tau181 and inter-center %CV 95% CI range of 15.9–19.8% (17.9%) for Aβ1–42, 9.6–15.2% (13.1%) for t-tau and 11.3–18.2% (14.6%) for p-tau181. Long-term experience by the ADNI biomarker core laboratory replicated this degree of within-center precision. Diagnostic threshold CSF concentrations for Aβ1–42 and for the ratio t-tau/Aβ1–42 were determined in an ADNI independent, autopsy-confirmed AD cohort from whom ante-mortem CSF was obtained, and a clinically defined group of cognitively normal controls (NCs) provides statistically significant separation of those who progressed from MCI to AD in the ADNI study. These data suggest that interrogation of ante-mortem CSF in cognitively impaired individuals to determine levels of t-tau, p-tau181 and Aβ1–42, together with MRI and amyloid imaging biomarkers, could replace autopsy confirmation of AD plaque and tangle pathology as the “gold standard” for the diagnosis of definite AD in the near future.
Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative; Cerebrospinal fluid; Amyloid-β1-42; Total tau; p-tau181; Interlaboratory study; Mixed-effects modeling
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) measures of Ab and tau, Pittsburgh Compound B (PIB) imaging and hippocampal atrophy are promising Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers yet the associations between them are not known. We applied a validated, automated hippocampal labeling method and 3D radial distance mapping to the 1.5T structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 388 ADNI subjects with baseline CSF Ab42, total tau (t-tau) and phosphorylated tau (p-tau181) and 98 subjects with positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using PIB. We used linear regression to investigate associations between hippocampal atrophy and average cortical, parietal and precuneal PIB standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) and CSF Ab42, t-tau, p-tau181, t-tau/Ab42 and p-tau181/Ab42. All CSF measures showed significant associations with hippocampal volume and radial distance in the pooled sample. Strongest correlations were seen for p-tau181, followed by p-tau181/Ab42 ratio, t-tau/Ab42 ratio, t-tau and Ab42. p-tau181 showed stronger correlation in ApoE4 carriers, while t-tau showed stronger correlation in ApoE4 noncarriers. Of the 3 PIB measures the precuneal SUVR showed strongest associations with hippocampal atrophy.
Alzheimer’s disease; MRI; Magnetic resonance imaging; Imaging; PIB; Amyloid imaging; Abeta; tau; Hippocampus; Atrophy; Biomarkers; ADNI
In order for therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) to have the greatest impact, it will likely be necessary to treat individuals in the “preclinical” (presymptomatic) stage. Fluid and neuroimaging measures are being explored as possible biomarkers of AD pathology that could aid in identifying individuals in this stage in order to target them for clinical trials and to direct and monitor therapy. The objective of this study was to determine if cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for AD suggest the presence of brain damage in the preclinical stage of AD.
We investigated the relationship between structural neuroimaging measures (whole brain volume) and levels of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid-β (Aβ)40, Aβ42, tau, and phosphorylated tau181 (ptau181), and plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 in well-characterized research subjects with very mild and mild dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT; n=29) and age-matched, cognitively normal controls (n=69).
Levels of CSF tau and ptau181, but not Aβ42, correlated inversely with whole brain volume in very mild/mild DAT, whereas levels of CSF Aβ42, but not tau or ptau181, was positively correlated with whole brain volume in non-demented controls.
Reduction in CSF Aβ42, likely reflecting Aβ aggregation in the brain, is associated with brain atrophy in the preclinical phase of AD. This suggests that there is toxicity associated with Aβ aggregation prior to the onset of clinically detectable disease. Increases in CSF tau (and ptau181) are later events that correlate with further structural damage and occur with clinical onset and progression.
Alzheimer's disease; amyloid-β; biomarker; brain atrophy; cerebrospinal fluid; MRI; preclinical AD; tau
Altered levels of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) peptides related to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are associated with pathologic AD diagnosis, although cognitively normal subjects can also have abnormal levels of these AD biomarkers. To identify novel CSF biomarkers that distinguish pathologically confirmed AD from cognitively normal subjects and patients with other neurodegenerative disorders, we collected antemortem CSF samples from 66 AD patients and 25 patients with other neurodegenerative dementias followed longitudinally to neuropathologic confirmation, plus CSF from 33 cognitively normal subjects. We measured levels of 151 novel analytes via a targeted multiplex panel enriched in cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, as well as established AD CSF biomarkers (levels of Aβ42, tau and p-tau181). Two categories of biomarkers were identified: (1) analytes that specifically distinguished AD (especially CSF Aβ42 levels) from cognitively normal subjects and other disorders; and (2) analytes altered in multiple diseases (NrCAM, PDGF, C3, IL-1α), but not in cognitively normal subjects. A multiprong analytical approach showed AD patients were best distinguished from non-AD cases (including cognitively normal subjects and patients with other neurodegenerative disorders) by a combination of traditional AD biomarkers and novel multiplex biomarkers. Six novel biomarkers (C3, CgA, IL-1α, I-309, NrCAM and VEGF) were correlated with the severity of cognitive impairment at CSF collection, and altered levels of IL-1α and TECK associated with subsequent cognitive decline in 38 longitudinally followed subjects with mild cognitive impairment. In summary, our targeted proteomic screen revealed novel CSF biomarkers that can improve the distinction between AD and non-AD cases by established biomarkers alone.
Amyloid beta; Abeta42; Diagnosis; IL-1α; MCI; NrCAM; PDGF; Resistin; TECK; TDP-43; Tau
Reduced levels of β-amyloid1-42 (Aβ1-42) and increased levels of tau proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are found in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), likely reflecting Aβ deposition in plaques and neuronal and axonal damage. It is not known whether these biomarkers are associated with brain atrophy also in healthy aging. We tested the relationship between CSF levels of Aβ1-42 and tau (total tau and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181) proteins and 1-year brain atrophy in 71 cognitively normal elderly individuals. Results showed that under a certain threshold value, levels of Aβ1-42 correlated highly with 1-year change in a wide range of brain areas. The strongest relationships were not found in the regions most vulnerable early in AD. Above the threshold level, Aβ1-42 was not related to brain changes, but significant volume reductions as well as ventricular expansion were still seen. It is concluded that Aβ1-42 correlates with brain atrophy and ventricular expansion in a subgroup of cognitively normal elderly individuals but that reductions independent of CSF levels of Aβ1-42 is common. Further research and follow-up examinations over several years are needed to test whether degenerative pathology will eventually develop in the group of cognitively normal elderly individuals with low levels of Aβ1-42.
aging; amyloid; cerebral cortex; CSF biomarkers; MRI
Recent genome-wide association studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have identified variants in BIN1, CLU, CR1 and PICALM that show replicable association with risk for disease. We have thoroughly sampled common variation in these genes, genotyping 355 variants in over 600 individuals for whom measurements of two AD biomarkers, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 42 amino acid amyloid beta fragments (Aβ42) and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (ptau181), have been obtained. Association analyses were performed to determine whether variants in BIN1, CLU, CR1 or PICALM are associated with changes in the CSF levels of these biomarkers. Despite adequate power to detect effects as small as a 1.05 fold difference, we have failed to detect evidence for association between SNPs in these genes and CSF Aβ42 or ptau181 levels in our sample. Our results suggest that these variants do not affect risk via a mechanism that results in a strong additive effect on CSF levels of Aβ42 or ptau181.
Accurate ante mortem diagnosis in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is crucial to the development and implementation of etiology-based therapies. Several neurodegenerative disease-associated proteins, including the major protein constituents of inclusions in Alzheimer's disease (AD) associated with amyloid-beta (Aβ1−42) plaque and tau neurofibrillary tangle pathology, can be measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for diagnostic applications. Comparative studies using autopsy-confirmed samples suggest that CSF total-tau (t-tau) and Aβ1−42 levels can accurately distinguish FTLD from AD, with a high t-tau to Aβ1−42 ratio diagnostic of AD; however, there is also an urgent need for FTLD-specific biomarkers. These analytes will require validation in large autopsy-confirmed cohorts and face challenges of standardization of within- and between-laboratory sources of error. In addition, CSF biomarkers with prognostic utility and longitudinal study of CSF biomarker levels over the course of disease are also needed. Current goals in the field include identification of analytes that are easily and reliably measured and can be used alone or in a multi-modal approach to provide an accurate prediction of underlying neuropathology for use in clinical trials of disease modifying treatments in FTLD. To achieve these goals it will be of the utmost importance to view neurodegenerative disease, including FTLD, as a clinicopathological entity, rather than exclusively a clinical syndrome.
cerebrospinal fluid; biomarker; tau; Aβ1−42; frontotemporal dementia; primary progressive aphasia; Alzheimer's disease
We sought to examine the association of levels of total tau (t-tau) and phosphorylated tau 181 (p-tau181) protein with brain morphology in mild cognitive impairment, as defined by the concept of aging-associated cognitive decline (AACD) and Alzheimer disease.
Twenty-three participants with AACD, 16 with Alzheimer disease and 15 healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging and lumbar puncture. We performed voxel-based morphometry to investigate the association between tau levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and cerebral grey matter density throughout the entire brain.
Voxel-based morphometry revealed that both elevated t-tau and p-tau181 concentrations were associated with reduced grey matter density in temporal, parietal and frontal regions. Among participants with AACD, elevated levels of p-tau181 (but not t-tau) in CSF were correlated with a pronounced atrophy in the right hippocampus.
Our study was limited by the small sample, especially with respect to the analysis comprising the AACD subgroups. Moreover, we did not correct our voxel-based morphometry analyses for multiple dependent comparisons, therefore they harbour a risk of false-positive results.
Elevated levels of t-tau and p-tau181 in CSF reflect degenerative processes in the cortical regions typically affected in Alzheimer disease. Our findings in participants with AACD support the hypothesis that p-tau181 might be more specifically related to neurodegenerative changes in early Alzheimer disease.
CSF levels of Aβ1-42, t-tau, and p-tau181p are potential early diagnostic markers for probable Alzheimer disease (AD). The influence of genetic variation on these markers has been investigated for candidate genes but not on a genome-wide basis. We report a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of CSF biomarkers (Aβ1-42, t-tau, p-tau181p, p-tau181p/Aβ1-42, and t-tau/Aβ1-42).
A total of 374 non-Hispanic Caucasian participants in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort with quality-controlled CSF and genotype data were included in this analysis. The main effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) under an additive genetic model was assessed on each of 5 CSF biomarkers. The p values of all SNPs for each CSF biomarker were adjusted for multiple comparisons by the Bonferroni method. We focused on SNPs with corrected p < 0.01 (uncorrected p < 3.10 × 10−8) and secondarily examined SNPs with uncorrected p values less than 10−5 to identify potential candidates.
Four SNPs in the regions of the APOE, LOC100129500, TOMM40, and EPC2 genes reached genome-wide significance for associations with one or more CSF biomarkers. SNPs in CCDC134, ABCG2, SREBF2, and NFATC4, although not reaching genome-wide significance, were identified as potential candidates.
In addition to known candidate genes, APOE, TOMM40, and one hypothetical gene LOC100129500 partially overlapping APOE; one novel gene, EPC2, and several other interesting genes were associated with CSF biomarkers that are related to AD. These findings, especially the new EPC2 results, require replication in independent cohorts.
To longitudinally evaluate five cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in the transition from Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer’s disease (AD)
A baseline and 2-year follow-up clinical and CSF study of 86 subjects, including 22 MCI patients that declined to AD (MCI-AD), 43 MCI that did not deteriorate (MCI-MCI) and 21 controls (NL-NL). All subjects were studied for total and phosphorylated tau (T-tau, P-tau231), amyloid beta (Aβ) Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio, isoprostane (IP) as well as P-tau231/Aβ42/40 and T-tau/Aβ42/40 ratios.
At baseline and at follow-up MCI-AD showed higher levels P-tau231, T-tau, IP, P-tau231/Aβ42/40 and T-tau/Aβ42/40 ratios and lower Aβ42/Aβ40 than MCI-MCI or NL-NL. Baseline P-tau231 best predicted MCI-AD (80%, p<0.001) followed in accuracy by P-tau231/Aβ42/40 and T-tau/Aβ42/40 ratios (both 75%, p’s <0.001), T-tau (74%, p<0.001), Aβ42/Aβ40 (69%, p<0.01), and IP (68%, p<0.01). Only IP showed longitudinal effects (p<0.05).
P-tau231 is the strongest predictor of the decline from MCI to AD. IP levels uniquely show longitudinal progression effects. These results suggest the use of CSF biomarkers in secondary prevention trials.
Alzheimer’s disease; Mild Cognitive Impairment; CSF biomarkers; Early detection; Longitudinal; Prediction
Because of the emerging intersections of HIV infection and Alzheimer's disease, we examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers related of amyloid and tau metabolism in HIV-infected patients.
In this cross-sectional study we measured soluble amyloid precursor proteins alpha and beta (sAPPα and sAPPβ), amyloid beta fragment 1-42 (Aβ1-42), and total and hyperphosphorylated tau (t-tau and p-tau) in CSF of 86 HIV-infected (HIV+) subjects, including 21 with AIDS dementia complex (ADC), 25 with central nervous system (CNS) opportunistic infections and 40 without neurological symptoms and signs. We also measured these CSF biomarkers in 64 uninfected (HIV-) subjects, including 21 with Alzheimer's disease, and both younger and older controls without neurological disease.
CSF sAPPα and sAPPβ concentrations were highly correlated and reduced in patients with ADC and opportunistic infections compared to the other groups. The opportunistic infection group but not the ADC patients had lower CSF Aβ1-42 in comparison to the other HIV+ subjects. CSF t-tau levels were high in some ADC patients, but did not differ significantly from the HIV+ neuroasymptomatic group, while CSF p-tau was not increased in any of the HIV+ groups. Together, CSF amyloid and tau markers segregated the ADC patients from both HIV+ and HIV- neuroasymptomatics and from Alzheimer's disease patients, but not from those with opportunistic infections.
Parallel reductions of CSF sAPPα and sAPPβ in ADC and CNS opportunistic infections suggest an effect of CNS immune activation or inflammation on neuronal amyloid synthesis or processing. Elevation of CSF t-tau in some ADC and CNS infection patients without concomitant increase in p-tau indicates neural injury without preferential accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau as found in Alzheimer's disease. These biomarker changes define pathogenetic pathways to brain injury in ADC that differ from those of Alzheimer's disease.
In addition to the increasingly recognized role of physical exercise in maintaining cognition, exercise may influence Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology as transgenic mouse studies show lowered levels of AD pathology in exercise groups. The objective of this study was to elucidate the association between exercise and AD pathology in humans using Pittsburgh Compound B (PIB), amyloid-β (Aβ)42, tau, and phosphorylated tau (ptau)181 biomarkers.
Sixty-nine older adults (17 males, 52 females) aged 55–88 were recruited and confirmed to be cognitively normal. A questionnaire on physical exercise levels over the last decade was administered to all. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected from 56 participants, and amyloid imaging with PIB was performed on 54 participants.
Participants were classified based on biomarker levels. Those with elevated PIB (p=.030), tau (p=.040) and ptau181 ((p=.044) had significantly lower exercise with a non-significant trend for lower Aβ42 (p=.135) to be associated with less exercise. Results were similar for PIB after controlling for covariates; tau (p=.115) and ptau181 (p=.123) differences were reduced to non-significant trends. Additional analyses also demonstrated that active individuals who met the exercise guidelines set by the American Heart Association (AHA) had significantly lower PIB binding and higher Aβ42 levels with and without controlling for covariates (PIB: p=.006 and p=.001; Aβ42: p=.042 and p=.046). Lastly, the associations between exercise engagement and PIB levels were more prominent in APOE epsilon 4 non-carriers.
Collectively, these results are supportive of an association between exercise engagement and AD biomarkers in cognitively normal older adults.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of Aβ peptide 1-42 (Aβ42), tau, and phosphorylated tau (ptau) are potential biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We hypothesized that these biomarkers might predict the rate of cognitive change in individuals with very mild dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT).
Retrospective analysis of CSF biomarkers and clinical data.
An academic Alzheimer's Disease Research Center.
Research volunteers in a longitudinal study of aging and cognition. Participants (n=49) had a clinical diagnosis of very mild DAT with a Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) of 0.5 at the time of lumbar puncture. All participants had at least one follow-up assessment (mean years of follow-up = 3.5 ± 1.8 years).
Main outcome measures
Baseline CSF levels of Aβ42, Aβ40, tau and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (ptau181), rate of dementia progression as measured by CDR-sum of boxes (CDR-SB) and by psychometric performance,
The rate of dementia progression was significantly more rapid in individuals with lower baseline CSF Aβ42, with higher tau or ptau181, or high tau/Aβ42 ratio. For example, the annual change in CDR-SB was 1.1 for the lowest two tertiles of Aβ42 values and 0.3 for the highest tertile of Aβ42 values.
In individuals with very mild DAT, lower CSF Aβ42, high tau or ptau181, or a high tau/Aβ42 ratio quantitatively predict more rapid progression of cognitive deficits and dementia. CSF biomarkers may be useful prognostically and to identify individuals who are more likely to progress for participation in therapeutic clinical trials.
amyloid beta; Aβ; tau; biomarker; dementia progression
Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology is estimated to develop many years before detectable cognitive decline. Fluid and imaging biomarkers may identify people in early symptomatic and even preclinical stages, possibly when potential treatments can best preserve cognitive function. We previously reported that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) serve as an excellent marker for brain amyloid as detected by the amyloid tracer, Pittsburgh Compound B (PIB). Using data from 189 cognitively normal participants, we now report a positive linear relationship between CSF tau/ptau181 (primary constituents of neurofibrillary tangles) with the amount of cortical amyloid. We observe a strong inverse relationship of cortical PIB binding with CSF Aβ42 but not for plasma Aβ species. Some individuals have low CSF Aβ42 but no cortical PIB binding. Together, these data suggest that changes in brain Aβ42 metabolism and amyloid formation are early pathogenic events in AD, and that significant disruptions in CSF tau metabolism likely occur after Aβ42 initially aggregates and increases as amyloid accumulates. These findings have important implications for preclinical AD diagnosis and treatment.
Amyloid; biomarker; cerebrospinal fluid; Pittsburgh Compound B; preclinical Alzheimer's disease
Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology is estimated to develop many years before detectable cognitive decline. Fluid and imaging biomarkers may identify people in early symptomatic and even preclinical stages, possibly when potential treatments can best preserve cognitive function. We previously reported that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) serve as an excellent marker for brain amyloid as detected by the amyloid tracer, Pittsburgh compound B (PIB). Using data from 189 cognitively normal participants, we now report a positive linear relationship between CSF tau/ptau181 (primary constituents of neurofibrillary tangles) with the amount of cortical amyloid. We observe a strong inverse relationship of cortical PIB binding with CSF Aβ42 but not for plasma Aβ species. Some individuals have low CSF Aβ42 but no cortical PIB binding. Together, these data suggest that changes in brain Aβ42 metabolism and amyloid formation are early pathogenic events in AD, and that significant disruptions in CSF tau metabolism likely occur after Aβ42 initially aggregates and increases as amyloid accumulates. These findings have important implications for preclinical AD diagnosis and treatment.
amyloid; biomarker; cerebrospinal fluid; Pittsburgh compound B; preclinical Alzheimer's disease
The aim of the present study was to identify the relationship between progressive neurobehavioural decline and phospho-tau levels (p-tau181) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the brain in transgenic rats expressing human truncated tau protein. Behavioural analyses, as quantified using the NeuroScale scoring method, revealed that the transgenic rats fell into two main groups based on the baseline behavioural functioning: (1) mild neurobehavioural impairment (MNI, score 3.3–26) and (2) severe neurobehavioural impairment (SNI, score 36–44). SNI transgenic rats showed a significant increase in brain sarkosyl insoluble p-tau181 when compared to their MNI counterparts. In order to determine whether CSF phosphotau reflects the behavioural decline and increase in sarkosyl insoluble tau in the brain, p-tau181 was measured in the CSF in a longitudinal study. The study showed a significant increase in CSF p-tau181 during the progression of the disease from MNI to SNI. Moreover, increased levels of p-tau181 in CSF correlated with an increase in the sarkosyl insoluble p-tau181 levels in the brain. The increase in the CSF level of p-tau181 during progressive behavioural decline suggests that it may represent a useful surrogate biomarker for preclinical drug development and a potential surrogate endpoint for clinical trials of disease-modifying therapy for Alzheimer's disease and related human tauopathies.
Cerebrospinal fluid; Truncated tau; Rat model of tauopathy; CSF biomarker; Behavioural decline
Ante-mortem diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders based on clinical features alone is associated with variable sensitivity and specificity, and biomarkers can potentially improve the accuracy of clinical diagnosis. In patients suspected of having Alzheimer’s disease (AD), alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers that reflect the neuropathologic changes of AD strongly support the diagnosis, although there is a trade-off between sensitivity and specificity due to similar changes in cognitively healthy subjects. Here we review the current approaches in using CSF AD biomarkers (total tau, p-tau181, and Aβ42) to predict the presence of AD pathology, and our recent work using multi-analyte profiling to derive novel biomarkers for biofluid-based AD diagnosis. We also review our use of the multi-analyte profiling strategy to identify novel biomarkers that can distinguish between subtypes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and those at risk of developing cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease. Multi-analyte profiling is a powerful tool for biomarker discovery in complex neurodegenerative disorders, and analytes associated with one or more diseases may shed light on relevant biological pathways and potential targets for intervention.
Biomarker; diagnosis; Alzheimer’s disease; frontotemporal dementia; Lewy bodie; tau; tauopathy; TDP-43
To investigate whether baseline CSF biomarkers are associated with hippocampal atrophy rate as a measure of disease progression in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and controls, controlling for baseline neuropsychological and MRI findings.
We assessed data from 31 patients with AD, 25 patients with MCI, and 19 controls (mean age 68 ± 8 years; 39 [52%] female) who visited our memory clinic and had received serial MRI scanning (scan interval 1.7 ± 0.7 years). At baseline, CSF biomarkers (amyloid β 1-42, tau, and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 [p-tau]) were obtained, as well as neuropsychological data. Baseline MRI scans were assessed using visual rating scales for medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA), global cortical atrophy, and white matter hyperintensities. Hippocampal atrophy rates were estimated using regional nonlinear “fluid” registration of follow-up scan to baseline scan.
Stepwise multiple linear regression, adjusted for age and sex, showed that increased CSF p-tau levels (β [standard error]: −0.79 [0.35]) at baseline was independently associated with higher subsequent hippocampal atrophy rates (p < 0.05), together with poorer memory performance (0.09 [0.04]) and more severe MTA (−0.60 [0.21]). The association of memory function with hippocampal atrophy rate was explained by the link with diagnosis, because it disappeared from the model after we additionally corrected for diagnosis.
Baseline CSF levels of tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 are independently associated with subsequent disease progression, as reflected by hippocampal atrophy rate. This effect is independent of baseline neuropsychological and MRI predictors. Our results imply that predicting disease progression can best be achieved by combining information from different modalities.
= amyloid β 1-42;
= Alzheimer disease;
= field of view;
= global cortical atrophy;
= lumbar puncture;
= mild cognitive impairment;
= Mini-Mental State Examination;
= medial temporal lobe atrophy;
= tau phosphorylated at threonine 181;
= echo time;
= inversion time;
= Trail Making Test;
= repetition time;
= Visual Association Test;
= white matter hyperintensities.