The short-term mortality benefit of lower tidal volume ventilation (LTVV) for patients with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) has been demonstrated in a large, multi-center randomized trial. However, the impact of LTVV and other critical care therapies on the longer-term outcomes of ALI/ARDS survivors remains uncertain. The Improving Care of ALI Patients (ICAP) study is a multi-site, prospective cohort study that aims to evaluate the longer-term outcomes of ALI/ARDS survivors with a particular focus on the effect of LTVV and other critical care therapies.
Consecutive mechanically ventilated ALI/ARDS patients from 11 intensive care units (ICUs) at four hospitals in the city of Baltimore, MD, USA, will be enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Exposures (patient-based, clinical management, and ICU organizational) will be comprehensively collected both at baseline and throughout patients' ICU stay. Outcomes, including mortality, organ impairment, functional status, and quality of life, will be assessed with the use of standardized surveys and testing at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after ALI/ARDS diagnosis. A multi-faceted retention strategy will be used to minimize participant loss to follow-up.
On the basis of the historical incidence of ALI/ARDS at the study sites, we expect to enroll 520 patients over two years. This projected sample size is more than double that of any published study of long-term outcomes in ALI/ARDS survivors, providing 86% power to detect a relative mortality hazard of 0.70 in patients receiving higher versus lower exposure to LTVV. The projected sample size also provides sufficient power to evaluate the association between a variety of other exposure and outcome variables, including quality of life.
The ICAP study is a novel, prospective cohort study that will build on previous critical care research to improve our understanding of the longer-term impact of ALI/ARDS, LTVV and other aspects of critical care management. Given the paucity of information about the impact of interventions on long-term outcomes for survivors of critical illness, this study can provide important information to inform clinical practice.
Protective ventilation with low tidal volume has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in patients suffering from acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Low tidal volume ventilation is associated with particular clinical challenges and is therefore often underutilized as a therapeutic option in clinical practice. Despite some potential difficulties, data have been published examining the application of protective ventilation in patients without lung injury. We will briefly review the physiologic rationale for low tidal volume ventilation and explore the current evidence for protective ventilation in patients without lung injury. In addition, we will explore some of the potential reasons for its underuse and provide strategies to overcome some of the associated clinical challenges.
Several biological markers of lung injury are predictors of morbidity and mortality in patients with acute lung injury (ALI). The low tidal volume lung-protective ventilation strategy is associated with a significant decrease in plasma biomarker levels compared to the high tidal volume ventilation strategy. The primary objective of this study was to test whether the institution of lung-protective positive pressure ventilation in spontaneously ventilating patients with ALI exacerbates pre-existing lung injury by using measurements of biomarkers of lung injury before and after intubation.
Materials and methods
A prospective observational cohort study was conducted in the intensive care unit of a tertiary care university hospital. Twenty-five intubated, mechanically ventilated patients with ALI were enrolled. Physiologic data and serum samples were collected within 6 hours before intubation and at two different time points within the first 24 hours after intubation to measure the concentration of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and von Willebrand factor (vWF). The differences in biomarker levels before and after intubation were analysed using repeated measures analysis of variance and a paired t test with correction for multiple comparisons.
Before endotracheal intubation, all of the biological markers (IL-8, IL-6, ICAM-1, and vWF) were elevated in the spontaneously breathing patients with ALI. After intubation and the institution of positive pressure ventilation (tidal volume 7 to 8 ml/kg per ideal body weight), none of the biological markers was significantly increased at either an early (3 ± 2 hours) or later (21 ± 5 hours) time point. However, the levels of IL-8 were significantly decreased at the later time point (21 ± 5 hours) after intubation. During the 24-hour period after intubation, the PaO2/FiO2 (partial pressure of arterial oxygen/fraction of the inspired oxygen) ratio significantly increased and the plateau airway pressure significantly decreased.
Levels of IL-8, IL-6, vWF, and ICAM-1 are elevated in spontaneously ventilating patients with ALI prior to endotracheal intubation. The institution of a lung-protective ventilation strategy with positive pressure ventilation does not further increase the levels of biological markers of lung injury. The results suggest that the institution of a lung-protective positive pressure ventilation strategy does not worsen the pre-existing lung injury in most patients with ALI.
Recent cohort studies have identified the use of large tidal volumes as a major risk factor for development of lung injury in mechanically ventilated patients without acute lung injury (ALI). We compared the effect of conventional with lower tidal volumes on pulmonary inflammation and development of lung injury in critically ill patients without ALI at the onset of mechanical ventilation.
We performed a randomized controlled nonblinded preventive trial comparing mechanical ventilation with tidal volumes of 10 ml versus 6 ml per kilogram of predicted body weight in critically ill patients without ALI at the onset of mechanical ventilation. The primary end point was cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma during mechanical ventilation. The secondary end point was the development of lung injury, as determined by consensus criteria for ALI, duration of mechanical ventilation, and mortality.
One hundred fifty patients (74 conventional versus 76 lower tidal volume) were enrolled and analyzed. No differences were observed in lavage fluid cytokine levels at baseline between the randomization groups. Plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels decreased significantly more strongly in the lower-tidal-volume group ((from 51 (20 to 182) ng/ml to 11 (5 to 20) ng/ml versus 50 (21 to 122) ng/ml to 21 (20 to 77) ng/ml; P = 0.01)). The trial was stopped prematurely for safety reasons because the development of lung injury was higher in the conventional tidal-volume group as compared with the lower tidal-volume group (13.5% versus 2.6%; P = 0.01). Univariate analysis showed statistical relations between baseline lung-injury score, randomization group, level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), the number of transfused blood products, the presence of a risk factor for ALI, and baseline IL-6 lavage fluid levels and the development of lung injury. Multivariate analysis revealed the randomization group and the level of PEEP as independent predictors of the development of lung injury.
Mechanical ventilation with conventional tidal volumes is associated with sustained cytokine production, as measured in plasma. Our data suggest that mechanical ventilation with conventional tidal volumes contributes to the development of lung injury in patients without ALI at the onset of mechanical ventilation.
Sepsis could induce indirect acute lung injury(ALI), and pulmonary vasomotor dysfunction. While low tidal volume is advocated for treatment of ALI patients. However, there is no evidence for low tidal volume that it could mitigate pulmonary vasomotor dysfunction in indirect ALI. Our study is to evaluate whether low tidal volume ventilation could protect the pulmonary vascular function in indirect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced acute lung injury rats.
An indirect ALI rat model was induced by intravenous infusion of LPS. Thirty rats (n = 6 in each group) were randomly divided into (1)Control group; (2) ALI group; (3) LV group (tidal volume of 6mL/kg); (4) MV group (tidal volume of 12mL/kg); (5)VLV group (tidal volume of 3mL/kg). Mean arterial pressure and blood gas analysis were monitored every 2 hours throughout the experiment. Lung tissues and pulmonary artery rings were immediately harvested after the rats were bled to be killed to detect the contents of endothelin-1 (ET-1), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and TNF-α. Acetylcholine (Ache)-induced endothelium-dependent and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced endothelium-independent relaxation of isolated pulmonary artery rings were measured by tensiometry.
There was no difference within groups concerning blood pressure, PaCO2 and SNP-induced endothelium-independent relaxation of pulmonary artery rings. Compared with MV group, LV group significantly reduced LPS-induced expression of ET-1 level (113.79 ± 7.33pg/mL vs. 152.52 ± 12.75pg/mL, P < 0.05) and TNF-α (3305.09 ± 334.29pg/mL vs.4144.07 ± 608.21pg/mL, P < 0.05), increased the expression of eNOS (IOD: 15032.05 ± 5925.07 vs. 11454.32 ± 6035.47, P < 0.05). While Ache (10-7mol/L-10-4mol/L)-induced vasodilatation was ameliorated 30% more in LV group than in MV group.
Low tidal volume could protect the pulmonary vasodilative function during indirect ALI by decreasing vasoconstrictor factors, increasing expressions of vasodilator factors in pulmonary endothelial cells, and inhibiting inflammation injuries.
Endothelium; Mechanical ventilation; Vascular reactivity; Vascular injury; Lung injury; Pulmonary hypertension
Lung fibrosis, reduced lung compliance, and severe hypoxemia found in patients with acute lung injury often result in a need for the support of mechanical ventilation. High-tidal-volume mechanical ventilation can increase lung damage and fibrogeneic activity but the mechanisms regulating the interaction between high tidal volume and lung fibrosis are unclear. We hypothesized that high-tidal-volume ventilation increased pulmonary fibrosis in acute lung injury via the serine/threonine kinase-protein kinase B (Akt) and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.
After 5 days of bleomycin administration to simulate acute lung injury, male C57BL/6 mice, weighing 20 to 25 g, were exposed to either high-tidal-volume mechanical ventilation (30 ml/kg) or low-tidal-volume mechanical ventilation (6 ml/kg) with room air for 1 to 5 hours.
High-tidal-volume ventilation induced type I and type III procollagen mRNA expression, microvascular permeability, hydroxyproline content, Masson's trichrome staining, S100A4/fibroblast specific protein-1 staining, activation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, and production of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and 10 kDa IFNγ-inducible protein in a dose-dependent manner. High-tidal-volume ventilation-induced lung fibrosis was attenuated in Akt-deficient mice and in mice with pharmacologic inhibition of ERK1/2 activity by PD98059.
We conclude that high-tidal-volume ventilation-induced microvascular permeability, lung fibrosis, and chemokine production were dependent, in part, on activation of the Akt and ERK1/2 pathways.
We sought to develop a simple point score that would accurately capture the risk of hospital death for patients with acute lung injury (ALI).
This is a secondary analysis of data from two randomized trials. Baseline clinical variables collected within 24 hours of enrollment were modeled as predictors of hospital mortality using logistic regression and bootstrap resampling to arrive at a parsimonious model. We constructed a point score based on regression coefficients.
Medical centers participating in the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Clinical Trials network (ARDSnet).
Model development: 414 patients with non-traumatic ALI participating in the low tidal volume arm of the ARDSnet ARMA study. Model validation: 459 patients participating in the ARDSnet ALVEOLI study.
Measurements and Main Results
Variables comprising the prognostic model were: hematocrit <26% (1 point), bilirubin ≥ 2 mg/dl (1 point), fluid balance greater than 2.5 liters positive (1 point), and age (1 point for age 40–64, 2 points for age ≥ 65 years). Predicted mortality (95% confidence interval) for 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4+ point totals was 8% (5–14%), 17% (12–23%), 31% (26–37%), 51% (43–58%), and 70% (58–80%), respectively. There was excellent agreement between predicted and observed mortality in the validation cohort. Observed mortality for 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4+ point totals in the validation cohort was 12%, 16%, 28%, 47%, and 67%, respectively. Compared to the APACHE III score, areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the point score were greater in the development cohort (0.72 vs. 0.67, p=0.09) and lower in the validation cohort (0.68 vs. 0.75, p=0.03).
Mortality in ALI patients can be predicted using an index of four readily-available clinical variables with good calibration. This index may help inform prognostic discussions, but validation in non-clinical trial populations is necessary before widespread use.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome; acute lung injury; Respiratory Distress Syndrome; Adult; Human ARDS; Statistical Model; logistic models; mortality determinants; Mortality; In-Hospital; Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; APACHE III; Bayesian Prediction; Prognosis
Use of a volume- and pressure-limited mechanical ventilation strategy improves clinical outcomes of patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). However, the extent to which tidal volumes and inspiratory airway pressures should be reduced to optimize clinical outcomes is a controversial topic. This article addresses the question, “Is there a safe upper limit to inspiratory plateau pressure in patients with ALI/ARDS?” We reviewed data from animal models with and without preexisting lung injury, studies of normal human respiratory system mechanics, and the results of five clinical trials of lung-protective mechanical ventilation strategies. We also present an original analysis of data from the largest of the five clinical trials. The available data from each of these assessments do not support the commonly held view that inspiratory plateau pressures of 30 to 35 cm H2O are safe. We could not identify a safe upper limit for plateau pressures in patients with ALI/ARDS.
acute respiratory distress syndrome; acute lung injury; plateau; mechanical ventilation
Ventilator-induced lung injury is a major outcome determinant of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Ventilatory strategies that limit ventilator-induced lung injury should improve outcome from ARDS. The ARDSnet trial showed improved survival in subjects ventilated with a lower tidal volume. Although this trial developed and tested a rigorous clinical protocol, it did not define the limits to which tidal volume reduction would benefit outcome. It is also not at all clear if it is the reduction in tidal volume or the reduction in plateau airway pressure that confers this benefit. Finally, ventilator-induced lung injury occurs more commonly from repetitive collapse and re-expansion of injured lung units rather than from the overdistention of persistently aerated lung units. This was not addressed in the trial design. Thus, further study using targeted open-lung strategies are also needed.
ARDS; outcome; ventilation; ventilator-induced lung injury
Ventilation using low tidal volumes with permission of hypercapnia is recommended to protect the lung in acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, the most lung protective tidal volume in association with hypercapnia is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of different tidal volumes with associated hypercapnia on lung injury and gas exchange in a model for acute respiratory distress syndrome.
In this randomized controlled experiment sixty-four surfactant-depleted rabbits were exposed to 6 hours of mechanical ventilation with the following targets: Group 1: tidal volume = 8–10 ml/kg/PaCO2 = 40 mm Hg; Group 2: tidal volume = 4–5 ml/kg/PaCO2 = 80 mm Hg; Group 3: tidal volume = 3–4 ml/kg/PaCO2 = 120 mm Hg; Group 4: tidal volume = 2–3 ml/kg/PaCO2 = 160 mm Hg. Decreased wet-dry weight ratios of the lungs, lower histological lung injury scores and higher PaO2 were found in all low tidal volume/hypercapnia groups (group 2, 3, 4) as compared to the group with conventional tidal volume/normocapnia (group 1). The reduction of the tidal volume below 4–5 ml/kg did not enhance lung protection. However, oxygenation and lung protection were maintained at extremely low tidal volumes in association with very severe hypercapnia and no adverse hemodynamic effects were observed with this strategy.
Ventilation with low tidal volumes and associated hypercapnia was lung protective. A tidal volume below 4–5 ml/kg/PaCO2 80 mm Hg with concomitant more severe hypercapnic acidosis did not increase lung protection in this surfactant deficiency model. However, even at extremely low tidal volumes in association with severe hypercapnia lung protection and oxygenation were maintained.
Lung-protective ventilation aims at using low tidal volumes (VT) at optimum positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP). Optimum PEEP should recruit atelectatic lung regions and avoid tidal recruitment and end-inspiratory overinflation. We examined the effect of VT and PEEP on ventilation distribution, regional respiratory system compliance (CRS), and end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) in an animal model of acute lung injury (ALI) and patients with ARDS by using electrical impedance tomography (EIT) with the aim to assess tidal recruitment and overinflation.
EIT examinations were performed in 10 anaesthetized pigs with normal lungs ventilated at 5 and 10 ml/kg body weight VT and 5 cmH2O PEEP. After ALI induction, 10 ml/kg VT and 10 cmH2O PEEP were applied. Afterwards, PEEP was set according to the pressure-volume curve. Animals were randomized to either low or high VT ventilation changed after 30 minutes in a crossover design. Ventilation distribution, regional CRS and changes in EELV were analyzed. The same measures were determined in five ARDS patients examined during low and high VT ventilation (6 and 10 (8) ml/kg) at three PEEP levels.
In healthy animals, high compared to low VT increased CRS and ventilation in dependent lung regions implying tidal recruitment. ALI reduced CRS and EELV in all regions without changing ventilation distribution. Pressure-volume curve-derived PEEP of 21±4 cmH2O (mean±SD) resulted in comparable increase in CRS in dependent and decrease in non-dependent regions at both VT. This implied that tidal recruitment was avoided but end-inspiratory overinflation was present irrespective of VT. In patients, regional CRS differences between low and high VT revealed high degree of tidal recruitment and low overinflation at 3±1 cmH2O PEEP. Tidal recruitment decreased at 10±1 cmH2O and was further reduced at 15±2 cmH2O PEEP.
Tidal recruitment and end-inspiratory overinflation can be assessed by EIT-based analysis of regional CRS.
Low tidal volumes have been associated with improved outcomes in patients with established acute lung injury. The role of low tidal volume ventilation in patients without lung injury is still unresolved. We hypothesized that such a strategy in patients undergoing elective surgery would reduce ventilator-associated lung injury and that this improvement would lead to a shortened time to extubation
A single-center randomized controlled trial was undertaken in 149 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Ventilation with 6 versus 10 ml/kg tidal volume was compared. Ventilator settings were applied immediately after anesthesia induction and continued throughout surgery and the subsequent intensive care unit stay. The primary endpoint of the study was time to extubation. Secondary endpoints included the proportion of patients extubated at 6 h and indices of lung mechanics and gas exchange as well as patient clinical outcomes.
Median ventilation time was not significantly different in the low tidal volume group; a median (interquartile range) of 450 (264–1,044) min was achieved compared with 643 (417–1,032) min in the control group (P = 0.10). However, a higher proportion of patients in the low tidal volume group was free of any ventilation at 6 h: 37.3% compared with 20.3% in the control group (P = 0.02). In addition, fewer patients in the low tidal volume group required rein-tubation (1.3 vs. 9.5%; P = 0.03).
Although reduction of tidal volume in mechanically ventilated patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery did not significantly shorten time to extubation, several improvements were observed in secondary outcomes. When these data are combined with a lack of observed complications, a strategy of reduced tidal volume could still be beneficial in this patient population.
To evaluate the association between plasma granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) levels and clinical outcomes including mortality in patients with acute lung injury (ALI) and to determine whether lower tidal volume ventilation was associated with a more rapid decrease in plasma G-CSF over time in patients with ALI.
Retrospective measurement of G-CSF levels in plasma samples that were collected prospectively as part of a large multicenter clinical trial.
Intensive care units in ten university centers.
The study included 645 patients enrolled in the NHBLI ARDS Clinical Network trial of lower tidal volumes compared with traditional tidal volumes for ALI.
Measurements and Main Results
Baseline plasma levels of G-CSF were associated with an increased risk of death and a decrease in ventilator-free and organ failure-free days (VFD and OFD) in multivariate analyses controlling for ventilation strategy, age, and sex (OR death 1.2/log10 increment G-CSF, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.4). Stratification of G-CSF levels into quartiles revealed a strong association between the highest levels of G-CSF and increased risk of death and decreased VFD and OFD in multivariate analyses controlling for ventilation strategy, APACHE III score, PF ratio, creatinine, and platelet count (p<0.05). Subgroup multivariate analysis of patients with sepsis as their risk factor for ALI revealed a U-shaped association between mortality and G-CSF levels such that risk increased linearly from the second through fourth (highest) quartiles, yet also increased in the first (lowest) quartile. G-CSF levels decreased over time in both tidal volume groups and there was no statistical difference in the extent of decrease between ventilator strategies.
In patients with ALI, plasma G-CSF levels are associated with morbidity and mortality, yet these levels are not influenced by tidal volume strategy. In patients with sepsis-related ALI we find a bimodal association between baseline plasma G-CSF levels and subsequent morbidity and mortality from this disease.
ALI; ARDS; G-CSF; low tidal volume ventilation; sepsis
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute lung injury (ALI) are a frequent cause of intensive care unit admission, affecting over 200,000 patients in the United States each year. Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving intervention in the setting of ARDS and ALI, but clinical trials have demonstrated that mechanical ventilation with excessive tidal volumes plays a role in promoting and perpetuating lung injury and leads to excess mortality. This process has been labeled ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), but the molecular mechanisms driving this process and its interactions with predisposing risk factors such as sepsis and chemical injury remain incompletely understood. Genome-wide measurements of gene expression using microarray technology represent a powerful tool to examine the pathophysiology of VILI. Several recent studies have used this approach to study VILI in isolation and associated with endotoxin instillation or saline lavage. These studies and others examining gene expression profiles in epithelial cells subjected to cyclic stretch have provided novel insights on the molecular mechanisms underlying VILI. This review will summarize these findings and discuss implications for future studies.
microarray analysis; lung injury; mechanical ventilation; gene expression; genomics
Lung protective ventilation (LPV) has been shown to improve survival and the duration of mechanical ventilation in acute lung injury (ALI) patients. Mortality of ALI may vary by gender, which could result from treatment variability. Whether gender is associated with the use of LPV is not known.
A total of 421 severe sepsis-related ALI subjects in the Consortium to Evaluate Lung Edema Genetics from seven teaching hospitals between 2002 and 2008 were included in our study. We evaluated patients' tidal volume, plateau pressure and arterial pH to determine whether patients received LPV during the first two days after developing ALI. The odds ratio of receiving LPV was estimated by a logistic regression model with robust and cluster options.
Women had similar characteristics as men with the exception of lower height and higher illness severity, as measured by Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score. 225 (53%) of the subjects received LPV during the first two days after ALI onset; women received LPV less frequently than men (46% versus 59%, P < 0.001). However, after adjustment for height and severity of illness (APACHE II), there was no difference in exposure to LPV between men and women (P = 0.262).
Short people are less likely to receive LPV, which seems to explain the tendency of clinicians to adhere to LPV less strictly in women. Strategies to standardize application of LPV, independent of differences in height and severity of illness, are necessary.
We compared the effects of mechanical ventilation with a lower tidal volume (VT) strategy versus those of greater VT in patients with or without acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) on the use of opioids and sedatives.
This is a secondary analysis of a previously conducted before/after intervention study, which consisting of feedback and education on lung protective mechanical ventilation using lower VT. We evaluated the effects of this intervention on medication prescriptions from days 0 to 28 after admission to our multidisciplinary intensive care unit.
Medication prescriptions in 23 patients before and 38 patients after intervention were studied. Of these patients, 10 (44%) and 15 (40%) suffered from ALI/ARDS. The VT of ALI/ARDS patients declined from 9.7 ml/kg predicted body weight (PBW) before to 7.8 ml/kg PBW after the intervention (P = 0.007). For patients who did not have ALI/ARDS there was a trend toward a decline from 10.2 ml/kg PBW to 8.6 ml/kg PBW (P = 0.073). Arterial carbon dioxide tension was significantly greater after the intervention in ALI/ARDS patients. Neither the proportion of patients receiving opioids or sedatives, or prescriptions at individual time points differed between pre-intervention and post-intervention. Also, there were no statistically significant differences in doses of sedatives and opioids. Findings were no different between non-ALI/ARDS patients and ALI/ARDS patients.
Concerns regarding sedation requirements with use of lower VT are unfounded and should not preclude its use in patients with ALI/ARDS.
Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is a common complication of sepsis in mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, but the links between mechanical ventilation and MODS are unclear. Our goal was to determine whether a minimally injurious mechanical ventilation strategy synergizes with low-dose endotoxemia to induce the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways in the lungs and in the systemic circulation, resulting in distal organ dysfunction and/or injury.
We administered intraperitoneal Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 μg/g) to C57BL/6 mice, and 14 hours later subjected the mice to 6 hours of mechanical ventilation with tidal volumes of 10 ml/kg (LPS + MV). Comparison groups received ventilation but no LPS (MV), LPS but no ventilation (LPS), or neither LPS nor ventilation (phosphate-buffered saline; PBS).
Myeloperoxidase activity and the concentrations of the chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and KC were significantly increased in the lungs of mice in the LPS + MV group, in comparison with mice in the PBS group. Interestingly, permeability changes across the alveolar epithelium and histological changes suggestive of lung injury were minimal in mice in the LPS + MV group. However, despite the minimal lung injury, the combination of mechanical ventilation and LPS resulted in chemical and histological evidence of liver and kidney injury, and this was associated with increases in the plasma concentrations of KC, MIP-2, IL-6, and TNF-α.
Non-injurious mechanical ventilation strategies interact with endotoxemia in mice to enhance pro-inflammatory mechanisms in the lungs and promote extra-pulmonary end-organ injury, even in the absence of demonstrable acute lung injury.
Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are life threatening clinical conditions seen in critically ill patients with diverse underlying illnesses. Lung injury may be perpetuated by ventilation strategies that do not limit lung volumes and airway pressures. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing pressure and volume-limited (PVL) ventilation strategies with more traditional mechanical ventilation in adults with ALI and ARDS.
Methods and Findings
We searched Medline, EMBASE, HEALTHSTAR and CENTRAL, related articles on PubMed™, conference proceedings and bibliographies of identified articles for randomized trials comparing PVL ventilation with traditional approaches to ventilation in critically ill adults with ALI and ARDS. Two reviewers independently selected trials, assessed trial quality, and abstracted data. We identified ten trials (n = 1,749) meeting study inclusion criteria. Tidal volumes achieved in control groups were at the lower end of the traditional range of 10–15 mL/kg. We found a clinically important but borderline statistically significant reduction in hospital mortality with PVL [relative risk (RR) 0.84; 95% CI 0.70, 1.00; p = 0.05]. This reduction in risk was attenuated (RR 0.90; 95% CI 0.74, 1.09, p = 0.27) in a sensitivity analysis which excluded 2 trials that combined PVL with open-lung strategies and stopped early for benefit. We found no effect of PVL on barotrauma; however, use of paralytic agents increased significantly with PVL (RR 1.37; 95% CI, 1.04, 1.82; p = 0.03).
This systematic review suggests that PVL strategies for mechanical ventilation in ALI and ARDS reduce mortality and are associated with increased use of paralytic agents.
We assessed factors associated with underutilization of lung protective ventilation (LPV) in patients with acute lung injury (ALI).
Secondary analysis of ARDSNet trial data, 1999-2005. Tidal volumes recorded prior to trial randomization were analyzed to determine receipt of LPV [tidal volume ≤ 6.5 cc/kg of predicted body weight (PBW)].
430/1385 (31.2%) participants received LPV. Average tidal volume was 7.65±1.82 cc/kg PBW; measured tidal volumes were greater than “lung protective” tidal volumes predicted by 6.5cc/kg PBW (mean difference 67±108cc, p<0.0001). Multivariate predictors of LPV underutilization were older age [odds ratio (OR) per standard deviation (std) year 1.18 (95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.38)], white race [OR, 1.40 (1.05-1.88)], shorter stature [OR per std centimeter 0.55 (0.48-0.63)], lower Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS)II [OR per std, 0.78 (0.67-0.92)], lower lung injury score [OR per std 0.83 (0.70-0.95)], decreased serum bicarbonate [OR per std mmol/l 0.83 (0.71-0.97)], shorter pre-enrollment ICU stay [OR per std day 0.84 (0.73-0.98)], and use of non-volume-controlled ventilation [OR 3.07 (1.78, 5.27)]. Setting tidal volumes to 450ml (men) or 350ml (women) would provide LPV to 80% of patients with ALI.
Simple interventions could substantially improve adherence with LPV among patients with ALI and warrant prospective study.
acute lung injury; risk factors; quality improvement
In lung cancer surgery, large tidal volume and elevated inspiratory pressure are known risk factors of acute lung (ALI). Mechanical ventilation with low tidal volume has been shown to attenuate lung injuries in critically ill patients. In the current study, we assessed the impact of a protective lung ventilation (PLV) protocol in patients undergoing lung cancer resection.
We performed a secondary analysis of an observational cohort. Demographic, surgical, clinical and outcome data were prospectively collected over a 10-year period. The PLV protocol consisted of small tidal volume, limiting maximal pressure ventilation and adding end-expiratory positive pressure along with recruitment maneuvers. Multivariate analysis with logistic regression was performed and data were compared before and after implementation of the PLV protocol: from 1998 to 2003 (historical group, n = 533) and from 2003 to 2008 (protocol group, n = 558).
Baseline patient characteristics were similar in the two cohorts, except for a higher cardiovascular risk profile in the intervention group. During one-lung ventilation, protocol-managed patients had lower tidal volume (5.3 ± 1.1 vs. 7.1 ± 1.2 ml/kg in historical controls, P = 0.013) and higher dynamic compliance (45 ± 8 vs. 32 ± 7 ml/cmH2O, P = 0.011). After implementing PLV, there was a decreased incidence of acute lung injury (from 3.7% to 0.9%, P < 0.01) and atelectasis (from 8.8 to 5.0, P = 0.018), fewer admissions to the intensive care unit (from 9.4% vs. 2.5%, P < 0.001) and shorter hospital stay (from 14.5 ± 3.3 vs. 11.8 ± 4.1, P < 0.01). When adjusted for baseline characteristics, implementation of the open-lung protocol was associated with a reduced risk of acute lung injury (adjusted odds ratio of 0.34 with 95% confidence interval of 0.23 to 0.75; P = 0.002).
Implementing an intraoperative PLV protocol in patients undergoing lung cancer resection was associated with improved postoperative respiratory outcomes as evidence by significantly reduced incidences of acute lung injury and atelectasis along with reduced utilization of intensive care unit resources.
Protective ventilatory strategies have been applied to prevent ventilator-induced lung injury in patients with acute lung injury (ALI). However, adjustment of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to avoid alveolar de-recruitment and hyperinflation remains difficult. An alternative is to set the PEEP based on minimizing respiratory system elastance (Ers) by titrating PEEP. In the present study we evaluate the distribution of lung aeration (assessed using computed tomography scanning) and the behaviour of Ers in a porcine model of ALI, during a descending PEEP titration manoeuvre with a protective low tidal volume.
PEEP titration (from 26 to 0 cmH2O, with a tidal volume of 6 to 7 ml/kg) was performed, following a recruitment manoeuvre. At each PEEP, helical computed tomography scans of juxta-diaphragmatic parts of the lower lobes were obtained during end-expiratory and end-inspiratory pauses in six piglets with ALI induced by oleic acid. The distribution of the lung compartments (hyperinflated, normally aerated, poorly aerated and non-aerated areas) was determined and the Ers was estimated on a breath-by-breath basis from the equation of motion of the respiratory system using the least-squares method.
Progressive reduction in PEEP from 26 cmH2O to the PEEP at which the minimum Ers was observed improved poorly aerated areas, with a proportional reduction in hyperinflated areas. Also, the distribution of normally aerated areas remained steady over this interval, with no changes in non-aerated areas. The PEEP at which minimal Ers occurred corresponded to the greatest amount of normally aerated areas, with lesser hyperinflated, and poorly and non-aerated areas. Levels of PEEP below that at which minimal Ers was observed increased poorly and non-aerated areas, with concomitant reductions in normally inflated and hyperinflated areas.
The PEEP at which minimal Ers occurred, obtained by descending PEEP titration with a protective low tidal volume, corresponded to the greatest amount of normally aerated areas, with lesser collapsed and hyperinflated areas. The institution of high levels of PEEP reduced poorly aerated areas but enlarged hyperinflated ones. Reduction in PEEP consistently enhanced poorly or non-aerated areas as well as tidal re-aeration. Hence, monitoring respiratory mechanics during a PEEP titration procedure may be a useful adjunct to optimize lung aeration.
As in the adult with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, the use of lung-protective ventilation has improved outcomes for neonatal lung diseases. Animal models of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome and congenital diaphragmatic hernia have provided evidence that 'gentle ventilation' with low tidal volumes and 'open-lung' strategies of using positive end-expiratory pressure or high-frequency oscillatory ventilation result in less lung injury than do the traditional modes of mechanical ventilation with high inflating pressures and volumes. Although findings of retrospective studies in infants with respiratory distress syndrome, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn have been similar to those of the animal studies, prospective, randomized, controlled trials have yielded conflicting results. Successful clinical trial design in these infants and in children with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome will require an appreciation of the data supporting the modern ventilator management strategies for infants with lung disease.
acute respiratory distress syndrome; diaphragmatic hernia; mechanical ventilators; newborn; persistent fetal circulation syndrome; respiratory distress syndrome
Acute respiratory distress syndrome is characterized by damage to the lung caused by various insults, including ventilation itself, and tidal hyperinflation can lead to ventilator induced lung injury (VILI). We investigated the effects of a low tidal volume (VT) strategy (VT ≈ 3 ml/kg/predicted body weight [PBW]) using pumpless extracorporeal lung assist in established ARDS.
Seventy-nine patients were enrolled after a ‘stabilization period’ (24 h with optimized therapy and high PEEP). They were randomly assigned to receive a low VT ventilation (≈3 ml/kg) combined with extracorporeal CO2 elimination, or to a ARDSNet strategy (≈6 ml/kg) without the extracorporeal device. The primary outcome was the 28-days and 60-days ventilator-free days (VFD). Secondary outcome parameters were respiratory mechanics, gas exchange, analgesic/sedation use, complications and hospital mortality.
Ventilation with very low VT’s was easy to implement with extracorporeal CO2-removal. VFD’s within 60 days were not different between the study group (33.2 ± 20) and the control group (29.2 ± 21, p = 0.469), but in more hypoxemic patients (PaO2/FIO2 ≤150) a post hoc analysis demonstrated significant improved VFD-60 in study patients (40.9 ± 12.8) compared to control (28.2 ± 16.4, p = 0.033). The mortality rate was low (16.5 %) and did not differ between groups.
The use of very low VT combined with extracorporeal CO2 removal has the potential to further reduce VILI compared with a ‘normal’ lung protective management. Whether this strategy will improve survival in ARDS patients remains to be determined (Clinical trials NCT 00538928).
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00134-012-2787-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Lung protective ventilation; Pumpless extracorporeal lung support; Carbon dioxide removal; Acute respiratory distress syndrome; Ultraprotective ventilation
Mechanical ventilation, often required to maintain normal gas exchange in critically ill patients, may itself cause lung injury. Lung-protective ventilatory strategies with low tidal volume have been a major success in the management of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Volutrauma causes mechanical injury and induces an acute inflammatory response. Our objective was to determine whether neutrophil elastase (NE), a potent proteolytic enzyme in neutrophils, would contribute to ventilator-induced lung injury. NE-deficient (NE−/−) and wild-type mice were mechanically ventilated at set tidal volumes (10, 20, and 30 ml/kg) with 0 cm H2O of positive end-expiratory pressure for 3 hours. Lung physiology and markers of lung injury were measured. Neutrophils from wild-type and NE−/− mice were also used for in vitro studies of neutrophil migration, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 cleavage, and endothelial cell injury. Surprisingly, in the absence of NE, mice were not protected, but developed worse ventilator-induced lung injury despite having lower numbers of neutrophils in alveolar spaces. The possible explanation for this finding is that NE cleaves ICAM-1, allowing neutrophils to egress from the endothelium. In the absence of NE, impaired neutrophil egression and prolonged contact between neutrophils and endothelial cells leads to tissue injury and increased permeability. NE is required for neutrophil egression from the vasculature into the alveolar space, and interfering with this process leads to neutrophil-related endothelial cell injury.
neutrophil elastase; ventilator-induced lung injury; endothelial injury; emigration
It has recently been shown that strategies aimed at preventing ventilator-induced lung injury, such as ventilating with low tidal volumes, can reduce mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) seems ideally suited as a lung-protective strategy for these patients. HFOV provides both active inspiration and expiration at frequencies generally between 3 and 10 Hz in adults. The amount of gas that enters and exits the lung with each oscillation is frequently below the anatomic dead space. Despite this, gas exchange occurs and potential adverse effects of conventional ventilation, such as overdistension and the repetitive opening and closing of collapsed lung units, are arguably mitigated. Although many investigators have studied the merits of HFOV in neonates and in pediatric populations, evidence for its use in adults with ARDS is limited. A recent multicenter, randomized, controlled trial has shown that HFOV, when used early in ARDS, is at least equivalent to conventional ventilation and may have beneficial effects on mortality. The present article reviews the principles and practical aspects of HFOV, and the current evidence for its application in adults with ARDS.
acute lung injury; acute respiratory distress syndrome; high-frequency oscillatory ventilation; mechanical ventilation; ventilator-induced lung injury