Fruits and vegetables may be beneficial on lipid profile of hyperlipidemic subjects. The present study was aimed to verify the effect of golden delicious apple on Lipid Profile in hyperlipidemic and overweight men.
Forty six hyperlipidemic and overweight men were randomly divided into two groups. Intervention group received 300g golden delicious apple per day for 8 weeks. Control group had the regular dietary regimen for the same period of time. Blood samples were analyzed for serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), lipoprotein a (Lp a) and LDL/HDL ratio at baseline and after intervention.
Total polyphenols and fibers were 485 mg/kg and 4.03 g/100g in fresh apple respectively. After 8 weeks, significant statistical differences were observed considering the TG and VLDL levels between two groups, but no significant differences were observed regarding TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, Apo (B), Lp (a) and LDL/HDL ratio.
Consumption of Golden delicious apple may be increased serum TG and VLDL in hyperlipidemic and overweight men. We need more studies to assay the effect of apple consumption on serum TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, Apo (B), Lp (a) and LDL/HDL ratio.
Malus; Hyperlipidemia; Dietary fiber; Polyphenols; Overweight; Lipid profile
Epidemiological studies have reported associations between reduced cardiovascular disease and diets rich in tomato and/or lycopene. Intervention studies have shown that lycopene-containing foods may reduce cholesterol levels and lipid peroxidation, factors implicated in the initiation of cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to determine whether consumption of lycopene rich foods conferred cardiovascular protection to middle-aged adults as indicated by plasma lipid concentrations and measures of ex vivo antioxidants.
Ten healthy men and women consumed a low lycopene diet with no added lycopene (control treatment) or supplemented with watermelon or tomato juice each containing 20 mg lycopene. Subjects consumed each treatment for three weeks in a crossover design. Plasma, collected weekly was analyzed for total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride concentrations and for the antioxidant biomarkers of malondialdehyde formation products (MDA), plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP). Data were analyzed using Proc Mixed Procedure and associations between antioxidant and lipid measures were identified by Pearson's product moment correlation analysis.
Compared to the control diet, the lycopene-containing foods did not affect plasma lipid concentrations or antioxidant biomarkers. Women had higher total cholesterol, HDL-C and triglyceride concentrations than did the men. Total cholesterol was positively correlated to MDA and FRAP while HDL-C was positively correlated to MDA and GPX. GPX was negatively correlated to triglyceride concentration.
The inclusion of watermelon or tomato juice containing 20 mg lycopene did not affect plasma lipid concentrations or antioxidant status of healthy subjects. However, plasma cholesterol levels impacted the results of MDA and FRAP antioxidant tests.
OBJECTIVE--To examine the effect on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations when butter or an unsaturated margarine is used for cooking or spreading in a reduced fat diet. DESIGN--Randomised crossover study with two intervention periods of six weeks' duration separated by a five week washout. SETTING--Community setting in New Zealand. SUBJECTS--49 volunteers with polygenic hypercholesterolaemia and baseline total cholesterol concentration in the range 5.5-7.9 mmol/l. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Concentrations of total and low density lipoprotein, Lp(a) lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, apolipoprotein B 100, and apolipoprotein A I. RESULTS--Concentrations of low density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were about 10% lower with margarine than with butter. Lp(a) lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were similar with the two diets. CONCLUSION--Despite concerns about adverse effects on lipoproteins of trans fatty acids in margarines, the use of unsaturated margarine rather than butter by hypercholesterolaemic people is associated with a lipoprotein profile that would be expected to reduce cardiovascular risk.
This randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial assessed the lipid-altering efficacy of a dietary supplement (tablet form) providing 1.8g/day free (non-esterified) plant sterols and stanols versus placebo for 6 weeks as part of a therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLC) diet in 32 men and women with primary hypercholesterolaemia. Mean ± SE baseline (end of a 5-week TLC diet lead-in) lipid concentrations (mmol/1) were total cholesterol (TC), 5.88 ± 0.08; non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), 4.71 ± 0.09; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), 4.02 ± 0.08; HDL-C, 1.17 ± 0.06 and triglycerides (TGs), 1.51 ± 0.12. Differences from control in responses (plant sterol/stanol — control) were significant (p < 0.05) for LDL-C (− 4.9%), non-HDL-C (− 3.6%) and TC (− 2.8%). HDL-C and TG responses were not significantly different between treatment conditions. These results indicate that 1.8g/day free plant sterols/stanols administered in a tablet produced favourable lipoprotein lipid changes in men and women with hypercholesterolaemia.
phytosterols; dietary supplements; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol
The hypolipidaemic efficacy and safety of ciprofibrate were compared with a sustained-release formulation of bezafibrate (Bezalip Mono) in 174 patients with type II hyperlipidaemia. This multicenter, open, parallel-group study was conducted in general practice. A total of 83 patients received 100 mg ciprofibrate once daily and 91 received 400 mg bezafibrate once daily for eight weeks. Concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured at baseline (after stabilisation on a lipid-lowering diet) and after eight weeks. Safety was assessed from reports of adverse events and by measuring haematological and biochemical parameters. After eight weeks, ciprofibrate produced a significantly greater decrease in total cholesterol (-17.8% vs -12.5%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-22.4% vs -17.2%), and triglycerides (-33.9% vs -26.1%). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were increased significantly by both drugs (19.6% with ciprofibrate, 24.9% with bezafibrate) but the differences between drugs were non-significant. Both drugs were well tolerated, with headache the most widely reported adverse event.
Objective and methods A model specifying body mass index (BMI) as mediating the relationship between lifestyle factors (aerobic fitness determined by peak oxygen consumption; physical activity by 7-day physical activity recall; diet by 24 hr dietary recall), and lipid profile were tested in a sample of 205 adolescents (73% boys), who were on average at risk of overweight, aerobically unfit, and from ethnic minority groups. Results In this well-fitting model, consuming a diet low in fat and cholesterol, and being aerobically fit predicted lower BMI, which together resulted in increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreases in triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Being physically active, predicted greater aerobic fitness. Conclusions In addition to furthering understanding of the interrelationships among predisposing, major, and conditional coronary heart disease risk factors in adolescents, these data suggest that improving diet and aerobic fitness will reduce BMI and result in a better lipid profile.
adolescents; body mass index; coronary heart disease; lifestyle factors; lipid profile
Cholesterol administration has been reported to influence hepatic lipid metabolism in rats. In the present study, the effect of dietary cholesterol on hepatic activity and mRNA expression of the enzymes involved in lipid metabolism were investigated. Fourteen male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups and fed 1% cholesterol or cholesterol free AIN76 diets for 4 weeks.
The serum triglyceride and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly decreased but the total cholesterol and non high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly increased in the cholesterol-fed rats compared with the control rats. And the concentrations of the hepatic total cholesterol and triglyceride increased about 4-fold and 20-fold separately by dietary cholesterol. The activities of hepatic malic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, fatty acid synthase, phosphatidate phophatase and carnitine palmitoyl transferase were depressed by the cholesterol feeding (40%, 70%, 50%, 15% and 25% respectively). The results of mRNA expression showed that fatty acid synthase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, carnitine palmitoyl transferase 2, and HMG-CoA reductase were down-regulated (35%, 30%, 50% and 25% respectively) and acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase were up regulated (1.6 and 6.5 folds) in liver by the cholesterol administration.
The dietary cholesterol increased the triglyceride accumulation in liver, but did not stimulate the activity and the gene expression of hepatic enzymes related to triglyceride and fatty acid biosynthesis.
Thymoquinone (TQ), derived from Nigella sativa seed, is an antioxidant. The present study investigated whether TQ attenuates the development of atherosclerosis, and/or reduces the serum lipid levels and oxidative stress in rabbits. New Zealand white female rabbits were assigned to four groups of six animals each: group I, control; group II, 1% cholesterol diet; group III, 1% cholesterol plus TQ (10 mg/kg/day; through a nasogastric tube) diet; and group IV, 1% cholesterol plus TQ (20 mg/kg/day; through a nasogastric tube) diet. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after four and eight weeks on the experimental diets for measurement of serum lipids, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), TC/HDL-C ratio and oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde [MDA] and protein carbonyls). At the end of the eight weeks, the aorta was removed for the assessment of atherosclerotic changes, MDA and protein carbonyls. Group II animals developed atherosclerosis (45%±11% of the intimal surface of aorta was covered with atherosclerotic plaques), which was associated with an increase in the serum TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, MDA and protein carbonyls. In group III, TQ decreased serum TC, LDL-C, MDA and protein carbonyls by 26%, 29%, 85% and 62%, respectively, and aortic MDA by 73%, which was associated with a 40% reduction of the development of aortic atherosclerosis. The higher dose of TQ in group IV had effects similar to the lower dose (group III), except that this dose further decreased serum TG. It is concluded that TQ attenuates hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis and this effect is associated with a decrease in serum lipids and oxidative stress.
Atherosclerosis; Hypercholesterolemia; Reactive oxygen species; Thymoquinone
Concentrations of plasma lipoproteins in 10 men who were habitual smokers were monitored for six weeks after they stopped smoking and related to changes in diet and body weight. The energy intake increased by 10% (p less than 0.05) owing to a higher consumption of carbohydrates and fat, and body weight increased by 2% (p less than 0.01). Plasma triglyceride, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations did not change significantly. The most prominent finding was a rapid and pronounced increased in high-density lipoprotein concentrations. From comparatively low values (mean 0.82 mmol/1) they rose by 29% (p less than 0.01) within two weeks and remained at this value throughout the observation period. In three subjects who resumed smoking after the end of the study they again fell to initial values six weeks later. The initial increase in concentration could be accounted for mainly by an increase in the esterified fraction and only to a lesser extent in the free cholesterol fraction. The changes in concentrations were accompanied by similar but less pronounced rises in high-density lipoprotein phospholipid and in apolipoprotein AI concentrations (p less than 0.01), whereas high-density lipoprotein phospholipid and in apolipoprotein AI concentration (p less than 0.01), whereas high-density lipoprotein triglyceride concentrations did not change significantly. These findings confirm and extend those of earlier cross-sectional studies which showed low concentrations of high-density lipoproteins in cigarette smokers, A significant correlation between the rise in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and the increase in fat consumption after stopping smoking indicate that the changes in high-density lipoprotein concentrations may be partly due to nutritional factors.
Cholesterol status and dietary fat alter several metabolic pathways reflected in lipoprotein profiles. To assess plasma lipoprotein response and mechanisms by which cholesterol and dietary fat type regulate expression of genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism we developed an experimental model system using F1B hamsters fed diets (12 weeks) enriched in 10% (w/w) coconut, olive or safflower oil with either high cholesterol (0.1%; cholesterol-supplemented) or low cholesterol coupled with cholesterol lowering drugs 10-days prior to killing (0.01% cholesterol, 0.15% lovastatin, 2% cholestyramine; cholesterol-depleted). Irrespective of dietary fat, cholesterol-depletion, relative to supplementation, resulted in lower plasma non-high density lipoprotein (HDL) and HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations (all P<0.05). In the liver, these differences were associated with higher sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-2, low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase and 7-α hydroxylase mRNA levels; higher scavenger receptor B1 and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I mRNA and protein levels; and lower apo E protein levels and in intestine modestly lower sterol transporters ATP binding cassette (ABC) A1, ABCG5 and ABCG8 mRNA levels. Irrespective of cholesterol status, coconut oil, relative to olive and safflower oils, resulted in higher non-HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations (both P<0.05) and modestly higher SREBP-2 mRNA levels. These data suggest that in F1B hamsters, differences in plasma lipoprotein profiles in response to cholesterol depletion are associated with changes in the expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism, whereas the effect of dietary fat type on gene expression was modest which limits the usefulness of the experimental animal model.
fatty acids; plasma cholesterol; statin; triglyceride; gene expression
OBJECTIVE--To compare serum concentrations of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides four weeks after acute myocardial infarction with baseline levels measured within 24 hours after onset of symptoms. DESIGN--A prospective study including 141 patients with acute myocardial infarction who were admitted to the coronary care unit at a general hospital. MEASUREMENTS--Fasting serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. MAIN RESULTS--In patients receiving thrombolytic therapy, no significant differences were found in serum lipids four weeks after admission compared to values estimated within 24 hours from onset of symptoms. In patients not receiving thrombolytic therapy, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol showed a minor increase four weeks after admission compared to values obtained within 24 hours after onset of symptoms. High density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS--In patients with acute myocardial infarction receiving thrombolytic therapy, serum lipids measured four weeks after onset of infarction are reasonably valid estimates of baseline lipid levels and may be used to decide about lipid lowering interventions. This information can be a basis for actions against hyperlipidaemia early after hospital discharge when the patient is highly motivated to change lifestyles and is still in close contact with a cardiologist or other physician.
Pleurotus ferulae is an edible mushroom has been widely used for nutritional and medicinal purposes. Irrespective of the medicinal importance or therapeutic potentials of P. ferulae, there have not been studies on anti-hyperlipidemic properties. Therefore, the present study investigates the effects of dietary P. ferulae fruiting bodies on plasma and feces biochemical and on the liver histological status in hypercholesterolemic rats.
Six weeks old female Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into three groups of 10 rats each. Then biochemical and histological examinations were performed.
Feeding of a diet containing 5% P. ferulae fruiting bodies to hypercholesterolemic rat reduced plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total lipid, phospholipids, and LDL/high-density lipoprotein ratio by 30.02, 49.31, 71.15, 30.23, 21.93, and 65.31%, respectively. Mushroom also significantly reduced body weight in hypercholesterolemic rats. However, it had no adverse effects on plasma albumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, creatinin, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, glucose, total protein, calcium, sodium, potassium, chloride, inorganic phosphate, magnesium, and enzyme profiles. Feeding mushroom increased total lipid and cholesterol excretion in feces. The plasma lipoprotein fraction, separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, indicated that P. ferulae significantly reduced plasma β and pre-β-lipoprotein, while increased the α-lipoprotein. A histological study of hepatic cells by conventional hematoxylin-eosin and oil red O staining showed normal findings for mushroom-fed hypercholesterolemic rats.
The present study suggests that 5% P. ferulae diet supplement provides health benefits, at least partially, by acting on the atherogenic lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats.
Agarose Gel Electrophoresis; Atherogenic Lipid Profile; Histopathology; Hypercholesterolemic Rats; Pleurotus Ferulae
We investigated the lipid-lowering effects of methanolic extract of Vernonia amygdalina (VA) leaves in rats fed an high cholesterol diet, and compared with a standard hypolipidemic drug, Questran (Qu). The effects of VA on the lipid profile were assessed by measuring the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, lipid peroxidation (LPO), phospholipid, and glutathione (GSH) in the plasma and liver of the rats. Administration of cholesterol at a dose of 30 mg/0.3 ml, five times in a week for nine consecutive weeks resulted in a significant increase (p < 0.05) in plasma and post mitochondrial fraction (PMF) cholesterol levels by 33% and 55%, respectively. However, treatment with extract of VA at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg caused a dose dependent reduction in the plasma and PMF cholesterol by 20%, 23% and 23%, 29%, respectively. Similar reduction in cholesterol levels was obtained in Qu-treated rats. Furthermore, VA at 200 mg/kg decreased the plasma and PMF LDL-cholesterol levels by 23% and 49%, and also decreased plasma and PMF triglyceride levels by 29% and 28%, respectively. Also, VA at 100 and 200 mg/kg caused a dose-dependent increase in plasma HDL-cholesterol levels by 41% and 59%, respectively. However, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the PMF HDL-cholesterol and phospholipid levels of the treated rats when compared to hypercholesterolemic rats. There were significant decreases (p < 0.05) in the LPO levels of extract-treated rats. Precisely, VA at 100 and 200 mg/kg decreased the levels of plasma and PMF LPO by 38%, 42% and 35%, 45%, respectively. In addition, VA augmented the cholesterol-induced decrease in PMF glutathione levels of the rats. Taken together, these results suggest the lipid-lowering effects of VA and, probably serve as a new potential natural product for the treatment of hyperlipidemia.
hypercholesterolemia; lipid-lowering effect; Vernonia amygdalina; cholesterol
Despite many previous studies, controversy remains concerning the effects of dietary cholesterol on plasma cholesterol concentrations. In addition, the focus of previous studies has been fasting lipid and lipoprotein concentrations; there are no published studies with postprandial measurements. We studied the effects of four levels of dietary cholesterol intake on fasting lipid, lipoprotein, and apoprotein levels, as well as postprandial lipid levels, in a group of young, healthy men who were otherwise eating a low-fat, American Heart Association step 1 diet. Twenty young, healthy men completed a randomized, four-way crossover design study to test the effects of an American Heart Association step 1 diet containing 0, 1, 2, or 4 eggs per day. Dietary cholesterol ranged from 128 to 858 mg cholesterol per day. Each diet was eaten for 8 weeks, with a break between diets. Three fasting blood samples were obtained at the end of each diet period. In addition, blood samples were obtained just before and 2, 4, and 6 hours after ingestion of a standard lunch containing the various amounts of egg cholesterol. We also obtained blood 4 and 8 hours after the subjects ingested a standard, high-fat formula. Fasting plasma total cholesterol concentrations increased by 1.47 mg/dL (0.038 mmol/L) for every 100 mg dietary cholesterol added to the diet (P <.001). Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol increased in parallel. Responsiveness varied but appeared to be normally distributed. Fasting plasma apoprotein B concentrations increased approximately 10% between the 0- and 4-egg diets and were correlated with changes in total and LDL cholesterol concentrations. Although there was a trend toward a greater response in men with an apoprotein E4 allele, this was not statistically significant. Fasting plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein levels were higher only on the 4-egg diet, and changes in cholesteryl ester transfer protein levels between the 0- and 4-egg diets correlated with changes in total and LDL cholesterol. There were no differences in the postlunch or post-fat-formula responses of plasma lipids across the diets. Incubation of the 4-hour postlunch serum with J774 macrophages did not affect cell cholesteryl ester content at any level of dietary cholesterol. Cellular free cholesterol levels were slightly higher on each of the egg-containing diets versus the 0-egg diet. In summary, increases in dietary cholesterol resulted in linear increases in fasting total and LDL cholesterol in young, healthy men. The increases were less than expected based on previous studies, and this may have been due to the low saturated fat content of the background diet and/or the young age of the study group. Dietary cholesterol had no effect on postprandial plasma lipids either in response to the varying doses of cholesterol or after a standard high-fat meal. Increasing dietary cholesterol did not appear to result in an increased atherogenic potential of postprandial serum, as assessed by effects on cultured macrophages.
diet; cholesterol; plasma; LDL; apoprotein B; apoprotein E; cholesteryl ester transfer protein; postprandial; macrophages
The impact of low-fat diets on the plasma lipoprotein profile is incompletely understood. We conducted two 16-week dietary studies to compare the effects of a moderate fat (mod-FAT) baseline diet with isocaloric and ad libitum low-fat diets rich in either carbohydrates (high-CHO, n=16) or protein (high-PRO, n=19) on plasma lipids, post-heparin lipase activities, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP). Switching from the mod-FAT to the isocaloric high-CHO diet lowered plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations (p<0.001) and tended to increase triglyceride levels (p=0.087). Cholesterol content in the larger, buoyant LDL-fractions decreased while those of the VLDL, IDL, and smaller, denser LDL-fractions tended to increase. These changes were largely reversed when subjects lost weight by consuming this high-CHO diet ad libitum. Switching from the mod-FAT diet to the isocaloric high-PRO diet did not increase cholesterol content in the small dense LDL-fraction, and led to decreases in both LDL- and HDL-cholesterol in plasma (p<0.001 for both). Consumption of the high-PRO ad libitum diet accompanied by weight loss did not change plasma lipids further, except for a shift of cholesterol from dense LDL fractions to more buoyant LDL fractions. CETP concentrations decreased with high-CHO feeding, whereas CETP concentrations and hepatic lipase and PLTP activities all decreased during high-PRO feeding. Both high-CHO and high-PRO diets improve plasma lipid-related risk of cardiovascular disease when consumed ad libitum.
Fat; carbohydrate; protein; lipoproteins; lipids; cardiovascular disease
To investigate the effect of the methanolic extract of Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var Orientalis (Fabaceae) seeds (MEEV) in reducing the cholesterol levels and as well as antioxidant in experimentally induced hyperlipidemic rats.
Materials and Methods:
Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract were evaluated for its effect on lipid profile, HMG-CoA reductase, and on antioxidant enzymes in high-fat diet (HFD) induced hyperlipidemia.
Results and Conclusion:
The elevated levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein due to HFD was reduced by concurrent treatment with MEEV (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly (P<0.001). A significant reduction (P<0.001) in high-density lipoprotein was noticed in HFD fed groups; however, a nonsignificant increment was produced by the administration of MEEV (200 and 400 mg/kg). The HMG-CoA reductase activity was increased in HFD fed animals significantly (P<0.001) and was reduced by MEEV 400 mg/kg significantly (P<0.001). There was a noticed increase in the body weight and mesenteric fat pad weight in HFD fed group (P<0.001), which was reduced by the administration of MEEV (200 and 400 mg/kg). The antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase were reduced significantly in the HFD fed group, whose levels were increased significantly (P<0.001) by the administration of MEEV (200 and 400 mg/kg). Lipid peroxidation was increased in HFD fed animals, which was reduced significantly (P<0.001) by the treatment with MEEV (200 and 400 mg/kg).
Antioxidant enzymes; Erythrina variegata; high fat diet; HMG-CoA reductase; lipid profile; β-sitosterol
To evaluate the correlations of the serum concentrations of copper, zinc, and manganese with lipid profile parameters of adult men in Mosul City, Iraq.
The study included 51 apparently healthy adult men as a control group aged 34-62 years (group 1), and 31 hyperlipidemic patients aged 37-60 years (group 2). Trace elements copper, zinc and manganese were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. Concentrations of total cholesterol, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were determined using enzymatic method. Indirect serum concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were calculated via the Friedewald formula. Data were evaluated as mean and standard deviation by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-test.
The results indicated that there is a significant lower level of serum zinc in hyperlipidemic patients compared with the control group, while copper and manganese showed no significant differences between the two groups. A significant negative correlation was found between serum zinc and total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and low/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio; while a significant positive correlation was found between serum zinc and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. In addition, a significant positive correlation between copper and triglyceride existed in the patient group, while the control group showed no such correlation.
Hyperlipidemia may possibly be related to a decrease in the level of serum zinc in hyperlipidemic adult men. The data also supports the concept that zinc supplementation might be useful in improving metabolic complications in subjects with hyperlipidemia.
Lipid profile; Trace elements; Hyperlipidemic patient
To examine the effect of “DeepaniyaVati”, a herbal formulation in the management of hyperlipidemia, a randomized group pre-test post-test study trial was carried out on fifty male (30 to 70 yrs) hyperlipidemic volunteers who were asked to follow their normal routine diet and activity pattern throughout the investigation period. The formulation, prepared by mixing nine plant products in equal proportion, when given in a daily dose of 2g, twice a day for a period of one month, brought about an observable improvement in all the lipid parameters by significantly reducing total cholesterol (10%), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (12.76%), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (27.4%), triglycerides (34.7%) and bringing these values much nearer to the normal levels. In control group, no such effect was noticed. A concomitant significant increase in the HDL-C levels suggests the possible utility of “Deepaniya Vati” in the management of hyperlipidemia and the need for further detailed study.
Hyperlipidemia; herbal formulation; lipoproteins; cholesterol; triglycerides
Obesity is associated with a broad spectrum of cardio-metabolic disturbances, including atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CDV). A high-fat diet has been shown to cause an elevation of the plasma cholesterol levels in humans, and the control of serum cholesterol has been demonstrated to be important in the prevention of CVD and atherosclerosis. The aims of this study were to demonstrate that crude and acidic polysaccharide extracts from Gastrodia rhizomes suppress atherosclerosis through the regulation of serum lipids in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats fed a high-fat diet. We examined the concentrations of serum lipids, including total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol, in SD rats fed a high-fat diet and evaluated the atherogenic index. Here, we show that both crude and acidic polysaccharide extracts from Gastrodia rhizomes inhibited the total cholesterol and LDL levels. Moreover, there was a significantly suppressed atherosclerosis risk due to the acidic polysaccharide extract from Gastrodia rhizome. Taken together, our results suggested that acidic polysaccharide extracts from Gastrodia rhizomes might be beneficial for lowering the incidence of CVD and atherosclerosis by reducing the de novo synthesis of total cholesterol and the LDL levels.
Gastrodia rhizome; acidic polysaccharide; cardio vascular disease; atherogenic index
This study investigated the effect of administration of
α-lipoic acid (LA) on lipid metabolism in high fructose–fed insulin-resistant rats. High-fructose feeding (60 g/100 g
diet) to normal rats resulted in a significant increase in
the concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), free
fatty acids (FFAs), and phospholipids in plasma, liver, kidney,
and skeletal muscle. Reduced activities of lipoprotein
lipase (LPL) and lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase
(LCAT) and increased activity of the lipogenic enzyme
hydroxymethylglutaryl–coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase
were observed in plasma and liver. High-density
lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly lowered
and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and
low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly
elevated. Treatment with LA (35 mg/kg body weight
intraperitoneal) reduced the effects of fructose. The rats
showed near-normal levels of lipid components on plasma
and tissues. Activities of key enzymes of lipid metabolism
were also restored to normal values. Cholesterol distribution
in the plasma lipoproteins was normalized, resulting in
a favorable lipid profile. This study demonstrates that LA
can alter lipid metabolism in fructose-fed insulin-resistant
rats and may have implications in the treatment of insulin
Consumption of plant sterol (PS) esters lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels by suppressing intestinal absorption of cholesterol. Commercially available PS are mainly esterified to omega-6 fatty acid (FA), such as sunflower oil (SO) FA. Emerging trends include using other sources such as olive oil (OO) or omega-3 FA from fish oil (FO), known to exert potent hypotriglyceridemic effects. Our objective was to compare the actions of different FA esterified to PS on blood lipids, carotenoid bioavailability as well as inflammatory and coagulation markers.
Twenty-one moderately overweight, hypercholesterolemic subjects consumed experimental isoenergetic diets enriched with OO (70% of fat), each lasting 28-day and separated by 4-week washout periods, using a randomized crossover design. Diets were supplemented with three PS esters preparations, PS-FO, PS-SO, or PS-OO. All PS treatments contained an equivalent of 1.7 PS g/d, and the PS-FO provided a total of 5.4 g/d FO FA (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids).
There were no differences between PS-containing diet effects on total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, or high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. However, PS-FO consumption resulted in markedly lower (P < 0.0001) fasting and postprandial triglyceride concentrations compared with PS-SO and PS-OO. These treatments affected plasma β-carotene (P = 0.0169) and retinol (P = 0.0244), but not tocopherol (P = 0.2108) concentrations. Consumption of PS-FO resulted in higher β-carotene (P = 0.0139) and retinol (P = 0.0425) levels than PS-SO and PS-OO, respectively. Plasma TNF-α, IL-6, C-reactive protein, prostate specific antigen, and fibrinogen concentrations were unaffected by the PS-interventions. In contrast, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) concentrations were lower (P = 0.0282) in the PS-FO-fed than the PS-SO, but not the PS-OO (P = 0.7487) groups.
Our findings suggest that, in hypercholesterolemic subjects consuming an OO-based diet, PS-FO results in lowered blood triglyceride and PAI-1 concentrations, and higher fat-soluble vitamin levels in comparison to the vegetable oil FA esters of PS (PS-SO and PS-OO). Thus, PS-FO may offer hyperlipidemic subjects a more comprehensive lipid lowering approach while reducing the potential risk of decreased plasma carotenoid concentrations.
The wild edible mushroom, Lentinus lepideus has recently been cultivated for commercial use in Korea. While the mushroom has been widely used for nutritional and medicinal purposes, the possible anti-hyperlipidemic action is unclear. The effects of dietary L. lepideus on plasma and feces biochemical and on the liver histological status were investigated in hypercholesterolemic rats. Six-wk-old female Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into three groups of 10 rats each. Biochemical and histological examinations were performed. A diet containing 5% L. lepideus fruiting bodies reduced plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, total lipid, phospholipids, and the ratio of low-density to high-density lipoprotein. Body weight was reduced. The diet did not adversely affect plasma biochemical and enzyme profiles. L. lepideus reduced significantly plasma β- and pre-β-lipoprotein, while α-lipoprotein content was increased. A histological study of hepatic cells by conventional hematoxylin-eosin and oil red O staining revealed normal findings for mushroom-fed hypercholesterolemic rats. The present study suggests that a diet supplemented with L. lepideus can provide health benefits by acting on the atherogenic lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats.
Agarose gel electrophoresis; Antihyperlipidemic; Atherogenic lipid profile; Histopathology; Hypercholesterolemic rats; Lentinus lepideus
Constipation is one of the most common functional digestive complaints worldwide. We investigated the laxative effects of figs (Ficus carica L) in a beagle model of constipation induced by high protein diet and movement restriction. The experiments were consecutively conducted over 9 weeks divided into 3 periods of 3 weeks each. All 15 beagles were subjected to a non-treatment (control) period, a constipation induction period, and a fig paste treatment period. We administered fig paste (12 g/kg daily, by gavage) for 3 weeks following a 3-week period of constipation induction in dogs. Segmental colonic transit time (CTT) was measured by counting radiopaque markers (Kolomark) using a radiograph performed every 6 h after feeding Kolomark capsules, until capsules were no longer observed. Fig paste significantly increased fecal quantity in constipated dogs, and segmental CTT was also reduced following fig paste administration. There were no significant differences in feed intake, water intake, body weight, or blood test results, between the constipation and fig paste administration periods. Our results demonstrate that fig is an effective treatment for constipation in beagles. Specifically, stool weight increased and segmental CTT decreased. Fig pastes may be useful as a complementary medicine in humans suffering from chronic constipation.
Constipation; fig paste; segmental colonic transit time; Kolomark; beagle dog
Obesity is a common nutritional disorder associated with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, dyslipidemia, and certain cancers. In this study, we investigated the effects of Citrus ichangensis peel extract (CIE) in high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity mice. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed a chow diet or an HF diet alone or supplemented with 1% w/w CIE for 8 weeks. We found that CIE treatment could lower blood glucose level and improve glucose tolerance. In the HF+CIE group, body weight gain, serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels, and liver triglyceride (TG) and TC concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased relative to those in the HF group. To elucidate the mechanism of CIE on the metabolism of glucose and lipid, related genes expression in liver were examined. In liver tissue, CIE significantly decreased the mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and its target genes, such as fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO). Moreover, CIE also decreased the expression of liver X receptor (LXR) α and β which are involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. These results suggest that CIE administration could alleviate obesity and related metabolic disorders in HF diet-induced obesity mice through the inhibition of PPARγ and LXR signaling.
The cultivated species of the wild autochthonous Asparagus officinalis in Andalusia in Spain is commonly called “triguero” asparagus. This vegetable has traditionally been very much appreciated for its organoleptic and nutritional characteristics. This study has been designed to evaluate the potential effect of different concentrations of freeze-dried asparagus (500, 250, and 125 mg/Kg of body weight/day) on oxidative status and lipid profile in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. After five weeks of treatment, doses of 250 and 500 mg/Kg of asparagus were able to significantly reduce total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels. Atherogenic index was also significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner by administrating freeze-dried asparagus. A beneficial effect was observed in the HDL cholesterol levels in asparagus-fed groups although the increase was not significant. Consumption of asparagus also improved antioxidant status, assayed superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes, and protected against lipid peroxidation. These results show that the intake of green asparagus from Andalusia (Spain) helps to regulate plasma lipid levels and prevents oxidative damage in hypercholesterolemic conditions.