Due to the high prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia in Parkinson disease (PD), routine cognitive screening is important for the optimal management of patients with PD. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is more sensitive than the commonly used Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in detecting MCI and dementia in patients without PD, but its validity in PD has not been established.
A representative sample of 132 patients with PD at 2 movement disorders centers was administered the MoCA, MMSE, and a neuropsychological battery with operationalized criteria for deficits. MCI and PD dementia (PDD) criteria were applied by an investigator blinded to the MoCA and MMSE results. The discriminant validity of the MoCA and MMSE as screening and diagnostic instruments was ascertained.
Approximately one third of the sample met diagnostic criteria for a cognitive disorder (12.9% PDD and 17.4% MCI). Mean (SD) MoCA and MMSE scores were 25.0 (3.8) and 28.1 (2.0). The overall discriminant validity for detection of any cognitive disorder was similar for the MoCA and the MMSE (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve [95% confidence interval]): MoCA (0.79 [0.72, 0.87]) and MMSE (0.76 [0.67, 0.85]), but as a screening instrument the MoCA (optimal cutoff point = 26/27, 64% correctly diagnosed, lack of ceiling effect) was superior to the MMSE (optimal cutoff point = 29/30, 54% correctly diagnosed, presence of ceiling effect).
The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, but not the Mini-Mental State Examination, has adequate psychometric properties as a screening instrument for the detection of mild cognitive impairment or dementia in Parkinson disease. However, a positive screen using either instrument requires additional assessment due to suboptimal specificity at the recommended screening cutoff point.
= Alzheimer disease;
= area under the curve;
= deep brain stimulation;
= Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition;
= Geriatric Depression Scale;
= Hopkins Verbal Learning Test;
= instrumental activities of daily living;
= mild cognitive impairment;
= Mini-Mental State Examination;
= Montreal Cognitive Assessment;
= negative predictive value;
= Parkinson disease;
= Parkinson disease dementia;
= positive predictive value;
= quality of life;
= receiver operating characteristic;
= Tower of London-Drexel;
= Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale.
To examine Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) performance in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) with “normal” global cognition according to Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score.
A cross-sectional comparison of the MoCA and the MMSE.
Two movement disorders centers at the University of Pennsylvania and the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center.
A convenience sample of 131 patients with idiopathic PD who were screened for cognitive and psychiatric complications.
Subjects were administered the MoCA and MMSE, and only subjects defined as having a normal age- and education-adjusted MMSE score were included in the analyses (N = 100). As previously recommended in patients without PD, a MoCA score less than 26 was used to indicate the presence of at least mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
Mean MMSE and MoCA scores ± standard deviation were 28.8 ± 1.1 and 24.9 ± 3.1, respectively. More than half (52.0%) of subjects with normal MMSE scores had cognitive impairment according to their MoCA score. Impairments were seen in numerous cognitive domains, including memory, visuospatial and executive abilities, attention, and language. Predictors of cognitive impairment on the MoCA using univariate analyses were male sex, older age, lower educational level, and greater disease severity; older age was the only predictor in a multivariate model.
Approximately half of patients with PD with a normal MMSE score have cognitive impairment based on the recommended MoCA cutoff score. These results suggest that MCI is common in PD and that the MoCA is a more sensitive instrument than the MMSE for its detection.
cognitive impairment; Parkinson’s disease; Mini-Mental State Examination; Montreal Cognitive Assessment; neuropsychology
A cross-sectional validation study was conducted in several urban and rural communities in Beijing, China, to evaluate the effectiveness of the Beijing version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-BJ) as a screening tool to detect mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among Chinese older adults.
The MoCA-BJ and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were administered to 1001 Chinese elderly community dwellers recruited from three different regions (i.e., newly developed, old down-town, and rural areas) in Beijing. Twenty-one of these participants were diagnosed by experienced psychiatrists as having dementia, 115 participants were diagnosed as MCI, and 865 participants were considered to be cognitively normal. To analyze the effectiveness of the MoCA-BJ, we examined its psychometric properties, conducted item analyses, evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the scale, and compared the scale with the MMSE. Demographic and regional differences among our subjects were also taken into consideration.
Under the recommended cut-off score of 26, the MoCA-BJ demonstrated an excellent sensitivity of 90.4%, and a fair specificity (31.3%). The MoCA-BJ showed optimal sensitivity (68.7%) and specificity (63.9%) when the cut-off score was lowered to 22. Among all the seven cognitive sub-domains, delayed recall was shown to be the best index to differentiate MCI from the normal controls. Regional differences disappeared when the confounding demographic variables (i.e., age and education) were controlled. Item analysis showed that the internal consistency was relatively low in both naming and sentence repetition tasks, and the diagnostic accuracy was similar between the MoCA-BJ and the MMSE.
In general, the MoCA-BJ is an acceptable tool for MCI screening in both urban and rural regions of Beijing. However, presumably due to the linguistic and cultural differences between the original English version and the Chinese version of the scale, and the lower education level of Chinese older adults, the MoCA-BJ is not much better than the MMSE in detecting MCI, at least for this study sample. Further modifications to several test items of the MoCA-BJ are recommended in order to improve the applicability and effectiveness of the MoCA-BJ in MCI screening among the Chinese population.
MoCA-BJ; MMSE; Mild cognitive impairment; Dementia; Cognitive assessment
The goal of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Changsha version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-CS) in ischemic cerebrovascular disease patients of Hunan Province, China, and to explore the optimal cutoff score for detecting vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia (VCI-ND) and vascular dementia (VD).
Three hundred and thirty-eight ischemic cerebrovascular disease patients (131 with normal cognition, 111 with VCI-ND, and 96 with VD) and 132 healthy controls were recruited. All participants accepted examination by the MoCA-CS, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and other related scales. A detailed neuropsychological battery was used for making a final cognitive diagnosis. SPSS 16.0 statistical software was used for reliability, validity examination, and optimal cutoff score detection.
Cronbach's α of the MoCA-CS was 0.884, and test-retest and interrater reliability of the MoCA-CS were 0.966 and 0.926, respectively. MoCA-CS scores were highly correlated with MMSE scores (r = 0.867) and simplified intelligence quotients (r = 0.822). The results indicate that 1 point should be added for subjects with less than 6 years of education, and that the optimal cutoff score for detecting VCI-ND is 26/27 (sensitivity 96.1%, specificity 75.6%), whereas the optimal cutoff score for detecting VD is 16/17 (sensitivity 92.7%, specificity 96.3%).
The MoCA-CS has good reliability and validity, and is a useful cognitive screening instrument for detecting VCI in the Chinese population.
Neuropsychology; Psychometrics; Screening; Mild cognitive impairment and dementia; Vascular cognitive impairment; Vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia; Vascular dementia; Stroke
Cognitive deficits are common after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH), and clinical evaluation is important for their management. Our hypothesis was that the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCa) is superior to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in screening for cognitive domain deficit in aSAH patients.
We carried out a prospective observational and diagnostic accuracy study on Hong Kong aSAH patients aged 21 to 75 years who had been admitted within 96 hours of ictus. The domain-specific neuropsychological assessment battery, the MoCA and MMSE were administered 2–4 weeks and 1 year after ictus. A cognitive domain deficit was defined as a cognitive domain z score <−1.65 (below the fifth percentile). Cognitive impairment was defined as two or more cognitive domain deficits. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov of the US National Institutes of Health (NCT01038193).
Both the MoCA and the MMSE were successful in differentiating between patients with and without cognitive domain deficits and cognitive impairment at both assessment periods. At 1 year post-ictus, the MoCA produced higher area under the curve scores for cognitive impairment than the MMSE (MoCA, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.97 versus MMSE, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.83, p = 0.009).
Cognitive domain deficits and cognitive impairment in patients with aSAH can be screened with the MoCA in both the subacute and chronic phases.
Schizophrenia (Sch) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder associated with impairment of cognitive function as a central feature, which is confirmed by a number of studies performed on patients suffering from Sch, where clinical symptoms and social functioning of patients are consequences of neurocognitive deficits.
The goal of this study was to assess the clinical usability of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) as a screening instrument for cognitive impairment in schizophrenic patients, alone and in correlation with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE).
Material and methods:
This clinical prospective study included 30 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Patients were selected from Psychiatric Clinic, Clinical Center University of Sarajevo (CCUS) during 2010. For assessment of cognitive impairment we used Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MoCA) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE).
From the total number of respondents (n=30), 15/30 (50 %) were males and 15/30 (50 %) were females; age of onset were 23.5±6.69; duration of illness before hospitalization (mean±SD) 32.5±12.9. If we make a comparison of MoCA scale and MMSE under the limit values, then we get that there was 10 true positive, 4 true negative, 14 false positive and 2 false negative. This all leads to sensitivity of MoCA scale again in comparison with the MMSE of 41.7%, specificity 66.7%, positive predictive value of 83.3% and negative predictive value of 22.2%.
Our findings provide preliminary evidence that MoCA scale performs well in detecting true positive but it is imprecise in the detection of true negative findings.
schizophrenia; cognitive deficit; MoCA; MMSE.
Subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) has been proposed as the most frequent subtype of vascular cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Chinese (Cantonese) Montreal Cognitive Assessment (CC-MoCA) in patients with SIVD in the Guangdong Province of China.
71 SIVD patients and 60 matched controls were recruited for the CC-MoCA, Mini Mental State Examination and executive clock drawing tasks. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses were performed to determine optimal sensitivity and specificity of the CC-MoCA total score in differentiating mild vascular dementia (VaD) patients from moderate VaD patients and controls.
The mean CC-MoCA scores of the controls, and mild and moderate VaD patients were 25.2 ± 3.8, 16.4 ± 3.7, and 10.0 ± 5.1, respectively. In our study, the optimal cutoff value for the CC-MoCA to be able to differentiate patients with mild VaD from controls is 21/22, and 13/14 to differentiate mild VaD from moderate VaD.
The CC-MoCA is a useful cognitive screening instrument in SIVD patients.
Dementia; Cognitive impairments; Montreal Cognitive Assessment; Neuropsychology; Vascular dementia
To date, there has not been a time-efficient and resource-conscious way to identify cognitive impairment in patients with substance use disorders (SUD). The present study assesses the validity, accuracy, and clinical utility of a brief (10 min) screening instrument, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), in identifying cognitive impairment among SUD patients. The Neuropsychological Assessment Battery-Screening Module (NAB-SM), a 45-minute battery with known sensitivity to the mild-to-moderate deficits observed in SUD patients, was used as the reference criterion for determining agreement, rates of correct and incorrect decision classifications, and criterion-related validity for the MoCA. Classification accuracy of the MoCA, based on receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, was strong, with an area under the ROC curve = 0.86 [95% CI: 0.75-0.97]. The MoCA also showed acceptable sensitivity (83.3%) and specificity (72.9%) for the identification of cognitive impairment. Using a cut-off of 25 on the MoCA, the overall agreement was 75.0%; chance-corrected agreement (kappa) was 41.9%. These findings indicate that the MoCA provides a time-efficient and resource-conscious way to identify SUD patients with neuropsychological impairment, thus addressing a critical need in the addiction treatment research community.
The use of brief cognitive screening instruments is essential in the assessment of dementia. The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of use and perceived characteristics of cognitive screening instruments among Canadian psychogeriatric clinicians.
Members of the Canadian Academy of Geriatric Psychiatry (CAGP) and attendees to the 2010 Annual Scientific Meeting were asked to complete a computerized survey. This survey assessed the perceived characteristics and frequency of use of 14 instruments.
The survey had a 55% response rate, with a total of 155 respondents. The most commonly used instruments are the Clock Drawing Test (CDT), Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and Delayed Word Recall. Effectiveness, ease of administration, and speed of administration were the perceived characteristics of instruments most correlated with frequency of use.
Consistent with previous surveys, a small number of cognitive screening instruments are used by the majority of clinicians. Use of the CDT and the MMSE were comparable. To our knowledge, this is the first survey demonstrating that the MMSE is not the most commonly used tool, and other, newer instruments like the MoCA, are gaining prominence.
cognitive screening; dementia screening; Clock Drawing Test (CDT); Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA); neuropsychiatry; geriatric psychiatry; cognitive testing
To examine the effectiveness of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) to screen people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), to associate the MoCA score with the presence of infarction, and to detect the characteristics of people with very mild subcortical vascular dementia (vmSVD).
392 out of 886 community dwellers aged 75 years and above living in Kurihara, Northern Japan, agreed to participate in our study; 164 scored a Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) of 0 (healthy), 184 scored a CDR of 0.5 (MCI) and 44 scored a CDR of 1+ (dementia). The participants scoring a CDR of 0.5 were divided into 2 subtypes: 37 had vmSVD and 147 had other types of dementia. The objective variables were the total MoCA, the MoCA subscale and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE).
There was a difference in the MoCA and MMSE scores between the 3 CDR groups. The MoCA score overlapped in participants with CDR 0 and 0.5. There were significant CDR effects, while there were no significant infarction effects for the MoCA and MMSE. vmSVD participants had lower scores on the total MoCA, the MoCA attention subscale and MMSE than healthy elderly people and participants with other types of dementia.
Our results suggested that MMSE performed rather well and that the MoCA is not superior to MMSE in MCI and vmSVD participants aged 75 and above in a community.
Montreal Cognitive Assessment; Clinical Dementia Rating; Mild cognitive impairment; Subcortical vascular dementia; Community
Background: current literature suggests that two-thirds of patients will have cognitive impairment at 3 months post-stroke. Post-stroke cognitive impairment is associated with impaired function and increased mortality. UK guidelines recommend all patients with stroke have a cognitive assessment within 6 weeks. There is no ‘gold standard’ cognitive screening tool. The Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) is more sensitive than the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in mild cognitive impairment and for cognitive impairment in the non-acute post-stroke setting and in a Chinese-speaking acute stroke setting.
Methods: a convenience sample of 50 patients, admitted with stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA), were screened within 14 days, using the MoCA and the MMSE.
Results: the mean MoCA was 21.80 versus a mean MMSE of 26.98; 70% were impaired on the MoCA (cut-off <26) versus 26% on MMSE (cut-off <27). The MoCA could be completed in <10 min in 90% of cases.
Conclusion: the MoCA is easy and quick to use in the acute stroke setting. Further work is required to determine whether a low score on the MoCA in the acute stroke setting will predict the cognitive and functional status and to explore what the best cut-off should be in an acute post-stroke setting.
stroke; cognitive impairment; post-stroke dementia; older people
To investigate the prognostic value of the neurocognitive status measured by screening instruments, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), individually and in combination with the stroke severity scale, the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), obtained at the subacute stroke phase or the baseline (≤2 weeks), for functional outcome 3–6 months later.
Prospective observational study.
Tertiary stroke neurology service.
400 patients with a recent ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) received NIHSS, MoCA and MMSE at baseline and were followed up 3–6 months later.
Primary outcome measures
At 3–6 months following the index event, functional outcome was measured by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores.
Most patients (79.8%) had a mild ischaemic stroke and less disability (median NIHSS=2, median mRS=2 and median premorbid mRS=0), while a minority of patients had TIA (20.3%). Baseline NIHSS, MMSE and MoCA scores individually predicted mRS scores at 3–6 months, with NIHSS being the strongest predictor (NIHSS: R2 change=0.043, p<0.001). Moreover, baseline MMSE scores had a small but statistically significant incremental predictive value to the baseline NIHSS for mRS scores at 3–6 months, while baseline MoCA scores did not (MMSE: R2 changes=0.006, p=0.03; MoCA: R2 changes=0.004, p=0.083). However, in patients with more severe stroke at baseline (defined as NIHSS>2), baseline MoCA and MMSE had a significant and moderately large incremental predictive value to the baseline NIHSS for mRS scores at 3–6 months (MMSE: R2 changes=0.021, p=0.010; MoCA: R2 changes=0.017, p=0.021).
Cognitive screening at the subacute stroke phase can predict functional outcome independently and improve the predictive value of stroke severity scores for functional outcome 3–6 months later, particularly in patients with more severe stroke.
GERIATRIC MEDICINE; REHABILITATION MEDICINE
Background and Objectives
Neuropsychological impairment among patients with substance use disorders (SUDs) contributes to poorer treatment processes and outcomes. However, neuropsychological assessment is typically not an aspect of patient evaluation in SUD treatment programs because it is prohibitively time and resource consuming. In a previous study, we examined the concurrent validity, classification accuracy, and clinical utility of a brief screening measure, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), in identifying cognitive impairment among SUD patients. To provide further evidence of criterion-related validity, MoCA classification should optimally predict a clinically relevant behavior or outcome among SUD patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the MoCA in predicting treatment attendance.
We compared previously-collected clinical assessment data on 60 SUD patients receiving treatment in a program of short duration and high intensity to attendance data obtained via medical chart review.
Though the proportion of therapy sessions attended did not differ between groups, cognitively impaired subjects were significantly less likely than unimpaired subjects to attend all of their group therapy sessions.
These results complement our previous findings by providing further evidence of criterion-related validity of the MoCA in predicting a clinically relevant behavior (i.e., perfect attendance) among SUD patients.
The capacity of the MoCA to predict a clinically relevant behavior provides support for its validity as a brief cognitive screening measure.
substance use disorder; addiction; cognitive screening measure; Montreal Cognitive Assessment
Although cognitive decline is a common finding among the elderly and is considered a risk factor for developing dementia, it is rarely diagnosed by general practitioners (GPs).
To evaluate cognitive function with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in asymptomatic subjects in daily GP practice and compare subjects who confirmed having cognitive problems with subjects who did not.
388 consecutive subjects >65 years of age who consulted their GP were interviewed and tested with MMSE and MoCA.
None of the study subjects spontaneously complained of cognitive or memory problems. 155 subjects (39.94%) confirmed having cognitive problems and 233 (60.05%) did not even when asked. The prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) was 18.30% (95% CI 14.36–22.04) and the prevalence of cognitive impairment/no dementia (CIND) was 17.27% (95% CI 13.50–21.04). Delayed memory recall as a separate cognitive domain in MoCA was significantly worse in subjects with MCI (p = 0.00958) and in those with CIND (p = 0.0208).
There is a significant number of patients in daily GP practices with unrecognized, but objectively verifiable, cognitive deficits who do not report having cognitive problems. They can be identified by assessment with MMSE and MoCA already in the GP practice.
Cognitive decline, early detection; Cognitive impairment, no dementia; General practitioners; Mild cognitive impairment; Mini-Mental State Examination; Montreal Cognitive Assessment
Apathy and depression are important neuropsychiatric disorders that can occur after a stroke but the etiology and risk factors are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for apathy and depression following a stroke.
Patients with an acute stroke who met the inclusion criteria were recruited from our hospital, and general information was recorded from patient charts. The Apathy Evaluation Scale, Clinician Version (AES-C) was used to evaluate these patients within 2 weeks after the stroke. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), Mattis Dementia Rating Scale Initiation/Perseveration subset (MDRS I/P), Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and Stroop Color-Word Association Test were employed to evaluate emotion, cognitive function and executive function. The patients were divided into two groups: the apathy group and the non-apathy group. We also divided the patients into two groups based on whether or not they had post-stroke depression. The clinical characteristics and scores on the MoCA, MMSE, HAMD and MDRS I/P were compared between the apathy and non-apathy groups as well as between patients with and without depression. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for apathy and depression following a stroke.
A total of 75 patients with acute stroke were recruited. Of these, 25 (33.3%) developed apathy and 12 (16%) developed depression. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that a history of cerebrovascular disease (OR: 6.45, 95% CI: 1.48-28.05, P = 0.013), low HbA1c (OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.12-0.81, P = 0.017) and a low MDRS I/P score (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.74, 0.96, P = 0.010) were risk factors for post-stroke apathy. Additionally, multivariate logistic regression indicated that a low MDRS I/P (OR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.97, P = 0.015) was associated with post-stroke depression.
Three risk factors for post-stroke apathy were identified as a history of cerebrovascular disease, low HbA1c and lower MDRS I/P scores. A low MDRS I/P score was also identified as a risk factor for post-stroke depression. These results may be useful to clinicians in recognizing and treating apathy and depression in patients after a stroke.
Stroke; Apathy; Depression; Executive dysfunction
There are many cognitive screening instruments available to clinicians when assessing patients' cognitive function, but the best way to compare the diagnostic utility of these tests is uncertain. One method is to undertake a weighted comparison which takes into account the difference in sensitivity and specificity of two tests, the relative clinical misclassification costs of true- and false-positive diagnosis, and also disease prevalence.
Data were examined from four pragmatic diagnostic accuracy studies from one clinic which compared the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) with the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), the Test Your Memory (TYM) test, and the Mini-Mental Parkinson (MMP), respectively.
Weighted comparison calculations suggested a net benefit for ACE-R, MoCA, and MMP compared to MMSE, but a net loss for TYM test compared to MMSE.
Routine incorporation of weighted comparison or other similar net benefit measures into diagnostic accuracy studies merits consideration to better inform clinicians of the relative value of cognitive screening instruments.
Diagnostic accuracy; Weighted comparison; Mini-Mental State Examination; Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised; Montreal Cognitive Assessment;
Test Your Memory test; Mini-Mental Parkinson
We sought to characterize the cognitive function and neuropsychiatric symptoms in cerebral radionecrosis (CRN) patients who have received conformal radiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
A total of 40 patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) that developed CRN (RT + CRN), 40 patients treated with radiotherapy that did not have CRN (RT-No-CRN), and 36 newly diagnosed untreated nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients (No-RT) were recruited. The cognitive function and neuropsychiatric symptoms were evaluated with Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA), the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), activity of daily living scale (ADL), neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI), Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) and Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA).
The RT + CRN group had the lowest mean MMSE, MoCA and ADL scores, while highest mean NPI, HAMD and HAMA scores among the three patient groups (P < 0.05). Thirty (75%) of the RT + CRN patients were deemed cognitively impaired by the MoCA compared with 9 (22.5%) by the MMSE (χ
= 22.064; P < 0.001). Eighty-two percents of subject in RT + CRN group experienced neuropsychiatric symptoms within the past 4 weeks. Irritability, anxiety, depression and agitation in the RT + CRN group were of the most significantly frequent among the 3 groups.
The CRN patients generally have manifestations in cognitive and psychological impairment, which have their typical characteristics, and should be considered in CRN treatment and rehabilitation. The MoCA classifies more CRN patients as cognitively impaired than the MMSE, justifying further studies of the MoCA as an appropriate screen for CRN.
Cerebral radionecrosis; Nasopharyngeal carcinoma; Cognitive impairment; Neuropsychiatric symptom
We examined the clinical value of two serum markers of low-grade inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP) and receptor of advanced glycation products (RAGE), as prognostic indices for cognitive decline.
Patients with cognitive impairment (n = 377) and controls (n = 66) were examined by blood biochemistry tests, including ELISAs of serum CRP and RAGE, the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and STEAM 1H-MRS of the left hippocampus and thalamus.
Compared to the control group, the cognitive impairment group was older (63.10 ± 9.70 years vs. 55.09 ± 10.77 years, P = 0.000) and had fewer years of formal education (9.01 ± 4.01 vs. 12.94 ± 3.0, P = 0.000). There were no significant differences in the frequencies of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, or hyperlipidemia between groups. Serum CRP and RAGE were higher in the cognitive impairment group (CRP: 2.08 mg/L, range 1.07 − 3.36 mg/L vs. 0.21 mg/L, range 0.18 − 0.42 mg/L; RAGE: 4.01, range 2.49 − 5.71, vs. 2.28, range 1.84 − 3.03; P < 0.05 for both). In patients with cognitive impairment, there were negative correlations between cognitive function (as measured by MMSE and MoCA) and both CRP and RAGE levels (P < 0.05). Patients over 55 years exhibited a positive correlation between CRP and myo-inositol peak area in the left hippocampus (P < 0.05), while there was no relationship between RAGE and any metabolite (P > 0.05). Multiple linear regression revealed that CRP was influenced by hypertension (P = 0.026) and cognitive impairment (P = 0.042).
Chronic low-grade inflammation is present in patients with cognitive impairment. Serum CRP, RAGE, and left hippocampal myo-inositol may provide prognostic information on cognitive decline.
The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale is widely used to assess cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease. It requires collateral information from a reliable informant who is not available in many instances. We adapted the original CDR scale for use with elderly subjects without an informant (CDR-NI) and evaluated its reliability and validity for assessing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia among community-dwelling elderly subjects.
At two consecutive visits 1 week apart, nurses trained in CDR assessment interviewed, observed and rated cognitive and functional performance according to a protocol in 90 elderly subjects with suboptimal cognitive performance [Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) <26 and/or Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) <26] and without informants according to a protocol. CDR domains and global scores were assigned after the second visit based upon corroborative information from the subjects' responses to questions, role-play, and observed performance in specifically assigned tasks at home and within the community.
The CDR-NI scores (0, 0.5, 1) showed good internal consistency (Crohnbach's α 0.83-0.84), inter-rater reliability (κ 0.77-1.00 for six domains and 0.95 for global rating) and test-retest reliability (κ 0.75-1.00 for six domains and 0.80 for global rating), good agreement (κ 0.79) with the clinical assessment status of MCI (n = 37) and dementia (n = 4) and significant differences in the mean scores for MMSE, MOCA and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (ANOVA global p < 0.001).
Owing to the protocol of the interviews, assessments and structured observations gathered during the two visits, CDR-NI provides valid and reliable assessment of MCI and dementia in community-living elderly subjects without an informant.
Mild cognitive impairment; Clinical Dementia Rating; Alzheimer's disease;
Community-living elderly subjects; Mini-Mental State Examination; Neuropsychological tests
Falls are a major health care problem for older people and are associated with cognitive dysfunction. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an increasingly recognized clinical problem. No study has comprehensively compared normal volunteers with those with MCI for falls risk factors in both the physiological and cognitive domains.
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to comprehensively compare falls risk factors in community-dwelling older women with and without MCI.
A cross-sectional study.
158 community-dwelling women with Folstein’s Mini Mental State Examination scores of ≥ 24 were included. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was used to categorise participants as either having, or not having, MCI. Each participant’s fall risk profile was assessed by the Physiological Profile Assessment (PPA). Three central executive functions were assessed: 1) set shifting by the Trail Making Test (Part B); 2) updating (i.e., working memory) by the verbal digits backward test; and 3) response inhibition by the Stroop Colour-Word Test.
Both the composite PPA score and its sub-component, postural sway performance were significantly different between the two groups (P ≤ 0.03); those with MCI had higher composite PPA scores and greater postural sway. Compared with those without MCI, participants with MCI performed significantly worse on all three central executive functions tests (P ≤ 0.02).
A screening tool was used to categorize participants as having MCI and falls risk factors were compared rather than the actual incidence of falls.
Falls risk screening may be prudent in older adults with MCI.
PMID: 18820094 CAMSID: cams2319
mild cognitive impairment; physiological fall risk profile; executive function
Aim. This study compares the usefulness of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) to Standardized Mini-Mental Status Exam (SMMSE) for diagnosing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) population. Methods. This prospective pilot study enrolled 30 community dwelling adults with Type 2 DM aged 50 years and above. Subjects were assessed using both the SMMSE and MoCA for MCI. In all subjects, depression and dementia were ruled out using the DSM IV criteria, and a functional assessment was done. MCI was diagnosed using the standard test, the European consortium criteria. Sensitivity and specificity analysis, positive and negative predictive values, likelihood ratios and Kappa statistic were calculated. Results. In comparison to consortium criteria, the sensitivity and specificity of MoCA were 67% and 93% in identifying individuals with MCI, and SMMSE were 13% and 93%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values for MoCA were 84% and 56%, and for SMMSE were 66% and 51%, respectively. Kappa statistics showed moderate agreement between MoCA and consortium criteria (kappa = 0.4) and a low agreement between SMMSE and consortium criteria (kappa = 0.07). Conclusion. In this pilot study, MoCA appears to be a better screening tool than SMMSE for MCI in the diabetic population.
The diagnosis of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment is time-intensive and often omitted in busy outpatient settings. Brief screening tools are needed. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-8 have been used in neurodegenerative disorders. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of these brief screening tools in HIV-infected persons. The AD-8, MoCA, and formal neuropsychological testing were administered to 200 HIV-infected patients followed at a single institution. Normalized scores on formal neuropsychological testing were used to define neurocognitive impairment. The sensitivity and specificity of the MoCA and AD-8 were assessed to diagnose impairment. Neurocognitive impairment was highly prevalent in this cohort: 127 persons (64%) were diagnosed with neurocognitive impairment based on formal testing. Using the AD-8 and MoCA, 113 (57%) and 101 (51%) persons were identified with neurocognitive impairment, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of MoCA were 63% and 71%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of AD-8 were 61% and 51%, respectively. Our findings highlight that brief screening tools correlate with formal neuropsychological testing. However, the sensitivities of these screening tools are lower than desired. Nevertheless, given their ease in administration, these tools could assist as a first line for identifying individuals who may subsequently require formal neuropsychological testing.
HIV; Neurocognitive Disorder; MoCA; AD-8; Neuropsychological Testing; Cognition
There is abundant evidence on inflammatory mechanisms in heart failure (HF) that are used for prognostication of the disease; however, data are lacking regarding the association between elevated cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP), and cognition in HF. A cross-sectional pilot study of 38 patients with HF, aged 62 years (standard deviation± 9 years), predominantly men (68%) and Cau casian (79%) were screened for cognitive function using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The study aimed to examine cognitive scores on MoCA with cytokines, interleukin 6 [IL-6] and tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α], and CRP as indicators of early cognitive changes in HF. The result showed no direct correlation between cardiac variables and the MoCA score. The MoCA score, however, was inversely associated with IL-6 (r=−0.53, P=.001) and CRP (r=−0.34, P=.04), with no association to TNF-α. Regression analysis on the MoCA score and log-transformed IL-6 accounted for an additional 11% variation and remained statistically significant (P=.008) after controlling for covariates of education, living arrangements, and loneliness. The large effect size (R2=0.87) found in this pilot study provides rationale for a larger exploratory study to examine associations between cognitive function, cytokines, and CRP levels and help design future intervention studies.
Cognitive impairments in multiple sclerosis (MS) are now well recognized worldwide, but unfortunately this domain has been less explored in India due to many undermining factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive impairments in Indian MS patients with visual or upper limb motor problems with the help of short version of Montreal cognitive assessment test (MoCA).
Subjects and Methods:
Thirty MS patients and 50 matched controls were recruited for the 12 points MoCA task. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was performed to determine optimal sensitivity and specificity of the 12 points MoCA in differentiating cognitively impaired patients and controls.
The mean 12 points MoCA scores of the controls and MS patients were 11.56 ± 0.67 and 8.06 ± 1.99, respectively. In our study, the optimal cut-off value for 12 points MoCA to be able to differentiate patients with cognitive impairments from controls is 10/12. Accordingly, 73.3% patients fell below the cut off value. Both the groups did not have significant statistical differences with regard to age and educational years.
The 12 points, short version of MoCA, is a useful brief screening tool for quick and early detection of mild cognitive impairments in subjects with MS. It can be administered to patients having visual and motor problems. It is of potential use by primary care physicians, nurses, and other allied health professionals who need a quick screening test. No formal training for administration is required. Financial and time constraints should not limit the use of the proposed instrument.
Cognitive impairments; Indian; montreal cognitive assessment test; multiple sclerosis
Clock drawing is part of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test but may have administration and scoring limitations. We assessed (1) the reliability of the MoCA clock criteria relative to a published error scoring approach, (2) whether command-only administration could distinguish dementia from cognitively intact individuals and (3) the value of adding a clock copy condition to the MoCA.
Three novice raters and clocks from dementia and control participants were used to assess the 3 aims.
MoCA interrater and intrarater reliability were low (i.e. intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.12–0.31) and required repeat training. Clocks drawn to command classified dementia at chance. Inclusion of a copy condition demonstrated expected dementia subgroup patterns.
Reliable clock scoring with MoCA criteria requires practice. Supplementing a clock copy to the standard MoCA test (takes <1 min) will improve dementia assessment.
Montreal Cognitive Assessment scoring, rater reliability; Parkinson disease with dementia; Alzheimer disease; Vascular dementia; Cognition