The aim of this study was to determine whether tailoring the extent of resection would allow radical gastric cancer surgery to be performed safely in a UK population.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
A total of 180 consecutive patients (median age 70 years; male:female ratio 2:1) undergoing resection for gastric adenocarcinoma with curative intent were studied. Extent of lymphadenectomy was based upon pre-operative and intra-operative staging, and balanced against the patient's age and fitness.
In the study group, 83 patients underwent subtotal or distal partial gastrectomy and 97 patients underwent total or proximal partial gastrectomy. Operative procedures were: D1 lymphadenectomy (n = 62); modified (spleen and pancreas preserving) D2 lymphadenectomy (n = 73); D2 lymphadenectomy (n = 42); and extended resection (n = 3). TNM classification was: stage 1 (n = 45); stage 2 (n = 37); stage 3 (n = 61); and stage 4 (n = 37). Of the patients, 48 developed postoperative complications including 17 patients with a major surgical complication. The in-hospital mortality was 1.7% (3 of 180). Predicted mortality according to POSSUM and P-POSSUM was 21.4% and 7.8%, respectively. Disease-specific 5-year survival according to stage was 85.4%, 64.2%, 33.3%, and 6.9%.
By tailoring the extent of resection and balancing risk and radicality, gastric cancer surgery can be performed with low mortality in Western patients.
Stomach neoplasms; Gastrectomy; Lymph node excision
Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is the standard treatment in Western countries for gastric cancer patients submitted to curative resection. However, the role of adjuvant CRT in gastric cancer treated with D2 lymphadenectomy has not been well defined.
We conducted a retrospective study in patients with stage II to IV gastric adenocarcinoma with no distant metastases, who underwent curative resection with D2 lymphadenectomy between January 2002 and December 2007. The present study compared the 3-year overall survival of two treatments (adjuvant CRT according to the INT 0116 trial versus resection alone). Survival curves were estimated by the Kaplan–Meier method and compared with a log-rank test. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors was performed by the Cox proportional hazards model.
A total of 185 patients were included, 104 patients (56 %) received adjuvant CRT and 81 received resection alone. The 3-year overall survival was 64.4 % in the CRT group and 61.7 % in the resection-alone group (p: 0.415). However, according to the Cox proportional hazards model, adjuvant CRT was a prognostic factor for 3-year overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0.46, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.26–0.82, p: 0.008).
In the present study, adjuvant CRT was associated with a lower risk of death over a 3-year period in gastric cancer patients treated with D2 lymphadenectomy.
Stomach neoplasms; Adjuvant chemotherapy; Adjuvant radiotherapy; Lymph node excision; Survival
Patients with type 4 gastric cancer and peritoneal metastasis respond better to chemotherapy than surgery. In particular, patients without gastric stenosis who can consume a meal usually experience better quality of life (QOL). However, some patients with unsuccessful chemotherapy are unable to consume a meal because of gastric stenosis and obstruction. These patients ultimately require salvage surgery to enable them to consume food normally. We evaluated the outcomes of salvage total gastrectomy after chemotherapy in four patients with gastric stenosis. We determined clinical outcomes of four patients who underwent total gastrectomy as salvage surgery. Outcomes were time from chemotherapy to death and QOL, which was assessed using the Support Team Assessment Schedule-Japanese version (STAS-J). Three of the patients received combination chemotherapy [tegafur, gimestat and otastat potassium (TS-1); cisplatin]. Two of these patients underwent salvage chemotherapy after 12 and 4 mo of chemotherapy. Following surgery, they could consume food adequately and their STAS-J scores improved, so their treatments were continued. The third patient underwent salvage surgery after 7 mo of chemotherapy. This patient was unable to consume food adequately after surgery and developed surgical complications. His clinical outcomes at 3 mo were very poor. The fourth patient received combination chemotherapy (TS-1 and irinotecan hydrochloride) for 6 mo and then underwent received salvage surgery. After surgery, he could consume food adequately and his STAS-J score improved, so his treatment was continued. After the surgery, he enjoyed his life for 16 mo. Of four patients who received salvage total gastrectomy after unsuccessful chemotherapy, the QOL improved in three patients, but not in the other patient. Salvage surgery improves QOL in most patients, but some patients develop surgical complications that prevent improvements in QOL. If salvage surgery is indicated, the surgeon and/or oncologist must provide the patient with a clear explanation of the purpose of surgery, as well as the possible risks and benefits to allow the patient to reach an informed decision on whether to consent to the procedure.
Type 4 gastric cancer; Quality of life; Salvage surgery; Support Team Assessment Schedule-Japanese version; Palliative care; Systemic chemotherapy; Gastric stenosis
AIM: To investigate the effects of extended lymphadenectomy and postoperative chemotherapy on gastric cancer without lymph node metastasis.
METHODS: Clinical data of 311 node-negative gastric cancer patients who underwent potentially curative gastrectomy with more than 15 lymph nodes resected, from January 2002 to December 2006, were analyzed retrospectively. Patients with pT4 stage or distant metastasis were excluded. We analyzed the relationship between the D2 lymphadenectomy and the 5-year survival rate among different subgroups stratified by clinical features, such as age, tumor size, tumor location and depth of invasion. At the same time, the relationship between postoperative chemotherapy and the 5-year survival rate among different subgroups were also analyzed.
RESULTS: The overall 5-year survival rate of the entire cohort was 63.7%. The 5-year survival rate was poor in those patients who were: (1) more than 65 years old; (2) with tumor size larger than 4 cm; (3) with tumor located in the upper portion of the stomach; and (4) with pT3 tumor. The survival rate was improved significantly by extended lymphadenectomy only in patients with pT3 tumor (P = 0.019), but not in other subgroups. Moreover, there was no significant difference in survival rate between patients with and without postoperative chemotherapy among all of the subgroups (P > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: For gastric cancer patients without lymph node metastasis, extended lymphadenectomy could improve the survival rate of those who have pT3-stage tumor. However, there was no evidence of a survival benefit from postoperative chemotherapy alone.
Gastric cancer; Lymph node negative metastasis; Extended lymphadenectomy; D2 lymphadenectomy; Chemotherapy
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a distal subtotal gastrectomy on the quality of life (QoL).
Materials and Methods
The QoL data of 126 patients were obtained on their 5th annual follow-up visit after a curative distal subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer (Group A). The QoL data of 130 age- and gender-adjusted healthy population were obtained from the individuals who visited the health screening center for a medical check-up (Group B). There were 42 women and 84 men in the study group and their mean age was 56.0±11.1 years. QoL was assessed using the Korean versions of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QoL Questionnaire Core 30 (QLQ-C30) and QLQ-STO22.
The EORTC QLQ-C30 global health status and QoL scores of Group A and Group B were 63.9±22.7 and 61.3±22.1, respectively (p=0.361). Group A revealed a better score for emotional functioning (84.1±16.1 and 75.2±21.4, respectively; p<0.001), cognitive functioning (82.0±16.4 and 75.0±21.4, respectively; p=0.004) and fatigue (27.7±20.8 and 33.8±23.2, respectively; p=0.028). However, Group A revealed a worse score for nausea and vomiting (14.8±20.0 and 10.2±16.0, respectively; p=0.042), financial difficulties (14.8±22.9 and 7.1±16.1, respectively; p=0.002), reflux (16.7±17.7 and 10.1±17.0, respectively; p=0.003), eating restrictions (13.6±15.2 and 6.6±10.2, respectively; p<0.001) and body image (23.3±25.4 and 16.2±24.6, respectively; p=0.023).
The QoL of long-term survivors after a distal subtotal gastrectomy is still influenced by the surgery itself even though they are considered to be free of disease.
Stomach neoplasms; Gastrectomy; Quality of life
Noncancerous causes of death, such as cerebrovascular or cardiac disease, are not rare in patients with gastric cancer who had undergone curative gastrectomy. Metabolic syndrome, characterized by visceral fat accumulation, is a risk factor for cerebrovascular and cardiac diseases. However, there is limited information on the effects of reconstruction procedures on changes in visceral fat after distal gastrectomy. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the reconstruction procedure (Roux-en-Y reconstruction (RY) and Billroth I reconstruction (BI)) on changes in visceral fat, as determined using computed tomography.
The study subjects were 152 patients with gastric cancer who underwent distal gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy between 2002 and 2007. The visceral fat area was measured for one cross-sectional computed tomogram obtained at the level of the umbilicus.
Adjuvant chemotherapy (yes vs. no, P = 0.0006), type of reconstruction (BI vs. RY, P = 0.0146), field of lymph node dissection (
Visceral fat loss after RY was larger than that after BI. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm the effects of reconstruction after distal gastrectomy on visceral fat.
Gastrectomy; Reconstruction; Visceral fat
In patients with stage IV gastric cancer, systemic chemotherapy is the key treatment. Combination chemotherapy (cis-diamminedichloride platinum plus S-1 and docetaxel plus S-1) results in long-term survival in clinical practice. In selected cases, additional (adjuvant) surgery may result in further long-term survival. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant surgery following the response to chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer. Based on response to chemotherapy, the indications for adjuvant surgery (surgery after the response to chemotherapy) are that resection is expected to be curative rather than palliative, provided that no other distant metastases occur. The study included 20 advanced gastric cancer patients who had undergone gastrectomies after the response to the combination chemotherapy of docetaxel and S-1, between September 2003 and December 2008 at Hiroshima University Hospital. At a median follow-up of 980 days, the median overall survival was 855 days. A 2- and 3-year survival was observed in 80 and 54.9% of patients, respectively, following macroscopic curative surgery. In the palliative group, the median overall survival was 510 days, but a 3-year survival was not observed. In the partial response group, the median overall survival was 865 days and a 3-year survival was observed in 37% of patients. One-year survival was not observed in the stable disease group. The patient survival in the partial response group was statistically more prolonged than in the stable disease group. The median overall survival in patients with liver metastasis was 865 days, while that in patients with peritoneal dissemination was 510 days. In conclusion, adjuvant surgery may be effective in gastric cancer patients diagnosed as stage IV by means of liver or distant lymph node metastasis, except in cases of peritoneal dissemination.
gastric cancer; adjuvant surgery; S-1; docetaxel
AIM: To reveal the clinicopathological features and risk factors for lymph node metastases in gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma of male patients.
METHODS: We retrospective reviewed a total of 146 male and female patients with gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma who had undergone curative gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy in the Department of Surgery, Xin Hua Hospital and Rui Jin Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University Medical School between November 2001 and May 2012. Both the surgical procedure and extent of lymph node dissection were based on the recommendations of Japanese gastric cancer treatment guidelines. Univariate and multivariate analyses of lymph node metastases and the clinicopathological features were undertaken.
RESULTS: The rate of lymph node metastases in male patients with gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma was 72.1%. Univariate analysis showed an obvious correlation between lymph node metastases and tumor size, gross appearance, differentiation, pathological tumor depth, and lymphatic invasion in male patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that tumor differentiation and pathological tumor depth were the independent risk factors for lymph node metastases in male patients. There was an obvious relationship between lymph node metastases and tumor size, gross appearance, differentiation, pathological tumor depth, lymphatic invasion at pN1 and pN2, and nerve invasion at pN3 in male patients. There were no significant differences in clinicopathological features or lymph node metastases between female and male patients.
CONCLUSION: Tumor differentiation and tumor depth were risk factors for lymph node metastases in male patients with gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma and should be considered when choosing surgery.
Gastric neoplasm; Lymph node metastasis; Risk factors; Gastrectomy; Lymphadenectomy
The optimal chemotherapeutic strategy for gastric cancer patients has not been determined, especially with respect to stage and the curability of gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of adjuvant chemotherapy on stage IV (T4N1-3M0 and T1-3N3M0) gastric cancer after curative gastrectomy between a chemotherapy (CTX) group and non-chemotherapy (non-CTX) group.
Materials and Methods
Among 1,760 patients who underwent gastric surgery by 1 surgeon in a single institution, 162 stage IV gastric cancer patients with curative gastrectomy were analyzed retrospectively, excluding patients with TanyNanyM1. One hundred twenty-five patients who received different chemotherapeutic regimens were compared to 37 patients who did not receive chemotherapy for reasons of old age or according to their expressed desire.
The clinicopathologic factors which showed a clinically significant difference between the two groups were age and histology, which were not associated with patient survival. The CTX group was younger, and had a larger proportion of undifferentiated gastric cancers than the non-CTX group. The mode of treatment failure revealed no significant difference between the CTX and non-CTX groups. The 1, 3, and 5-year disease-free survival and the 1, 3, and 5-year disease-specific survival of the CTX group were 63.9%, 38.4%, and 32.0%, and 85.4%, 52.3%, and 39.6%, respectively, which were more favorable than the non-CTX group (p=0.015 and p=0.001, respectively). Postoperative adjuvant CTX was an independent risk factor for disease-specific survival of stage IV (T4N1-3M0 and T1-3N3M0) gastric cancer patients after curative gastrectomy by multivariate analysis (odds ratio=2.153; 95% confidence interval=1.349-3.435; p=0.001).
Adjuvant CTX may be associated with survival benefit for younger patients with stage IV (T4N1-3M0 and T1-3N3M0) gastric cancer with undifferentiated histology after curative gastrectomy. A randomized controlled trial to reveal the effect of stage-specific adjuvant chemotherapy should be conducted.
Adjuvant chemotherapy; Stage IV gastric cancer; Curative gastrectomy; survival
The optimal adjuvant treatment modality for gastric cancer has not been well defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of adjuvant combined systemic and intraperitoneal chemotherapy (ACSIP) in high-risk patients with locally advanced gastric cancer. Between June 2003 and December 2008, 62 eligible patients with serosa-infiltrating and/or node-positive gastric cancer following curative gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy received ACSIP, consisting of intravenous oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2 on day 1 followed by leucovorin (LV) 200 mg/m2 and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) 450 mg/m2 on days 1–3, intraperitoneal 5-FU 600 mg/m2 on days 4–5 and cisplatin (CDDP) 40 mg/m2 on day 5. Survival rates, the sites of first treatment failure and safety were analyzed. At a median follow-up of 45 months (range 7–101), the 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 66.1 and 74.2%, respectively. Initial peritoneal and hepatic failures were found in 6 (24.0%) and 3 (12.0%) of the 25 patients with recurrence, respectively. Neutropenia, gastrointestinal side effects and peripheral neuropathy were the most common grade 3–4 toxicities; however, they were all infrequent and manageable. No serious surgical complications or treatment-related mortality was observed. The results of this study indicate that ACSIP is effective and feasible for locally advanced gastric cancer with encouraging survival rates and possibly decreased peritoneal and hepatic recurrences. The benefits of this promising combined adjuvant treatment modality warrant further studies.
locally advanced gastric cancer; adjuvant chemotherapy; combined therapy; intraperitoneal chemotherapy
Prognosis in patients with locally advanced stomach cancer undergoing surgery alone is poor. High local failure rates in gastric cancer have been reported of up to 70%. When a relapse occurs, attempts at curative treatment are generally unsuccessful. A retrospective analysis was performed in order to determine whether post-operative radiochemotherapy improves treatment results in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer.
Between November 2004 and July 2008, 56 patients with clinical Stage IB–IV cancer of the stomach underwent curative gastrectomy and adjuvant radiochemotherapy. Patients with distant metastases were excluded from the analysis. The total radiation dose was 45.0 Gy. The chemotherapy regimen comprised a 5 day cycle of 5-fluorouracil at 425 mg m–2 and leucovorin at 20 mg m–2. Overall survival and disease-free survival, as well as toxicity, were estimated for all patients.
Within the study group there were 7 (13%) local recurrences, 4 (7%) distant metastases and 8 (14%) local and distant relapses. The 2 year overall survival was 48%. A total of 19 (34%) patients developed Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity. There were no treatment-related deaths.
Post-operative radiochemotherapy is an effective and safe regimen in patients with curatively resected locally advanced gastric cancer.
In the last decades, there have been no studies carried out in Lithuania on the quality of life of breast cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the quality of life of Lithuanian women with the early stage of breast cancer nine months after surgery and its dependence on surgical strategy, adjuvant chemotherapy and the social and demographic status of the patients.
Seventy-seven patients with early stage breast cancer filled in the FACT-An questionnaire twice: one week and nine months after the surgery. The main age of the patients was 53.1 ± 10.6 years. We distinguished the mastectomy group and breast conserving treatment (BCT) group with/without chemotherapy. The groups were identical in their social and demographic status (age, education, occupation and marital status). Changes in the quality of life in these groups were compared nine months after surgery.
Nine months after surgery, the overall quality of life was found worse in both mastectomy and BCT groups. Changes were induced by the worsening of the emotional and social well-being. The quality of life became worse in the mastectomy plus chemotherapy sample. No changes were detected in the mastectomy group without chemotherapy. In addition, the multivariate analysis showed that the marital status was quite a significant determinant of the functional well-being.
Nine months after surgery, the study revealed a worsening of the overall quality of life in both groups of patients – those who had undergone mastectomy and BCT. The quality of life became considerably worse in the mastectomy plus chemotherapy group. Marital status was found to exert the most considerable influence on the women's quality of life in comparison with other social and demographic factors.
AIM: To explore risk factors for lymph node metastases in early gastric cancer (EGC) and to confirm the appropriate range of lymph node dissection.
METHODS: A total of 202 patients with EGC who underwent curative gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy in the Department of Surgery, Xinhua Hospital and Ruijin Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University Medical School between November 2003 and July 2009, were retrospectively reviewed. Both the surgical procedure and the extent of lymph node dissection were based on the recommendations of the Japanese gastric cancer treatment guidelines. The macroscopic type was classified as elevated (type I or IIa), flat (IIb), or depressed (IIc or III). Histopathologically, papillary and tubular adenocarcinomas were grouped together as differentiated adenocarcinomas, and poorly differentiated and signet-ring cell adenocarcinomas were regarded as undifferentiated adenocarcinomas. Univariate and multivariate analyses of lymph node metastases and patient and tumor characteristics were undertaken.
RESULTS: The lymph node metastases rate in patients with EGC was 14.4%. Among these, the rate for mucosal cancer was 5.4%, and 8.9% for submucosal cancer. Univariate analysis showed an obvious correlation between lymph node metastases and tumor location, depth of invasion, morphological classification and venous invasion (χ2 = 122.901, P = 0.001; χ2 = 7.14, P = 0.008; χ2 = 79.523, P = 0.001; χ2 = 8.687, P = 0.003, respectively). In patients with submucosal cancers, the lymph node metastases rate in patients with venous invasion (60%, 3/5) was higher than in those without invasion (20%, 15/75) (χ2 = 4.301, P = 0.038). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the depth of invasion was the only independent risk factor for lymph node metastases in EGC [P = 0.018, Exp (B) = 2.744]. Among the patients with lymph node metastases, 29 cases (14.4%) were at N1, seven cases were at N2 (3.5%), and two cases were at N3 (1.0%). Univariate analysis of variance revealed a close relationship between the depth of invasion and lymph node metastases at pN1 (P = 0.008).
CONCLUSION: The depth of invasion was the only independent risk factor for lymph node metastases. Risk factors for metastases should be considered when choosing surgery for EGC.
Gastric neoplasm; Lymph node metastasis; Risk factors; Gastrectomy; Lymphadenectomy
Gastric cancer relapse occurs in about 30% of the patients treated with gastrectomy and D2-lymphadenectomy, mainly as distant or peritoneal metastases. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has been associated with an improvement in survival and lower peritoneal recurrence, albeit with increased morbidity. The aim of this study is to report the preliminary results of the association of perioperative chemotherapy, radical surgery and HIPEC in high-risk gastric patients in a single institution.
Treatment protocol was started in 2007 and included patients younger than 65 years old, with good performance status and gastric adenocarcinoma with serosa involvement and lymph node metastases, located in the body or antrum. Patients should receive three preoperative cycles of DCF (Docetaxel 75 mg/m2, Cisplatin 75 mg/m2 and continuous intravenous infusion of 5-Fluorouracil 750 mg/m2 for 5 days), followed by gastric resection with D2-lymphadenectomy, hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy with Mytomicin C 34 mg/m2 and three more postoperative cycles of DCF.
Ten patients were included between 2007 and 2011. Their median age was 47 years old and six were male. Nine were staged with cT4 cN + tumors and one as cT3 cN+. Nine patients completed all three preoperative chemotherapy cycles. Eight individuals were treated with a total gastrectomy and the other two had a distal gastrectomy, all having HIPEC. Postoperative morbidity was 50%, with no deaths. Regarding postoperative chemotherapy, only 5 patients completed three cycles. With a median follow-up of 25 months, three relapses were identified and 7 patients remain disease-free, two with more than 4 years of follow-up.
The association of perioperative systemic and intraperitoneal chemotherapy plus radical surgery is a feasible multimodality treatment, with acceptable morbidity. With a longer follow-up and a larger group of patients, we hope to be able to determine if it also influences survival outcomes and patterns of recurrence.
The association of perioperative chemotherapy, gastric resection and D2-lymphadenectomy and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy proved to be associated with acceptable morbidity. For survival analysis, a longer follow-up is needed.
Gastric cancer; HIPEC; Perioperative chemotherapy
AIM: To analyze the outcome of patients who received concurrent capecitabine (Xeloda) and radiation (XRT) compared to the established concurrent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with radiation (5FU-RT) and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy alone as adjuvant treatment in gastric cancers.
METHODS: All patients with gastric cancers who received adjuvant treatment at the National Cancer Centre Singapore between 1996 and 2006 were reviewed. Treatment outcomes of patients who received XRT were compared with those who had 5FU-RT or chemotherapy alone as adjuvant therapy for gastric cancers.
RESULTS: A total of 108 patients were reviewed. Median age at diagnosis was 60. The majority of the patients (64.8%) had advanced stage III and IV disease (with no distant metastasis). All except 4 patients had D2 gastrectomy. Twenty one patients (19.4%) had positive surgical resection margins. Thirty three patients received XRT compared with 52 who had 5FU-RT and 23 who received chemotherapy alone. For the patients in the chemotherapy-only group, all had fluoropyrimidine-based therapy, with added cisplatin in 7 patients and epirubicin in 2 patients. Median recurrence-free survival was longer for the XRT group (52 mo) compared to the 5FU-RT (35 mo) and chemotherapy-only groups (25 mo) (P = 0.48). The patients in the XRT group achieved similar median overall survival (53 mo) as the 5FU-RT (54 mo) and the chemotherapy-only groups (44 mo) (P = 0.5).
CONCLUSION: Capecitabine with concurrent radiation was as effective as concurrent 5FU with radiation or fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy alone when used as adjuvant treatment in patients with gastric cancers.
Capecitabine; Radiation; Gastric cancer; Adjuvant chemotherapy
Adjuvant chemotherapy for early stage non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is now the standard of care, but there is little information regarding its impact on quality of life (QOL). We report the QOL results of JBR.10, a North American, intergroup, randomized trial of adjuvant cisplatin and vinorelbine compared with observation in patients who have completely resected, stages IB to II NSCLC.
Patients and Methods
QOL was assessed with the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 and a trial-specific checklist at baseline and at weeks 5 and 9 for those who received chemotherapy and at follow-up months 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36. A 10-point change in QOL scores from baseline was considered clinically significant.
Four hundred eighty-two patients were randomly assigned on JBR.10. A total of 173 patients (82% of the expected) in the observation arm and 186 (85% of expected) in the chemotherapy arm completed baseline QOL assessments. The two groups were comparable, with low global QOL scores and significant symptom burden, especially pain and fatigue, after thoracotomy. Changes in QOL during chemotherapy were relatively modest; fatigue, nausea, and vomiting worsened, but there was a reduction in pain and no change in global QOL. Patients in the observation arm showed considerable improvements in QOL by 3 months. QOL, except for symptoms of sensory neuropathy and hearing loss, in those treated with chemotherapy returned to baseline by 9 months.
The findings of this trial indicate that the negative effects of adjuvant chemotherapy on QOL appear to be temporary, and that improvements (with a return to baseline function) are likely in most patients.
Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of death from malignant disease worldwide and most frequently discovered in advanced stages. Because curative surgery is regarded as the only option for cure, early detection of resectable gastric cancer is extremely important for good patient outcomes. Therefore, noninvasive diagnostic modalities such as evolutionary endoscopy and positron emission tomography are utilized as screening tools for gastric cancer. To date, early gastric cancer is being treated using minimally invasive methods such as endoscopic treatment and laparoscopic surgery, while in advanced cancer it is necessary to consider multimodality treatment including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. Because of the results of large clinical trials, surgery with extended lymphadenectomy could not be recommended as a standard therapy for advanced gastric cancer. Recent clinical trials had shown survival benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy after curative resection compared with surgery alone. In addition, recent advances of molecular targeted agents would play an important role as one of the modalities for advanced gastric cancer. In this review, we summarize the current status of diagnostic technology and treatment for gastric cancer.
gastric cancer; surgery; chemotherapy; radiotherapy; molecular targeted therapy
Patients with locally advanced resectable gastric cancers are increasingly offered neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) following the MAGIC and REAL-2 trials. However, information on the toxicity of NACT, its effects on perioperative surgical outcomes and tumor response is not widely reported in literature.
Analysis of a prospective database of gastric cancer patients undergoing radical D2 gastrectomy over 2 years was performed. Chemotherapy-related toxicity, perioperative outcomes and histopathological responses to NACT were analyzed. The data is presented and compared to a cohort of patients undergoing upfront surgery in the same time period.
In this study, 139 patients (42 female and 97 male patients, median age 53 years) with gastric adenocarcinoma received NACT. Chemotherapy-related toxicity was noted in 32% of patients. Of the 139 patients, 129 underwent gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy, with 12% morbidity and no mortality. Major pathological response of primary tumor was noted in 22 patients (17%). Of these 22 patients, lymph node metastases were noted in 12 patients. The median blood loss and lymph node yield was not significantly different to the 62 patients who underwent upfront surgery. Patients who underwent upfront surgery were older (58 vs. 52 years, P <0.02), had a higher number of distal cancers (63% vs. 82%, P <0.015) and a longer hospital stay (11 vs. 9 days, P <0.001).
Perioperative outcomes of gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy for locally advanced, resectable gastric cancer were not influenced by NACT. The number of lymph nodes harvested was unaltered by NACT but, more pertinently, metastases to lymph nodes were noted even in patients with a major pathological response of the primary tumor. D2 lymphadenectomy should be performed in all patients irrespective of the degree of response to NACT.
D2 lymphadenectomy; Gastrectomy; Gastric cancer; Morbidity; Mortality; Neoadjuvant chemotherapy
Purpose. Although randomized trials suggest a survival benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy (XRT) for gastric adenocarcinoma, its use in patients who undergo an extended lymphadenectomy is less clear. The purpose of this study was to determine if a survival benefit exists in gastric cancer patients who receive adjuvant XRT following resection with extended lymphadenectomy. Methods. The SEER registry was queried for records of patients with resected gastric adenocarcinoma from 1988 to 2007. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to assess independent prognostic factors affecting overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS). Results. Of 15,060 patients identified, 3,208 (21%) received adjuvant XRT. Adjuvant XRT was independently associated with improved OS (HR 0.67, CI 0.64–0.71) and DSS (HR 0.69, CI 0.65–0.73) in stages IB through IV (M0). This OS and DSS benefit persisted regardless of the extent of lymphadenectomy. Furthermore, lymphadenectomy with
>25 LN resected was associated with improved OS and DSS compared with <15 LN or 15–25 LN. Conclusion. This population-based study shows a survival benefit of adjuvant XRT following gastrectomy that persists in patients who have an extended lymphadenectomy. Furthermore, removal of >25 LNs results in improved OS and DSS compared with patients who have fewer LNs resected.
We report a case of gastric choriocarcinoma admixed with an α-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing adenocarcinoma. A 70-year-old man was hospitalized for gastric cancer that was detected during screening by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). Initial laboratory data showed the increased serum level of AFP and EGD revealed a 5-cm ulcerofungating mass in the greater curvature of the gastric antrum. The patient underwent radical subtotal gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection and Billroth II gastrojejunostomy. Histopathological evaluation confirmed double primary gastric cancer: gastric choriocarcinoma admixed with an AFP-producing adenocarcinoma and separated adenocarcinoma. At 2 wk postoperatively, his human chorionic gonadotropin and AFP levels had reduced and six cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy were initiated. No recurrence or distant metastasis was observed at 4 years postoperatively.
α-fetoproteins; Adenocarcinoma; Choriocarcinoma; Stomach neoplasms
Gastric cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis is a disease with a poor prognosis. Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal perioperative chemotherapy (HIPEC) can improve prognosis, although in most cases this should still be considered as a palliative treatment. Therefore, morbidity has to be avoided at all cost as quality of life is of utmost importance. We describe the case of a 64-year-old female with an adenocarcinoma of the stomach that was initially treated with a Billroth II gastrectomy, adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. During follow-up, the diagnosis of peritoneal carcinomatosis was made, and the patient was referred for CRS and HIPEC. Postoperatively, she developed rhabdomyolysis in both gastrocnemius muscles. Renal function remained within normal limits, but ultrasonography of the lower legs suggested the presence of bilateral abscesses. Drainage with pigtail catheters was necessary for more than 1 month, significantly impairing quality of life. The objective of this case report is to heighten awareness for this complication. Rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication of CRS and HIPEC, with a significant impact on quality of life. Prevention is necessary and can be achieved by adequate surgical positioning, using the altered lithotomy position, sufficient padding and by preventing hypovolemia.
Gastric cancer; Peritoneal carcinomatosis; Cytoreductive surgery; Hyperthermic intraperitoneal perioperative chemotherapy; Rhabdomyolysis; Compartment syndrome
We report here a 44-year-old Moroccan man with resectable gastric adenocarcinoma with overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) by immunohistochemistry who was treated with trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy in perioperative setting. He received 3 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy consisting of trastuzumab, oxaliplatin, and capecitabine. Afterwards, he received total gastrectomy with extended D2 lymphadenectomy without spleno-pancreatectomy. A pathologic complete response was obtained with a combination of trastuzumab and oxaliplatin and capecitabine. He received 3 more cycles of trastuzumab containing regimen postoperatively.
We conclude that resectable gastric carcinoma with overexpression of the c-erbB-2 protein should ideally be managed with perioperative combination of trastuzumab with chemotherapy. Further research to evaluate trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy regimens in the perioperative and adjuvant setting is urgently needed.
trastuzumab; chemotherapy; perioperative; gastric adenocarcinoma; resection
A splenectomy or distal pancreaticosplenectomy is often performed simultaneously with total gastrectomy in the treatment of gastric carcinoma to facilitate dissection of the lymph nodes around the splenic artery and splenic hilus. However, the negative impact of splenectomy and pancreaticosplenectomy has also been reported. A retrospective analysis was performed to evaluate the outcomes of distal pancreaticosplenectomy and total gastrectomy, splenectomy and total gastrectomy, and gastrectomy alone in the patients with advanced gastric carcinoma without distant metastasis. Prognostic factors were examined. No significant differences existed in 5-year survival in the patients who underwent gastrectomy with splenectomy, gastrectomy with distal pancreaticosplenectomy, or gastrectomy alone. Neither splenectomy, nor distal pancreaticosplenectomy were prognostic factors. However, distal pancreaticosplenectomy was an independent predictor of pancreatic fistula. In conclusion, the addition of distal pancreaticosplenectomy or splenectomy to total gastrectomy for gastric cancer increases the risk of severe complications, but does not improve survival. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign
gastric carcinoma; total gastrectomy; distal pancreatectomy