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1.  Gastric Cancer Surgery – A Balance of Risk and Radicality 
INTRODUCTION
The aim of this study was to determine whether tailoring the extent of resection would allow radical gastric cancer surgery to be performed safely in a UK population.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
A total of 180 consecutive patients (median age 70 years; male:female ratio 2:1) undergoing resection for gastric adenocarcinoma with curative intent were studied. Extent of lymphadenectomy was based upon pre-operative and intra-operative staging, and balanced against the patient's age and fitness.
RESULTS
In the study group, 83 patients underwent subtotal or distal partial gastrectomy and 97 patients underwent total or proximal partial gastrectomy. Operative procedures were: D1 lymphadenectomy (n = 62); modified (spleen and pancreas preserving) D2 lymphadenectomy (n = 73); D2 lymphadenectomy (n = 42); and extended resection (n = 3). TNM classification was: stage 1 (n = 45); stage 2 (n = 37); stage 3 (n = 61); and stage 4 (n = 37). Of the patients, 48 developed postoperative complications including 17 patients with a major surgical complication. The in-hospital mortality was 1.7% (3 of 180). Predicted mortality according to POSSUM and P-POSSUM was 21.4% and 7.8%, respectively. Disease-specific 5-year survival according to stage was 85.4%, 64.2%, 33.3%, and 6.9%.
CONCLUSIONS
By tailoring the extent of resection and balancing risk and radicality, gastric cancer surgery can be performed with low mortality in Western patients.
doi:10.1308/003588408X261546
PMCID: PMC2430435  PMID: 18430340
Stomach neoplasms; Gastrectomy; Lymph node excision
2.  Effect of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy on overall survival of gastric cancer patients submitted to D2 lymphadenectomy 
Gastric Cancer  2012;16(2):233-238.
Background
Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is the standard treatment in Western countries for gastric cancer patients submitted to curative resection. However, the role of adjuvant CRT in gastric cancer treated with D2 lymphadenectomy has not been well defined.
Methods
We conducted a retrospective study in patients with stage II to IV gastric adenocarcinoma with no distant metastases, who underwent curative resection with D2 lymphadenectomy between January 2002 and December 2007. The present study compared the 3-year overall survival of two treatments (adjuvant CRT according to the INT 0116 trial versus resection alone). Survival curves were estimated by the Kaplan–Meier method and compared with a log-rank test. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors was performed by the Cox proportional hazards model.
Results
A total of 185 patients were included, 104 patients (56 %) received adjuvant CRT and 81 received resection alone. The 3-year overall survival was 64.4 % in the CRT group and 61.7 % in the resection-alone group (p: 0.415). However, according to the Cox proportional hazards model, adjuvant CRT was a prognostic factor for 3-year overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0.46, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.26–0.82, p: 0.008).
Conclusions
In the present study, adjuvant CRT was associated with a lower risk of death over a 3-year period in gastric cancer patients treated with D2 lymphadenectomy.
doi:10.1007/s10120-012-0171-4
PMCID: PMC3627041  PMID: 22740060
Stomach neoplasms; Adjuvant chemotherapy; Adjuvant radiotherapy; Lymph node excision; Survival
3.  Evaluation of salvage surgery for type 4 gastric cancer 
Patients with type 4 gastric cancer and peritoneal metastasis respond better to chemotherapy than surgery. In particular, patients without gastric stenosis who can consume a meal usually experience better quality of life (QOL). However, some patients with unsuccessful chemotherapy are unable to consume a meal because of gastric stenosis and obstruction. These patients ultimately require salvage surgery to enable them to consume food normally. We evaluated the outcomes of salvage total gastrectomy after chemotherapy in four patients with gastric stenosis. We determined clinical outcomes of four patients who underwent total gastrectomy as salvage surgery. Outcomes were time from chemotherapy to death and QOL, which was assessed using the Support Team Assessment Schedule-Japanese version (STAS-J). Three of the patients received combination chemotherapy [tegafur, gimestat and otastat potassium (TS-1); cisplatin]. Two of these patients underwent salvage chemotherapy after 12 and 4 mo of chemotherapy. Following surgery, they could consume food adequately and their STAS-J scores improved, so their treatments were continued. The third patient underwent salvage surgery after 7 mo of chemotherapy. This patient was unable to consume food adequately after surgery and developed surgical complications. His clinical outcomes at 3 mo were very poor. The fourth patient received combination chemotherapy (TS-1 and irinotecan hydrochloride) for 6 mo and then underwent received salvage surgery. After surgery, he could consume food adequately and his STAS-J score improved, so his treatment was continued. After the surgery, he enjoyed his life for 16 mo. Of four patients who received salvage total gastrectomy after unsuccessful chemotherapy, the QOL improved in three patients, but not in the other patient. Salvage surgery improves QOL in most patients, but some patients develop surgical complications that prevent improvements in QOL. If salvage surgery is indicated, the surgeon and/or oncologist must provide the patient with a clear explanation of the purpose of surgery, as well as the possible risks and benefits to allow the patient to reach an informed decision on whether to consent to the procedure.
doi:10.4240/wjgs.v4.i12.301
PMCID: PMC3596528  PMID: 23493860
Type 4 gastric cancer; Quality of life; Salvage surgery; Support Team Assessment Schedule-Japanese version; Palliative care; Systemic chemotherapy; Gastric stenosis
4.  Time-related improvement of survival in resectable gastric cancer: the role of Japanese-style gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy 
Background
We investigated the change of prognosis in resected gastric cancer (RGC) patients and the role of radical surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy.
Methods
We retrospectively analyze the outcome of 426 consecutive patients from 1975 to 2002, divided into 2 time-periods (TP) cohort: Before 1990 (TP1, n = 207) and 1990 or after (TP2; n= 219). Partial gastrectomy and D1-lymphadenetomy was predominant in TP1 and total gastrectomy with D2-lymphadenectomy it was in TP2. Adjuvant chemotherapy consisted of mitomycin C (MMC), 10–20 mg/m2 iv 4 courses or MMC plus Tegafur 500 mg/m2 for 6 months.
Results
Positive nodes were similar in TP2/TP1 patients with 56%/59% respectively. Total gastrectomy was done in 56%/45% of TP2/TP1 respectively. Two-drug adjuvant chemotherapy was administered in 65%/18% of TP2/TP1 respectively. Survival at 5 years was 66% for TP2 versus 42% for TP1 patients (p < 0.0001). Survival by stages II, IIIA y IIIB for TP2 versus TP1 patients was 70 vs. 51% (p = 0.0132); 57 vs. 22% (p = 0.0008) y 30 vs. 15% (p = 0.2315) respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that age, stage of disease and period of treatment were independent variables.
Conclusion
The global prognosis and that of some stages have improved in recent years with case RGC patients treated with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-4-53
PMCID: PMC1564020  PMID: 16904003
5.  Risk Factors of Postoperative Pancreatic Fistula in Curative Gastric Cancer Surgery 
Journal of Gastric Cancer  2013;13(3):179-184.
Purpose
Postoperative pancreatic fistula is a dreadful complication after gastric cancer surgery. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the actual incidence and risk factors of postoperative pancreatic fistula after curative gastrectomy for gastric cancer.
Materials and Methods
A total of 900 patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer (laparoscopic gastrectomy, 594 patients; open gastrectomy 306 patients) were enrolled between January 2009 and December 2010. Clinical outcomes, including postoperative pancreatic fistula grade based on the International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula, were investigated.
Results
Overall, the postoperative pancreatic fistula rate was 3.3% (30/900) (1.5% in laparoscopic gastrectomy versus 6.9% in open gastrectomy, P<0.001). Patients who underwent D2 lymphadenectomy, total gastrectomy, splenectomy or distal pancreatectomy showed higher postoperative pancreatic fistula rates (4.7%, 13.8%, 13.6%, or 57.1%, respectively, P<0.001). Patients with postoperative pancreatic fistula had higher morbidity (46.7% versus 13.1%, P<0.001), delayed gas out (4.9 days versus 3.8 days, P<0.001), belated diet start (5.8 days versus 3.5 days, P<0.001) and longer postoperative hospital stay (13.7 days versus 6.8 days, P<0.001). On the multivariate analysis, total gastrectomy (odds ratio 9.751, 95% confidence interval: 3.348 to 28.397, P<0.001), distal pancreatectomy (odds ratio 7.637, 95% confidence interval: 1.668 to 34.961, P=0.009) and open gastrectomy (odds ratio 2.934, 95% confidence interval: 1.100 to 7.826, P=0.032) were the independent risk factors of postoperative pancreatic fistula.
Conclusions
Laparoscopic gastrectomy had an advantage over open gastrectomy in terms of the lower postoperative pancreatic fistula rate. Total gastrectomy and combined resection, such as distal pancreatectomy, should be performed carefully to minimize postoperative pancreatic fistula in gastric cancer surgery.
doi:10.5230/jgc.2013.13.3.179
PMCID: PMC3804677  PMID: 24156038
Stomach cancer; Gastrectomy; Pancreatic fistula; Risk factors
6.  Visceral fat changes after distal gastrectomy according to type of reconstruction procedure for gastric cancer 
Background
Noncancerous causes of death, such as cerebrovascular or cardiac disease, are not rare in patients with gastric cancer who had undergone curative gastrectomy. Metabolic syndrome, characterized by visceral fat accumulation, is a risk factor for cerebrovascular and cardiac diseases. However, there is limited information on the effects of reconstruction procedures on changes in visceral fat after distal gastrectomy. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the reconstruction procedure (Roux-en-Y reconstruction (RY) and Billroth I reconstruction (BI)) on changes in visceral fat, as determined using computed tomography.
Methods
The study subjects were 152 patients with gastric cancer who underwent distal gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy between 2002 and 2007. The visceral fat area was measured for one cross-sectional computed tomogram obtained at the level of the umbilicus.
Results
Adjuvant chemotherapy (yes vs. no, P = 0.0006), type of reconstruction (BI vs. RY, P = 0.0146), field of lymph node dissection (
Conclusions
Visceral fat loss after RY was larger than that after BI. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm the effects of reconstruction after distal gastrectomy on visceral fat.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-11-146
PMCID: PMC3691724  PMID: 23786988
Gastrectomy; Reconstruction; Visceral fat
AIM: To investigate the effects of extended lymphadenectomy and postoperative chemotherapy on gastric cancer without lymph node metastasis.
METHODS: Clinical data of 311 node-negative gastric cancer patients who underwent potentially curative gastrectomy with more than 15 lymph nodes resected, from January 2002 to December 2006, were analyzed retrospectively. Patients with pT4 stage or distant metastasis were excluded. We analyzed the relationship between the D2 lymphadenectomy and the 5-year survival rate among different subgroups stratified by clinical features, such as age, tumor size, tumor location and depth of invasion. At the same time, the relationship between postoperative chemotherapy and the 5-year survival rate among different subgroups were also analyzed.
RESULTS: The overall 5-year survival rate of the entire cohort was 63.7%. The 5-year survival rate was poor in those patients who were: (1) more than 65 years old; (2) with tumor size larger than 4 cm; (3) with tumor located in the upper portion of the stomach; and (4) with pT3 tumor. The survival rate was improved significantly by extended lymphadenectomy only in patients with pT3 tumor (P = 0.019), but not in other subgroups. Moreover, there was no significant difference in survival rate between patients with and without postoperative chemotherapy among all of the subgroups (P > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: For gastric cancer patients without lymph node metastasis, extended lymphadenectomy could improve the survival rate of those who have pT3-stage tumor. However, there was no evidence of a survival benefit from postoperative chemotherapy alone.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i33.5551
PMCID: PMC3761110  PMID: 24023500
Gastric cancer; Lymph node negative metastasis; Extended lymphadenectomy; D2 lymphadenectomy; Chemotherapy
Purpose
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a distal subtotal gastrectomy on the quality of life (QoL).
Materials and Methods
The QoL data of 126 patients were obtained on their 5th annual follow-up visit after a curative distal subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer (Group A). The QoL data of 130 age- and gender-adjusted healthy population were obtained from the individuals who visited the health screening center for a medical check-up (Group B). There were 42 women and 84 men in the study group and their mean age was 56.0±11.1 years. QoL was assessed using the Korean versions of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QoL Questionnaire Core 30 (QLQ-C30) and QLQ-STO22.
Results
The EORTC QLQ-C30 global health status and QoL scores of Group A and Group B were 63.9±22.7 and 61.3±22.1, respectively (p=0.361). Group A revealed a better score for emotional functioning (84.1±16.1 and 75.2±21.4, respectively; p<0.001), cognitive functioning (82.0±16.4 and 75.0±21.4, respectively; p=0.004) and fatigue (27.7±20.8 and 33.8±23.2, respectively; p=0.028). However, Group A revealed a worse score for nausea and vomiting (14.8±20.0 and 10.2±16.0, respectively; p=0.042), financial difficulties (14.8±22.9 and 7.1±16.1, respectively; p=0.002), reflux (16.7±17.7 and 10.1±17.0, respectively; p=0.003), eating restrictions (13.6±15.2 and 6.6±10.2, respectively; p<0.001) and body image (23.3±25.4 and 16.2±24.6, respectively; p=0.023).
Conclusion
The QoL of long-term survivors after a distal subtotal gastrectomy is still influenced by the surgery itself even though they are considered to be free of disease.
doi:10.4143/crt.2010.42.3.130
PMCID: PMC2953775  PMID: 20948917
Stomach neoplasms; Gastrectomy; Quality of life
AIM: To explore risk factors for lymph node metastases in early gastric cancer (EGC) and to confirm the appropriate range of lymph node dissection.
METHODS: A total of 202 patients with EGC who underwent curative gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy in the Department of Surgery, Xinhua Hospital and Ruijin Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University Medical School between November 2003 and July 2009, were retrospectively reviewed. Both the surgical procedure and the extent of lymph node dissection were based on the recommendations of the Japanese gastric cancer treatment guidelines. The macroscopic type was classified as elevated (type I or IIa), flat (IIb), or depressed (IIc or III). Histopathologically, papillary and tubular adenocarcinomas were grouped together as differentiated adenocarcinomas, and poorly differentiated and signet-ring cell adenocarcinomas were regarded as undifferentiated adenocarcinomas. Univariate and multivariate analyses of lymph node metastases and patient and tumor characteristics were undertaken.
RESULTS: The lymph node metastases rate in patients with EGC was 14.4%. Among these, the rate for mucosal cancer was 5.4%, and 8.9% for submucosal cancer. Univariate analysis showed an obvious correlation between lymph node metastases and tumor location, depth of invasion, morphological classification and venous invasion (χ2 = 122.901, P = 0.001; χ2 = 7.14, P = 0.008; χ2 = 79.523, P = 0.001; χ2 = 8.687, P = 0.003, respectively). In patients with submucosal cancers, the lymph node metastases rate in patients with venous invasion (60%, 3/5) was higher than in those without invasion (20%, 15/75) (χ2 = 4.301, P = 0.038). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the depth of invasion was the only independent risk factor for lymph node metastases in EGC [P = 0.018, Exp (B) = 2.744]. Among the patients with lymph node metastases, 29 cases (14.4%) were at N1, seven cases were at N2 (3.5%), and two cases were at N3 (1.0%). Univariate analysis of variance revealed a close relationship between the depth of invasion and lymph node metastases at pN1 (P = 0.008).
CONCLUSION: The depth of invasion was the only independent risk factor for lymph node metastases. Risk factors for metastases should be considered when choosing surgery for EGC.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i20.3096
PMCID: PMC3662950  PMID: 23716990
Gastric neoplasm; Lymph node metastasis; Risk factors; Gastrectomy; Lymphadenectomy
Postgastrectomy quality of life (QoL) is affected by various symptoms, and compared with the preoperative baseline QoL, is typically impaired for the first 6 mo after surgery. Thereafter, improvement to a stable QoL is observed at approximately 12 mo postoperatively. We consider the digestive tract reconstruction pattern to be a determining factor in postgastrectomy QoL among gastric cancer patients, and believe it requires further discussion. Proximal gastrectomy is associated with the worst postoperative QoL among gastrectomy procedures and should be performed cautiously. The trend of better QoL provided by the pouch procedure of total gastrectomy requires further robust support. Whether the use of Billroth-I gastroduodenostomy or Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy for distal gastrectomy is optimal remains controversial, but Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy is likely to be preferable.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i1.330
PMCID: PMC3886029  PMID: 24415891
Gastric cancer; Gastrectomy; Quality of life; Reconstruction; Digestive tract
The treatment of gastric carcinoma consists of neoadjuvant chemoradiation, partial gastrectomy, subtotal gastrectomy, total gastrectomy, extended resection, and postoperative chemotherapy. Currently, gastrectomy and extended lymphadenectomy is the optimal choice for late gastric carcinoma. Postoperative complications are common after total gastrectomy including hemorrhage, anastomotic leakage, fistula, and obstruction. However, deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is an uncommon complication after gastrectomy for gastric carcinoma. We describe a case of a 68-year-old female patient with DVT after gastrectomy for gastric carcinoma. The patient was treated with anticoagulants and thrombolytics and subjected to necessary laboratory monitoring. The patient recovered well after treatment and was symptom-free during a 3-mo follow-up. We conclude that correct diagnosis and treatment of DVT are crucial.
doi:10.3748/wjg.15.885
PMCID: PMC2653393  PMID: 19230054
Gastric carcinoma; Gastrectomy; Deep venous thrombosis; Postoperative complication; Anticoagulant; Thrombolytic therapy; Low molecular weight heparins; Streptokinase; Warfarin sodium
Oncology Letters  2010;1(4):743-747.
In patients with stage IV gastric cancer, systemic chemotherapy is the key treatment. Combination chemotherapy (cis-diamminedichloride platinum plus S-1 and docetaxel plus S-1) results in long-term survival in clinical practice. In selected cases, additional (adjuvant) surgery may result in further long-term survival. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant surgery following the response to chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer. Based on response to chemotherapy, the indications for adjuvant surgery (surgery after the response to chemotherapy) are that resection is expected to be curative rather than palliative, provided that no other distant metastases occur. The study included 20 advanced gastric cancer patients who had undergone gastrectomies after the response to the combination chemotherapy of docetaxel and S-1, between September 2003 and December 2008 at Hiroshima University Hospital. At a median follow-up of 980 days, the median overall survival was 855 days. A 2- and 3-year survival was observed in 80 and 54.9% of patients, respectively, following macroscopic curative surgery. In the palliative group, the median overall survival was 510 days, but a 3-year survival was not observed. In the partial response group, the median overall survival was 865 days and a 3-year survival was observed in 37% of patients. One-year survival was not observed in the stable disease group. The patient survival in the partial response group was statistically more prolonged than in the stable disease group. The median overall survival in patients with liver metastasis was 865 days, while that in patients with peritoneal dissemination was 510 days. In conclusion, adjuvant surgery may be effective in gastric cancer patients diagnosed as stage IV by means of liver or distant lymph node metastasis, except in cases of peritoneal dissemination.
doi:10.3892/ol_00000130
PMCID: PMC3436376  PMID: 22966373
gastric cancer; adjuvant surgery; S-1; docetaxel
Purpose
The optimal chemotherapeutic strategy for gastric cancer patients has not been determined, especially with respect to stage and the curability of gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of adjuvant chemotherapy on stage IV (T4N1-3M0 and T1-3N3M0) gastric cancer after curative gastrectomy between a chemotherapy (CTX) group and non-chemotherapy (non-CTX) group.
Materials and Methods
Among 1,760 patients who underwent gastric surgery by 1 surgeon in a single institution, 162 stage IV gastric cancer patients with curative gastrectomy were analyzed retrospectively, excluding patients with TanyNanyM1. One hundred twenty-five patients who received different chemotherapeutic regimens were compared to 37 patients who did not receive chemotherapy for reasons of old age or according to their expressed desire.
Results
The clinicopathologic factors which showed a clinically significant difference between the two groups were age and histology, which were not associated with patient survival. The CTX group was younger, and had a larger proportion of undifferentiated gastric cancers than the non-CTX group. The mode of treatment failure revealed no significant difference between the CTX and non-CTX groups. The 1, 3, and 5-year disease-free survival and the 1, 3, and 5-year disease-specific survival of the CTX group were 63.9%, 38.4%, and 32.0%, and 85.4%, 52.3%, and 39.6%, respectively, which were more favorable than the non-CTX group (p=0.015 and p=0.001, respectively). Postoperative adjuvant CTX was an independent risk factor for disease-specific survival of stage IV (T4N1-3M0 and T1-3N3M0) gastric cancer patients after curative gastrectomy by multivariate analysis (odds ratio=2.153; 95% confidence interval=1.349-3.435; p=0.001).
Conclusions
Adjuvant CTX may be associated with survival benefit for younger patients with stage IV (T4N1-3M0 and T1-3N3M0) gastric cancer with undifferentiated histology after curative gastrectomy. A randomized controlled trial to reveal the effect of stage-specific adjuvant chemotherapy should be conducted.
doi:10.4143/crt.2009.41.1.19
PMCID: PMC2699090  PMID: 19688067
Adjuvant chemotherapy; Stage IV gastric cancer; Curative gastrectomy; survival
The British Journal of Radiology  2011;84(1001):457-463.
Objectives
Prognosis in patients with locally advanced stomach cancer undergoing surgery alone is poor. High local failure rates in gastric cancer have been reported of up to 70%. When a relapse occurs, attempts at curative treatment are generally unsuccessful. A retrospective analysis was performed in order to determine whether post-operative radiochemotherapy improves treatment results in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer.
Methods
Between November 2004 and July 2008, 56 patients with clinical Stage IB–IV cancer of the stomach underwent curative gastrectomy and adjuvant radiochemotherapy. Patients with distant metastases were excluded from the analysis. The total radiation dose was 45.0 Gy. The chemotherapy regimen comprised a 5 day cycle of 5-fluorouracil at 425 mg m–2 and leucovorin at 20 mg m–2. Overall survival and disease-free survival, as well as toxicity, were estimated for all patients.
Results
Within the study group there were 7 (13%) local recurrences, 4 (7%) distant metastases and 8 (14%) local and distant relapses. The 2 year overall survival was 48%. A total of 19 (34%) patients developed Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity. There were no treatment-related deaths.
Conclusion
Post-operative radiochemotherapy is an effective and safe regimen in patients with curatively resected locally advanced gastric cancer.
doi:10.1259/bjr/25406515
PMCID: PMC3473659  PMID: 21304007
AIM: To reveal the clinicopathological features and risk factors for lymph node metastases in gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma of male patients.
METHODS: We retrospective reviewed a total of 146 male and female patients with gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma who had undergone curative gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy in the Department of Surgery, Xin Hua Hospital and Rui Jin Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University Medical School between November 2001 and May 2012. Both the surgical procedure and extent of lymph node dissection were based on the recommendations of Japanese gastric cancer treatment guidelines. Univariate and multivariate analyses of lymph node metastases and the clinicopathological features were undertaken.
RESULTS: The rate of lymph node metastases in male patients with gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma was 72.1%. Univariate analysis showed an obvious correlation between lymph node metastases and tumor size, gross appearance, differentiation, pathological tumor depth, and lymphatic invasion in male patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that tumor differentiation and pathological tumor depth were the independent risk factors for lymph node metastases in male patients. There was an obvious relationship between lymph node metastases and tumor size, gross appearance, differentiation, pathological tumor depth, lymphatic invasion at pN1 and pN2, and nerve invasion at pN3 in male patients. There were no significant differences in clinicopathological features or lymph node metastases between female and male patients.
CONCLUSION: Tumor differentiation and tumor depth were risk factors for lymph node metastases in male patients with gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma and should be considered when choosing surgery.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i37.6245
PMCID: PMC3787356  PMID: 24115823
Gastric neoplasm; Lymph node metastasis; Risk factors; Gastrectomy; Lymphadenectomy
Oncology Letters  2012;4(6):1309-1314.
The optimal adjuvant treatment modality for gastric cancer has not been well defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of adjuvant combined systemic and intraperitoneal chemotherapy (ACSIP) in high-risk patients with locally advanced gastric cancer. Between June 2003 and December 2008, 62 eligible patients with serosa-infiltrating and/or node-positive gastric cancer following curative gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy received ACSIP, consisting of intravenous oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2 on day 1 followed by leucovorin (LV) 200 mg/m2 and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) 450 mg/m2 on days 1–3, intraperitoneal 5-FU 600 mg/m2 on days 4–5 and cisplatin (CDDP) 40 mg/m2 on day 5. Survival rates, the sites of first treatment failure and safety were analyzed. At a median follow-up of 45 months (range 7–101), the 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 66.1 and 74.2%, respectively. Initial peritoneal and hepatic failures were found in 6 (24.0%) and 3 (12.0%) of the 25 patients with recurrence, respectively. Neutropenia, gastrointestinal side effects and peripheral neuropathy were the most common grade 3–4 toxicities; however, they were all infrequent and manageable. No serious surgical complications or treatment-related mortality was observed. The results of this study indicate that ACSIP is effective and feasible for locally advanced gastric cancer with encouraging survival rates and possibly decreased peritoneal and hepatic recurrences. The benefits of this promising combined adjuvant treatment modality warrant further studies.
doi:10.3892/ol.2012.914
PMCID: PMC3506743  PMID: 23205128
locally advanced gastric cancer; adjuvant chemotherapy; combined therapy; intraperitoneal chemotherapy
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences  2013;29(5):1193-1198.
Objective: To investigate changes of quality of life (QOL) of patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEG) after gastric tube anastomosis.
Methods: From January 2009 to December 2011, eighty-seven patients with Types II and III AEG were selected for gastric tube reconstruction after proximal gastrectomy. The QOL of the patients was assessed using the Chinese versions of the EORTC QLQ-C30 and the EORTC QLQ-STO22 preoperatively, as well as one and two years postoperatively.
Results: The QLQ-C30 showed that the global health of the respondents decreased at one year after the surgery (P=0.02). The preoperative score for physical function was significantly better than the one- and two-year post-operation scores. The preoperative scores for pain, nausea and vomiting, and economic difficulties were worse than the one- and two-year post-operation scores (P<0.05). Diarrhea was worse at one year post-operation than during pre-operation (P = 0.00), but improved at two years after the operation. The QLQ-STO22 scales showed that the preoperative dysphagia score was better than one-year post-operation, and no significant differences were observed in terms of dysphagia between the pre-operation and two-year postoperative periods. Preoperative reflux and taste scores were better than those after the operation (P<0.05). The hair loss score at one-year post-operation was worse than at either pre-operation or two-year post-operation.
Conclusions: Most QOL scales worsened after surgery, particularly at postoperative year one. However, the scales can be gradually recovered to preoperative levels. The physical function, nausea and vomiting, reflux, taste, and financial difficulties did not fully recover two years after the operation.
PMCID: PMC3858926  PMID: 24353718
Adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction; Gastric tube; Quality of life; EORTC QLQ-C30; EORTC QLQ-STO22
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2013;7(3):516-521.
Gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination may be diagnosed as unresectable. More recently, as a result of progress in chemotherapy, some patients with peritoneal dissemination have exhibited extended survival. We report on our experience with three patients in whom induction chemotherapy allowed for totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy (TLTG). All three patients were diagnosed as having advanced gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination using staging laparoscopy. As induction chemotherapy, S-1 combined with cisplatin was administered to two patients and trastuzumab plus capecitabine combined with cisplatin to one patient. TLTG was performed in all patients and there were no postoperative complications. Adjuvant chemotherapy was initiated within 3 weeks after surgery in all three patients. Laparoscopic gastrectomy undertaken after induction chemotherapy was found to be effective and safe; this treatment has the potential to achieve good treatment outcomes in patients with stage IV gastric cancer.
doi:10.1159/000357591
PMCID: PMC3901594  PMID: 24474902
Gastric cancer; Peritoneal dissemination; Induction chemotherapy; Totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy
AIM: To evaluate the location, histopathology, stages, and treatment of gastric cancer and to conduct survival analysis on prognostic factors.
METHODS: Patients diagnosed with of stomach cancer in our clinic between 2000 and 2011, with follow-up or a treatment decision, were evaluated retrospectively. They were followed up by no treatment, adjuvant therapy, or metastatic therapy. We excluded from the study any patients whose laboratory records lacked the operating parameters. The type of surgery in patients diagnosed with gastric cancer was total gastrectomy, subtotal gastrectomy or palliative surgery. Patients with indications for adjuvant treatment were treated with adjuvant and/or radio-chemotherapy. Prognostic evaluation was made based on the parameters of the patient, tumor and treatment.
RESULTS: In this study, outpatient clinic records of patients with gastric cancer diagnosis were analyzed retrospectively. A total of 796 patients were evaluated (552 male, 244 female). The median age was 58 years (22-90 years). The median follow-up period was 12 mo (1-276 mo), and median survival time was 12 mo (11.5-12.4 mo). Increased T stage and N stage resulted in a decrease in survival. Other prognostic factors related to the disease were positive surgical margins, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, cardio-esophageal settlement, and the levels of tumor markers in metastatic disease. No prognostic significance of the patient’s age, sex or tumor histopathology was detected.
CONCLUSION: The prognostic factors identified in all groups and the proposed treatments according to stage should be applied, and innovations in the new targeted therapies should be followed.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i14.2154
PMCID: PMC3627879  PMID: 23599641
Gastric carcinoma; Chemotherapy; Prognostic factors; Treatment; Survival; New agents
Background
Gastric cancer relapse occurs in about 30% of the patients treated with gastrectomy and D2-lymphadenectomy, mainly as distant or peritoneal metastases. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has been associated with an improvement in survival and lower peritoneal recurrence, albeit with increased morbidity. The aim of this study is to report the preliminary results of the association of perioperative chemotherapy, radical surgery and HIPEC in high-risk gastric patients in a single institution.
Methods
Treatment protocol was started in 2007 and included patients younger than 65 years old, with good performance status and gastric adenocarcinoma with serosa involvement and lymph node metastases, located in the body or antrum. Patients should receive three preoperative cycles of DCF (Docetaxel 75 mg/m2, Cisplatin 75 mg/m2 and continuous intravenous infusion of 5-Fluorouracil 750 mg/m2 for 5 days), followed by gastric resection with D2-lymphadenectomy, hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy with Mytomicin C 34 mg/m2 and three more postoperative cycles of DCF.
Results
Ten patients were included between 2007 and 2011. Their median age was 47 years old and six were male. Nine were staged with cT4 cN + tumors and one as cT3 cN+. Nine patients completed all three preoperative chemotherapy cycles. Eight individuals were treated with a total gastrectomy and the other two had a distal gastrectomy, all having HIPEC. Postoperative morbidity was 50%, with no deaths. Regarding postoperative chemotherapy, only 5 patients completed three cycles. With a median follow-up of 25 months, three relapses were identified and 7 patients remain disease-free, two with more than 4 years of follow-up.
Conclusion
The association of perioperative systemic and intraperitoneal chemotherapy plus radical surgery is a feasible multimodality treatment, with acceptable morbidity. With a longer follow-up and a larger group of patients, we hope to be able to determine if it also influences survival outcomes and patterns of recurrence.
Mini-Abstract
The association of perioperative chemotherapy, gastric resection and D2-lymphadenectomy and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy proved to be associated with acceptable morbidity. For survival analysis, a longer follow-up is needed.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-10-195
PMCID: PMC3495866  PMID: 22992263
Gastric cancer; HIPEC; Perioperative chemotherapy
AIM: To analyze the outcome of patients who received concurrent capecitabine (Xeloda) and radiation (XRT) compared to the established concurrent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with radiation (5FU-RT) and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy alone as adjuvant treatment in gastric cancers.
METHODS: All patients with gastric cancers who received adjuvant treatment at the National Cancer Centre Singapore between 1996 and 2006 were reviewed. Treatment outcomes of patients who received XRT were compared with those who had 5FU-RT or chemotherapy alone as adjuvant therapy for gastric cancers.
RESULTS: A total of 108 patients were reviewed. Median age at diagnosis was 60. The majority of the patients (64.8%) had advanced stage III and IV disease (with no distant metastasis). All except 4 patients had D2 gastrectomy. Twenty one patients (19.4%) had positive surgical resection margins. Thirty three patients received XRT compared with 52 who had 5FU-RT and 23 who received chemotherapy alone. For the patients in the chemotherapy-only group, all had fluoropyrimidine-based therapy, with added cisplatin in 7 patients and epirubicin in 2 patients. Median recurrence-free survival was longer for the XRT group (52 mo) compared to the 5FU-RT (35 mo) and chemotherapy-only groups (25 mo) (P = 0.48). The patients in the XRT group achieved similar median overall survival (53 mo) as the 5FU-RT (54 mo) and the chemotherapy-only groups (44 mo) (P = 0.5).
CONCLUSION: Capecitabine with concurrent radiation was as effective as concurrent 5FU with radiation or fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy alone when used as adjuvant treatment in patients with gastric cancers.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v16.i29.3709
PMCID: PMC2915433  PMID: 20677345
Capecitabine; Radiation; Gastric cancer; Adjuvant chemotherapy
AIM: To investigate adjuvant chemotherapy, p53 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) expression and prognosis after D2 gastrectomy for stage II/III gastric adenocarcinoma.
METHODS: A total of 286 patients with stage II or III gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent D2 radical gastrectomy between May 2007 and December 2010 were enrolled into this study. One hundred and sixty-nine of these patients received surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy, and 117 patients received surgery alone. Tumor expression of p53 and CEA proteins in all patients was evaluated immunohistochemically and correlated with clinicopathological parameters. The Kaplan-Meier curves for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) with log-rank testing were used to compare the survival difference. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was used for multivariate analysis.
RESULTS: Patients with adjuvant chemotherapy had a significantly better median OS (50.87 mo vs 30.73 mo, P = 0.000) and median DFS (36.30 mo vs 25.60 mo, P = 0.001) than patients with surgery alone in the entire cohort. Consistent results with the entire cohort were found in stage II (P = 0.006 and P = 0.047), stage III (P = 0.005 and P = 0.030), and stage IIIB/IIIC patients (P = 0.000 and P = 0.001). The median OS and DFS advantages were confirmed by multivariate analysis (P = 0.000 and P = 0.008) and maintained when the analyses were restricted to fluoropyrimidine monotherapy (P = 0.003 and P = 0.001) and fluoropyrimidine plus platinum regimen (P = 0.001 and P = 0.007), however, not the fluoropyrimidine plus taxane (P = 0.198 and P = 0.777) or platinum plus taxane (P = 0.666 and P = 0.687) regimens. Median OS and median DFS did not differ significantly between the patients with p53(+) and p53(-) tumors (P = 0.608 and P = 0.064), or between patients with CEA(+) and CEA(-) tumors (P = 0.052 and P = 0.989), which were maintained when the analyses were restricted to surgery alone (p53: P = 0.864 and P = 0.431; CEA: P = 0.142 and P = 0.948), adjuvant chemotherapy (p53: P = 0.802 and P = 0.091; CEA: P = 0.223 and P = 0.946) and even different chemotherapy regimens (P > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Patients after D2 gastrectomy for stage II/III gastric adenocarcinoma had significantly better survival after fluoropyrimidine monotherapy and fluoropyrimidine plus platinum. p53 and CEA were not prognostic.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i1.264
PMCID: PMC3886018  PMID: 24415881
Gastric adenocarcinoma; Adjuvant chemotherapy; p53; Carcinoembryonic antigen; Immunohistochemistry
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2008;26(31):5052-5059.
Purpose
Adjuvant chemotherapy for early stage non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is now the standard of care, but there is little information regarding its impact on quality of life (QOL). We report the QOL results of JBR.10, a North American, intergroup, randomized trial of adjuvant cisplatin and vinorelbine compared with observation in patients who have completely resected, stages IB to II NSCLC.
Patients and Methods
QOL was assessed with the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 and a trial-specific checklist at baseline and at weeks 5 and 9 for those who received chemotherapy and at follow-up months 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36. A 10-point change in QOL scores from baseline was considered clinically significant.
Results
Four hundred eighty-two patients were randomly assigned on JBR.10. A total of 173 patients (82% of the expected) in the observation arm and 186 (85% of expected) in the chemotherapy arm completed baseline QOL assessments. The two groups were comparable, with low global QOL scores and significant symptom burden, especially pain and fatigue, after thoracotomy. Changes in QOL during chemotherapy were relatively modest; fatigue, nausea, and vomiting worsened, but there was a reduction in pain and no change in global QOL. Patients in the observation arm showed considerable improvements in QOL by 3 months. QOL, except for symptoms of sensory neuropathy and hearing loss, in those treated with chemotherapy returned to baseline by 9 months.
Conclusion
The findings of this trial indicate that the negative effects of adjuvant chemotherapy on QOL appear to be temporary, and that improvements (with a return to baseline function) are likely in most patients.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2007.12.6094
PMCID: PMC2652099  PMID: 18809617
Cancers  2013;5(1):48-63.
Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of death from malignant disease worldwide and most frequently discovered in advanced stages. Because curative surgery is regarded as the only option for cure, early detection of resectable gastric cancer is extremely important for good patient outcomes. Therefore, noninvasive diagnostic modalities such as evolutionary endoscopy and positron emission tomography are utilized as screening tools for gastric cancer. To date, early gastric cancer is being treated using minimally invasive methods such as endoscopic treatment and laparoscopic surgery, while in advanced cancer it is necessary to consider multimodality treatment including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. Because of the results of large clinical trials, surgery with extended lymphadenectomy could not be recommended as a standard therapy for advanced gastric cancer. Recent clinical trials had shown survival benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy after curative resection compared with surgery alone. In addition, recent advances of molecular targeted agents would play an important role as one of the modalities for advanced gastric cancer. In this review, we summarize the current status of diagnostic technology and treatment for gastric cancer.
doi:10.3390/cancers5010048
PMCID: PMC3730304  PMID: 24216698
gastric cancer; surgery; chemotherapy; radiotherapy; molecular targeted therapy
Background
Patients with locally advanced resectable gastric cancers are increasingly offered neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) following the MAGIC and REAL-2 trials. However, information on the toxicity of NACT, its effects on perioperative surgical outcomes and tumor response is not widely reported in literature.
Methods
Analysis of a prospective database of gastric cancer patients undergoing radical D2 gastrectomy over 2 years was performed. Chemotherapy-related toxicity, perioperative outcomes and histopathological responses to NACT were analyzed. The data is presented and compared to a cohort of patients undergoing upfront surgery in the same time period.
Results
In this study, 139 patients (42 female and 97 male patients, median age 53 years) with gastric adenocarcinoma received NACT. Chemotherapy-related toxicity was noted in 32% of patients. Of the 139 patients, 129 underwent gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy, with 12% morbidity and no mortality. Major pathological response of primary tumor was noted in 22 patients (17%). Of these 22 patients, lymph node metastases were noted in 12 patients. The median blood loss and lymph node yield was not significantly different to the 62 patients who underwent upfront surgery. Patients who underwent upfront surgery were older (58 vs. 52 years, P <0.02), had a higher number of distal cancers (63% vs. 82%, P <0.015) and a longer hospital stay (11 vs. 9 days, P <0.001).
Conclusions
Perioperative outcomes of gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy for locally advanced, resectable gastric cancer were not influenced by NACT. The number of lymph nodes harvested was unaltered by NACT but, more pertinently, metastases to lymph nodes were noted even in patients with a major pathological response of the primary tumor. D2 lymphadenectomy should be performed in all patients irrespective of the degree of response to NACT.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-11-31
PMCID: PMC3583696  PMID: 23375104
D2 lymphadenectomy; Gastrectomy; Gastric cancer; Morbidity; Mortality; Neoadjuvant chemotherapy

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