The emergence in recent years of numerous resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria to a range of formerly efficient antibiotics constitutes a serious threat to public health. Crassocephalum bauchiense, a medicinal herb found in the West Region of Cameroon is used to treat gastrointestinal infections as well as liver disorders. The ethyl acetate extract from the leaves of C. bauchiense was evaluated for its antibacterial activity as well as acute and sub-acute toxicities.
The plant extract was prepared by maceration in ethyl acetate. Its phytochemical screening was done by standard methods. The broth microdilution method was used to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity. The in vivo antibacterial activity of a gel formulation (0.05, 1 and 2% w/v) of this extract was evaluated using a Staphylococcus aureus-induced dermatitis in a murine model. Selected haematological and biochemical parameters were used to evaluate the dermal sub-acute toxicity of the extract in rats.
Phytochemical screening of the C. bauchiense extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, tannins and sterols. In vitro antibacterial activities were observed against all the tested microorganisms (MIC = 0.04-6.25 mg/ml). Formulated extract-gel (2% w/v) and gentamycin (reference drug) eradicated the microbial infection after five days of treatment. A single dermal dose of this extract up to 32 g/kg body weight (bw) did not produce any visible sign of toxicity. Also, daily dermal application of the C. bauchiense extract gel formulation for 28 days did not show any negative effect, instead some biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT and AST), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides were significantly (p < 0.05) affected positively.
These results indicate that the C. bauchiense ethyl acetate extract can be used safely for the treatment of some bacterial infections.
Anesthetic propofol has immunomodulatory effects, particularly in the area of anti-inflammation. Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces inflammation through toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signaling. We investigated the molecular actions of propofol against LPS/TLR4-induced inflammatory activation in murine RAW264.7 macrophages.
Non-cytotoxic levels of propofol reduced LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NO as determined by western blotting and the Griess reaction, respectively. Propofol also reduced the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10 as detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Western blot analysis showed propofol inhibited LPS-induced activation and phosphorylation of IKKβ (Ser180) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB (Ser536); the subsequent nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 was also reduced. Additionally, propofol inhibited LPS-induced Akt activation and phosphorylation (Ser473) partly by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation; inter-regulation that ROS regulated Akt followed by NF-κB activation was found to be crucial for LPS-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages. An in vivo study using C57BL/6 mice also demonstrated the anti-inflammatory properties against LPS in peritoneal macrophages.
These results suggest that propofol reduces LPS-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages by inhibiting the interconnected ROS/Akt/IKKβ/NF-κB signaling pathways.
We hypothesized that acetylation of the Stat1 regulates interferon-γ (IFN-γ) mediated macrophage expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS).
RAW 264.7 iNOS expression was induced with IFN-γ. Deacetylase inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA) or valproic acid (VPA) were added. Stat1 and iNOS mRNA and protein were measured. Acetylated Stat1 was determined by immunoprecipitation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assessed in vivo binding of Stat1 to the iNOS promoter.
IFN-γ significantly increased nitrite, iNOS protein and iNOS mRNA, and iNOS promoter activation. (p<0.01 vs Control for nitrite, protein and mRNA). TSA mediated acetylation decreased these to levels that were not different from Controls. IFN-γ increased acetylated Stat1 by five-fold (p<0.02 vs. Control); TSA+IFN-γ caused an additional 4-fold increase in acetylated Stat1 (p<0.05 vs IFN alone). Stat1 binding to the iNOS promoter increased 8-fold with IFN-γ (p<0.01 vs Control) In TSA+IFN-γ, Stat1 binding was not different from Controls. Though less potent than TSA, VPA also significantly decreased nitrite, iNOS protein, iNOS mRNA, Stat1 acetylation and Stat1 binding.
Acetylation of Stat1 protein correlates with decreased Stat1 binding to the iNOS promoter with resultant inhibition of IFN-γ mediated iNOS expression. Acetylation of the Stat1 protein may down regulate iNOS expression in pro-inflammatory states.
A wide variety of cells usefully but sometimes destructively produce nitric oxide via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Data obtained by gel shift analysis and reporter assays have linked murine iNOS gene induction by cytokines and bacterial products with the binding of a number of proteins to a proximal promoter, as well as to a distal enhancer of the iNOS gene. Nevertheless, these techniques do not necessarily reflect protein occupation of sites in vivo. To address this, we have used dimethyl sulphate in vivo footprinting to determine binding events in the two murine iNOS transcription control regions, using a classical lipopolysaccharide induction of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Protein-DNA interactions are absent before activation. Exposure to lipopolysaccharide induces protection at a NF-kappaB site and hypersensitivity at a shared gamma-activated site/interferon-stimulated response element within the enhancer. Protections are seen at a NF-IL6, and an Oct site within the promoter. We also observe modulations in guanine methylation at two regions which do not correspond to any known putative binding elements. Furthermore, we confirm the probable involvement of interferon regulatory factor-1 (binding to its -901 to -913 site) and the binding of NF-kappaB to its proximal site. Our data demonstrate an abundance of hitherto-unrecognised protein-DNA binding events upon simple lipopolysaccharide activation of the iNOS gene and suggests a role for protein-protein interactions in its transcriptional induction.
Red ginseng acidic polysaccharide (RGAP), isolated from Korean red ginseng, displays immunostimulatory and antitumor activities. Even though numerous studies have been reported, the mechanism as to how RGAP is able to stimulate the immune response is not clear. In this study, we aimed to explore the mechanism of molecular activation of RGAP in macrophages. RGAP treatment strongly induced NO production in RAW264.7 cells without altering morphological changes, although the activity was not strong compared to LPS-induced dendritic-like morphology in RAW264.7 cells. RGAP-induced NO production was accompanied with enhanced mRNA levels of iNOS and increases in nuclear transcription factors such as NF-κB, AP-1, STAT-1, ATF-2, and CREB. According to pharmacological evaluation with specific enzyme inhibitors, Western blot analysis of intracellular signaling proteins and inhibitory pattern using blocking antibodies, ERK, and JNK were found to be the most important signaling enzymes compared to LPS signaling cascade. Further, TLR2 seems to be a target surface receptor of RGAP. Lastly, macrophages isolated from RGS2 knockout mice or wortmannin exposure strongly upregulated RGAP-treated NO production. Therefore, our results suggest that RGAP can activate macrophage function through activation of transcription factors such as NF-κB and AP-1 and their upstream signaling enzymes such as ERK and JNK.
The antihistoplasma activity of recombinant murine gamma interferon (rMuIFN-gamma)-treated macrophages of the RAW 264.7 cell line depends on the generation of nitric oxide (NO.) from L-arginine. Macrophages of the P388D1 cell line treated with rMuIFN-gamma do not produce NO. or inhibit the intracellular growth of Histoplasma capsulatum. NO. is generated by the inducible enzyme nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) formed by stimulated macrophages. Northern (RNA) blot analysis of RAW 264.7 cells revealed the expression of iNOS mRNA after exposure to rMuIFN-gamma. In contrast, rMuIFN-gamma-treated P388D1 cells did not produce detectable levels of iNOS. These data suggest that the failure of P388D1 cells to generate NO. and to restrict the intracellular growth of H. capsulatum is due to a lack of expression of iNOS following treatment with rMuIFN-gamma.
This study demonstrates the ability of magnolol, a hydroxylated biphenyl compound isolated from Magnolia officinalis, to inhibit LPS-induced expression of iNOS gene and activation of NF-κB/Rel in RAW 264.7 cells. Immunohisto-chemical staining of iNOS and Western blot analysis showed magnolol to inhibit iNOS gene expression. Reporter gene assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that magnolol inhibited NF-κB/Rel transcriptional activation and DNA binding, respectively. Since p38 is important in the regulation of iNOS gene expression, we investigated the possibility that magnolol to target p38 for its anti-inflammatory effects. A molecular modeling study proposed a binding position for magnolol that targets the ATP binding site of p38 kinase (3GC7). Direct interaction of magnolol and p38 was further confirmed by pull down assay using magnolol conjugated to Sepharose 4B beads. The specific p38 inhibitor SB203580 abrogated the LPS-induced NF-κB/Rel activation, whereas the selective MEK-1 inhibitor PD98059 did not affect the NF-κB/Rel. Collectively, the results of the series of experiments indicate that magnolol inhibits iNOS gene expression by blocking NF-κB/Rel and p38 kinase signaling.
Magnolol; Macrophages; p38 kinase; iNOS; NF-κB/Rel
β-Glucans have been known to exhibit antitumor activities by potentiating host immunity by an unknown mechanism. The C-type lectin dectin-1, a β-glucan receptor, is found on the macrophage and can recognize various β-glucans. Previously, we demonstrated the presence of β-glucan receptor, dectin-1, on the Raw 264.7 cells as well as on murine mucosal organs, such as the thymus, the lung, and the spleen. In order to investigate immunopotentiation of innate immunity by β-glucan, we stimulated a murine macrophage Raw 264.7 cell line with β-glucans from Pleurotus ostreatus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Laminaria digitata. Then, we analyzed cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition we analyzed gene expression patterns in β-glucan-treated Raw 264.7 cells by applying total mRNA to cDNA microarray to investigate the expression of 7,000 known genes. When stimulated with β-glucans, the macrophage cells increased TNF-α expression. When co-stimulation of the cells with β-glucan and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a synergy effect was observed by increased TNF-α expression. In IL-6 expression, any of the β-glucans tested could not induce IL-6 expression by itself. However, when co-stimulation occurred with β-glucan and LPS, the cells showed strong synergistic effects by increased IL-6 expression. Chip analysis showed that β-glucan of P. ostreatus increased gene expressions of immunomodulating gene families such as kinases, lectin associated genes and TNF-related genes in the macrophage cell line. Induction of TNF receptor expression by FACS analysis was synergized only when co-stimulated with β-glucan and LPS, not with β-glucan alone. From these data, β-glucan increased expressions of immunomodulating genes and showed synergistic effect with LPS.
β-Glucan; Cytokines; Laminarin; Microarray; Pleurotus ostreatus
Inflexinol, an ent-kaurane diterpenoid, was isolated from the leaves of Isodon excisus. Many diterpenoids isolated from the genus Isodon (Labiatae) have antitumor and antiinflammatory activities. We investigated the antiinflammatory effect of inflexinol in RAW 264.7 cells and astrocytes. As a result, we found that inflexinol (1, 5, 10 μM) suppressed the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) as well as the production of nitric oxide (NO) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and astrocytes. Consistent with the inhibitory effect on iNOS and COX-2 expression, inflexinol also inhibited transcriptional and DNA binding activity of NF-κB via inhibition of IκB degradation as well as p50 and p65 translocation into nucleus. These results suggest that inflexinol inhibits iNOS and COX-2 expression through inhibition of NF-κB activation, thereby inhibits generation of inflammatory mediators in RAW 264.7 cells and astrocytes, and may be useful for treatment of inflammatory diseases.
2-Chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (CEES) is a sulphur vesicating agent and an analogue of the chemical warfare agent 2,2'-dichlorodiethyl sulphide, or sulphur mustard gas (HD). Both CEES and HD are alkylating agents that influence cellular thiols and are highly toxic. In a previous publication, we reported that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) enhances the cytotoxicity of CEES in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. In the present investigation, we studied the influence of CEES on nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS stimulated RAW264.7 cells since NO signalling affects inflammation, cell death, and wound healing. Murine macrophages stimulated with LPS produce NO almost exclusively via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity. We suggest that the influence of CEES or HD on the cellular production of NO could play an important role in the pathophysiological responses of tissues to these toxicants. In particular, it is known that macrophage generated NO synthesised by iNOS plays a critical role in wound healing.
We initially confirmed that in LPS stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages NO is exclusively generated by the iNOS form of nitric oxide synthase. CEES treatment inhibited the synthesis of NO (after 24 hours) in viable LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages as measured by either nitrite secretion into the culture medium or the intracellular conversion of 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA) or dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA). Western blots showed that CEES transiently decreased the expression of iNOS protein; however, treatment of active iNOS with CEES in vitro did not inhibit its enzymatic activity
CEES inhibits NO production in LPS stimulated macrophages by decreasing iNOS protein expression. Decreased iNOS expression is likely the result of CEES induced alteration in the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signalling pathway. Since NO can act as an antioxidant, the CEES induced down-regulation of iNOS in LPS-stimulated macrophages could elevate oxidative stress. Since macrophage generated NO is known to play a key role in cutaneous wound healing, it is possible that this work has physiological relevance with respect to the healing of HD induced skin blisters.
Burkholderia mallei is a facultative intracellular pathogen that can cause fatal disease in animals and humans. To better understand the role of phagocytic cells in the control of infections caused by this organism, studies were initiated to examine the interactions of B. mallei with RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. Utilizing modified kanamycin-protection assays, B. mallei was shown to survive and replicate in RAW 264.7 cells infected at multiplicities of infection (moi) of ≤ 1. In contrast, the organism was efficiently cleared by the macrophages when infected at an moi of 10. Interestingly, studies demonstrated that the monolayers only produced high levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, GM-CSF, RANTES and IFN-β when infected at an moi of 10. In addition, nitric oxide assays and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) immunoblot analyses revealed a strong correlation between iNOS activity and clearance of B. mallei from RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, treatment of activated macrophages with the iNOS inhibitor, aminoguanidine, inhibited clearance of B. mallei from infected monolayers. Based upon these results, it appears that moi significantly influence the outcome of interactions between B. mallei and murine macrophages and that iNOS activity is critical for the clearance of B. mallei from activated RAW 264.7 cells.
KIOM-MA was recently reported as a novel herbal medicine effective for atopic dermatitis and asthma. In this study, we have demonstrated the inhibitory effect of KIOM-MA on proinflammatory mediator produced in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. KIOM-MA significantly inhibited the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) as well as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Consistent with the inhibitory effect on PGE2, KIOM-MA suppresses the LPS-induced migration of macrophages and gelatinase activity and the expression of matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, KIOM-MA showed a strong suppressive effect on the inflammatory cytokines production such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). We also found that KIOM-MA inhibits the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and represses the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Taken together, we elucidated the mechanism of anti-inflammatory effect of KIOM-MA using RAW 264.7 cells stimulated by LPS.
To assess the effects of Glycine tomentella Hayata (GTH), a traditional herbal medicine for treatment of rheumatic diseases on the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines and on the clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages.
RAW264.7 cells were cultured with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence or absence of ethanol extract of GTH. The expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and transglutaminase 2 (TG2) were assayed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 were assayed by gelatin zymography. For detecting uptake of apoptotic cells, RAW264.7 cells were cultured with carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA)-stained apoptotic cells and assayed by flow cytometry.
The major components of GTH analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) chromatogram were daidzein (42.5%), epicatechin (28.8%), and naringin (9.4%).
GTH treatment inhibited the expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and MMP-9 but did not affect the expression of TNF-α and iNOS. GTH significantly enhanced the expression of TG2 and the clearance of apoptotic cells by RAW264.7 macrophages.
GTH inhibits proinflammatory cytokine secretion and MMP-9 activity, enhances apoptotic cell uptake and up-regulates TG2 expression. Our data show that GTH might have beneficial effects on rheumatic diseases.
Chamomile has long been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammation-related disorders. In this study we aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of chamomile on nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and to explore its potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms using RAW 264.7 macrophages. Chamomile treatment inhibited LPS-induced NO production and significantly blocked IL-1β , IL-6 and TNFα-induced NO levels in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Chamomile caused reduction in LPS-induced iNOS mRNA and protein expression. In RAW 264.7 macrophages, LPS-induced DNA binding activity of RelA/p65 was significantly inhibited by chamomile, an effect that was mediated through the inhibition of IKKβ , the upstream kinase regulating NF-κ B/Rel activity, and degradation of inhibitory factor-κ B. These results demonstrate that chamomile inhibits NO production and iNOS gene expression by inhibiting RelA/p65 activation and supports the utilization of chamomile as an effective anti-inflammatory agent.
inflammation; nitric oxide; chamomile; nuclear factor-κ B; macrophages; pro-inflammatory cytokines
Oyaksungisan (OY) has been used as a traditional drug in east-Asian countries. However, its effect on inflammation still remains unknown. In this study, to provide insight into the biological effects of OY and OY fermented by Lactobacillus, we investigated their effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammation in the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells.
The investigation was focused on whether OY and fermented OYs could inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) E2 as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, nuclear factor (NF)-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.
We found that OY inhibits a little LPS-induced NO, PGE2, TNF-α and IL-6 productions as well as the expressions of iNOS and COX-2. Interestingly, the fermentation significantly increased its inhibitory effect on the expression of all pro-inflammatory mediators. Furthermore, the fermented OYs exhibited elevated inhibition on the translocation of NF-κB p65 through reduced IκBα degradation as well as the phosphorylations of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) MAPKs than untreated control or original OY.
Finally, the fermentation by Lactobacillus potentiates the anti-inflammatory effect of OY by inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK activity in the macrophage cells.
In this study we found that licochalcone E (LicE), a recently isolated retrochalcone from Glycyrrhiza inflata, exhibits potent anti-inflammatory effects in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse ear edema and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage models. Topical application of LicE (0.5–2 mg) effectively inhibited TPA-induced (1) ear edema formation; (2) phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK), c-Jun, and extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2; and (3) expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 proteins in mouse skin. The treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with LicE (2.5–7.5 μmol/L) induced a profound reduction in LPS-induced (1) release of NO and prostaglandin E2; (2) mRNA expression and secretion of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α; (3) promoter activity of iNOS and COX-2 and expression of their corresponding mRNAs and proteins; (4) activation of AKT, p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), SAPK/JNK and c-Jun; (5) phosphorylation of inhibitor of κB (IκB) kinase-αβ and IκBα, degradation of IκBα, translocation of p65 (RelA) to the nucleus and transcriptional activity of nuclear factor (NF)-κB; and (6) transcriptional activity of activator protein (AP)-1. These results indicate that the LicE inhibition of NF-κB and AP-1 transcriptional activity through the inhibition of AKT and MAPK activation contributes to decreases in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the inducible enzymes iNOS and COX-2.
licochalcone E; inflammation; mouse skin
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a key enzyme involved in the inflammatory process that is rapidly induced in macrophages in response to LPS. Carbon monoxide (CO), a byproduct of heme oxygnease-1, can suppress proinflammatory response in various in vitro and in vivo models of inflammation. This study was undertaken to examine whether CO can regulate (and if so, to delineate the mechanism by which CO regulates) LPS-induced COX-2 expression in macrophages. RAW 264.7 murine macrophages were stimulated with LPS (0–10 ng/ml) with or without CO (500 ppm). Northern and Western blot analysis was done. Progstaglandin E2 and nitrite concentration was measured from cell culture supernatant. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay was performed to assess nuclear factor binding. CO downregulated LPS-induced COX-2 mRNA and protein expression. CO also inhibited LPS-induced prostaglandin E2 secretion (P < 0.05). CO also decreased LPS-induced CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) β and δ protein expression in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells. Gel shift analysis revealed that CO treatment decreased LPS-induced activation of protein binding to C/EBP consensus oligonucleotides of murine cyclooxygenase-2 promoter. CO also decreased LPS-induced nitric oxide synthase-2 protein expression and nitrite production, and decreased LPS-induced activation of protein binding to C/EBP consensus oligonucleotides of murine nitric oxide synthase-2 promoter. CO may act as an important regulator of inflammation by virtue of its ability to regulate C/EBPs.
heme oxygenase; lipopolysaccharides; nitric oxide synthase
We demonstrated that a Chinese herbal formula, which we refer to as RCM-101, developed from a traditional Chinese medicine formula, reduced nasal and non-nasal symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). The present study in primary and cultured cells was undertaken to investigate the effects of RCM-101 on the production/release of inflammatory mediators known to be involved in SAR.
Compound 48/80-induced histamine release was studied in rat peritoneal mast cells. Production of leukotriene B4 induced by the calcium ionophore A23187 was studied in porcine neutrophils using an HPLC assay and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated prostaglandin E2 production was studied in murine macrophage (Raw 264.7) cells by immune-enzyme assay. Expression of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was determined in Raw 264.7 cells, using western blotting techniques.
RCM-101 (1–100 μg/mL) produced concentration-dependent inhibition of compound 48/80-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells and of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated prostaglandin E2 release from Raw 264.7 cells. Over the range 1 – 10 μg/mL, it inhibited A23187-induced leukotriene B4 production in porcine neutrophils. In addition, RCM-101 (100 μg/mL) inhibited the expression of COX-2 protein but did not affect that of COX-1.
The findings indicate that RCM-101 inhibits the release and/or synthesis of histamine, leukotriene B4 and prostaglandin E2 in cultured cells. These interactions of RCM-101 with multiple inflammatory mediators are likely to be related to its ability to reduce symptoms of allergic rhinitis.
Two acidified nitrite-inducible genes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium were identified with a green fluorescent protein-based promoter-trap screen. The nitrite-inducible promoters were located upstream of loci that we designated nipAB and nipC, which correspond to hcp-hcr (hybrid cluster protein) of Escherichia coli and norA of Alcaligenes eutrophus, respectively. Maximal induction of the promoters by nitrite was dependent on pH. The nipAB promoter was regulated by oxygen in an Fnr-dependent manner. The nipC promoter was also regulated by oxygen but in an Fnr-independent manner. The promoters were upregulated in activated RAW264.7 macrophage-like cells, which produce NO via the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and the induction was inhibited by aminoguanidine, an inhibitor of iNOS. Although the nipAB and nipC mutants displayed no defects under a variety of in vitro conditions or in tissue culture infections, they exhibited lower oral 50% lethal doses (LD50s) than did the wild type in C57BL/6J mouse infections. The lower LD50s reflected an unexpected increased ability of small inoculating doses of the mutant bacteria to cause lethal infection 2 to 3 weeks after challenge, compared to a similar challenge dose of wild-type bacteria. We conclude that these genes are regulated by physiological nitrogen oxides and that the absence of these bacterial genes in some way diminishes the ability of mice to clear a low dose infection.
Achillea millefolium L. is a member of the Asteraceae family and has been used in folk medicine in many countries. In this study, 19 compounds in A. millefolium essential oil (AM-EO) have been identified; the major components are artemisia ketone (14.92%), camphor (11.64%), linalyl acetate (11.51%) and 1,8-cineole (10.15%). AM-EO can suppress the inflammatory responses of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, including decreased levels of cellular nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion production, lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) concentration. This antioxidant activity is not a result of increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, but rather occurs as a result of the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, thus reducing the inflammatory response. Therefore, AM-EO can be utilized in many applications, including the treatment of inflammatory diseases in the future.
Achillea millefolium L.; antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; essential oil; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS); lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages
Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) production in the murine macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells were previously shown to inhibit the replication of the poxviruses vaccinia virus (VV) and ectromelia virus and herpes simplex virus type 1. In the current study, we performed biochemical analyses to determine the stage in the viral life cycle blocked by IFN-gamma-induced NO. Antibodies specific for temporally expressed viral proteins, a VV-specific DNA probe, and transmission electron microscopy were used to show that the cytokine-induced NO inhibited late protein synthesis, DNA replication, and virus particle formation but not expression of the early proteins analyzed. Essentially similar results were obtained with hydroxyurea and cytosine arabinoside, inhibitors of DNA replication. Enzymatically active iNOS was detected in the lysates of IFN-gamma-treated but not in untreated RAW 264.7 cells. The IFN-gamma-treated RAW 264.7 cells which express iNOS not only were resistant to productive infection but also efficiently blocked the replication of VV in infected bystander cells of epithelial origin. This inhibition was arginine dependent, correlated with nitric production in cultures, and was reversible by the NOS inhibitor N omega-monomethyl-L-arginine.
Uncontrolled generation of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) can cause damage to host cells and inflammation, two undesirable events for virus spreading. African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection regulates iNOS-induced gene expression through the synthesis of the A238L virus protein. We here explored the role of A238L, an NF-κB and NFAT inhibitor, in the regulation of iNOS transcription in macrophages. NO production and iNOS mRNA and protein levels as well as iNOS promoter activity after lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-gamma interferon (IFN-γ) treatment were down-regulated both during ASFV infection and in Raw 264.7 cells stably expressing the viral protein. Overexpression of p300, but not of a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) defective mutant, reverted the A238L-mediated inhibition of both basal and LPS-IFN-γ-induced iNOS promoter activity. Following stimulation with LPS-IFN-γ, p65 and p300 interaction was abolished in Raw-A238L cells. Expression of A238L also inhibited p65/relA and p300 binding to the distal NF-κB sequence of the iNOS promoter together with p65 acetylation. Finally, A238L abrogated p300 transactivation mediated by a GAL4-p300 construction. These results provide evidence for an unique viral mechanism involved in transcriptional regulation of iNOS gene expression.
Helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach causes peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Despite eliciting a vigorous immune response, the bacterium persists for the life of the host. An important antimicrobial mechanism is the production of NO derived from inducible NO synthase (iNOS). We have reported that macrophages can kill H. pylori in vitro by an NO-dependent mechanism, but supraphysiologic levels of the iNOS substrate L-arginine are required. Because H. pylori induces arginase activity in macrophages, we determined if this restricts NO generation by reducing L-arginine availability. Inhibition of arginase with S-(2-boronoethyl)-L-cysteine (BEC) significantly enhanced NO generation in H. pylori-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages by enhancing iNOS protein translation but not iNOS mRNA levels. This effect resulted in increased killing of H. pylori that was attenuated with an NO scavenger. In contrast, inhibition of arginase in macrophages activated by the colitis-inducing bacterium Citrobacter rodentium increased NO without affecting iNOS levels. H. pylori upregulated levels of arginase II (Arg2) mRNA and protein, which localized to mitochondria, whereas arginase I was not induced. Increased iNOS protein and NO levels were also demonstrated by small interfering RNA knockdown of Arg2 and in peritoneal macrophages from C57BL/6 Arg2−/− mice. In H. pylori-infected mice, treatment with BEC or deletion of Arg2 increased iNOS protein levels and NO generation in gastric macrophages, but treatment of Arg2−/− mice with BEC had no additional effect. These studies implicate Arg2 in the immune evasion of H. pylori by causing intracellular depletion of L-arginine and thus reduction of NO-dependent bactericidal activity.
Inotilone was isolated from Phellinus linteus. The anti-inflammatory effects of inotilone were studied by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells and λ-carrageenan (Carr)-induced hind mouse paw edema model. Inotilone was tested for its ability to reduce nitric oxide (NO) production, and the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Inotilone was tested in the inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) [extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), p38], and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 protein expressions in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. When RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with inotilone together with LPS, a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of NO production was detected. Western blotting revealed that inotilone blocked the protein expression of iNOS, NF-κB, and MMP-9 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages, significantly. Inotilone also inhibited LPS-induced ERK, JNK, and p38 phosphorylation. In in vivo tests, inotilone decreased the paw edema at the 4th and the 5th h after Carr administration, and it increased the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). We also demonstrated that inotilone significantly attenuated the malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the edema paw at the 5th h after Carr injection. Inotilone decreased the NO and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) levels on serum at the 5th h after Carr injection. Western blotting revealed that inotilone decreased Carr-induced iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), NF-κB, and MMP-9 expressions at the 5th h in the edema paw. An intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection treatment with inotilone diminished neutrophil infiltration into sites of inflammation, as did indomethacin (Indo). The anti-inflammatory activities of inotilone might be related to decrease the levels of MDA, iNOS, COX-2, NF-κB, and MMP-9 and increase the activities of CAT, SOD, and GPx in the paw edema through the suppression of TNF-α and NO. This study presents the potential utilization of inotilone, as a lead for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs.
Prunus yedoensis (PY) is a traditional anti-allergy and anti-inflammatory herb medicine used in South Korea. However, until date, little is known regarding its mechanism of action.
In order to elucidate the mechanism of anti-inflammatory effect of PY, the constituents of PY were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production were measured enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). The expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were also measured by western blotting in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cells treated with PY.
The results indicate that (50, 100 μg/mL) methanol and ethyl acetate fractionation extracts of PY not only inhibited LPS-mediated NO production and iNOS expression, but also decreased LPS-induced PGE2 production and COX-2 expression. The anti-inflammatory effects of PY were also due to the attenuation of nuclear translocation of NF-κB, as evaluated by the use of anti-p50 on nuclear fractions. LPS-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB decreased significantly by the methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of PY. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses revealed that methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction have similar patterns of retention time and peaks.
Our results demonstrate that methanol extracts and the ethyl acetate fraction of PY have anti-inflammatory properties, thus emphasizing the potential of PY as a natural health product.
Prunus yedoensis; Inducible nitric oxide synthase; Cyclooxygenase-2; Nuclear factor-κB